The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Index
Abrasiveness index, 9-9

Absorber (FGD), 35-2
Absorption, 35-5
Absorptivity
definition, 4-3
of gases, 4-12, 4-31
Access doors, 20-6, 23-9
Acid mist, 35-18
Acid rain, 32-4, 34-2, 35-1
Acidity, 36-1
Acoustics
electromagnetic, 45-4
emissions, 45-5
leak detection, 45-16
Adiabatic, 3-4
Adiabatic flame temperature, 2-26,
10-11
Adipic acid, 35-12
Aging (degradation) mechanisms
corrosion, 44-6
erosion, 44-6
fatigue, 44-6
stress, 44-6
Air
combustion, 10-5, 10-16
composition, 10-4
control, 41-10
distributor, fluidized-bed, 17-1, 17-3
enthalpy, 10-19
flow measurement, 40-20, 41-13
infiltration, leakage, 10-16, 10-23,
23-7
moisture, 10-5, 10-6
properties of, 4-11
theoretical, 10-5, 10-7, 10-9, 10-16
Air, quaternary, 28-4
Air flow-steam flow control, 41-13
Air heater, Chapter 20
applications, 20-15
calculations, 22-15
cast iron, 20-8
cold end minimum metal
temperatures, 20-13
Steam 41 / Index

condition assessment of, 45-5, 45-11
corrosion, 20-13
environmental, 20-15
erosion, 20-3, 20-14
fires, 20-14
industrial, 20-15
leakage, 20-12
Ljungström, 20-9
marine, 31-12
operation, 20-13
performance, 20-12
plate, 20-8
plugging, 20-14
recuperative, 20-7
regenerative, 20-9
Rothemühle, 20-10
seal(s), 20-10, 20-11
steam
coil, 20-9, 29-12, 29-21
marine, 31-10
testing, 20-12
tubular, 20-7, 29-21
Air pollution, Chapter 32
air toxics, 32-5, 32-8
carbon dioxide, 32-8
carbon monoxide, 32-2, 32-7
greenhouse gas, 32-8
international regulations, 32-6
mercury, 32-8
nitrogen oxides (NOx), 32-1, 32-4,
32-7 (see also NOx control)
particulate matter, 32-7
(see also Particulate control)
sources, 32-1
sulfur oxides (SOx), 32-1, 32-4,
32-7 (see also SO2 control)
technologies, 32-8
U.S. legislation, 32-1
Air swept spout, 16-7, 29-17
Air testing, 39-18
Albacore hull, 46-24
Alkalinity, 35-1, 36-1
Allowable stress, 7-20, 8-3, C-4

Allowances, 32-4
Alloying elements, 7-5
interstitial, 7-2
substitutional, 7-2
Alpha
emitters, 47-4
particle, 47-3
Alumina ceramics, 13-11, 44-10
Aluminizing, 7-15
American Boiler Manufacturers
Association (ABMA), 23-6, C-1
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 9-5, 9-7
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), 1-14, 2-1
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,
8-1, 19-8, 20-6, C-1
allowable stresses, 7-20, 8-3, C-4
calculations, 8-5
design criteria, 8-2, 8-14
strength theories, 8-2
stress classifications, 8-2,
8-9, 8-10
Performance Test Code, 10-10,
10-18, 10-21, 40-1
Pressure Piping (B31), C-1, C-6
Ammonia, 34-3, 35-2, 35-18
anhydrous, 34-6
aqueous, 34-7
flow control, 34-8, 41-17
injection, 34-6
reagent systems, 34-6
Ammonia sulfates, 20-15, 34-6
Annealing, 7-8
Anticipatory reactor trip system
(ARTS), 46-15
API gravity, fuel oil, 9-14, 10-20
Approach temperature
flue gas desulfurization, 35-14
As-received, coal, 9-5, 9-7
Ash, black liquor, 28-8 (see also
Recovery boiler, Kraft process)
carryover, 28-9
I-1

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
chloride/potassium purging, 28-10,
28-21
fume, 28-9
stickiness, 28-9
Ash, coal, 9-4, 9-8, 21-1 (see also
Slag)
characteristics and composition,
21-3, 21-6
characterization methods, 21-13
classification, 20-13
composition, 9-8
content, 21-1
corrosion, 15-4, 15-10, 21-20
deposition, deposits, slagging and
fouling, 21-3, 44-7
effects of reducing atmosphere,
21-6, 43-7
effects on boiler design, 19-6, 2114, 21-16, 43-7
convection pass design, 21-16
furnace design, 21-14
erosion, 21-17 (see also Erosion)
fusibility, fusion temperature(s),
15-1, 15-3, 21-5
fusion, 9-8
gasifier, Chapter 18
hoppers, 20-4
influence of elements, 21-7
numerical model, 6-12
operating variables, 21-17
particles, 20-3
pulverized coal combustion, 14-4
removal, dry-bottom, wet-bottom,
flyash, 21-2
residue, 10-11, 10-14
sintering strength, 21-19
viscosity, 21-8
measurement, 21-9
temperature relationship, 21-10
Ash, fuel oil, 21-22
characteristics, 21-24
control, 21-25
corrosion, 21-25
high temperature, 21-25
low temperature, 21-25
deposition, 21-23
design considerations, 21-24
operating considerations, 21-24
origin, 21-23
Ash cleaning equipment (see also
Sootblowers)
mechanical rapping system, 29-21
sootblowers, 24-1, 29-21
Ash deposits
emittance, 4-10
thermal conductance, 4-9
Ash handling systems, 24-12,
29-12, 29-18
air heater flyash, 24-12
bottom ash handling systems
clinker grinders, 24-14
dewatering storage bin, 24-14
hydraulic, 24-13
mechanical drag, 24-14
plunger ash extractor, 24-15,
29-12

I-2

slag tank, 24-14
submerged chain conveyor,
24-14, 29-18
water impounded hopper
system, 24-15
dry flyash handling systems,
pneumatic, 24-16
airlock, 24-17
pressure system, 24-17
vacuum system, 24-16
flyash handling system, 24-15,
29-12, 29-19
collector, 24-20
drag chain conveyor, 24-15,
29-12
screw conveyor, 29-12
silo, 24-20
silo unloading, 24-20
mechanical conveying, 24-14
pyrite, 24-15
Aspirator, 3-16
Atom, 47-1
Atomic Energy Act, 49-14
Atomic Energy Commission
(AEC, now NRC), 46-1, 49-14
Atomic number, 47-1, T-15
Atomic Safety and Licensing Board,
49-14
Atomization
oil, 11-11
mechanical, 11-11
steam, 11-12
slurry (FGD)
dual fluid, 35-13
rotary, 35-13
Attemperation, 1-8, 19-14
marine, 31-9
water, 42-7
Attemperator, 19-13, 19-14
arrangement(s), 19-15
condition assessment, 45-9
control, 19-14
spray, 1-8, 19-14
Austenite, 7-3
Austenitic stainless steel, 7-13
Automatic sequence burner
controls, 41-14
Automation
power plant, 41-19
welding, 38-1
Auxiliaries, 39-18
ash handling, Chapter 24
boiler, 1-9, Chapter 25
power requirements, 15-10, 26-6
sootblowers, Chapter 24
Auxiliary power, cost, 37-11, 37-17
Availability
maintaining, Chapter 44
Available energy, 2-17

Babcock,

George Herman, Intro-5,
Intro-6
Baffle(s)
air heater, 20-7
drum, steam, 5-14

economizer, 20-3
marine, 31-12, 31-13
numerical modeling, 6-13
Bagasse, analysis, 9-12
Baghouse, 29-22, Color Plate 7
(see also Fabric filter)
Bainite, 7-5
Balanced draft, 23-4
Ball or ball-and-tube mill, 13-5, 35-6
Banks of tubes
convection heat transfer in, 4-16
crossflow around, 4-16
effect of number of tube rows in,
4-18
longitudinal flow around, 4-18
Bare tube, arrangement
in-line, 20-1
staggered, 20-1
Bark fuel, 27-2, 30-1
Barns, 47-5
Basic oxygen furnace, 27-20
Batch refueling, 46-10
Bernoulli’s equation, 3-4
Best Achievable Control Technology
(BACT), 32-3
Beta particle, 47-3
Bid evaluation, 37-7
Bimetallic materials and tubes,
7-14, 28-11, 29-5
Binding energy, 47-2
Biological effects, radiation, 47-3
Biomass (see also Chapter 30)
as a fuel, 9-18, 30-3
fluidized-bed, 17-1, 17-3, 30-7
Black liquor – see Recovery boiler,
Kraft process
Blackbody
definition of, 4-4
radiation from, 4-4, 4-7
Blast furnace, 27-2, 27-18
gas, 9-10, 27-4, 27-13
Blowdown
steam generator, fossil, 19-14, 42-7
steam generator, nuclear, 48-7
Blowing, steam line, 43-3
Boiler
bank, 1-8, 19-2, 22-11, 27-2, 28-4,
28-17, 29-21
chemistry, 42-1
circulation, general theory, 3-17,
5-17
cleaning, 43-2
codes, 8-5, C-1
configurations, 19-1
control, Chapter 41, 43-3
automatic sequence, 43-3
basic theory, 41-1
coal, pulverized, drum, 41-10
coal, pulverized, Universal
Pressure, 41-12
combustion optimization, 43-6
Cyclone, 41-11
fluidized-bed, 41-11
key operating functions, 43-7
manual, 43-3
oil and gas, 41-10

Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
system design, utility boiler,
41-5
temperature
reheat, 41-10
superheat, 41-10
definition, 1-1, 19-1
design, 1-14, 19-3
ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code, 19-8, C-1
basic circulation systems, 19-3
calculations, performance, 22-1
combustion effects, 19-5
convection surface, 19-6
criteria, 19-4
critical heat flux, 5-2, 5-4, 19-8
heat absorption, 19-3
heat and chemical recovery
boilers, paper industry,
28-1
heating surface, 19-4, 19-6
pressure parts, 19-8
recovery, chemical and heat,
Chapter 28
safety valves, 19-8
specifications, 19-4
supports, 19-8
thermal gradients, 19-8
design practice, 26-2
development, history of, Intro-1
enclosure, 19-8, 23-1
energy equation, 2-9
expansion, 23-4
historical (see also Steam engine)
Blakey, William, Intro-4
centennial, Intro-5
shell, Intro-2
Stevens, John, Intro-4
straight tube, Intro-7
Trevithick, Richard, Intro-4
waggon, Intro-3
Watt, James, Intro-3
industrial, 27-1
industrial byproduct, 30-2
numerical model, 6-12
pulverized coal, 6-14
recovery, 6-14
waste-to-energy, 6-21
windbox, 6-16
once-through, 1-3, 1-12
operation, 43-1
abnormal, 43-9
operator requirements, 43-2
performance tests, 43-8
personnel safety, 43-8
shutdown, 43-9
startup, 43-2
screen, 19-6
selection, 26-1
setting, 23-1
supports, 19-8
surface, 19-1
types
anthracite combustion (RBW),
19-2, 26-6, 26-15
basic oxygen furnace
(BOF), 27-20

Steam 41 / Index

bent tube, Intro-7
biomass-fired, Chapter 30
blast furnace gas, 27-4
bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB),
17-2, 27-11
carbon monoxide (CO), 27-17
Carolina (RBC), 19-2, 26-12,
Color Plate 2
circulating fluidized-bed (CFB),
17-9, 27-8, Color Plate 5
El Paso (RBE), 19-2, 26-16
electric utility, Chapter 26
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR),
27-14
fire tube, Intro-4
FM, 27-12
FMB (marine package boiler),
31-4, 31-5
heat recovery steam generator
(HRSG), 27-15
High Capacity FM (HCFM),
27-12
industrial, Chapter 27, 28-1,
30-1
Integral Furnace, Intro-9, 19-2
fluidized-bed, 17-1
large utility, 19-2, Chapter 26
marine, Intro-6, Chapter 31
(see also Marine boiler)
oxygen converter hood, 27-20
package, Intro-10, 27-12
PFI, 27-13
PFM, 27-12
PFT, 27-13
pressurized fluidized-bed, 17-13
process recovery (PR), 28-1,
Color Plate 4
Radiant, Intro-10, 19-2, 26-11
shop-assembled, Intro-10,
27-12, 38-11
spiral circuitry or spiral
wound, 19-2, 26-7, 26-10
Spiral Wound Universal
Pressure (SWUP), 26-7,
Color Plate 1
Stirling (SPB), Intro-7, 19-2,
27-8, 30-2, Color Plate 3
subcritical, 19-3
supercritical, 19-3
Tomlinson, 28-10
Tower (RBT), 19-2, 26-14
Towerpak, 27-8, 30-8
Universal Pressure (UP),
Intro-10, 19-2, 26-6, 26-9
vertical tube, variable
pressure, 26-10
waste heat, 27-18
water tube, Intro-4, 19-1
wood-fired, Chapter 30
Boiler as a calorimeter (BAC)
calculation method, 10-23
Boiler-following control, 41-5
Boiler support steel, 39-11
Boiling, 1-2, 4-22, 5-1
convective, forced, 5-2, 5-3
departure from nucleate, 5-4,

46-11 (see also Critical heat
flux)
film, 5-2
flow, 5-2, 5-3
heat transfer, 4-22, 5-3
incipient, 5-2
nucleate, 4-22, 5-2
subcooled, 4-23, 5-2
transition, 5-2
Boiling water reactor (BWR), 46-2
Bomb calorimeter, 10-9
Bond work index, 35-7
Boric acid, 49-16, 49-18
Boring mill, 38-3
Bottom ash, 21-2, 24-13, 32-16
Boundary layer, fluid flow, 4-3, 4-14
Bourdon tube pressure gauge, 40-1
Brayton cycle, 2-22
IGCC plants, 18-14
Breeder reactor, 47-15
Broaching, 50-6
Buckstays, 23-2, 23-5
Buffer, 35-12
Bulk fluid temperature, 4-15
Buoyancy effects, 4-3
Burnable absorbers, nuclear, 47-13
Burner
auxiliary, 28-23, 29-21
coal, pulverized, Chapter 14
air-fuel mixing, 14-7
boiler integration, 14-5
burner nozzle, 14-7
cell, 14-9
circular, 14-9
corner-firing system, 14-16
DRB-4Z, 14-13
DRB-XCL, 14-12
dual register, 14-11
enhanced ignition, 14-18
flame safety system, 14-20
flame stability, 14-2, 14-7
impeller, 14-8
low NOx Cell, 14-14
movable, 19-16
numerical model, 6-21
oil or gas firing, 14-20
performance, 14-8
primary air exchange, 14-18
register, 14-7
S-type, 14-9
excess air, 10-15 (see also Excess
air)
flame detection, 41-15
fuel management, 41-15
management system, 41-14
automatic sequence, 41-14
failure mode analysis, 41-17
remote manual sequence, 41-14
supervised manual control, 41-14
oil and gas, Chapter 11
circular, 11-9
corner-firing system, 11-10
gas elements, 11-13
igniters, 11-15
marine, 31-6
mechanical atomizers, 11-11

I-3

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
steam atomizers, 11-12
XCL-S type, 11-9
operation
adjustments, 43-7
emissions 43-6
excess air, 15-2, 43-7
fuel conditions, 43-7
optimization, 43-6
overfire air adjustments 43-7
recovery boiler
limited vertical sweep, 28-20
oscillator, 28-20
selection, effect on steam
temperature, 19-16
Burner management systems, 41-14
Burning profiles, 9-8
Burnup, nuclear, 47-8
Bypass and startup systems
drum boilers, 19-20, 43-4
drum pressure control, 19-21,
44-16
dual pressure 19-20
operation, 19-20
steam pressure control, 19-21
upgrades, 44-16
UP boilers, 19-16, 43-12
constant furnace pressure
startup system, 19-19
flash tank, 19-19
heat recovery, 19-19
minimum required flow, 19-19
overpressure relief, 19-20
steam temperature control,
19-19
variable throttle pressure, 19-19
variable furnace pressure startup
system, 19-17
minimum flow, 19-17
vertical steam separator, 19-17
water collection tank, 19-17
Byproduct fuels, solid, 30-1

Calcination, 17-12
Calcium
carbonate, 35-9
sulfate, 35-9
sulfite, 35-9
Calculations, performance, 22-1
Calorimeter
boiler as (BAC), 10-23
bomb, 10-7
Calorimeter throttling, 40-17
CANDU, 46-2, 46-5, 48-1, 50-2
calandria, 46-6
Capacity
factor, 37-11
increase, 44-2, 44-20
Capitalized cost method, 37-13
Carbon dioxide in flue gas
from fuel analysis, 10-6, 10-21, 32-8
properties, 10-2
Carbon steel, 7-12
Carburization, 44-12
Carnot cycle, 2-12
Carrying charges, 37-11
Carryover, 5-13, 48-7
I-4

Carryover, impurities
mechanical, 42-12
moisture, 5-13
vaporous, 42-12
Carryunder, 5-13, 48-7
Casing, 23-3, 39-18
marine boilers, 31-12
Cast iron, 7-3, 7-14
air heater, 20-8
Cast steel, 7-15
Castings, 38-4
Catalyst – see NOx control, catalyst
Catalytic cracker, 27-13
Cavity
heat transfer, 4-28, 23-6
radiation calculation, 22-13
Celsius, 40-4
Cementite, 7-3
Centigrade temperature scale, 40-3
Centrifuge, 35-8
Ceramic tile, 35-5
Ceramics, 7-15
Ceramics and refractories, 15-10, 29-3
Chain reaction, nuclear, 47-7,
47-10, 47-11
Change of phase, solid, 7-2
Char, 14-3, 18-2
Charpy test, 7-17
Chemical
analyses
dewatering system, 36-10
EPA method, 36-7, 36-8
gypsum quality, 36-10, 36-13
lime quality, 36-7
limestone quality, 36-6
recirculation slurry/blowdown,
36-8
cleaning, fossil – see Chapter 42
advantages, 43-3
alkaline boilout, 42-18
circulation cleaning method,
42-20
cleaning equipment, 42-23
cleaning frequency, 42-19
cleaning time, 42-23
deposit samples, 42-22
deposits, 42-21
inhibitors, 42-22
precautions, 42-24
preoperational, 42-18
preparation, 42-23
procedures, 42-20, 42-23
soaking (cleaning) method, 42-21
solvent strength, 42-22
solvent temperature, 42-22
solvents, 42-21
superheater/reheater, 42-24
cleaning, nuclear, 49-3, 49-7
chemical addition, 49-16
startup, 49-16
cleaning solvent disposal
considerations, 42-24
co-ponding, 42-24
evaporation, 42-24
incineration, 42-24
options, 42-24

recovery process, pulp, 28-1, 43-16
vapor deposition, 7-15
Chemistry, fuel and water, Intro-17
Chimney – see Stack and draft
Chloride, 35-5
Chromizing, 7-15
Circulation, 1-3, 3-17, 5-17, 19-3,
20-4, 48-8
design criteria, 5-19
forced, 1-3, 5-19
improvements, 44-16
marine, 31-12
natural, 1-3, 5-18, 19-3, 43-4
once-through, 5-17, 19-3
startup, 43-4
steam generator, nuclear, 48-8
Circulation or flow circuits
Radiant boiler (RB), 26-13, 26-14
Spiral Wound Universal Pressure
(SWUP) boiler, 26-10
Cladding, 46-5, 46-8, 50-2, 50-4, 50-13
(see also Weld, cladding)
Classifier, coal, 13-2, 13-8
rotating, 13-13
Clean Air Act, U.S., 32-1, 35-1
1990 Amendments, 32-4
acid deposition control, 32-4
air quality control regions, 32-2
air toxics, 32-5
criteria pollutants, 32-2
evolution of legislation, 32-1
Maximum Achievable Control
Technology, 32-5, 32-10
National Ambient Air Quality
Standards, 32-2
New Source Performance
Standards, 32-2
New Source Review, 32-2
NOx SIP Call, 32-5
state implementation plans
(SIPs), 32-2
Clean Air Rules, 32-6
Clean Water Act (CWA), 32-13
Cleaning
air heater, 24-10
back pass/economizer, 24-8
convection pass, 24-5
external, 19-12
furnace, 24-2
internal, 19-12, 43-3 (see also
Chemical, cleaning, fossil)
SCR catalyst, 24-9
sonic horns, 24-9
Cleaning and inspection, nuclear,
49-15
Cleanliness, internal, 39-16
Cleanliness factor, 4-20, 22-4
Climate factor, fossil fuel units, 26-5
CO catalyst, 27-17
Coal
abrasiveness, Chapter 13
testing, 13-8
wear effects, 13-1, 13-4, 13-9
analysis
ash, 15-3
burning profile, 9-8

Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
crushers, 15-6, 15-11
equilibrium moisture, 9-7
grindability, 9-8, 13-8
mineral-matter-free, 9-5, 9-7
moisture, 9-7, 15-3
moisture-free, 9-7
sizing, 15-6
sulfur, 9-4, 9-7, 15-12
angle of repose, 12-14
anthracite, 9-6
bituminous, 9-6
blending, 12-16
breakers, 12-3
bulk density, 12-14
caking, 9-8
char, 9-9
characterization (impurities),
9-7, 12-5
organic sulfur, 12-5
pyritic sulfur, 12-5
sulfate sulfur, 12-5
classification, 9-5
cleaning, 12-4, 32-8
dewatering, 12-8
dry processing, 12-8
flotation, 12-8
gravity concentration, 12-6
tramp metal, 12-3, 12-13
coalification, 9-3, 12-5
crushers, 12-3, 12-12
dry, mineral-matter-free, 9-5
drying, 13-2
dust suppression and collection,
12-17
elemental ash analysis, 9-8
enthalpy, 10-20
erosiveness, 9-9, 13-9
feeders, 12-15, 13-2, 15-7, 44-3
gravimetric, 12-15
volumetric, 12-15
fixed carbon, 9-5
fouling indices, 9-8, 21-13
free swelling index, 9-8
friability, 12-8
frozen coal, 12-17
gasification, 9-11, Chapter 18
(see also Gasification, coal)
grindability, 9-8, 13-8
grinding, 13-2
gross calorific value, 9-8
gross (higher) heating value
(HHV), 9-8
Hardgrove Grindability Index
(HGI), 9-8, 13-8
heating value, 9-8, 10-10
lignite, 9-6
lower (net) heating value
(LHV), 9-8
mining, 12-2
moisture, 9-5, 9-7, 13-10
oxidation, 12-17
preparation, 12-4
processing and handling,
Chapter 12
properties, effect on design, 26-3
proximate analysis, 9-5

Steam 41 / Index

pulverizer – see Pulverizer
pyritic sulfur, 9-4
rank, 9-5
reserves, 9-1
screening, 12-4
size reduction, 12-3
sizing, 12-3
slagging indices, 9-9, 21-13
slagging potentials, 9-9
spontaneous combustion, 12-13
stoker, 16-1, 16-4
storage, 12-10
bunker, 12-14
design, 12-14
downspout design, 12-15
seal height, 12-15
fires, 12-18
flow problems, 12-17
funnel flow, 12-15
mass flow, 12-15
shear cell, 12-15
silo, 12-14
stacker, 12-13
stockpile, 12-13
fires, 12-17
inspection and maintenance, 12-14
reclaim, 12-14
subbituminous, 9-1, 9-6
transportation, 12-8
barge, 12-9
continuous transport, 12-10
rail, 12-9
truck, 12-10
ultimate analysis, 9-8
U.S. availability, 9-2
volatile matter, 9-5
world availability, 9-1
Coalification, 9-3
Coatings, 7-15
Codes, 8-5, C-1
Cogeneration, 1-4, 27-4, 30-1
Coke, 9-6
breeze, 9-9
delayed coke, 9-17
fluid coke, 9-17
oven gas, 9-10
Cold
bending, 7-9
drawing tubes, 38-10
forging, 7-9
rolling, 7-9
work, 7-9
Combined cycle, 1-17, 27-4
Combined heat and power, 30-1
Combustion
biomass fluidized-bed, 17-3, 17-5,
30-7
Btu method, 10-6, 10-23, 10-26
calculation methods, 10-3, 10-23
calculations, 22-3, 22-5 (see also
Chapter 10)
coal, fluidized-bed, 17-1 (see also
Fluidized-bed boiler)
coal, pulverized, 14-1
char oxidation, burnout, 14-3

char reactivity, 14-3
combustion rate, 14-2
devolatilization, 14-3
mineral matter effect, 14-4
moisture effect, 14-3
unburned carbon loss, 14-8,
14-19
volatile matter effect, 14-3 (see
also Volatile matter, coal)
constants, 10-2
control(s), 41-10
corner-firing, 11-10, 14-16
definition, 10-1
Dulong’s formula, 10-10
equilibrium, 2-26
fundamental laws, 10-1
guides, operating, 41-13
heat of, 10-7
mole method, 10-3, 10-6, 10-8, 10-23
numerical model, 6-1 (see also
Numerical modeling)
advanced burner, example, 6-21
combustion reactions
heterogeneous, 6-8
homogeneous, 6-7
mesh generation, 6-19
radiation, 6-8
stoker, example, 6-21
theory, 6-3
oil and gas
efficiency, 11-5
excess air, 11-4
performance requirements, 11-4
pulsation, 11-5
stability, 11-4
turndown, 11-4
pressurized fluidized-bed, 17-13
principles of, Chapter 10
pulverized coal – see Combustion,
coal, pulverized
system, coal
applications for metals and
cement industry, 14-21
compartmented windbox,
14-11
conventional, 14-4
corner-firing, 14-16
downshot firing, 14-5, 14-18
high moisture coal, 14-5
integration with boiler, 14-5
low volatile coal, 14-5
overfire air (OFA) ports,
14-10, 14-18
primary air, 14-2, 14-6
pulverized coal, 14-1
safety, 14-20
secondary air, 14-2, 14-7
research and development,
Intro-14
sorbent, 10-11, 10-27
stoker – see Stoker
three Ts of, 10-1
use of mole, 10-3
Commercial operation, nuclear, 49-20
Commercial structure, 37-9
Compressed water, properties, 2-4, T-7

I-5

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Compressible, 3-1
Compressor, energy equation, 2-9
Computational fluid dynamics
(CFD), 6-1
Computer numerical control, 38-3
Condensate/condensate polishing, 42-6
Condensation, film, 4-22
Condensing attemperator system,
25-21, 27-7
Condition assessment, Chapter 45
analysis techniques
BLESS code, 45-15
crack growth, 45-14
cycling effects, 45-17
leak before break, 45-14
life fraction, 45-10, 45-12, 45-15
remaining life, 45-11
boiler components
air heater, tubular, 45-11
attemperators, 45-9
drums, 45-6, 45-20
economizer, 45-17
headers
high temperature, 45-7
low temperature, 45-8
settings, 45-11
tubing
steam-cooled, 45-7, 45-11
water-cooled, 45-7, 45-13
Conductance, heat transfer
for conduction, 4-1
for convection, 4-3
in thermal circuit, 4-6
unit-thermal conductance, 4-3
Conduction, heat transfer
cylindrical geometries, 4-6
definition, 4-1
Fourier’s law, 4-1
Conductivity
feedwater limits, 43-12
method, steam purity, 40-17
thermal, refractory and
insulation, 23-6
Conservation
of energy, 3-3, 6-4
of mass, 3-2, 6-4
of momentum, 3-2, 6-4
Consolidated nuclear steam
generator, 46-21
Constructability, 39-4
Construction, Chapter 39
approaches, 39-6
field modularization, 39-6
knocked down, 39-6
shop modularization, 39-6
cost, 39-2
project management, 39-3
safety, 39-16
schedule, 39-2
technology, 39-5
Contact resistance, heat transfer, 4-1
Containment building, 46-3
Continuity equation, 3-2, 6-5
Continuous emission monitoring
(CEM), 34-8, 36-4
Contraction

I-6

pressure loss, 3-11
static pressure, difference, 3-13
Control (and protective systems),
nuclear
in-core instrumentation, 49-9
integrated control system, 46-14,
49-17
neutron detectors, 47-14, 49-17
non-nuclear instrumentation, 49-17
nuclear, 49-17
reactor protection system, 49-17
rod, 49-8, 49-18
assemblies, 46-8
drive mechanisms, 49-8
worth, 47-13, 49-18
room, 49-20
Control system design philosophy
Universal Pressure oncethrough boiler, 41-12
utility drum boiler, 41-5
Control volume
fluid dynamics, 3-2
for energy balance, 4-5, 4-23
for numerical modeling, 6-7
Control(s) and control systems,
Chapter 41
atmospheric fluidized-bed boiler,
41-11
auxiliary boiler (marine), 31-5
basic theory, 41-1
boiler-following, 41-5
burner, 41-14
burner management systems,
41-14
closed loop, 41-2
combustion, 41-10
coordinated boiler-turbine, 41-6
Cyclone-fired boiler, 41-11
during startup, 43-3
feedforward/feedback, 41-4
fluidized-bed, 41-11
furnace draft, 41-10
human factor engineering, 41-20
integrated boiler and turbinegenerator, 41-6
merchant marine boiler, 31-2, 31-3
naval boiler, 31-1
neural networks, 43-7
nuclear plant, 49-10, 49-17
oil- and gas-fired boiler, 41-10
open loop, 41-2
proportional, 41-2
proportional plus integral, 41-4
proportional plus integral plus
derivative, 41-4
pulverized coal-fired boiler, 41-10
pulverizer, 13-2
selective catalytic reduction
systems, 41-17
scrubbers, 41-17
sootblowing, 43-8
steam flow-air flow, 41-13
steam temperature, 19-12, 31-9
(see also Steam, temperature)
turbine-following, 41-5
Universal Pressure boiler, 43-11

Convection, heat transfer, 4-3
boiler surface, 19-6
definition, 4-3
fouling, 4-20
heat flow, rate of heat transfer, 4-3
Convection pass, 1-7, 7-21, 19-1, 20-4
Convective heat-transfer coefficient,
(see also Nusselt number)
in flow over banks of tubes, 4-16,
4-18
in flow through tubes (and ducts)
laminar, 4-15
turbulent, 4-16
in free convection, 4-14
Conversion factors, Appendix 1
Conversion formulae for emission
rates, T-14
Converter reactor, 47-15
Coordinate measuring machine, 50-8,
50-11
Coordinated boiler-turbine control,
41-5
Coordination curves, pulverizer, 13-7
Core – see Reactor
Core reactivity coefficients, 49-18
Corrosion, 23-7, 42-14 (see also Ash,
coal, corrosion and Ash, fuel
oil, corrosion)
acid corrosion, 42-16
acid dew point, 27-16
acid phosphate corrosion, 42-16
air heater, 20-13
caustic corrosion, 42-17
caustic cracking, 42-17
caustic gouging, 42-17
chelant corrosion, 42-16
corrosion fatigue, 42-16
decarburization, 42-17
erosion-corrosion, 45-9 (see also
flow accelerated corrosion)
flow accelerated corrosion, 42-15
fretting, 48-9, 49-2
fuel ash, 7-22, 21-20
general, 42-1
hydrogen damage, 42-16
intergranular, 7-6, 42-15, 42-18,
48-9
locations, 42-15
out-of-service corrosion, 42-18
pitting, 42-16, 48-9, 49-2
protection, process recovery
boiler, 28-11
stress corrosion, 48-9, 49-2, 49-7,
49-8
stress corrosion cracking, 42-18,
48-9
syngas cooler, gasification, 18-11
under-deposit corrosion, 42-16
wastage, 49-2
waste-to-energy system, 29-2
ash cleaning equipment, 29-21
bimetallic tube, 29-5
ceramic tiles, 29-3
chloride, 29-2
flue gas temperature, 29-3, 29-18
hydrochlorides, 29-3

Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Inconel, 29-4, 29-19
Inconel bimetallic, 29-5, 29-19
lower furnace, 29-3
metal temperature, 29-3
oxidizing atmosphere, 29-3
parallel flow superheater, 29-20
pin stud, 29-3
protection, 29-3
reducing atmosphere, 29-3
refractory, 29-3, 29-8
silicon carbide, 29-3, 29-8
superheater, 29-20
wear zone panel, 29-4
weld overlay, 29-3
Cost(s)
constant, 37-11
current, 37-11
evaluation, 37-11
future value, 37-12
levelization, 37-12
present value, 37-12
Cranes, 39-9
Creep, 7-1, 7-19, 8-12, 44-12
crack growth, 8-12
detection, 45-7
flaw size, 8-10
headers, 45-7
life prediction, 45-12
piping, 45-9
replication, 45-5
rupture, 7-19
Creep-fatigue, 44-14
Criteria Pollutants, 32-2
Critical boron concentration, 47-13
Critical flow, 5-20
Critical heat flux (CHF), 5-2, 5-4,
5-19, 19-8
criteria, 5-6
definition, 5-4
evaluation, 5-6
marine boiler, 31-7
ribbed bore tube, 5-6
Critical mass, 47-10
Critical transformation
temperature, 7-3
lower critical, 7-4
upper critical, 7-4
Cross-section, nuclear, 47-5, 47-12
absorption, 47-6
capture, 47-6
fission, 47-6
macroscopic, 47-6
microscopic, 47-6
resonance, 47-6
scattering, 47-6
Crossflow, friction factor, 3-15
Crushers, 12-3
double roll, 12-3
hammermill, 12-4
rotary breaker, 12-3
single roll, 12-3
Crystal structure, 7-1
body-centered cubic, 7-1
body-centered tetragonal, 7-4
face-centered cubic, 7-1
Curies, 47-4

Steam 41 / Index

Cycle
Brayton, 2-22
Carnot, 2-12
nuclear fuel, 47-12
Rankine, 2-13
for nuclear plant, 2-19
regenerative, 2-14
reheat, 2-15
steam, 2-1, 2-12
Cycling, 27-17, 44-15
definition, 45-17
drum, 45-20
economizer, thermal shock, 45-17
furnace, subcooling, 45-18
operation control, 41-7
superheater, tube leg flexibility,
45-19
Cyclone furnace, Chapter 15, 43-10
advancements, 15-12
advantages, 15-1
air pollution control, 15-12
ash, 15-3
burner, 15-2, 15-4
radial, 15-4
thin door radial, 15-4
scroll, 15-4
vortex, 15-4
capacities, 15-5, 15-9
coal
crushers, 15-6, 15-11
feeders, 15-7
sizing, 15-6, 43-10
suitability, 15-3, 15-5, 43-10
combustion air, 43-10
combustion control, 15-9
controls, 41-11
design features, 15-7
erosion, 15-11
fabrication, 38-9
firing arrangements, 15-5
flyash emission and recovery,
15-3, 15-12
fuels suitable for, 15-3, 15-8, 43-10
igniters, 15-10
oil and gas burners, 15-8
operation and maintenance, 15-10,
43-10
power requirements, 15-10
waste fuels, 15-3, 15-9

D-type boiler (FM), 27-12

Dampers
control, 25-3
guillotine, 25-4
isolation, 25-3
louver, 25-3
round, 25-4
Data acquisition, 40-3, 40-24
Dead weight gauge, 40-2
Decay
radioactive, 47-4
Degradation mechanisms, 44-6, 44-11
Demand charge, 37-11
Density
of flue gas, 4-11

of gases, 4-11
Departure from nucleate boiling,
DNB – see Critical heat flux
Deposits
ash, 21-3, 24-1
scaling, 42-3
slag, 21-11, 24-2
water-side, 42-15, 42-19
Desuperheater (see also Attemperator)
marine, 31-10
Diffusion
atomic, 7-1
thermal, 4-7, 4-22
Dimensional analysis, heat transfer
correlation of data, 4-15
dimensionless numbers or
groups, 4-15
Discount rate, 37-11
Discrete ordinates method, 6-9
Dislocations, 7-2
Dissimilar metal welds, 7-11
Dissolved alkalinity, 35-12
Distillate fuels, 9-12
Distributor grid, 27-17, 34-6
DNB – see Critical heat flux
Doppler
coefficient, nuclear fuel, 47-14,
49-18
effect, 47-6
Dose
equivalent, 49-13
radiation, 47-3
radiation absorbed, 49-13
Downcomer, 48-5
definition, 1-3, 1-9
Draft (see also Stack and draft)
calculations – see Chapter 22
loss, 19-7, 25-6
Draft effect, 3-15
Drainability, economizer, 20-5
Drum, steam, 1-3, 5-13, 39-10
allowable temperature
differential, 43-5
baffle(s), 5-14
capacity, 5-17
condition assessment of, 45-6
cycling, 45-20
fabrication, 38-5
head fabrication, 38-5
lifting, 39-11
marine, 31-11
materials, 7-23
protection, startup and
shutdown, 43-5, 45-20
support, 39-11
U-bolts, 39-12
Dry scrubbers – see SO2 control
controls, 41-19
Dry shielded canister, 50-13
Dryout – see Critical heat flux
Dual economizer steam air heater
(DESAH), 31-11
Dual furnace, 31-9
Duct burner, 27-17
Ductile iron, 7-15
Ductility, 7-17

I-7

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Duplex alloys, 7-14
Dust collector, 33-12, 35-2

Earthquake

requirements, 26-2
Economic evaluation, 37-1, 37-10
Economizer, 1-8, Chapter 20, 27-2
calculations, 20-4, 22-13
cascading longflow, 28-14
cleanability, 20-2
condition assessment of, 45-7
continuous, 28-14
crossflow, 28-14
cycling, 45-17
drainability, 20-5
erosion, 20-3
fabrication, 38-8
fin, 20-2
gas velocity limits, 20-3
header, 20-6
heat transfer, 20-4
longflow, 20-4, 28-14
marine, 31-11
materials, 7-21
mean temperature, 20-4
plugging, 20-2, 20-14
pressure drop, 20-5
sootblowers, 20-3
startup protection, 43-4
steaming, 20-4
stringer tubes, 20-6
supports, 20-5
tube
baffles, 20-3
diameter, 20-6
tube deflection, 20-5
upgrade, 44-7
vibration, 20-6
wall enclosures, 20-5
Eddies, 3-8
Eddy current testing – see
Nondestructive examination
Edison, Thomas Alva, Intro-6, Intro-8
Efficiency, 44-18
boiler or steam generating unit,
19-4
combustible fuel, 10-17
cycle – see Chapter 2
gasification systems, 18-2, 18-14
heat balance, 10-18
marine boiler, 31-10
operating techniques, 43-6
particulate removal, 36-13
recovery boiler, 28-4
calculations, 28-6
SO2 removal, 35-6, 36-13
Effluents (aqueous), 32-13
Ejector, 3-16
Electric resistance welded (ERW)
tubes, 7-21
Electric utilities
history of, Intro-7
Electromagnetic acoustics, 45-4
Electron, 47-1
Electropolishing, 50-2, 50-11
Electrostatic precipitator, 29-22,
32-10, 33-2, 33-8, 35-2, 35-13

I-8

applications, 33-3, 33-8
Electrostatic precipitator, dry, 33-2
components, 33-4
casing, 33-4
collecting electrodes, 33-5
discharge electrodes, 33-5
enclosure, 33-4
hoppers, 33-4
insulators, 33-5
power supplies and controls, 33-6
rapping systems, 33-5
transformer rectifier, 33-6
particle size distribution, 33-7
particulate control, 33-3
ash removal, 33-3
charging, 33-2
collection, 33-2
rapping, 33-3
performance
Deutsch-Anderson equation,
33-6
enhancement, 33-7
fuel and ash, 33-3
gas flow control, 33-5
sizing factors, 33-6
reentrainment, 33-3
resistivity, 33-3
sectionalization, 33-7
Electrostatic precipitator, wet, 33-8,
35-19
Emergency core cooling system
(ECCS), 46-15
Emergency feedwater system, 49-15
Emissions, air pollution (see also
individual pollutants)
cold gas, 18-2
F-factor, 36-12
gasification plants, 18-12
industrial boilers
carbon monoxides (CO), 27-7
nitrogen oxides (NOx), 27-7
particulate matter (PM), 27-7
sulfur oxides (SOx), 27-7
volatile organic compounds
(VOC), 27-7
oil and gas, 11-5
opacity, 11-9
oxides of nitrogen, 11-5
oxides of sulfur, 11-8
particular matter, 11-8
stokers, 16-10
utility boilers, 1-10, 26-5, 32-2
waste-to-energy system
activated carbon injection, 29-23
baghouse, 29-22
carbon monoxide, 29-23
dry scrubbing system, 29-22
electrostatic precipitator, 29-22,
29-23
hydrochloric acid, 29-22
mercury, 29-22
nitrogen oxides, 29-23
polychlorinated dibenzofurans,
29-6
polychlorinated dibenzoparadioxin, 29-6

selective catalytic reduction,
29-23
selective non-catalytic
reduction, 29-23
sulfur dioxide, 29-22
Emissive power, 4-4
Emissivity (and emittance), 4-4, 4-10
coal-ash deposits, 4-10
gases, 4-12
gray surfaces, 4-4, 4-10
non-gray surfaces, 4-4
of various surfaces, 4-12
Enclosure, Chapter 23 (see also
Setting, boiler)
Energy
applications, 2-9
available, 2-17
consumption, 9-1
equation, 2-7, 2-9, 3-4, 4-5, 4-7
production, 9-1
Enhanced oil recovery, 27-14
Enthalpy, 2-1, 2-7, 5-1
steam and water, 2-1, 2-2, T-5, T-6
Entrainment, 3-16
Entropy, 2-10
increase, 2-12
steam and water, 2-1, 2-2, T-5, T-6
Environmental
gas-side measurements, 36-8
legislation – major U.S., Chapter 32
Clean Air Act, 32-1 (see also
Clean Air Act, U.S.)
Clean Water Act, 32-13
research, development and
evolution of, Intro-14
The Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA), 32-15
process monitoring, 36-6
Environmental control, 27-4,
Chapter 32
Environmental equipment,
construction 39-15
Environmental regulations,
Chapter 32, 44-2, 44-20
Equilibrium diagram, 7-3
Equipment diagnostics, nuclear (see
also Nondestructive
examination)
check valves, 49-11
destructive examination, 49-4
eddy current testing, 49-4, 50-10
fitness-for-service assessment, 49-3
foreign object search and retrieval
(FOSAR), 49-3
loose parts monitoring, 49-10
motor operated valves, 49-11
neutron noise monitoring, 49-11
reactor coolant pump monitoring,
49-11
valve monitoring and diagnostics,
49-11
Equipment selection, 26-1
Equipment specification, 37-2
Equivalent
diameter, 3-7, 4-15, 4-18 (see also
Hydraulic diameter)

Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Erection (see also Construction)
approaches, 39-3
auxiliaries, 39-18
cleanliness, 39-16
cost estimates, 39-2
field welding, 39-13
material handling, 39-8
nonpressure parts, 39-18
procedure, fossil fuel unit, 39-11
structural supports, 39-11
time estimates, 39-2
time span, 39-2
Erection methodology, 39-6
contractor interface, 39-7
new construction, 39-6
plant arrangement, 39-6
product parameters, 39-7
retrofit, 39-6
schedule, 39-2, 39-7
scope, 39-6
site conditions, 39-7
Erosion, 21-17, 23-4
air heater, 20-14
barriers, 44-8
protection, 44-4, 44-20
tube bends, economizer, 20-3
Estimating, construction, 39-2
Euler
equation of motion, 3-3
number, definition, 3-7
Evaluation criteria, 37-7
Evaporation, 4-22, 5-1, 42-2
Evaporator, chemical process recovery
cascade, 28-19
cyclone, 28-19
direct contact, 28-19
multiple effect, 28-19
Examination (see also Condition
assessment)
destructive
boat samples, 45-6
tube samples, 45-6
methodology, 45-1
nondestructive (see also Nondestructive examination)
acoustic emissions, 45-5
eddy current, 45-3
electromagnetic acoustics, 45-4
liquid penetrant, 38-12, 45-2
magnetic particle, 38-12, 45-2
nuclear fluorescence, 45-4
radiography, 38-11, 45-4
replication, 45-5
strain, 45-6
temperature, 45-6
ultrasonic, 38-12, 45-2
visual, 45-1
Excess air, 10-15
effect on Cyclone corrosion, 15-4
effect on Cyclone operation, 43-10
effect on efficiency, 43-1
effect on steam temperature, 19-13
from flue gas analysis, 10-21, 10-23
loss, 43-6
measurement of, 10-21
Expansion, boiler, 23-4

Steam 41 / Index

Expansion joints, 25-5
configurations used in flues and
ducts, 25-5
metallic, 25-5
nonmetallic, 25-5
types, 25-5
Extended surface, 4-20
Extruded tubing, 44-8

Fabric filter (and baghouse), 32-10,

33-8, 35-13, Color Plate 7
air/cloth ratio, 33-10
applications, 33-10
bag materials and supports, 33-11
cleaning, 33-11
configurations, 33-11
hatch style, 33-11
walk-in, 33-11
design parameters, 33-10
drag, 33-10
dustcake, 33-8
enclosure, 33-11
hoppers, 33-11
operating fundamentals, 33-8
tubesheet, 33-8
types, 33-9
pulse jet, 33-10
reverse gas, 33-9
shake deflate, 33-10
shaker, 33-10
Fahrenheit temperature scale, 40-4
Fans
acoustic noise, 25-20
aerodynamic characteristics, 25-20
axial flow, 25-17
centrifugal, 25-15
drives, 25-17
forced draft, 25-13
gas recirculating, 25-14
induced draft, 25-14
laws of performance, 25-11, 25-18
maintenance, 25-14
output control, 25-15
performance, 25-11
power, 25-10
primary air, 13-6, 25-14
specific diameter, 25-12
specific speed, 25-15
stall, 25-19
testing, 25-14
variable speed, 25-15
Fast reactors, 47-15
Fatigue
crack growth, 8-11, 8-13
damage evaluation, 8-6, 45-5
design curve, 8-6
maintaining availability, effect on,
44-6, 44-11, 44-14
Feasibility, project, 37-1
Fechheimer probe, 40-22
Feedwater
control, 41-8
design considerations, 26-5
economizer, 20-6
requirements, Universal Pressure

boiler, 43-11
temperature, effect on final steam
temperature, 19-13
treatment
effect on boiler availability, 43-8
Ferrite, 7-3
Ferritic stainless steels, 7-14
Filling boiler, 43-4
Film condensation, 4-22
Filter
sludge, vacuum, 35-8
Fine grinding, coal, 13-14
Fineness, coal, 13-8
capacity factors, 13-10
testing, 13-10
Finite element analysis (FEA), 8-8
application of, 8-8, 8-9
computer software, 8-9
limitations, 8-9
nonlinear, 8-9
stress analysis, 8-8
Finned tube economizer, 44-7, 44-18
Fins
circumferentially attached, 4-20
economizer, 20-2
efficiency, 4-21
Fire(s) and fire protection
air heater, 20-14
pulverizer, 13-13
Firing rate control, Universal
Pressure boiler, 43-11
Fission, Intro-12, 1-11, 46-1 (see
also Fuel, nuclear)
process, 47-2
product(s), 46-11
Fittings
flow resistance, 3-9
Fixation, 32-16
Fixed charges, 37-11
Flake glass, 35-5
Flame
coal, pulverized, 14-7
detection or scanners, 14-20,
41-15
stability, 14-7
photometer, 40-18
Flat stud tubes, 23-2
Floor design, process recovery boiler,
28-12
decanting, 28-12
sloped, 28-12
Flow
around tubes, 4-16, 4-18
boiling, 5-2
coast down, 49-20
in tubes (and ducts), 4-15, 4-16
instability, 5-11
laminar, 3-8, 4-15
over flat plate, 4-15
patterns, 5-8
turbulent, 3-8, 4-16
two-phase, steam-water, 5-8
Flue gas, 1-5, 1-10
analysis, 10-21
enthalpy, 10-19
excess air determination, 10-21

I-9

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
mass flow, 10-16
moisture, 10-6, 10-17
residue, 10-14
sampling, 10-21
specific heat, 22-9
volumetric combustion chart, 10-22
Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (see
also SO2 control, scrubber (FGD))
construction, 39-15
dry scrubbing, 32-9, 35-12
sorbent injection, 32-9
wet scrubbing/scrubber, 32-9,
35-2, 36-1
Flue gas sampling
isokinetic, 36-12
location selection, 36-7
Flue gas velocity, 20-3
Fluid
dynamics, Chapter 3
research and development of,
Intro-15
entrainment, 3-16
flow, energy equation, 3-4
flow measurement, 40-20
flow nozzle, 40-20
orifices, 40-20
venturi tube, 40-20
friction, pressure loss, 3-5
pressure loss, two-phase, 5-9
straightening vanes, 40-20
Fluidization, 17-2
Fluidized-bed boiler, Chapter 17,
27-8, Color Plate 5
air staging, 17-8
ash, 17-10, 17-12
attrition, 17-13
bubble caps, 17-2
bubbling bed, 17-1, 17-2, 27-11
calcination, 17-12
circulating bed, 17-1, 17-9, 27-8
control, 41-11
distributor, 17-3
fixed bed, 17-1
fuel feed systems, 17-7
mean diameter, particle, 17-2
minimum fluidization, 17-1
NOx control, 17-8, 17-13
operations, 43-13
bubbling bed, 43-15
fuel sizing, 43-15
operating overview, 43-15
circulating bed, 43-13
biomass firing, 43-14
coal firing, 43-14
fuel sizing and characteristics, 43-14
operating overview, 43-13
operations, 43-13
startup and shutdown, 43-14
overfire air system, 17-6, 17-8
pressurized bed, 17-13
Sauter mean diameter, 17-2
slumped bed, 17-3
solids separation, 17-11
staged combustion, 17-13
superficial bed velocity, 17-3

I-10

temperature control, 17-4, 17-10
turbulent bed, 17-2
U-beams, 17-11
volume-surface mean diameter,
17-2
waste fuels, 17-1
Flyash, 32-1, 32-16 (see also Ash,
coal)
Flyash plugging, 44-7
Forced circulation, 1-3, 5-19 (see
also Circulation)
Forced convection, heat transfer
entrance effects, 4-14
heat transfer coefficient inside
tubes (and ducts), 4-3, 4-15,
4-16
laminar flow, 4-15
turbulent flow, 4-16
Forced outage rate, 44-1
Formic acid, 35-12
Forming, 38-3
Fouling, 4-20, 9-8, 28-9, 44-6 (see
also Ash, coal, deposition)
Fracture mechanics, 8-10
creep
crack growth, 8-12
flaw size, 8-12
elastic-plastic, 8-11
failure assessment
deformation plasticity, 8-11
diagrams, 8-11, 8-12
leak-before-break, 8-12
plastic instability, 8-12
safety margins, 8-12
fatigue crack growth, 8-12
linear elastic, 8-10
time dependent, 8-13
toughness, 7-18
Free convection, heat transfer, 4-14
Free surface, 3-1
Friction factor
crossflow gases, 3-15
flow in pipes and ducts, 3-7, 3-8
Friction loss, 3-5
two-phase flow, steam-water, 5-9
Fuel (see also specific fuel and
Chapter 9)
biomass, 9-18, 16-1, 16-7, 30-1
boiler operations, 43-1
coal, 15-1, 26-3
flow control, 41-10
flow measurement, 41-13
natural gas, 15-8 (see also
Natural gas)
firing application, 26-16
nuclear,
assembly, 46-8, 47-9
burnup, 47-8
fission, 47-6
chamber, 47-14
energy, 47-7
neutrons, 47-7
process, 47-6
products, 47-8
fissionable, 47-5
fusion, 47-2

handling, 49-12
loading, 49-18
refueling, 46-10
oil, 9-12, 11-1, 15-8 (see also
Petroleum)
API gravity, 9-14, 11-2
asphaltene content, 11-2
auxiliary, marine, 31-5
burning equipment, 11-9
burning profile, 11-2
carbon residue, 11-2
combustion calculations,
Chapter 10
distillation, 11-2
enthalpy, 10-20
fire point, 11-2
firing application, 26-16
flash point, 9-14, 11-2
heating value, 11-2
kinematic viscosity, 9-14
merchant marine, 31-3
naval, 31-2
No. 2, 9-12
No. 6, 9-12
Nos. 4 and 5, 9-13
pour point, 9-14, 11-2
preparation, 11-1
properties, 11-2
reserves, 9-12
residual fuel oils, 9-13
Saybolt Furol viscosity, 9-14
Saybolt Universal viscosity, 9-14
specific gravity, 11-2
transportation, storage and
handling, 11-1
ultimate analysis, 11-2
viscosity, 11-2
water and sediment, 9-14, 11-2
Orimulsion, 11-3
other gases, 11-3
purging, 43-1
research and development of,
Intro-14
sludge, 30-4
straw, 30-2
switching, 32-5, 32-8
switching, SO2 control, 35-1, 44-18
wood, 30-2
Fuel ash corrosion, 44-12
Fuel NOx, 34-1
Furnace, 1-7
Controlled Combustion Zone
(CCZ), 16-7, 30-6
design, enclosure, 19-4
dry ash, 19-6
recovery boiler, 28-10
sizing, 19-5, 21-14
slag-tap, 19-6
water-cooled walls, 19-6
wet-bottom, 19-6
divided, 19-16
draft control, 41-10
dutch oven, 30-4
exit gas temperature, calculation,
22-4
heat transfer calculations, 22-3

Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
heat transfer methods
empirical, 4-24
numerical, 4-26
marine, 31-1, 31-2
materials, 7-21
subcooling, 44-15
wall corrosion, 44-8
wall wastage, 44-7
Fused coatings, 7-16
Future value, 37-12

Galvanizing, 7-16

Gamma ray, 47-3, 49-13
Gas (see also Natural gas)
constant, 3-4, 40-4
enthalpy, 10-12, 10-19
equation, 40-4
expansion, 40-4
temperature evaluation, 40-16
temperature measurement,
40-14
flue gas, 10-16
forced convection around
cylinders, 4-15
free convection, 4-14
laminar forced convection in
tubes, 4-15
laws, 3-4, 10-1
physical properties, 3-10, 4-9,
4-11, 10-2
turbulent forced convection in
tubes (and ducts), 4-16
viscosity, 3-11
Gas, flue (see also Flue gas)
analysis, 41-14
biasing effects, 19-15
proportioning damper, 19-15
recirculation, 19-15
tempering, 19-15
Gas disperser, 35-13
Gaseous
fuels from coal, 9-9, 18-1
radiation, 4-4, 4-8, 4-12
state, 3-1
Gasification, black liquor, 28-27
high temperature, 28-28
low temperature, 28-28
Gasification, coal, 9-11, Chapter 18
air-blown, 18-2
crossflow, 18-4
definition, 18-1
developmental issues, 18-11
developments, 18-7
down-flow, 18-4
entrained flow, 18-6
fixed (moving) bed, 18-4
fluidized bed, 18-5
gas compositions, 18-3
gas cooling, 18-11
oxygen blown, 18-2, 18-10
power generation, 18-14
processes, 18-2
product cleanup, 18-12
reactions, 18-1
transport, 18-7

Steam 41 / Index

upflow, 18-3
Geiger counter, 49-13
Generating bank (see also Boiler,
bank)
crossflow, 28-12
longflow, 28-17
Geographical considerations in
boiler design, 26-5
Global warming, 32-8
Grain boundaries, 7-2
Graphitization, 7-4, 7-11, 44-12
Grashof number, definition of, 4-2,
4-14
Grate
air-cooled, 16-6, 16-8
chain, 16-3
moving, 16-2
pinhole, 30-4
stationary, 16-2
traveling, 16-3, 16-5, 16-8, 30-5
vibrating, 16-3, 16-5, 16-9, 30-5
water-cooled, 16-3, 16-10
Gray iron, 7-14
Graybody, thermal radiation, 4-10
Green liquor, 28-25
Greenhouse gases, 32-8
Grid – see Mesh generation
Guarantees
equipment, 26-6
performance, 37-4, 37-5
Gundrilling, 50-4
Gypsum, 32-1, 32-16, 35-8

Half-life, 47-4

heavy elements, 47-5
radioactive, 47-4
Hardening, quenching, 7-9
Hardness, 7-17
Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs),
32-4
Hazardous waste, 32-15
Header(s)
analysis techniques, 45-14
condition assessment of, 45-7
creep, 45-7
fabrication, 38-6
leak detection, 45-17
ligament, 44-14
material, 7-23
protection, startup, 43-5
structural analysis – see Chapter 8
tube-to-header weld, 44-15
upgrade, 44-14
Heat
affected zone (HAZ), 7-10
available, 10-11, 10-23
credits, 10-18, 10-23
Dulong’s formula, 10-10
exchanger
air heater(s), 20-7
effectiveness, 4-22
mean temperature difference in,
4-19, 4-21
nuclear, 48-1
types, arrangements, 4-20

losses, 10-15, 10-18, 10-19, 23-5,
43-6
mechanical equivalent, 2-8
of combustion, 10-7
of formation, 28-5
of reaction correction, 28-5
of vaporization, 5-1
rate, 19-9
reduction due to deposits, 43-6
transfer, Chapter 4
applications, 4-28
basic modes, 4-1
boiling, 4-21, 4-27, 5-3
calculations, Chapter 22
cleanliness factor, 4-20
coefficient of, 4-3
condensation, 4-22
conduction, 4-1
contact resistance, 4-1
convection, 4-3, 4-14
discrete ordinates, 6-9
electrical analogy, 4-6, 4-23
extended surface, 4-20
furnaces, 4-24
gas-side, 20-4
gas-to-gas, 20-16
insulation, 4-22, 4-29
Kirchoff’s law, 4-4
modeling of, 6-5
NTU method, 4-21
Ohm’s law, 4-6
porous materials, 4-22
radiation, 4-3, 4-7, 6-8
research and development of,
Intro-15
steam generator, nuclear, 48-3,
48-6
supercritical (pressure water),
5-7
surface, 20-1
waste gases, 27-18
water-side, 20-4
treatment
post weld, 7-11, 50-5, 50-12
welding, 38-6
Heat flux measurement, 40-12
Heat rate, 37-11
Heat recovery steam generator
(HRSG), 27-15
Heat transfer (see Heat, transfer)
Heating surface, regenerative air
heater, 20-11
Heating values, high and low, 9-8,
10-10
Heavy lifting, 39-8
Heavy water, 46-2
Hero’s engine, Intro-1
Hideout, chemical, 42-3
History of steam generation and
use, Intro-1
Hook gauge, 40-2
Hooke’s law, 7-16
Hopper, 23-3
numerical model, 6-21
Hot
functional testing, 49-16

I-11

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
rolling, 7-9
shortness, 7-6
work, 7-9
zero power, 49-18
Human factor engineering, control
systems, 41-20
Hydraulic diameter, 3-5 (see also
Equivalent, diameter)
Hydroclones, 35-8
Hydrogen damage, 42-17, 44-6
detection of, 45-3
Hydrolysis, 34-7
Hydrostatic test, 39-17, 42-23, 43-2,
50-2, 50-11

Ideal gas, 3-4

Igniter, 11-15, 14-20, 15-10
capacity, 15-10
classification of, 41-16
coal burner, 14-20, 15-10
oil and gas, 11-15, 15-10
operation, 15-10
Ignition
stability, flame, 14-7
temperatures, 10-10
Imaging radiometer, 40-6
Impact protection, 44-9
Impact suction pitot tube, 40-21
In-core instrumentation, 49-9
Incineration, 28-23, 29-1
Incompressible, 3-1
Induced nuclear reactions, 47-4
Industrial boiler design, 27-1
Injector, 3-16
Inspection (see also Equipment
diagnostics, nuclear)
pre-operation, 39-19
startup, 43-2
Instability, flow, 5-11
Instrumentation, 40-1
corrections, 40-3
water leg, 40-3
environmental, 36-1
in-core, 49-9
nuclear, 49-10
startup, 43-3
Insulating material
properties of, 4-1, 4-9
thermal conductivity, 23-6
Insulation, 4-22, 4-29, 23-1, 23-5,
23-6, 39-18
ambient air conditions, 4-29
heat loss, 4-29
installation, 23-5
temperature limits and thermal
conductivities, 4-29
Integral Furnace boiler, Intro-9, 19-2
Internal deposits, water-side, 43-9,
44-6
Internal recirculation, CFB, 27-10
International temperature scale, 40-3
Inverse temperature solubility, 42-2
Inviscid, 3-4
Ionization, 47-3
chamber, 47-14, 49-13

I-12

Iron, effects on coal ash, 21-7, 43-10
Irrecoverable, pressure losses, 3-6
Irreversible, 3-5
Isentropic, 3-4
Isolation valves, nuclear, 49-10
Isothermal transformation
diagrams, 7-4
Isotope, 47-1

Jet pump, 3-16
Kelvin temperature scale, 40-4
Kinematic viscosity, 3-10
Kraft process – see Recovery boiler,
Kraft process
Lagging, 23-2, 23-9
Lamellar tearing, 7-11
Laminar flow (see also Flow, laminar)
definition, 4-14
inside tubes (and ducts), 4-15
Larson-Miller parameter
creep life fraction, 45-12
life prediction, 45-12
Laser alignment, 50-8
Laws of thermodynamics, 2-10
Layup, 42-25
dry layup, 42- 27
hot standby, 42- 26
nitrogen blanketing, 42-27
wet layup, 42-27
Leak detection
acoustics, 45-16
headers, 45-17
piping, 45-17
tubes, 45-16
Leak test, 50-10, 50-11
Levelization, cost, 37-12
Licensing, nuclear, 49-14
Life management, nuclear, 49-2
Lighter – see Igniter
Lignite, 9-6
ash fusion temperature, 43-10
Lime, 35-2, 35-15
hydrated, 35-16
pebble, 35-16
Limestone, 35-2 (see also Sorbent)
forced oxidation, 35-6
Linear accelerator, 38-6
Linings, rubber, 35-5
Liquid
forced convection around tubes,
4-16
laminar forced convection in
tubes (and ducts), 4-15
metal coolants, 46-2, 46-22
penetrant examination, 38-12
physical properties, 3-10
state, 3-1
turbulent forced convection in
tubes (and ducts), 4-16
viscosity, 3-11
Ljungström air heater, 20-9

Load, 39-18
blocks, 39-11
dead, 39-9
distribution, 39-10
static equilibrium, 39-10
factor, 37-11
friction, 39-9
impact, 39-9
imposed, 39-9
lifted, 39-9
live, 39-9
seismic, 39-9
stabilization force, 39-9
wind, 39-9
Local heat transfer coefficient
definition, 4-3
in boiling, 5-4
in free convection, 4-14
in laminar flow, 4-15
in turbulent regions, 4-16
Longflow economizer, 20-4, 28-15
Low water, 43-9
Lowest Achievable Emission Rate,
32-4

Machine tools, 38-3
Machining, 38-2
electrical discharge, 38-3
Magnesium oxide, 35-12, 35-18
Magnetic particle examination, 38-12
Maintaining availability, Chapter 44
Maintenance
boiler, Chapter 44
economizer, 20-6
fans, 25-14
nuclear equipment, 49-2
pulverizer, 13-11
remote technology, 49-1, 49-5
stack, 25-10
strategic plan, 44-1
Makeup water and purification
system, 42-5, 49-15
Malleable cast irons, 7-14
Manometer, 40-1
high pressure, 40-2
inclined, 40-1
micromanometer, 40-2
Manpower loading, construction, 39-3
Manufacturing
development, Intro-13, Intro-16
fossil fuel equipment, Chapter 38
methods, 38-1
nuclear equipment, Chapter 50
requirements, 38-1
tubes, 38-10
Marine boiler
circulation, 31-12
codes, 31-6
design, 31-6
development, 31-1
efficiency, 31-10
furnace design, 31-7
nuclear, 46-19
requirements, 31-1
steam separation, 31-12
Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
steam temperature control, 31-9
superheater design, 31-8
tube bends, 31-8
types
coal, 31-3
merchant, 31-2
naval, 31-1
package, 31-4
reheat, 31-3
waste heat, 31-5
Martensite, 7-5
Mass
conservation of, 3-2
defect, 47-2
diffusion and transfer, 4-22
energy equivalence, 47-2
flow rate per unit area, 3-6
flux, 3-6
number, 47-2
transfer coefficients, 4-22
transfer rate, 35-10
velocity, 3-6
Mass burning, refuse, 29-3
air plenums, 29-11
combustion air system, 29-11
excess air, 29-11
fuel feed system, 29-11
overfire air, 29-11
plunger ash extractor, 29-12
rams, 29-11
reciprocating grate, 29-10
steam coil air heaters, 29-12
stoker capacity diagram, 29-10
stoker design, 29-10
undergrate air, 29-11
vibrating conveyor, 29-12
Master fuel trip, 23-5
Material handling and storage
equipment, 39-8
erection, 39-8
plan, 39-8
transportation, 39-8
Materials – see Chapter 7 and
specific materials
Materials, bimetallic, 28-11
Maximum Achievable Control
Technology (MACT), 32-5
Mean film temperature, 4-19
Measurement, instrument and
methods (see also Chapters 36
and 40)
atomic absorption, 42-14
conductivity, 42-14
density, 36-4
flame photometer, 42-14
flow, 36-4, 40-20
gravimetric, 42-14
ion chromatography, 42-14
liquid level, 36-2
mercury emissions, 36-13
on grab samples, 42-14
on-line, 42-13, 42-15
opacity, 36-5, 36-13
pH, 36-1
pressure, 36-4, 40-1
purity, steam, 40-17

Steam 41 / Index

quality, steam, 40-17
solids level, 36-3
temperature, 36-4, 40-3
Mechanical equivalent of heat, 2-8,
3-3, 10-9
Membrane wall, 19-6, 23-1
construction, 39-18
fabrication, 38-7
gasifier design, 18-9
tubes, 23-1, 23-2
Mercury, 32-8
control technologies, 32-10, 32-11,
36-13, 36-14
in U.S. coals, 32-10
regulations, 32-6, 32-10
Mesh generation, 6-9
Metal lagging, 23-2
Metal removal, 38-2
Microalloyed steels, 7-12
Mineral wool, 23-5
Modeling (see also Numerical
modeling)
ash, coal, 6-12
boiler, 6-14
burner, coal, pulverized, 6-21
combustion, 6-1, 6-7
large particle (popcorn) ash (LPA),
6-12
numerical, Chapter 6
recovery boiler, 6-14
stoker, 6-21
turbulent flow, 6-5
windbox, 6-16
Moderator, 46-1
temperature coefficient, 47-14,
49-18
Modular construction, 27-6, 39-6
field, 39-6
shop, 39-6
Moisture
air, 10-5
flue gas, 10-6, 10-17
gypsum, 36-10
in stack gas, 36-8
pulverization, 13-10
pulverized coal combustion, 14-3
Molar quantities
conversion to mass units, 10-4
Molar ratio, NOx control, 34-8
Mole
concept of, 10-1
in combustion calculations, 10-3,
10-6
Mollier diagram
nuclear steam cycle, 2-21
steam, Chapter 2 Frontispiece,
T-9
Momentum
conservation of, 3-2
Mud drum, 1-8
Multi-cyclone (multiclone) dust
collector, 17-11, 27-10
Multi-lead ribbed tubes, 5-5, 26-13,
44-17
Municipal solid waste (MSW), 9-19,
12-18, 27-2, 29-1

National Ambient Air Quality

Standards, 32-2
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), 11-1, 13-12, 23-4
National Pollution Discharge
Elimination System, 32-13
Natural circulation, 1-3, 5-18, 26-10,
26-11, 27-1, 27-15, 48-6
Natural gas – see Chapter 11
burner, 11-9
burning equipment, 15-10
consumption, 9-16
firing application, 26-16, 27-4
gas elements, 11-13
igniter, 11-15
preparation, 11-2
production, 9-16
properties, 11-3
reserves, 9-16
transportation, storage and
handling, 11-2
Nautilus, 46-19
Navier-Stokes equation, 3-2
Navy special fuel oil (NSFO), 31-12
Net plant heat rate, 37-11
Neutron, 47-1
absorption, 47-6
delayed, 47-11
detector, 47-14, 49-17
energy distribution from fission,
47-8
flux, 47-11, 49-17
leakage, 47-11
production, 47-10
prompt, 47-11
reactions, 47-5
source, 47-14
thermal, 47-6
New Source Performance Standards
(NSPS), 32-2
New Source Review (NSR), 32-2
Newton’s law of cooling, 4-3
Newtonian fluid, 3-1
Nitrates, 34-2
Nitric acid, 34-2, 35-1
Nitrogen oxides (NOx), 32-7, 34-1,
35-1 (see also NOx and NOx
control)
combustion optimization, 43-6
emissions, 32-7, 34-1
formations, 34-1
nitric oxide (NO), 32-7, 34-1
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 32-7, 34-1
Non-condensable gases/waste stream,
28-23
Nonattainment Areas, 32-2
Nondestructive examination, 38-11,
45-1 (see also Examination,
nondestructive)
eddy current testing (ECT), 45-3,
49-4, 50-10
probes, 49-4
electromagnetic acoustics, 45-4
leak testing, 50-10
dye penetrant (PT), 50-2
liquid penetrant (PT), 45-2, 49-10

I-13

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
magnetic particle (MT), 45-2,
49-10, 50-2
nuclear fluorescence, 45-4
radiographic (RT), 50-2
ultrasonic testing (UT), 45-2, 49-4,
50-2
Nonpressure parts, materials, 7-24
Nonrecoverable – see Irrecoverable
Normalizing, 7-8
NO x
emissions control, postcombustion, 41-17
ammonia flow control, 41-17
flue gas inlet temperature,
41-17
NOx control, 32-4, 32-9, Chapter 34
analyzer, 34-8
catalyst, 34-3
base metal, 34-5
corrugated fiber configuration,
34-5
honeycomb configuration, 34-5
operating issues, 34-6
parallel plate configuration,
34-5
precious metal, 34-5
sizing, 34-6
zeolite, 34-5
chemical reagents, 34-3
anhydrous ammonia (NH3),
34-3
aqueous ammonia, 34-6
urea, 34-3
coal, and wood/bark stoker, 16-10
coal, Cyclones, 15-13
coal, fluidized-bed, 17-1, 17-8, 17-13
coal, gasification systems, 18-15
coal, pulverized, 14-9
air staging, 14-14
corner-fired, 14-16
wall-fired, 14-15
control by combustion, 14-10
fuel NOx, 14-9
fuel ratio (FC/VM), 14-10, 14-18
fuel staging, 14-10
NOx formation, 14-9
NOx ports, 14-10
thermal NOx, 14-10
combustion, 34-1
oil and gas
burners out-of-service, 11-6
flue gas recirculation, 11-7
low excess air, 11-6
overfire air ports, 11-6
oxides of nitrogen, 11-5
reburning, 11-7
two-stage combustion, 11-6
options, Chapter 34
post-combustion, 34-3
selective catalytic reduction,
Chapter 34
numerical model, 6-18
NOx formation, 34-1
NOx ports, 14-10
Nozzle
energy equations, 2-9

I-14

fabrication, 38-6
spray, FGD, 35-3, 35-4
Nuclear (see also Fuel, nuclear, and
Chapters 46 through 50)
binding energy, 47-2
chain reaction, 47-7
component maintenance, 49-2
cross-section, 47-12
emergency core cooling system
(ECCS), 46-15
fission, 46-1, 47-1
nucleons, 47-1
nucleus, 47-1
nuclide, 47-1
fuel, 46-2, 46-8, 47-7
fuel assembly, 46-8
fuel cycle, 47-12
fundamentals, 47-1
icebreaker, Lenin, 46-20
merchant ship, Otto Hahn, 46-21
merchant ship, Savannah, 46-20
moderator temperature
coefficient, 47-14
multiplication factor, effective,
47-10
operations, 49-14
power, Intro-12, Chapter 46
pumps and piping, 46-13
radiation, 47-2, 49-1
reactions, Chapter 47
reactor, 46-1, 46-5 (see also
Reactor)
resonance, 47-6
safety systems, 1-13
service, Chapter 49
steam generator, 1-12, 46-12 (see
also Steam generator,
nuclear)
once-through, 46-12
recirculating, 46-12
steam supply system (NSSS),
1-11, 46-4
future of, 46-18
integrated control system, 46-14
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC), 46-9, 49-14
Nuclear ships, 46-19
Nuclides, 47-1
Numerical analysis, 19-7
Numerical modeling, Chapter 6
benefits of, 6-2
carbon burnout kinetic (CBK)
model, 6-8
chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model, 6-8
chemical reactions, 6-4, 6-7
combustion, 6-7
eddy dissipation combustion
model (EDM), 6-7
eddy dissipation concept (EDC)
model, 6-7
heterogeneous chemical
reaction, 6-8
homogeneous chemical
reaction, 6-7
computational fluid dynamics, 6-1

conduction heat transfer, 4-23
discrete ordinates, 6-9
discrete phase transport, 6-7
equations
discretization of, 6-8
fluid flow/heat transfer, 6-5
fundamental, 6-5
turbulence, 6-5
Eulerian reference frame, 6-7
examples of, 6-10
advanced burner, 6-21
Kraft recovery boilers, 6-14
popcorn (large particle) ash, 6-12
SCR systems, 6-18
wall-fired pulverized-coal
boiler furnaces, 6-14
waste-to-energy system, 6-21
wet scrubbers, 6-10
windbox, 6-16
finite difference method, 6-9
finite volume approach, 6-9
fluid transport, 6-4
furnace heat transfer, 4-26
history of, 6-2
Lagrangian reference frame, 6-7
limitations of, 6-3
mathematical, 6-1
mesh generation, 6-9
particle, transport, 6-4, 6-7 (see
also Numerical modeling,
discrete phase transport)
process, 6-2
radiation heat transfer, 4-23
radiative heat transfer, 6-4, 6-8
theory of, 6-3
turbulence, 6-5
uses, 6-3
Nusselt number
definition, 4-2, 4-15
in long tubes or conduits, 4-16

O-type FM Boiler, 27-12
Oil – see Fuel, oil
Oil emulsions, 9-18
Once-through
boiler, 1-3, 26-9 (see also Universal
Pressure (UP) boiler)
circulation, 1-3, 5-17
steam generator, nuclear, 1-12,
46-12, 48-2, 48-13, 49-1,
49-17, 50-2, 50-4
Ontario Hydro Method, 32-10
Opacity, 36-13
Openings, pressure vessels
ligaments between, 8-13
reinforcement, 8-13
Operating issues, 34-10
retrofits, 34-10
Operating license, nuclear, 49-14
Operation
fossil fuel-fired boilers, Chapter 43
abnormal, 43-9
combustion safety, 43-1
cooling requirements, 43-1
fundamental principles, 43-1
Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
general, 43-1
general safety considerations,
43-1
low water, 43-9
personnel safety, 43-8
preparations for startup, 43-2
shutdown, 43-9
startup, 43-2, 43-4
tube failures, 43-9
water chemistry and treatment
– see Chapter 42
nuclear steam supply systems,
Chapter 49
acceptance tests, 49-20
operator requirements, 49-18
power ascension testing, 49-19
startup, nuclear, 49-18
zero power tests, 49-18
Operator
requirements, fossil fuel units, 43-2
training, nuclear, 49-18
Optical
fiber, 40-6
pyrometer, 15-3, 40-5
Orifice, 40-19
Orimulsion, 9-18
Orsat analysis, 10-21
Otto Hahn, 46-21
Overfire air (OFA), 11-6, 14-14,
15-13, 16-1, 16-6, 16-9, 17-4, 17-9
Overfire air ports – see NOx ports
Overheat failures, 42-18
Overheating, 44-6
Oxidation, 44-11
FGD, forced, 35-8
resistance, 7-12
Oxygen
analyzer, 10-21
in feedwater, 26-5
required for combustion, 10-5
scavengers, 42-6
treatment, water, 42-8
Ozone, 32-2, 34-2

Package boiler, Intro-10, 27-9, 27-12

Paper industry – see Chapter 28
recovery boiler operation, 43-15
recovery processes and units, 28-1
steam requirements, 28-1
waste fuels, 28-1
Parr formulas, 9-5
Particle(s), atomic
alpha, 47-3
beta, 47-3
fundamental, 47-1
mass, 47-2
Particulate control, 32-9, Chapter 33
coal, gasification systems, 18-12
equipment, 33-2
electrostatic precipitators, 33-2
(see also Electrostatic
precipitator)
fabric filters, 33-8 (see also
Fabric filter)
mechanical collectors, 33-12

Steam 41 / Index

selection, 33-12
venturi scrubbers, 33-12
New Source Performance
Standards, 32-2
opacity, 33-2
Particulate matter
condensable, 36-13
constituents, 33-1
Partnerships, 37-9
Pearlite, 7-4, 7-5
Peat, 9-6
Penthouse, 23-3
Performance
air heater, 20-12
calculations, Chapter 22
economizer, 20-4
environmental system, 37-4
monitoring, 41-21
steam generating system, 37-2
tests
environmental control systems,
36-7
fossil fuel-fired units, 43-8
nuclear units, 49-15
Periodic Table of the Elements, T-15
Personnel safety, rules, 43-8
Petroleum, 9-12 (see also Fuel, oil)
byproducts, 9-17
consumption, 9-14
pitch, 9-17
pH, 36-1
calibration, 36-2
control, 41-18
electrode, 36-1
feedwater, 42-6
for corrosion control, 42-6
fossil, drum, 42-6, 42-8
fossil, once-through, 42-12
sensors, 36-2
standardization, 36-2
Phase diagram, 7-2
iron carbon, 7-2
Phosphate hideout, 42-9
Photochemical smog, 34-2
Physical metallurgy of steel, 7-2
Pinch point, thermal, HRSG, 27-16
Piping
condition assessment of, 45-9, 45-14
creep, 45-9
leak detection, 45-17
materials, 7-23
nuclear, 49-10
Pitot tube, 3-4, 40-21 (see also S-type
pitot tube)
Plant safety, nuclear, 46-15
Plate air heater, 20-8
Plate forming, 38-4
Plutonium, 47-4, 47-15
PM2.5, 32-7
PM10, 32-7
Pneumatic signals, 40-2
Pollution control – see Emissions,
air pollution and individual
pollutants)
Post weld heat treatment, 7-11, 50-5,
50-12

Potentiometer
direct reading, 40-10
millivolt, 40-10
Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, 9-2,
12-15, 21-13, 44-18
Powdered activated carbon (PAC),
32-12
Power
coefficient, nuclear, 47-14
costs, 26-1
cycle diagram
fossil fuel, 2-16, 2-18
nuclear fuel, 2-20
distribution, neutron, 47-7
for auxiliaries, fossil fuel equipment, 15-10, 26-5
Power plant
automation, 41-19
emissions, discharges
aqueous discharges, 32-13
atmospheric emissions, 32-1,
32-7
solid wastes, 32-1, 32-10
Prandtl number, 4-2, 4-14
Precipitation hardened stainless
steels, 7-14
PrecisionJet, 16-9
Present value, present value factor,
37-12
Pressure
component assembly, 38-6, 39-12
difference, contraction and
enlargement, 3-11
drop (or loss)
acceleration loss, 5-10
bend, 3-13
calculation, Chapter 22
contraction, 3-11
enlargement, 3-11
equation, closed channel, 3-7
fittings, 3-9
fluidized-bed, 43-14
friction loss, 3-5, 3-7, 5-10
gas flow across tube banks, 3-15
hydraulic or static loss, 5-10
local loss, 5-10
rectangular duct, 3-13
reheater relationship, 19-11
stack, 3-15
steam-water, 5-9
separator, 5-17
superheater, 19-11
two-phase (steam-water), 3-16,
5-9
valve, 3-9
gauge
dead weight, 40-2
opposed bellows, 40-2
slack diaphragm, 40-2
gradient, 3-1
loss – see Pressure, drop
manometer, 40-1
high pressure, 40-1
measurement
instrument connections, 40-3
part welds, 39-13

I-15

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
stress analysis, 8-3
taps, 40-3
transducer, piezoelectric, 40-3
transmitters, 40-2
vessel design, 8-1
Pressurized casing, marine, 31-12
Pressurized fluidized bed, 17-13
cycle, 17-13
pressure, 17-13
turbine, gas, 17-13
Pressurized water reactor (PWR),
1-12, Chapter 46, 48-1, 49-14
component, manufacturing, 50-1
components, 49-2
coolant pumps, 49-9
fuel handling, 49-11
naval type, 46-20
reactor vessel, 49-7
vessel internals, 49-8
Pressurizer, nuclear steam system,
46-12, 49-9, 50-12
heater, 49-9, 49-16, 50-12
Prevention of Significant
Deterioration, 32-3
Primary air, 13-6
Process steam, 27-5, 27-15
Producer gas, 9-11
Prompt NOx, 34-1
Properties (see also Chapters 2, 3,
4, 7 and 9)
acoustic, 40-6
boiling point, 40-3
coefficients of thermal, 40-5
electrical, 40-6
emissivity, 40-5
expansion, 40-4
freezing point, 40-3
gases, 40-4
liquids, 40-4
optical, 40-6
triple point, 40-3
Proportioning dampers, 19-15, 26-6
Propulsion, nuclear ship, 46-19
Proton, 47-1
Psychrometric chart, T-11
Pulping, 28-1
Pulverized coal (see also
Combustion, coal, pulverized)
firing, application, 26-6, 27-2
introduction of, Intro-9
Pulverizer, Chapter 13
availability improvement, 44-3
ball-and-tube, 13-5
capacity correction factors, 13-11
capacity testing, 13-10
controls, 13-12
fabrication, 38-9
fluid energy, 13-15
high speed, 13-4
loading system, 13-14
maintenance, 13-11
principles of operation, 13-1
roll wheel, 13-1, 44-4
safety systems, 13-13
systems, 13-6
temperatures, 13-8, 13-12

I-16

throat, rotating, 44-5
types E and EL, 13-3, 44-3
upgrades, 44-3, 44-4
Pump, energy equations, 2-9
Pump seals, nuclear, 49-9
Purging, furnace, 43-4
Purification system, 49-15
Pyroelectric vidicons, 40-6
Pyrometer
Cyclone application, 15-3
fusion, 40-4
optical, 40-5
radiation, 40-5
Pyrometric cone, 40-4

Quality assurance, 38-10, 49-14, 50-1
Quality control, Intro-13, 38-10
Quaternary air, 28-21
Radiant boiler – see Boiler, types,

Radiant
bypass systems, 19-20
Radiation, nuclear, 47-1, 49-1
absorbed, 47-3
detector, 47-3, 49-13
dose, 47-3
factor in maintenance, 49-1
protection, 47-3, 49-1
Radiation pyrometer, 40-5
Radiation, thermal, 4-3, 4-7
absorptivity, 4-3
between blackbody surfaces, 4-4
between gray surfaces, 4-4
blackbody, 4-4
carbon dioxide, from, 4-12
cavity, 4-28, 4-32, 20-4, 22-13
discrete ordinates, 6-9
emissive power of, 4-4
emissivity (emittance), 4-4
enclosures for, 4-7
gases, from, 4-8
geometry factor, 4-4
heat loss from setting, 23-6
heat transfer coefficient, 22-7
intertube, 20-4, 22-7
modeling of, 6-8
particles from, 4-8
reflection of, 4-3
reflectivity, 4-3
shield, 4-31
transmissivity, 4-3
water vapor, from, 4-12
Radioactive
decay constant, 47-4
half-life, 47-4
Radioactivity, 47-4
Radiographic examination, 50-2, 50-6
Radiography, 38-11
Rankine cycle, 2-13 (see also Cycle,
Rankine)
in IGCC plants, 18-14
nuclear heat source, 2-19
Rankine temperature scale, 40-4
RDF

processing, 12-18 (see also
Chapter 29)
RDF firing, refuse, 29-5, 29-13
combustion
air-swept distributor spouts,
29-17
Controlled Combustion Zone,
29-18
dump grate stokers, 29-13
fluidized-bed combustion, 29-18
fuel distribution, 29-17
metering feeder, 29-17
overfire air system, 29-18
refuse-derived fuel (RDF), 29-2
technology, 29-13
supplemental firing (co-firing),
29-13
traveling grate stoker, 29-2,
29-17
processing, 29-14
air density separator, 29-15,
29-17
aluminum separator, 29-17
disk screen, 29-15
eddy current separator, 29-17
flail mill, 29-15
magnetic separator, 29-15
oversized bulky waste, 29-17
quality, 29-16
shredder, 29-15
storage, 29-17
system, 29-14
tire shredding, 29-17
trommel, 29-15
yield, 29-15
RDF retrofit, 29-19
Reactivity, 47-11
coefficients, 47-14, 49-18
limestone, 36-6
Reactor
closure head, 46-9, 49-9, 50-1
replacement, 46-9, 50-1
containment building, 46-3
control rod drive mechanism
(CRDM), 50-1
control rods, 46-8, 49-8
coolant pumps and motors, 46-13,
49-9
pump seals, 49-9
coolant system (RCS), 46-5, 49-14
core support, 46-6
decay heat removal system, 46-17
electropolishing, 50-2
emergency core cooling system,
46-15
hydrostatic testing, 50-2
inspection, 50-2
instrumentation, 46-11
machining, 50-2
operator, 49-18
plenum, 46-6
protection system, 46-15
refueling, 46-10
service support structure, 49-9
shielding, 46-5, 46-20
trip testing, 49-20

Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
types
boiling water, 46-2
breeder, 47-15
converter, 47-15
fast, 47-15
pressurized heavy water
(CANDU), 46-2, 46-5
water, Chapter 46, 47-9
naval, 46-20
thermal, 47-15
vessel, 46-5
vessel and internals, 49-7
Reactor vessel, 46-5, 50-1
Reburning, 32-9
Recirculating steam generator,
nuclear, Intro-13, 1-12, 46-12,
48-4, 49-1, 49-17, 50-2, 50-4
Recirculation, gas, 19-15
Recovery boiler
economizer, 20-4
Kraft process, 28-1
black liquor, 28-2, 28-7
elemental analysis, 28-6
evaporation, 28-18
gross heating value, 28-5
limited vertical sweep
burner, 28-20
mix tank, 28-21
oscillator burner, 28-20
oxidation, 28-19
splash plate spray nozzle,
28-20
combustion air system, 28-15
convection surface, 28-17
direct contact evaporator, 28-19
dissolving tank, 28-25
emergency shutdown system,
28-18
emissions, 28-8
evaporator, 28-18
feedwater temperature, 28-18
furnace, 28-3, 28-15
heat balance, 28-5
heat inputs, 28-5
heat losses, 28-5
numerical model, 6-14
operation, 43-15
black liquor combustion
process, 43-16
primary air, 43-16
secondary air, 43-16
tertiary air, 43-16
overview, 43-15
pluggage, 43-16
tube corrosion, 43-16
rated capacity, 28-3
smelt spout system, 28-24
smelt water reactions, 43-17
soda process, 28-25
sootblowers, 28-23
streams entering and leaving,
28-5
sulfite process
magnesium, 28-26
thermal performance, 28-4
vent stack scrubber, 28-25

Steam 41 / Index

wall construction, 28-11
Rectangular ducts, flow, 3-13
Recuperative, air heater, 20-7
Red liquor – see Recovery boiler,
sulfite process, magnesium
Refinery gas, 27-2
Reflooding, 5-4
Refractories, 7-15
Refractory, 23-1
materials, 23-6, 39-18
Refueling, nuclear, 49-11
fuel handling equipment, 49-12
Refuse, 10-14, 29-1 (see also Residue
or Ash, coal)
Refuse-derived duel – see RDF firing
Regenerative
air heater, 20-9
heating surface, 20-11
Rankine cycle, 2-14
Reheat
cycle, 2-15
flue gas, FGD, 35-3
temperature adjustment and
control, 19-15, 19-21
use of, 19-3
Reheater (or reheat superheater), 1-7,
19-11
attemperator, 19-14
cleaning, external, 19-12
cleaning, internal, 19-12
design, 19-11
marine, 31-10
materials, 7-21
Reinjection
stoker, carbon, 16-6
stoker, flyash, 16-9
Relative roughness, 3-9
Remote manual sequence burner
controls, 41-14
Repairs, nuclear equipment, 49-1
Repowering, 26-5
Research and development, Intro-13,
48-14
Residual elements, 7-12
Residual stress, 50-2
Residue, 10-14
Resin fragments, 42-6
Resistance, heat transfer, 4-1
Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA), 32-15
Retort, 16-2
Revenue requirements method,
economics, 37-13
Reverse osmosis, 42-5
Reynolds number, 4-2, 4-15
Reynolds number, friction factor
relationship, 3-7
Ribbed tube, 5-5, 26-13, 44-17
Rickover, Admiral Hyman G., 46-1,
46-21
Rigging design, 39-8
Riser (tubes), 1-9
Risk, financial, 37-13
Rothemühle air heater, 20-10
Roughness, effect on friction factor,
3-9

S-type pitot tube, 36-8, 36-10

Safety
burner, coal, 14-20
burner, oil and gas, 11-16
combustion, 14-20, 43-1
construction, 39-16
factors, C-3
nuclear,
analysis report, 49-14
limits, 49-15
pulverizer, 13-13
relief valve, 25-1
valve, 19-8
valve, setting, 43-4
Sampling, water and steam, 42-13
Saturated steam, properties, 2-2,
2-3, T-5, T-6
Saturated water, properties, 2-2,
2-3, T-5, T-6
Savannah, 46-20
Scale, marine, 31-8
Scale detection, fossil fuel boiler, 40-12
Scaling, 35-2
Schedule, construction, 39-2
Scope of supply or work, 37-5
SCR – see Selective catalytic
reduction
Screen
heat transfer and draft loss
calculations, 22-4
Screw feeders, 16-7
Scrubber, dry, Color Plate 7 – see
SO2 control
Scrubber, wet, Color Plate 6 – see
SO2 control
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR),
27-5, 27-7, 29-23, 32-9, 32-12,
34-3, 39-15 (see also NOx
control)
applications, 34-3
arrangements, 34-4
catalyst – see NOx control, catalyst
cold side/low dust, 34-4
distributions, 34-8
ammonia to NOx, 34-9
temperature, 34-9
velocity, 34-8
hot side/high dust, 34-4
mixing, 34-10
retrofits, 34-10
systems, 34-4
Selective non-catalytic reduction
(SNCR), 29-23, 32-9, 34-3, 34-13
(see also NOx control)
Series present value factor,
economics, 37-12
Setting, boiler
appearance, 23-9
cased enclosures and casing, 23-3,
39-18
construction, 23-1
corrosion, 23-7
definition, 23-1
enclosures, 23-1
expansion, 23-4
explosion effect, 23-4

I-17

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
fabrication and assembly, 23-9
heat loss, 23-5
implosion effect, 23-5
inner casing, 23-2
insulation, 23-5, 23-6, 39-18
leakage, 23-7
outer casing, 23-2
penthouse, 23-3
resistance to ash and slag, 23-4
resistance to weather, 23-8
serviceability, 23-9
tube wall, 23-1, 23-2
ventilation, 23-6
vibration, 23-5
windbox, 23-3
Shape or configuration factors,
thermal
definition, 4-4
for radiation, 4-4, 4-7, 4-31
Sheet metal lagging, 23-8, 39-19
Shielding, nuclear, 46-5, 46-20, 47-4,
49-8, 49-13
Shipboard nuclear reactors, 46-20
Shipment and shipping, 39-6, 50-12
Shutdown
fossil fuel-fired units, 43-9
Signal multiplexer, 40-24
Slag, 21-3, 43-7, 43-10
entrained flow gasifier, 18-6
layer, 15-3
removal, 15-3, 15-8, 24-2, 24-13
screen, 19-6
viscosity, 9-8 (see also Ash, coal)
Slagging, 21-3, 44-9 (see also Ash,
coal, deposition)
Slaker, FGD
ball mill, 35-15
detention, 35-15
Slip, ammonia (NH3), 34-6
Slurry, dewatering, FGD, 35-7
Smart transmitters, 41-20
Smelt, Kraft process, 28-2, 43-19
reduction efficiency, 28-8
SO2 control, Chapter 35
fuel switching, 32-5, 32-8, 35-1,
44-18
reagent(s)
lime, 35-2, 35-12, 35-16
limestone, 35-2, 35-6, 35-10
magnesium oxide, 35-12
scrubber (FGD)
chemical analysis, 36-6, 36-8
control, 41-17
density, 41-18
level, 41-18
pH, 41-18
dry, 35-12, Color Plate 7 (see
also Spray dryer absorber
(SDA))
lime, 35-2
limestone, 35-2, 35-6
liquid level, 36-2, 36-3
magnesium oxide, 35-12
numerical model, 6-10
performance testing, 36-7
pH measurement, 36-1

I-18

reagent consumption, 36-13
spray tower, 35-2
stoichiometry, 35-7
tray, 35-3, 35-4
wet, 35-2, Color Plate 6
technologies, 32-8
SO3 control, 35-18
Society of Naval Architects and
Marine Engineers (SNAME),
31-6
Soda process – see Recovery boiler,
Kraft process
Sodium
carbonate, 35-2
cycle softener, 42-5
selective ion electrode, 42-15
tracer method, 40-17
zeolite softener, 42-5
Solid waste
disposal, 32-15
treatment, 32-16
utilization, 32-17
Solids
carryover, 5-13
concentration, 19-14
gasifier discharge, 18-12
gravimetric analysis, 40-17
in boiler water, 5-13
in steam, 5-13, 40-17
Solution annealing, 7-8
Sootblowers, 20-3, 20-14, 24-1, 44-19
application, 24-5, 28-23
cleaning media, 24-1
control(s), 24-4
intelligent controls, 43-8
marine, 31-3
operations, 43-8
RDF boiler, 29-21
recovery boiler, 28-23
terminology, 24-1
type
air puff, 24-12
extended lance, 24-7
fixed position, 24-8
G9B, 24-8
HydroJet, 24-3
IK, 24-5
IR, 24-2
long retractable, 24-5
one way, 24-7
oscillator, 24-7
Precision Clean, 24-7
rake, 24-9
rotary, 24-8
short retractable, 24-2
straight line, 24-10
swing arm, 24-11
waterlance, 24-2
Sorbent (see also SO2 control, reagent)
calcination, 10-14, 10-28
calcium to sulfur molar ratio,
10-11, 10-14, 10-28
combustion calculations, 10-11,
10-28
injection, 35-18
spent sorbent, 10-14

sulfation, 10-14
Specific gravity, 9-14
Specific heat, 2-22, 4-9
ratio, 3-4
Specific volume
water and steam, 2-1, 2-2, T-5, T-6
Specifications, Chapter 37
Spent fuel, nuclear, 46-11, 50-13
Spheroidizing, 7-9
Spout – see Air swept spout
Spray dryer absorber (SDA), 35-12
(see also SO2 control)
approach temperature, 35-14
atomizer, 35-13
gas disperser, 35-13
process, 35-16
reagent, 35-15
recycle, 35-15
single pass, 35-15
spray chamber, 35-13
spraydown, 35-15
stoichiometry, 35-15
Stability, 5-12
Stack and draft, 25-6
barometric pressure, 25-7
draft
balanced, 25-6
forced, 25-6
induced, 25-5
loss, 25-6
natural, 25-6
loss (or resistance), 43-6
friction, 25-8
velocity head, 25-8
specific volume, 25-6
air and flue gas, 25-6
stack
effect, 22-18, 25-6
flow, 3-15
flow loss, 25-8, 43-6
operation and maintenance,
25-10
Staged combustion, 14-11, 15-13,
16-6, 44-8
Startup
fossil fuel-fired units, 43-2, 43-4
State Implementation Plans (SIPs),
32-2
Steady-state
flowing systems, 4-6
heat conduction, 4-5
Steam
air heater, 31-10
as a thermodynamic system, 2-1
capacity, 27-8
coil air heater, 20-9
conditions, 37-2
cycle, 2-14
nuclear plant, 2-19
enthalpy, 2-1, 2-2, T-5, T-6
entropy, 2-1, 2-2, T-5, T-6
flow requirements, 27-2
generating bank, 1-8 (see also
Boiler, bank)
generation fundamentals, 1-2
heat recovery steam generator,

Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
gasification, 18-14
history of generation and use,
Intro-1
impurities, 5-13
line blowing, 43-3
Mollier diagram, Chapter 2
Frontispiece, T-9
natural separation, 5-14
pressure-enthalpy diagram, 2-6,
T-10
process and heating, 27-3
properties, Chapter 2, 4-9, 5-1,
T-5, T-6
purity, 40-17, 42-2, 42-12
measurement, 40-17
quality, 5-1, 40-17
measurement, 40-17
requirements, 26-3, 26-4
samples, 42-13
sampling nozzle, 40-17
installation location, 40-17
scrubber, secondary separator, 5-13
separation, 5-13
separators, 5-13, 31-13, 48-2, 48-7,
50-10
solids removal, washing, 5-16
specific volume, 2-1, 2-7, T-5, T-6
tables, 2-2, T-5
temperature
adjustment, 19-13
control, 1-8, 19-12, 41-10, 43-6
attemperation, 19-14
gas recirculation, 19-15
gas tempering, 19-15
temperature-enthalpy diagram,
T-12
viscosity, 3-1, 3-9, 3-12
Steam engine (see also Boiler,
historical)
aeolipile, Intro-1
beam, Intro-3
Branca, Giovanni, Intro-1
Corliss, Intro-5
Hero’s, Intro-1
Newcomen, Thomas, Intro-3
Savery, Thomas, Intro-3
Steam flow-air flow control, 41-13
Steam generation, Chapter 1
history of, Intro-1
Steam generator
fossil fuel, 1-6 (see also Boiler)
nuclear, Intro-12, 1-12 (see also
Chapter 48)
baffle plate, 50-7
blowdown, 48-7
CANDU, 48-1, 50-2
carryover, 48-7
carryunder, 48-7
circulation, 48-8
clean room, 50-8
cleaning, cleanliness, 50-8
closing seam, 50-10
cracking, 48-9
damage (mechanisms), 48-9
denting, 48-9
divider plate, 48-12, 50-4, 50-8

Steam 41 / Index

downcomer, 48-5
electropolishing, 50-11
erosion-corrosion, 48-9
feedwater, 48-2, 48-6
flow circuits, 48-2, 48-6
foreign object damage, 48-9
fretting, 48-9
heat transfer, 48-3, 48-6
instrumentation, 48-4
integral economizer (preheater),
48-3, 48-7, 50-8
intergranular attack, 48-9
lattice grid (tube support), 48-7,
48-11, 50-6, 50-8
manipulator, 49-5
manufacture, 50-2
natural circulation, 48-6
naval, 46-20
once-through (OTSG), 1-12, 46-4,
46-12, 48-2, 48-13, 49-1,
49-17, 50-2, 50-4
pitting, 48-9
post weld heat treatment, 50-5,
50-11
preheater, 48-7
pressure boundary, 50-5
primary head, 50-4, 50-6, 50-11
primary side maintenance, 49-3
tubing, 49-3
eddy current testing, 49-4
plugging, 49-5
repair, 49-6
recirculating (RSG), 46-5, 46-12,
48-4, 48-10, 49-1, 49-17,
50-2, 50-4
replacement, 48-9
secondary side maintenance,
49-7
chemical cleaning, 49-7
sludge lancing, 49-7
shell (course), 50-3
shroud (wrapper), 48-2, 48-6,
50-8
steam drum, 48-4, 48-12
steam drum head, 50-4
steam drum internals, 50-10
stress corrosion cracking
(SCC), 49-2, 49-7, 48-9, 49-8
support plate, 48-2, 48-7
surface conditioning, 50-11
tack expansion, 50-9
terminal points, 50-11
tie rods, 50-8
tube
bending, 50-7
bundle, 50-6, 50-8
expansion, 50-10
installation, 50-9
ovality, 50-7
plugging, 49-5
repair, 49-6
sleeving, 49-6
support plate (TSP), 50-6, 50-8
tube material, 48-4, 48-10
tube to tubesheet welding, 50-9
tubes, 50-6

tubesheet, 48-2, 48-6, 50-4
U-bend support (restraint) 48-6,
48-8, 50-7
oxygen converter hood, 27-20
Steam line blowing, 42-19
Steam tables (SI) and selected
charts, Appendix 1
Steaming economizers, 20-4
Steel, structural, 8-14, 38-8
Stefan-Boltzmann constant and
law, 4-4, 40-5
Stoichiometry
NOx control, 34-7
SO2 control, 35-16
Stoker, Chapter 16
coal characteristics, 16-4, 16-6
industrial boiler applications, 16-1,
27-1, 29-9, 30-4
marine, 31-4
mass feed, 16-3
numerical model, 6-21
overfeed, 16-1
reciprocating grates, refuse, 29-10
spreader stoker, coal-fired, 16-4
air system, 16-7
ash removal, 16-7
carbon injection, 16-6
feeders, 16-4, 16-7
grates, 16-5
selection/sizing, 16-7
spreader stoker, wood-, bark-,
biomass-fired, 16-7, 30-4
air system, 16-9
ash removal, 16-10
combustion air temperature,
16-10
feeders, distributors, 16-7
grates, 16-8, 30-4
selection/sizing, 16-10
traveling grate, refuse, 29-17
underfeed, 16-2
Storage areas, site, 39-11
Strain gauges, 40-3
Stress
allowable, ASME Code, 7-20, 8-3,
C-4
alternating, 8-6
analysis methods, 8-3
classifications, 8-2, 8-9, 8-10
concentrations, 8-2, 8-6, 8-14
discontinuity, 8-7
drum, 43-5
failure theories, 8-2
hoop, 8-3, 8-4
intensity factor, 8-10
longitudinal, 8-3
peak, 8-3
pressure, 8-3
primary, 8-2
secondary, 8-3
significance, 8-1
steady-state, 8-2
strength theories, 8-2
thermal, 8-5
transient, 8-2
Stress corrosion cracking, 50-1, 50-10

I-19

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
(see also Corrosion, stress
corrosion cracking)
Stress-strain diagrams, 7-16
Stringer tubes, 20-5
Structural analysis, Intro-16,
Chapter 8
Structural support
codes and standards, 8-15
design loads, 8-14
linear type, 8-16
plate type, 8-15
shell type, 8-15
Stud-tube walls
pin stud, recovery furnace, 28-11
sulfite process, 28-26
ammonium-base, 28-27
calcium-base, 28-26
magnesium-base, 28-26
sodium-base, 28-26
Studded surfaces, 15-10, 29-3
Subcooling, 44-15
Subcritical (pressure) drum boilers,
26-11
Sulfation, 17-8, 17-13
Sulfite process – see Recovery boiler,
sulfite process
Sulfur, 9-3
acid gas removal, 18-13
capture, 10-16, 10-31
Claus recovery process, 18-15
coal, gasification systems, 18-13
content – U.S. coals, 9-3, 12-5
forms, 12-5
organic, 12-5
pyritic, 12-5
dioxide (SO2)
control, Chapter 35 (see also
SO2 control)
emissions in flue gas, 35-1
emissions control, FGD, 35-1
hot gas desulfurization, 18-13
in syngas, 18-13
trioxide (SO3), 32-7, 35-18
Sulfuric acid, 35-1
Supercritical (pressure) boilers, 19-2,
20-6, 26-6
Supercritical pressure steam
heat transfer, 5-7
properties, 5-7
Superheat, 19-9 (see also Steam,
temperature)
Superheated steam, properties, 2-4,
T-7
Superheater, 1-7, 19-9
cleaning, external, 19-12
cleaning, internal, 19-12
condition assessment of, 45-7
convection, 19-9
design, 19-10
fabrication, 38-7
heat transfer surface, 19-11
horizontal, 19-12, 19-13
ligament damage, 45-8
marine, 31-8
mass velocity or mass flux, 19-10
materials, 7-21

I-20

pendant, 19-11, 19-13, 26-6, 26-11,
28-17
performance calculations, 22-8
platen, 28-17
radiant, 19-9, 28-17
remaining life, 45-11
separately fired, 19-16
startup protection, 43-5
supports, 19-11
tube metals, 7-21, 19-11
tube sizes, 19-10
tube spacing, 19-7, 19-11
types, 19-9
Supply tubes, 1-9
Supports
boiler, 19-8
reheater, 19-11
superheater, 19-11
Surface tension
water and vapor, 3-1
Surveillance
requirements, 49-15
Syngas compositions, 18-11

Temperature

adiabatic flame, 2-26, 10-11
difference, log mean, 4-19
entropy diagrams, 2-11
exit gas, 19-4
gradient, 40-12
ignition, 10-10
measurement, 40-3
acoustic, 40-6
bimetallic strip, 40-5
casing, 40-16
fluid, 40-10
fusion, 40-4
gas, 40-14
evaluation, 40-16
weighted average, 40-16
gradient, 40-12
infrared, 40-6
insulation, 40-16
methods, 40-4
standards, 40-3
tube, 40-11
recorders, 40-10
scales, 40-3
Tempering
gas, 19-15
gas plenum, 23-3
materials, 7-9
Tensile test, 7-16
Terms and conditions, contract, 37-7
Testing, nuclear, 49-15
acceptance, 49-20
electrical, 49-15
full load, 49-18
functional, 49-16
hot functional, 49-16
hydrostatic, 49-16
instrumentation, 49-16
operational, 49-16
preoperational, 49-15
procedures, 49-15

zero power, 49-18
Thermal
analysis, 8-9
circuit, 4-6, 4-30
conductivity, 4-1, 4-9
of gases, 4-9, 4-11
of insulating materials, 4-9
of liquids, 4-9
of steels and alloys, 4-10
efficiency, Carnot cycle, 2-12
neutron, 47-6
probe, 43-5
resistance, 4-1, 4-6
contact, 4-1
in conduction, 4-3
utilization, 47-11
viewers, 40-6
Thermal conductivity
of insulating materials, 23-6
Thermal NOx, 34-1
Thermocouple, 40-7, 43-5
chordal, 40-12, 42-19
circuit arrangement, 40-7
cold junction, 40-7
correction for, 4-31, 40-8
emf (chart), 40-7
gas temperature error graph, 40-14
gradient, 40-12
limitations, 40-13
scale detection, 40-12
high velocity, 40-14
hot junction, 40-7, 40-9
lead wire, 40-8
material selection, 40-8
multiple circuits, 40-7
multiple-shield high velocity, 40-15
pad type, 40-8
peened, 40-9
principles of, 40-7
sheathed type, 40-8
types, 40-7
Thermodynamics – see Chapter 2
cycles, 2-1, 2-12
definitions, 2-1
first law of, 4-5
laws of, 2-10
process, 2-7
irreversible, 2-11
reversible, 2-10
Thermographic imagers, 40-6
Thermoluminescent dosimeter,
49-13
Thermometer
gas, 40-4
liquid in glass, 40-4
mercury, 40-4
resistance, 40-6
vapor pressure, 40-4
well, 40-10
Thermopile, 40-7
Thermoprobe, 40-16
Thermowell, 40-10
Thorium, 47-4
Throat tap nozzle, 40-20
Throttle pressure control, 43-12
Throttling calorimeter, 40-19

Steam 41 / Index

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Time-temperature-transformation
(TTT) diagrams, 7-4
Tire shredding, 29-17
Title IV (Acid Deposition Control), 32-4
Total organic carbon (TOC), 42-4
Toughness, 7-17
Trademarks (B&W) appearing in
this edition, TM-1
Transducer, 40-3
Transfer units, 35-10
Transformation diagrams,
isothermal, 7-4
Transient or unsteady-state
conduction, heat transfer, 4-5
Tray, perforated plate, 35-3, 35-6
Trepanning, 50-2
Trim, marine, 31-1
Tube
banks, 19-7 (see also Banks of
tubes)
bending, 38-4, 50-7
cold drawing, 38-10
composite, 28-11
crossflow pressure drop, 3-15
electric resistance welding, 38-10
expansion, 50-10
flat stud, 23-2
forming, 38-4
hole drilling, 38-6
leak detection, 45-16
leg flexibility, 45-19
manufacture, 38-10
membrane, 23-1
plugging, nuclear, 49-5
refractory lining, 23-1
remaining life, 45-11
repair, nuclear, 49-6
seamless, 38-10
sizes, 19-10, 31-2, 31-5
sleeving, 49-6
spacing, 19-7, 19-11
surface, 40-11
tangent, 23-2
temperature, 40-11
upgrades, 23-2
wall enclosures, 23-1
Tube banks, 4-27
arrangement factors, 4-19, 4-20,
4-21
crossflow over, 4-16
longitudinal flow over, 4-18
radiation, 4-28
Tube rolling and expanding, 39-13
Tubular air heater, 20-7
Turbine
combustion in IGCC plants, 18-14
energy equation, 2-9
feed pump, nuclear, 49-17
following control, steam, 41-5
gas, 17-13
nuclear, bypass valve, 49-17
steam, 17-13
trip, testing, 49-20
Turbine-generator control, 43-6
Turbulence fluctuations, 6-5
Turbulence model, 6-5

Steam 41 / Index

Turbulent flow, 4-14, 4-16 (see also
Flow, turbulent)
crossflow around tubes, 4-16
inside tubes, 4-16
longitudinal flow around tubes, 4-18
structure of, 4-16
Turning vanes, flow through, 3-13
Turnkey, 37-5
Two-phase flow, steam-water, 5-8
heat transfer, boiling, 5-3
instability, 5-11
pressure drop or loss, 5-9
separation, 5-13
stability, 5-12
void fraction, 5-9

U-beams, 17-11, 27-10

Ultimate tensile strength, 7-17
Ultrasonic examination, 38-12, 45-2,
49-4, 49-10, 50-2, 50-5
immersion testing, 45-3
oxide measurement, 45-2
shear wave, 45-3
thickness testing, 45-2
time of flight defraction, 45-3
Unburned carbon or unburned
combustible, 10-14, 44-7
pulverized coal, 14-8, 14-19
Undergrate air, 16-1, 16-6, 16-9
Universal gas constant, 3-4, 10-3,
10-9, 40-4
Universal Pressure (UP) boiler,
Intro-10, 19-2, 26-6, 26-9
attemperators, 19-15
bypass and startup systems,
19-16, 19-20
control system philosophy, 41-12
controls, 41-12
operation, 43-11
bypass system, 43-11
control functions, 43-11
limits and precautions, 43-12
practice, 43-11
principles, 43-11
skills, 43-12
startup, 43-12
Upgrades, boiler
bypass system, 44-16
capacity, 44-20
circulation, 44-16
cycling operation, 44-15
economizer, 44-7
headers, 44-14
superheater, 44-13
Uranium, 47-4
Uranium dioxide, 46-8
Urea, 34-3
Useful charts and tables, Appendix 1
U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion
Program, 46-21
U.S.S. Kennedy, 31-1
U.S.S. Missouri, 31-1
U.S.S. Nautilus, Intro-12, 46-22
U.S.S. Ronald Reagan, 46-25
U.S.S. Seawolf, 46-23

U.S.S. Skipjack, 46-24
U.S.S. Virginia, 46-24
Utility power plant, Color Plate 8

Vacuum filter, 35-8

Valve
flow, coefficient, 3-12
flow resistance, 3-9
nuclear, 49-10
safety and relief – see Safety,
relief valve
Universal Pressure boiler,
bypass, 43-12
Vapor, superheated, 3-1
Vaporization (ammonia), 34-7
Variable pressure operation, 19-2,
19-17, 19-20, 43-6
operation control, 41-7
Vegetation wastes, 9-19
Velocity
fluidizing, 17-2
head, 3-6
head, mass-velocity relationship
for air, 3-15
head loss for valves and fittings,
3-12
minimum, 17-2
ranges, 3-9
steam generating system, 3-9
Ventilation, boiler room, 23-6
Venturi, 3-4
air foil, 40-21
tube, 40-20
Venturi scrubber, 35-2
Vibration
buckstays, 23-5
casing, 23-5
Viscosity, 3-1
absolute, 9-14
apparent, 3-9
coal ash slag
effect of iron, 15-4
compared with kinematic, 3-10
gases of, 4-11
in common gases, 3-11
in common liquids, 3-11
oxidizing versus reducing
atmosphere, 15-13
requirements for Cyclone
furnaces, 15-4
steam, 3-12
T250, 15-4
Void fraction, 5-9
Volatile matter, coal
ASTM test, 14-3
fuel ratio (FC/VM), 14-10, 14-18
NOx influence, 14-5
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
32-7

Warm working, 7-9
Waste, 12-18
energy, 27-4
gas turbine exhaust, 18-14
I-21

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
heat
marine boiler, 31-5
steam generator, 27-15
Waste burning (see also Fuel)
fuel
application, 15-3, 15-9
Water
alkalinity, 42-8
analysis (see also Measurement),
42-13
attemperation, 42-7
boiler, 42-2
chemistry, Chapter 42
quality assurance, 42-14
chloride, 42-4
coil, air heater, 20-9
condensate, 42-6
conductivity, 42-14
demineralizer, 42-5
enthalpy, 2-2, T-5, T-6
entropy, 2-2, T-5, T-6
feedwater, 42-4
foaming, 42-12
for spray attemperators, 42-7
gas-shift reaction, 18-2
gasification system treatment,
18-15
hammer, 20-4
hardness, 42-2, 42-3
hydroxide, 42-1
iron, 42-4
makeup, 42-5
organics, in water, 42-5
oxygen, 42-4
pollution control, 32-13
technologies, 32-15
U.S. legislation, 32-13
quality, 42-5, 49-16
boric acid, 49-16
corrosion product transport,
49-16
pH, 49-16
requirements
fossil fuel boilers, Chapter 42,
43-8
nuclear units, 49-16
seal tanks, 27-18
silica, 42-9, 42-13, 42-14

I-22

sodium, 42-2, 42-5
specific volume, 2-1, 2-2, T-5, T-6
total dissolved solids, 42-9, 42-12
treatment, 32-15, 42-1
all volatile, 42-8
chelants, 42-11
conventional phosphate, 42-11
coordinated phosphate, 42-8
deaeration, 42-6
demineralization, 42-5
dispersants, 42-11
equilibrium phosphate, 42-9
evaporation, 42-2
for drum boilers, 42-7
high alkalinity phosphate, 42-11
hydroxide, 42-1
internal, 42-7
oxygen, 42-8
pH control, 42-6
phosphate, 42-8
polymers, 42-7, 42-11
raw water, 42-5
reverse osmosis, 42-5
softening, 42-5
Universal Pressure boilers,
42-12
waste water, 42-24
Water-cooled furnace
introduction of, Intro-9
Water-cooled walls, 19-6
Water leg correction, 40-3
Weak wash, pulp, 28-3, 28-5
Wear, pulverizer, 13-9
Wear metals
castings, 38-4
Wear resistant materials, 44-10
Weld
cladding, 7-14, 44-8
Welding, 7-10, 38-1
arc, 38-1
automation, 38-1
cladding/overlay, 50-2, 50-4, 50-13
development of, Intro-13
electrodes, 38-6
gas metal arc welding, 38-1, 50-2
gas shielded metal arc, 38-1
gas shielded tungsten arc, 38-1
gas tungsten, 38-1, 50-5, 50-9

heat treatment, 38-1
high frequency resistance, 38-1
laser beam, 38-1
orbital, 38-2, 50-5
plasma arc, 38-1
processes, 38-1
robotic, 38-2
shielded metal arc, 38-1
submerged arc, 38-5, 50-2, 50-5
tube to tubesheet welding, 50-9
Welds
applications, 39-14
codes and inspection, 39-14
field, 39-13
nondestructive examination,
38-11, 49-2
pressure, 39-14
processes and equipment, 39-14
qualification, 39-14
seal, 39-14, 50-6
thermal treatment, 39-14
Wet electrostatic precipitator, 33-8
Wet scrubbers – see SO2 control
Wheatstone bridge, 40-6
White iron, 7-14
White liquor, pulp, 28-2
Wick boiling, 42-2
Wilcox, Stephen, Intro-5, Intro-7
Wind loading, 26-4, 39-9
Wind swept spout – see Air swept
spout
Windbox, 23-3
Wood
as a fuel, 30-2
fuel properties, 9-18
Work breakdown structures, 39-3
Work-hardening, 7-9

Xenon, 47-6, 47-9, 49-20
X-ray, 47-1
machine, 38-6, 38-11
Yancey-Geer Price, 9-9, 13-9
Yield point, 7-17
Yield strength, 7-17
Young’s modulus, 7-16

Steam 41 / Index