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INDEX

Sr.

No Name of Experiment

.

Date of

Experim

ent

Pag

e

No.

Signat

ure

Remar

ks

Cement

1.

Consistency Of Cement

1

2.

Fineness Of Cement

3

Aggregate

3.

Aggregate Abrasion Value

4

4.

**Elongation And Flakiness
**

Index Of Aggregate

6

5.

Aggregate Impact Value

8

6.

**Particle Size Distribution Of
**

Course Aggregate

10

Sand

7.

**Particle Size Distribution Of
**

Fine Aggregate

ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

12

M.TECH (C.T.)

The principle is that standard consistency of cement is that consistency at which the Vicat plunger penetrates to a point 5-7mm from the bottom of Vicat mould. VICAT apparatus with plunger 10 mm diameter 2. Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086 – 1982.0g. ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. Trowel weighing 210g ± 10 g 4. The time of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes. Measuring Glass 200 ml 5.TECH (C.) . iii) Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface. Balance. iv) Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste. ii) Fill the Vicat mould with paste and level it with a trowel. whose permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1. APPARTUS: 1. Clean platform to make cement paste MATERIAL: Cement 3 to 4 kg Water PROCEDURE: i) Weigh approximately 400g of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water.1 EXPERIMENT – 1 OF CEMENT CONSISTANCY AIM: Test to Check Consistency of Cement CONSISTENCY: The basic aim is to find out the water content required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency as specified by the IS: 4031 (Part 4) – 1988.T. v) Note the reading on the gauge. vi) Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of water until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm. Apparatus – Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 – 1976. Weighing balance 3.

2 OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION: Sr. 4. (W2) w2 ×100 w1 Position of VICAT needle point after penetration from bottom 1.T.) .TECH (C. of cement gms. of water gms (W1) Wt. Wt. RESULT: The percentage of weight of water with respect to cement to produce standard consistency is Pn = ___________% ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. 2. 3. No.

3 EXPERIMENT – 2 FINENESS OF CEMENT AIM : Test to Check Fineness of Cement FINENESS: So we need to determine the fineness of cement by dry sieving as per IS: 4031 (Part 1) – 1996. bristle.1 gram. planetary and linear movements. The apparatus used are 90µm IS Sieve. iii) Weigh the residue and express its mass as a percentage R1 of the quantity first placed on the sieve to the nearest 0. v) Repeat the whole procedure using a fresh 10g sample to obtain R2. Weighing balance accurate to 0. with weights MATERIAL: Cement Sample weighing about 100 gms. Weight of cement sample 2. APPARTUS: 1. 90 micron IS sieve 2.1 percent. carry out a third sieving and calculate the mean of the three values. Sieve shown in pic below is not the actual 90µm seive. for cleaning the sieve. Weight of residue Percent Residue = P = W2 ×100 W1 = _____________ W1 gms = _____________ W2 gms = _____________ % RESULT: ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. Balance capable of weighing 10g to the nearest 10mg. preferably with 25 to 40mm. until no more fine material passes through it.) . OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION: 1.T. expressed to the nearest 0. Gently brush all the fine material off the base of the sieve. Then calculate R as the mean of R1 and R2 as a percentage.TECH (C. PROCEDURE: i) Weigh approximately 10g of cement to the nearest 0. When the results differ by more than 1 percent absolute. A nylon or pure bristle brush.The principle of this is that we determine the proportion of cement whose grain size is larger then specified mesh size.01g and place it on the sieve. ii) Agitate the sieve by swirling.1 percent.

and each weighing between 390 and 445g ensuring that the total weight of charge is 5000 +25g and Oven.1 Grading of Test Sample ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. PROCEDURE: The test sample and the abrasive charge should be placed in the Los Angles abrasion testing machine and the machine rotated at a speed of 20 to 33 revolutions/minute for 1000 revolutions. The apparatus used in this test are Los Angles abrasion testing machine.TECH (C. It is less than/ more than 10%. At the completion of the test.) . Abrasive charge – 12 nos. cast iron or steel spheres approximately 48mm dia.4 Percent of residue of cement sample by gry seiveing = P = __________ %. the material should be discharged and sieved through 1. Table .70mm IS Sieve.T. EXPERIMENT – 3 ABRASION VALUE AGGREGATE AIM: To find abrasion value of Aggregate AGGREGATE ABRASION VALUE: This test helps to determine the abrasion value of coarse aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963. IS Sieve of size – 1.7mm.

5 Table – 2 Specified Abrasive Charge RESULT: Aggregate abrasion value = (A-B)/B x 100%.) .TECH (C.T. ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M.

Sieving . 2.TECH (C. 5. flat and elongated particles are avoided or are limited to about 15 % by weight of the total aggregate.1 percent of the weight of the test sample.T. ELONGATION AND FLAKINESS INDEX: Particle shape and surface texture influence the properties of freshly mixed concrete more than the properties of hardened concrete.Each fraction shall be gauged in turn for thickness on a metal gauge of the pattern or in bulk on sieves having elongated slots.6 EXPERIMENT – 4 ELONGATION INDEX OF AGGREGATE AND FLAKINESS AIM: To determination of Flakiness Index and Elongation Index of Course Aggregates.The total amount passing the gauge shall be weighed to an accuracy of at least 0. Balance 2. APPARATUS: 1. Generally. rounded compact aggregate. The width of the slot used in the gauge or sieve shall be of the dimensions for the appropriate size of material. Separation of Flaky material.) . and elongated particles require more water to produce workable concrete than smooth.The sample shall be sieved in accordance with the method. expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.A quantity of aggregate shall be taken sufficient to provide the minimum number of 200 pieces of any fraction to be tested. Gauging Trowel 4. 6. The Metal 3. the cement content must also be increased to maintain the water-cement ratio. Weighing of Flaky Material . Consequently. Sample . Sieving . 4. 3. The flakiness index is the total weight of the material passing the various thickness gauges or sieves. Roughtextured. angular. ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. Stop Watch PROCEDURE: 1.The sample shall be sieved in accordance with the method with the sieves specified.

The elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges. Separation of Elongated Material. 8.TECH (C. Weighing of Elongated Material .) . expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged. FLAKINESS INDEX: Total weight of course aggregate ____________ g Size of Thickness Passing through IS Sieves Aggregate Thickne ss Retained Gauge on mm IS Sieves Weight Retained on Thickness Gauge Percentage of Weight Retained (%) Rema rk Percentage of Weight Retained (%) Rema rk 2. 9. OBSERVATION: 1.T. ELONGATION INDEX: Total weight of course aggregate ____________ g Size of Thickness Passing through IS Sieves Aggregate Length Gauge Retained mm on IS Sieves Weight Retained on Length Gauge CALCULATION: ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M.Each fraction shall be gauged individually for length on a metal length gauge of the pattern.1 percent of the weight of the test sample.The total amount retained by the length gauge shall be weighed to an accuracy of at least 0.7 7.

and means for adjusting the height of fall within 5 mm. the lower end of which shall be cylindrical in shape. PROCEDURE: 1. with a 2 mm chamfer at the lower edge.) .3 mm thick 2. Tamping Rod.TECH (C. balance of capacity not less than 500 g.5.0 mm in diameter and 5 cm long.8 = = CONCLUSION: i) The flakiness index of a given sample of fine aggregate is _________ % ii) The elongation index of a given sample of fine aggregate is _________% EXPERIMENT – 5 IMPACT VALUE AGGREGATE AIM: This method of test covers the procedure for determining the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregate.T.5 to 14. The test sample shall consist of aggregate the whole of which passes a 12. The hammer shall slide freely between vertical guides so arranged that the lower (cylindrical) part of the hammer is above and concentric with the cup. which in some aggregates differs from its resistance to a slow compressive load. 10 and 2. A metal hammer weighing 13. APPARATUS: 1. A cylindrical steel cup of internal dimensions: Diameter 102 mm.0 mm on to the test sample in the cup. The aggregate comprising the test sample shall be dried in an oven for a period of four hours at a temperature of 100 to 110°C and cooled. and case-hardened. ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. Sieves-The IS Sieves of sizes 12.0 kg. Depth 50 mm and not less than 6. Oven etc. 100. IMPACT VALUE: The aggregate impact value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to sudden shock or impact.36 mm.5 mm IS Sieve and is retained on a 10 mm IS Sieve. Means for raising the hammer and allowing it to fall freely between the vertical guides from a height of 380. 3.

The test sample shall be subjected to a total of 15 such blows each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second.9 2.TECH (C. The hammer shall be raised until its lower face is 380 mm above the upper surface of the aggregate in the cup. The impact machine shall rest without wedging or packing upon the level plate. The cup shall be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test sample placed in it and compacted by a single tamping of 25 strokes of the tamping rod. Two tests shall be made.) .36 mm IS Sieve until no further significant amount passes in one minute. so that it is rigid and the hammer guide columns are vertical. and allowed to fall freely on to the aggregate. The crushed aggregate shall then be removed from the cup and the whole of it sieved on the 2. The fraction passing the sieve shall be weighed to an accuracy of 0.1 g (Weight. The measure shall be filled about one-third full with the aggregate and tamped with 25 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod. CALCULATION: The ratio of the weight of fines formed to the total sample weight in each test shall he expressed as a percentage. if the total weight (C+B) is less than the initial weight (Weight A) by more than one gram. The fraction retained on the sieve shall also be weighed (Weight C) and.T.36 mm IS sieve CONCLUSION / RESULT: ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. The net weight of aggregate in the measure shall be determined to the nearest gram (Weight A) 3. block or floor. the result shall be discarded and a fresh test made. B). 7. the result being recorded to the first decimal place: Aggregate Impact Value = B ×100 A A = Weight in gram of saturated surface – dry sample B = Weight in gram of fraction passing through 2. 5. 4. 6.

a wide range in grading can be used without a major effect on strength. and durability of concrete. THEORY: Grading refers to the determination of the particle-size distribution for aggregate. pumpability.T. certain particle sizes of aggregate are omitted from the size continuum.TECH (C. Close control of mix proportions is necessary to avoid segregation. In general. APPARTUS: ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. and 30 per cent for concrete used for wearing surfaces such a runways. Grading limits and maximum aggregate size are specified because grading and size affect the amount of aggregate used as well as cement and water requirements. workability. EXPERIMENT – 6 COURSE AGGREGATE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF AIM: To determination of particle size distribution of coarse aggregates by sieving or screening. roads and air field pavements. When gap-graded aggregate are specified. Gap-graded aggregate are used to obtain uniform textures in exposed aggregate concrete.10 The aggregate Impact value of given sample of coarse aggregate is ___________ % The aggregate impact value should not be more than 45 per cent for aggregate used for concrete other than for wearing surfaces.) . if the water-cement ratio is chosen correctly.

and with frequent jarring.75 mm. The air-dry sample shall be weighed and sieved successively on the appropriate sieves starting with the largest. Care shall be taken to ensure that the sieves are clean before use. 4. Balance 3. left to right. OBSERVATION: ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. This may be achieved either by drying at room temperature or by heating at a temperature of 100‖ to 110°C. 10 mm. the material retained on each sieve. backward sand forwards. shall be weighed. if present. 3. Material shall not be forced through the sieve by hand pressure. Test Sieves conforming to IS : 460-1962 Specification of 80 mm.TECH (C. but in any case for a period of not less than two minutes. 40 mm. 2. Gauging Trowel PROCEDURE: 1.T. Each sieve shall be shaken separately over a clean tray until not more than a trace passes. 20 mm. 2.11 1. Lumps of fine material. so that the material is kept moving over the sieve surface in frequently changing directions. The sample shall be brought to an air-dry condition before weighing and sieving. 4. circular clockwise and anti-clockwise.) . The shaking shall be done with a varied motion. together with any material cleaned from the mesh. may be broken by gentle pressure with fingers against the side of the sieve. On completion of sieving.

These classifications do not give any precise meaning.12 CONCLUSION: EXPERIMENT – 7 OF FINE AGGREGATE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AIM: To determine fineness modulus of fine aggregate.) . fine aggregates are designated as coarse sand.T. To avoid ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M. FINENESS: This is the name given to the operation of dividing a sample of aggregate into various fractions each consisting of particles of the same size. Many a time. What the supplier terms as fine sand may be really medium or even coarse sand.TECH (C. The sieve analysis is conducted to determine the particle size distribution in a sample of aggregate. which we call gradation. medium sand and fine sand.

) .2 will be unsuitable for making satisfactory concrete.6. if present.6 . OBSERVATION: ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M.36 mm. The air-dry sample shall be weighed and sieved successively on the appropriate sieves starting with the largest. 2. Care shall be taken to ensure that the sieves are clean before use. The sample shall be brought to an air-dry condition before weighing and sieving. 150 micron 2. Lumps of fine material.3. 600 micron. The following limits may be taken as guidance: Fine sand : Fineness Modulus : 2. may be broken by gentle pressure with fingers against the side of the sieve. 5. Gauging Trowel PROCEDURE: 1. On completion of sieving. 3. shall be weighed.M. backward sand forwards. 4.75 mm. 1. left to right.9. : 2. Test Sieves conforming to IS : 460-1962 Specification of 4. 2. Material shall not be forced through the sieve by hand pressure. APPARATUS: 1. circular clockwise and anti-clockwise. Balance 3.TECH (C. : 2. The shaking shall be done with a varied motion. so that the material is kept moving over the sieve surface in frequently changing directions.2. 300 micron. the material retained on each sieve. Coarse sand : F.13 this ambiguity fineness modulus could be used as a yard stick to indicate the fineness of sand. Light brushing with a fine camel hair brush may be used on the 150micron and 75-micron IS Sieves to prevent aggregation of powder and blinding of apertures.2 .9 . together with any material cleaned from the mesh. Medium sand : F.T. and with frequent jarring.2.2 Sand having a fineness modulus more than 3.M.18 mm.

T. ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL M.14 CALCULATION: CONCLUSION: i) Fineness modulus of a given sample of fine aggregate is ________ that indicate Course sand/ Medium sand/Fine sand.TECH (C.) .

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