The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Appendix 1
Conversion Factors, SI Steam
Properties and Useful Tables

This appendix provides tables, charts and figures
that can be useful in evaluating the generation and
use of steam. They supplement the material presented
throughout Steam and are divided into four subsections: selected conversion factors; SI versions of the
Steam Tables and graphical data; useful charts and
figures; and typical operating parameters for a 500
MW pulverized coal-fired power plant.

Fig. 2.2
Fig. 2.3

Pressure-enthalpy diagram for steam –
SI units
Psychrometric chart – SI units

Part 1: Conversion Factors
Table 1.1 Length
Table 1.2 Length, Small Units
Table 1.3 Area
Table 1.4 Volume
Table 1.5 Mass
Table 1.6 Force
Table 1.7 Pressure or Force per Unit Area
Table 1.8 Energy, Work and Heat
Table 1.9 Power or Rate of Doing Work
Table 1.10 Density (Mass/Volume)
Table 1.11 Thermal, Heat Transfer and Flow
Parameters
Table 1.12 Multiplying Prefixes
Table 1.13 Selected Additional Conversion Factors

Part 3: Useful Charts and Tables
Fig. 3.1
Temperature-enthalpy diagram
(MPa = 0.006895 × psi)
Fig. 3.2
Estimates of the weight of air required for
selected fuels and excess air levels
Fig. 3.3
Estimates of the weight of the products
of combustion for selected fuels and excess air levels
Fig. 3.4
Estimates of the percent total air for flue
gas percent oxygen for selected fuels
Fig. 3.5
Estimates of efficiency loss due to unburned combustibles for selected fuels
and ash contents
Fig. 3.6
Estimates of theoretical air required for
the combustion of coal based upon volatile matter content
Table 3.1 SO2, SO3 Estimated Emissions from Boilers Firing Coal or Fuel Oil
Table 3.2 Conversion Formulae for Emission Rates
Table 3.3 Periodic Table of the Elements

Part 2: Systemè International d’Unitès (SI),
Steam Tables Plus Selected Charts and Figures
Table 2.1 SI Properties of Saturated Steam and
Saturated Water (Temperature)
Table 2.2 SI Properties of Saturated Steam and
Saturated Water (Pressure)
Table 2.3 SI Properties of Superheated Steam and
Compressed Water (Temperature and
Pressure)
Fig. 2.1
Mollier diagram (H-s) for steam – SI units

Part 4: Typical 500 MW Pulverized Coal-Fired
Power Plant Parameters
Table 4.1 Coal and Ash Analysis, an Example of a
High Sulfur Bituminous Coal
Table 4.2 Mechanical Equipment – 500 MW PCFired Plant
Table 4.3 Environmental Equipment – 500 MW
PC-Fired Plant
Table 4.4 Plant Performance Summary – 500 MW
PC-Fired Plant

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

T-1

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Table 1.4
Volume

Table 1.1
Length
Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain

Statute
Mile

Millimeter

Centimeter

Meter

Kilometer

Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain

Fluid
Ounce

Quart

Barrel
(PetroGallon leum)

Cubic
Foot

Cubic
Yard

Cubic
Centimeter
(Milliliter)

Cubic
Meter

Liter

Inch

Foot

Yard

Inch

1

12

36

63.36
X 103

3.937
X 10−2

0.3937

39.37

3.937
X 104

Fluid
Ounce

1

32.00

128.0

5376

957.5

2.585
X 104

3.381
X 10−2

33.82

3.382
X 104

Foot

0.08333

1

3

5280

3.281
X 10−3

3.281
X 10−2

3.281

3281

Quart

0.03125

1

4.000

168.0

29.92

807.9

1.057
X 10−3

1.057

1057

1760

1.094
X 10−3

1.094
X 10−2

1.093

1094

Gallon

7.813
X 10−3

0.2500

1

42.00

7.481

202.0

2.642
X 10−4

0.2642

264.2

6.214
X 10−7

6.214
X 10−6

6.214
X 10−4

0.6214

Barrel
(Petroleum)

1.860
X 10−4

5.952
X 10−3

0.0238

1

0.1781

4.809

6.290
X 10−6

6.290
X 10−3

6.290

1000

1.000
X 106

Cubic
Foot

1.044
−3
X 10

3.342
X 10−2

0.1336

5.615

1

27.00

3.532
X 10−5

3.532
X 10−2

35.32

Cubic
Yard

3.868
X 10−5

1.238
X 10−3

4.951
X 10−3

0.2079

3.704
X 10−2

1

1.308
X 10−6

1.308
X 10−3

1.308

Cubic
Centimeter
(Milliliter)

29.57

946.4

3785

1.590
X 105

2.832
X 104

7.646
X 105

1

1000

1.000
X 106

Liter

2.957
X 10−2

0.9464

3.785

159.0

28.32

764.6

1.000
X 10−3

1

1000

Cubic
Meter

2.957
X 10−5

9.464
X 10−4

3.785
X 10−3

0.1590

2.832
X 10−2

0.7646

1.000
X 10−6

1.000
X 10−3

1

Yard
Statute
Mile
Millimeter

0.02778

0.3333

1

1.578
X 10−5

1.894
X 10−4

5.682
X 10−4

1

914.4

1609
X 106

0.1000

1

100

1.000
X 105

25.40

304.8

1

10.00

Centimeter

2.540

30.48

91.44

1.609
X 105

Meter

0.0254

0.3048

0.9144

1609

1.000
X 10−3

0.010

1

1000

Kilometer

2.540
X 10−5

3.048
X 10−4

9.144
X 10−4

1.609

1.000
X 10−6

1
X 10−5

0.0010

1

Table 1.5
Mass

Table 1.2
Length, Small Units
Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain
Mil

Millimeter

Centimeter

Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain

3.937
X 10−2

39.37

393.7

Pound

3.937
X 10−8

3.937
X 10−5

3.937
X 10−2

0.3937

10.00

1.000
X 104

1.000
X 107

Angstrom

Nanometer

Micron

1000

3.937
X 10−6

3.937
X 10−5

Mil

Inch

1

Pound

Short
Ton

Long
Ton

1

2000

4.464
−4
X 10

0.8929

1

9.842
X 10−7

9.842
−4
X 10

0.9842

1.000
X 107

Gram

453.6

9.072
5
X 10

1.016
6
X 10

1

1000

1.000
X 106

Kilogram

0.4536

907.2

1016

1.000
X 10−3

1

1000

Metric Ton

4.536
−4
X 10

0.9072

1.016

1.000
X 10−6

0.0010

1

1

Nanometer

2.540
X 104

2.540
X 107

0.100

1

1000

1.000
X 106

Micron

25.40

2.540
X 104

1.000
X 10−4

1.000
X 10−3

1

1000

1.000
X 104

Millimeter

2.540
X 10−2

25.40

1.000
X 10−7

1.000
X 10−6

1.000
X 10−3

1

10

Centimeter

2.540
X 10−3

2.54

1.000
X 10−8

1.000
X 10−7

1.000
X 10−4

0.100

1

Table 1.6

Table 1.3
Area
Square
Centimeter

Square
Mile

1296

6.273
X 106

4.014
X 109

0.1550

2.788
X 107

1.076
X 10−3

3.098
X 106

Square
Meter

Square
Kilometer

Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain

Newton

Grams

Kilograms

Pounds

1

9.807
X 10−3

9.807

4.448

Grams (f)

102.0

1

1000

453.6

Kilograms (f)

0.1020

0.001

1

0.4536

0.2248

2.205
−3
X 10

2.205

1

1550

1.550
X 109

Newton

10.764

1.076
X 107

1.196
X 10−4

1.196

1.196
X 106

640

2.471
X 10−8

2.471
X 10−4

247.1

1.563
X 10−3

1

3.861
X 10−11

3.861
X 10−7

0.3861

8361

4.047
X 107

2.590
X 1010

1

1.000
X 104

1.000
X 1010

0.09290

0.8361

4047

2.590
6
X 10

1.000
X 10−4

1

1.000
6
X 10

9.290
X 10−8

8.361
X 10−7

4.047
X 10−3

2.590

1.000
−10
X 10

1.000
X 10−6

1

1

9.000

4.356
X 104

Sqaure
Yard

7.716
X 10−4

0.1111

1

4840

Acre

1.594
X 10−7

2.296
X 10−5

2.066
X 10−4

1

Square
Mile

2.491
X 10−10

3.587
X 10−8

3.228
X 10−7

Square
Centimeter

6.452

929.0

Square
Meter

6.452
X 10−4

Square
Kilometer

6.452
X 10−10

T-2

Force

Acre

1

144.0

1.102

Long Ton

2.540
X 108

6.944
X 10−3

2205

1.102
−3
X 10

1.000
X 108

2.540
X 105

Square
Foot

2.205

1.12

Angstrom

Square
Inch

2.205
X 10−3

1

1

Square
Yard

2240

Short Ton

0.0010

Square
Foot

Metric
Ton

1.102
X 10−6

Inch

Square
Inch

Kilogram

5.000
−4
X 10

3.937
X 10−9

Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain

Gram

Pounds (f)

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Table 1.7
Pressure or Force per Unit Area
Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain

Inch
of

Inch
of
Atmos- Mercury Mercury Water
pheres at 0C at 0C at 4C
Cm of

Table 1.10
Density (Mass/Volume)

Feet
of
Water
at 4C

Kilo- Pounds
grams
per
per
Square
Square Inch
Meter
(abs) Pascal

Bar

Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain

Pounds per
Cubic Foot

Pounds per
Gallon
(U.S. Liquid)

Grams per
Cubic
Centimeter

Kilograms
per
Liter

Kilograms
per
Cubic Meter

1

7.481

62.43

62.43

6.243
X 10−2

1

1.316
X 10−2

3.342
X 10−2

2.458
X 10−3

2.950
X 10−2

9.678
X 10−5

6.804
X 10−2

9.869
X 10−6

0.9869

Pounds per
Cubic Foot

Cm of Mercury at 0C

76.00

1

2.540

0.1868

2.242

7.356
−3
X 10

5.171

7.501
X 10−4

75.01

Pounds per Gallon
(U.S. Liquid)

0.1337

1

8.345

8.345

8.345
X 10−3

Inch of Mercury at 0C

29.92

0.3937

1

7.355
X 10−2

0.8826

2.896
X 10−3

2.036

2.953
X 10−4

29.53

Grams per
Cubic Centimeter

1.602
−2
X 10

0.1198

1

1.000

1.000
X 10−3

Inch of
Water at 4C

406.8

5.354

13.6

1

12

3.937
X 10−2

27.68

4.015
X 10−3

401.9

Kilograms
per Liter

1.602
−2
X 10

0.1198

1.000

1

1.000
X 10−3

Feet of
Water at 4C

33.90

0.4460

1.133

8.333
−2
X 10

1

3.281
X 10−3

2.307

3.345
X 10−4

33.49

Kilograms per
Cubic Meter

16.02

119.8

1000

1000

1

Kilograms
per Square
Meter
Pounds per
Square Inch
(abs)

1.033
X 104

136.0

345.3

25.40

304.8

1

703.1

1.0197 1.0197
X 10−1 X 104

14.70

0.1934 0.4912

3.613
X 10−2

0.4335

1.422
X 10−3

1

1.450
X 10−4

14.50

9.80665

6895

1

1.000
X 105

1
X 10−5

1

Atmospheres

Pascal
Bar

1.01325
1.333
5
X 10

3387.4

249.0

2989

1.333
X 10−2

3.387
X 10−2

2.49
X 10−3

2.989 9.80665 6.895
X 10−2 X 10−5 X 10−2

1.013

PRESSURE is the force per unit area exerted on or by a fluid.
Absolute pressure is the sum of atmospheric and gauge pressure.
Standard atmospheric pressure is 14.696 lbf/in. or 29.92 mm Hg.

British CentiThermal meterUnits
grams

Footpounds

Joules
Wattsecond

Kilowatthours

Kilogram-

3.671
X 107

Heat Transfer Coefficient or Conductance
l Btu/h ft2 F
= 5.6784 W/m2K

7.233

2655

1.341

3.653
X 10−6

1.341
X 10−3

Mass Flow Rate
1 lb/h

= 0.000126 kg/s

1

3.6
X 106

9.807

3600

Mass Flux
1 lb/h ft2

= 0.001356 kg/m2s

2.778
X 10−7

1

2.724
X 10−6

0.001

0.1020

3.671
X 105

1

367.1

Volumetric Flow Rate
1 ft3/min (ACFM)
1 GPM

= 0.000472 m3/s
= 0.06308 l/s

2.778
X 10−4

1000

2.724
X 10−3

1

9.297
X 10−8

1.285
X 10−3

2545

9.480
X 10−4

3413

9.297
X 10−3

Centimetergrams

1.076
X 107

1

1.383
X 104

2.737
X 1010

1.020
X 104

3.671
X 1010

10

Foot-pounds

778

7.233
X 10−5

1

1.98
X 106

0.7376

2.655
X 106

Horsepowerhours

3.929
X 10−4

3.654
X 10−11

5.050
X 10−7

1

3.725
X 10−7

Joules
Watt-second

1054.8

9.807
X 10−5

1.356

2.684
X 106

Kilowatthours

2.93
X 10−4

2.724
X 10−11

3.766
X 10−7

0.7457

10−5

0.1383

Watt-hours

0.293

2.724
X 10−8

3.766
X 10−4

745.7

Watthours

Volumetric Heat Release Rate
1 Btu/h ft3

1

107.6

5

Table 1.9
Power or Rate of Doing Work
Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain
Btu per
Minute

Btu
per
Minute
1

Table 1.12
Multiplication Factors
1 000 000 000 000 = 1012

Footpounds
per
Minute

Footpounds
per
Second

1.285
X 10−3

7.716
−2
X 10

42.44

Horsepower

1 000 000 000 = 109
Kilowatts

Watts

1 000 000 = 106

56.91

5.691
X 10−2

1 000 = 103

778

1

60

3.3
4
X 10

4.426
4
X 10

44.26

Foot-pounds
per second

12.97

1.667
−2
X 10

1

550

737.6

0.7376

Horsepower

2.357
−2
X 10

3.030
−5
X 10

1.818
−3
X 10

1

1.341

1.341
X 10−3

Kilowatts

1.757
−2
X 10

2.260
−5
X 10

1.356
−3
X 10

0.7457

1

17.5725

2.260
X 10−2

1.356

745.7

= 10.3497 W/m3

Multiplying Prefixes

Foot-pounds
per minute

Watts

= 2.326 kJ/kg
= 0.039338 MJ/Nm3

3.413

meters

British
Thermal Units

Kilogrammeters

= l Btu/h ft R
= 12 Btu in./h ft2 F
= 1.7307 W/m K

Heat Flux, or Heat Transfer Rate
1 Btu/h ft2
= 3.1546 W/m2

Horsepowerhours

2.737
X 105

Thermal Conductivity
l Btu/h ft F

Heat Content
1 Btu/lb
1 Btu/Standard cubic foot

Table 1.8
Energy, Work and Heat
Starting
With
Multiply By
To
Obtain

Table 1.11
Thermal, Heat Transfer and Flow Parameters

1000

−3

10

1

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

Prefix

SI Symbol

tera

T

giga

G

mega

M

kilo

k

100 = 102

hecto*

h

10 = 101

deka*
deci*

da
d

0.1 = 10−1
0.01 = 10−2
0.001 = 10−3
0.000 001 = 10−6
0.000 000 001 = 10−9
0.000 000 000 001 = 10−12
0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10−15
0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10−18

centi*

c

milli

m

micro

µ

nano

n

pico

p

femto

f

atto

a

* To be avoided where possible.

T-3

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Table 1.13
Selected Additional Conversion Factors
Length and Area
100 feet (ft)/minute (min) = 0.508 meter (m)/second(s)
= 640 acres
1 square mile (mi2 )
= 259 hectares (ha)
1 m/s
= 196.9 ft/min
1 square kilometer (km2 ) = 100 ha
= 0.3861 mi2
1 ha
= 10,000 m2
= 2.471 acres
1 nautical mile
= 6080 ft
= 1.151 statute mi
= 1.853 km
1 nautical mile/hour (h) = 1 knot
Weight
1 pound (lb)
1 oz
1 grain (gr)
1 lb/ft
1g
1 kg/m
Volume
1 cubic foot (ft3 )
1 cubic inch (in.3 )
1 imperial gallon
1 U.S. gallon (gal)
1 U.S. barrel (bbl)
(petroleum)
1 liter (1)

1 board ft
1 ft3/min
1 m3/h

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

16 ounces (oz)
7000 grains (gr)
0.454 kilogram (kg)
0.0625 lb
28.35 grams (g)
64.8 milligrams (mg)
0.0023 oz
1.488 kg/m
1000 mg
0.03527 oz
15.43 grains
0.672 lb/ft

1 g/l
Water at 62F (16.7C)
1 ft3
1 lb
1 U.S. gallon

= 62.3 lb
= 0.01604 ft3
= 8.33 lb

Pressure
1 atmosphere (metric)
3

(C x 9/5) + 32
R − 459.67
(F − 32) x 5/9
K − 273.15

1 m3/kg
1 g/m3

0.0624 m3/kg
2.288 g/m3
17.11 g/m3
17.11 mg/l
16.02 ft3/lb
0.437 grain/ft3
0.0584 grain/
U.S. gallon
= 58.4 grain/U.S. gallon

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Water at 39.2F (4C), maximum density
1 ft3
= 62.4 lb
1 m3
= 1000 kg
1 lb
= 0.01602 ft3
1l
= 1.0 kg
1 kg/m3
= 1 g/l
= 1 part per thousand
1 g/m3
= 1 mg/l
= 1 part per million (ppm)

= 1728 cubic inches (in. )
= 16,390 cubic
millimeters (mm3 )
= 277.4 in.3
= 4.55 liters (l)
= 0.833 imperial gallon
= 3.785 l
= 231 in.3
= 42 U.S. gallons
= 35 imperial gallons
= 106 mm3
= 0.220 imperial gallon
= 0.2642 U.S. gallon
= 61.0 in.3
= 12 in. x 12 in. x 1 in. thick
= 144 in.3
= 1.699 m3/h
= 0.589 ft3/min

Temperature, Measured
F
=
=
C
=
=

Density
1 ft3/lb
1 grain/ft3
1 grain/U.S. gallon

= 98,066.5 pascals (Pa)
= 1 kg force (kgf)/square
centimeter (cm2 )
= 10 m head of water
= 14.22 lb/in.2
1 lb/ft2
= 47.88 Pa
= 0.1924 in. of water
= 4.88 kg/m2
1 ton (t)/in.2
= 13,789 kilopascals (kPa)
= 1.406 kg/mm2
1 in. head of water
= 5.20 lb/ft2
1 m head of water
= 9806 Pa
= 0.1 kg/cm2
1 m head of mercury (Hg) = 133.3 kPa
= 1.360 kg/cm2
= 1333 millibars
1 kg/m2
= 9.806 Pa
= 1 mm head of water
= 0.2048 lb/ft2
1 kg/cm2
= 98.066 kPa
= 735.5 mm Hg
= 0.981 bar
= 14.22 lb/in.2
2
1 kg/mm
= 9.8066 megapascals
(MPa)
= 0.711 t/in2

In these conversions, inches and feet of water are
measured at 62F (16.7C), millimeters and meters of
water at 39.2F (4C), and inches, millimeters, and meters
of mercury at 32F (0C).

T-4

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Note: The following steam tables and Fig. 2.2 have been abstracted from ASME International Steam Tables for Industrial Use
(copyright 2000 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers), based on the IAPWS industrial formulation 1997 for the
Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS-IF97)

Table 2.1

SI Properties of Saturated Steam and Saturated Water (Temperature)1
Volume, m3/kg
Evap
Steam
vfg
vg

Enthalpy, kJ/kg
Water
Evap
Steam
Hf
Hfg
Hg

Entropy, kJ/(kg K)
Water
Evap
Steam
sf
sfg
sg

Temp
K

Temp
K

Press.
MPa

273.16

0.00061166

0.001000

206.0

206.0

0

2500.9

2500.9

0

9.1555

9.1555

273.16

275
280
285
290
295

0.00069845
0.00099182
0.001389
0.001920
0.002621

0.001000
0.001000
0.001001
0.001001
0.001002

181.6
130.2
94.61
69.63
51.87

181.6
130.2
94.61
69.63
51.87

7.8
28.8
49.8
70.7
91.7

2496.5
2484.7
2472.8
2461.0
2449.2

2504.3
2513.5
2522.6
2531.7
2540.8

0.0283
0.1041
0.1784
0.2513
0.3228

9.0783
8.8738
8.6766
8.4862
8.3023

9.1066
8.9779
8.8550
8.7375
8.6251

275
280
285
290
295

300
305
310
315
320

0.003537
0.004719
0.006231
0.008145
0.01055

0.001003
0.001005
0.001007
0.001009
0.001011

39.08
29.77
22.90
17.80
13.95

39.08
29.77
22.91
17.80
13.96

112.6
133.5
154.4
175.3
196.2

2437.3
2425.4
2413.5
2401.6
2389.6

2549.9
2558.9
2567.9
2576.8
2585.7

0.3931
0.4622
0.5302
0.5970
0.6629

8.1244
7.9523
7.7856
7.6241
7.4674

8.5175
8.4145
8.3158
8.2211
8.1303

300
305
310
315
320

325
330
335
340
345
350
355
360
365

0.01353
0.01721
0.02172
0.02719
0.03378
0.04168
0.05108
0.06219
0.07526

0.001013
0.001015
0.001018
0.001021
0.001024
0.001027
0.001030
0.001034
0.001037

11.04
8.805
7.078
5.733
4.677
3.841
3.175
2.641
2.209

11.04
8.806
7.079
5.734
4.678
3.842
3.176
2.642
2.210

217.1
238.0
258.9
279.8
300.8
321.7
342.7
363.7
384.8

2377.5
2365.4
2353.2
2340.9
2328.5
2316.0
2303.4
2290.7
2277.8

2594.6
2603.3
2612.1
2620.7
2629.3
2637.7
2646.1
2654.4
2662.5

0.7277
0.7915
0.8544
0.9164
0.9775
1.0378
1.0973
1.1560
1.2140

7.3154
7.1678
7.0244
6.8849
6.7492
6.6171
6.4884
6.3629
6.2405

8.0431
7.9593
7.8787
7.8013
7.7267
7.6549
7.5857
7.5189
7.4545

325
330
335
340
345
350
355
360
365

370
375
380
385
390

0.09054
0.1083
0.1289
0.1525
0.1796

0.001041
0.001045
0.001049
0.001053
0.001058

1.858
1.571
1.335
1.140
0.9783

1.859
1.572
1.336
1.141
0.9794

405.8
426.9
448.0
469.2
490.4

2264.8
2251.6
2238.2
2224.7
2210.9

2670.6
2678.5
2686.3
2693.9
2701.3

1.2713
1.3279
1.3838
1.4390
1.4937

6.1209
6.0042
5.8900
5.7783
5.6690

7.3922
7.3320
7.2738
7.2174
7.1627

370
375
380
385
390

395
400
405
410
415

0.2106
0.2458
0.2856
0.3304
0.3808

0.001062
0.001067
0.001072
0.001077
0.001082

0.8429
0.7293
0.6334
0.5522
0.4832

0.8440
0.7303
0.6345
0.5533
0.4842

511.7
532.9
554.3
575.7
597.1

2197.0
2182.8
2168.3
2153.6
2138.7

2708.6
2715.7
2722.6
2729.3
2735.8

1.5477
1.6012
1.6542
1.7065
1.7584

5.5619
5.4569
5.3539
5.2528
5.1534

7.1096
7.0581
7.0080
6.9593
6.9119

395
400
405
410
415

420
425
430
435
440

0.4372
0.5002
0.5702
0.6478
0.7335

0.001087
0.001093
0.001098
0.001104
0.001110

0.4242
0.3736
0.3300
0.2924
0.2598

0.4253
0.3747
0.3311
0.2935
0.2609

618.7
640.2
661.9
683.6
705.4

2123.4
2107.9
2092.0
2075.8
2059.3

2742.1
2748.1
2753.9
2759.4
2764.7

1.8098
1.8607
1.9112
1.9612
2.0109

5.0558
4.9597
4.8652
4.7720
4.6802

6.8656
6.8205
6.7764
6.7333
6.6911

420
425
430
435
440

445
450
455
460
465

0.8281
0.9320
1.046
1.171
1.307

0.001117
0.001123
0.001130
0.001137
0.001144

0.2315
0.2067
0.1850
0.1660
0.1493

0.2326
0.2078
0.1862
0.1672
0.1504

727.3
749.3
771.4
793.5
815.8

2042.4
2025.1
2007.4
1989.4
1970.8

2769.7
2774.4
2778.8
2782.9
2786.7

2.0601
2.1089
2.1574
2.2056
2.2534

4.5897
4.5003
4.4120
4.3247
4.2384

6.6498
6.6092
6.5694
6.5303
6.4918

445
450
455
460
465

470
475
480
490
500

1.455
1.616
1.790
2.183
2.639

0.001152
0.001159
0.001167
0.001185
0.001203

0.1345
0.1214
0.1098
0.09021
0.07457

0.1356
0.1226
0.1110
0.09140
0.07577

838.2
860.7
883.4
929.1
975.5

1951.9
1932.4
1912.5
1871.0
1827.1

2790.1
2793.2
2795.9
2800.1
2802.6

2.3010
2.3483
2.3953
2.4886
2.5811

4.1529
4.0683
3.9843
3.8183
3.6543

6.4539
6.4165
6.3796
6.3069
6.2354

470
475
480
490
500

510
520
530
540
550

3.165
3.769
4.457
5.237
6.117

0.001223
0.001245
0.001268
0.001294
0.001323

0.06194
0.05167
0.04324
0.03626
0.03045

0.06317
0.05291
0.04451
0.03756
0.03177

1022.5
1070.4
1119.2
1169.1
1220.3

1780.7
1731.5
1679.1
1623.1
1563.0

2803.3
2801.9
2798.3
2792.2
2783.3

2.6731
2.7646
2.8559
2.9473
3.0391

3.4916
3.3298
3.1680
3.0056
2.8418

6.1647
6.0944
6.0240
5.9530
5.8809

510
520
530
540
550

560
570
580
590
600

7.106
8.213
9.448
10.82
12.34

0.001355
0.001392
0.001433
0.001482
0.001540

0.02557
0.02143
0.01790
0.01485
0.01219

0.02692
0.02282
0.01933
0.01633
0.01373

1272.9
1327.2
1383.7
1442.8
1505.2

1498.3
1428.2
1351.6
1267.1
1172.8

2771.2
2755.4
2735.3
2709.9
2678.0

3.1315
3.2250
3.3201
3.4177
3.5188

2.6755
2.5056
2.3303
2.1477
1.9546

5.8070
5.7305
5.6505
5.5654
5.4734

560
570
580
590
600

14.03
15.90
17.97
20.27
22.064

0.001611
0.001704
0.001837
0.002076
0.003106

0.00984
0.007703
0.005688
0.003561
0

0.01145
0.009407
0.007525
0.005637
0

1572.1
1645.7
1730.7
1842.0
2087.5

1065.1
938.2
780.1
552.4
0

2637.3
2583.9
2510.8
2394.4
2087.5

3.6250
3.7396
3.8697
4.0378
4.4120

1.7461
1.5133
1.2382
0.8632
0

5.3711
5.2528
5.1079
4.9010
4.4120

610
620
630
640
647.0960

Water
vf

610
620
630
640
647.0960

1. U.S. Customary steam tables are provided in Chapter 2, Table 1.
2. In the balance of Steam, enthalpy is denoted by H in place of h to avoid confusion with heat transfer coefficient.

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

T-5

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Table 2.2
SI Properties of Saturated Steam and Saturated Water (Pressure)

Press.
MPa

Temp
K

0.00080
0.0010
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0018
0.0020
0.0025
0.0030
0.0040
0.0050
0.0060
0.0080
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.080
0.10
0.101325
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
10
11
12
13
14
16
18
20
22.064

276.911
280.120
282.804
285.119
287.160
288.988
290.645
294.228
297.23
302.11
306.03
309.31
314.66
318.96
322.57
325.70
328.46
330.95
333.21
338.11
342.25
349.01
354.47
359.08
366.64
372.76
373.12
377.93
382.44
386.45
390.06
393.36
400.56
406.68
416.76
424.99
431.98
443.56
453.04
461.11
468.20
474.53
480.27
485.53
497.11
507.01
523.51
537.09
548.74
558.98
568.16
584.15
591.23
597.83
604.01
609.82
620.51
630.14
638.90
647.096

Volume, m3/kg
Water
Evap
Steam
vf
vfg
vg
0.001000
0.001000
0.001000
0.001001
0.001001
0.001001
0.001001
0.001002
0.001003
0.001004
0.001005
0.001006
0.001008
0.001010
0.001012
0.001013
0.001015
0.001016
0.001017
0.001020
0.001022
0.001026
0.001030
0.001033
0.001038
0.001043
0.001043
0.001047
0.001051
0.001054
0.001058
0.001061
0.001067
0.001073
0.001084
0.001093
0.001101
0.001115
0.001127
0.001139
0.001149
0.001159
0.001168
0.001177
0.001197
0.001217
0.001253
0.001286
0.001319
0.001352
0.001385
0.001453
0.001489
0.001526
0.001566
0.001610
0.001710
0.001839
0.002039
0.003106

159.6
159.6
129.2
129.2
108.7
108.7
93.90
93.90
82.75
82.75
74.01
74.01
66.99
66.99
54.24
54.24
45.65
45.66
34.79
34.79
28.19
28.19
23.73
23.73
18.10
18.10
14.67
14.67
12.36
12.36
10.69
10.69
9.430
9.431
8.442
8.443
7.647
7.648
6.202
6.203
5.228
5.229
3.992
3.993
3.239
3.240
2.731
2.732
2.086
2.087
1.693
1.694
1.672
1.673
1.427
1.428
1.236
1.237
1.090
1.091
0.97648
0.97753
0.88467
0.88574
0.71763
0.71870
0.60471
0.60579
0.46131
0.46239
0.37371
0.37480
0.31447
0.31558
0.23921
0.24033
0.19322
0.19435
0.16211
0.16325
0.13962
0.14077
0.12257
0.12373
0.10919
0.11036
0.09840
0.09958
0.07875
0.07995
0.06545
0.06666
0.04852
0.04978
0.03816
0.03945
0.03113
0.03245
0.02603
0.02738
0.02214
0.02353
0.01658
0.01803
0.01451
0.01599
0.01274
0.01427
0.01122
0.01279
0.00988
0.01149
0.00760
0.00931
0.00566
0.00750
0.00382
0.00586
0.0
0.00311

Enthalpy, kJ/kg
Water
Evap
Steam
Hf
Hfg
Hg

Entropy, kJ/(kg K)
Water
Evap
Steam
sf
sfg
sg

15.8
29.3
40.6
50.3
58.8
66.5
73.4
88.4
101.0
121.4
137.8
151.5
173.9
191.8
206.9
220.0
231.6
241.9
251.4
271.9
289.2
317.6
340.5
359.8
391.6
417.4
419.0
439.3
458.4
475.3
490.7
504.7
535.4
561.5
604.7
640.2
670.5
721.0
762.7
798.5
830.1
858.6
884.6
908.6
962.0
1008.4
1087.4
1154.5
1213.7
1267.4
1317.1
1407.9
1450.3
1491.3
1531.4
1570.9
1649.7
1732.0
1827.1
2087.5

0.0575
0.1059
0.1460
0.1802
0.2101
0.2366
0.2606
0.3119
0.3543
0.4224
0.4763
0.5209
0.5925
0.6492
0.6963
0.7366
0.7720
0.8035
0.8320
0.8931
0.9439
1.0259
1.0910
1.1452
1.2328
1.3026
1.3067
1.3608
1.4109
1.4549
1.4944
1.5301
1.6072
1.6718
1.7766
1.8606
1.9311
2.0460
2.1384
2.2163
2.2839
2.3438
2.3978
2.4470
2.5544
2.6456
2.7967
2.9207
3.0274
3.1220
3.2077
3.3603
3.4300
3.4965
3.5606
3.6230
3.7457
3.8717
4.0154
4.4120

2492.0
2484.4
2478.0
2472.5
2467.7
2463.4
2459.5
2451.0
2443.9
2432.3
2423.0
2415.2
2402.4
2392.1
2383.4
2375.8
2369.1
2363.1
2357.5
2345.5
2335.3
2318.5
2304.7
2293.0
2273.5
2257.5
2256.5
2243.8
2231.6
2220.7
2210.7
2201.6
2181.2
2163.4
2133.3
2107.9
2085.6
2047.3
2014.4
1985.3
1958.8
1934.3
1911.4
1889.8
1840.1
1794.9
1713.5
1639.7
1570.8
1505.1
1441.5
1317.6
1256.1
1194.3
1131.5
1067.2
931.1
777.5
584.3
0.0

2507.8
2513.7
2518.6
2522.8
2526.6
2529.9
2532.9
2539.4
2544.9
2553.7
2560.8
2566.7
2576.2
2583.9
2590.3
2595.8
2600.7
2605.0
2608.9
2617.4
2624.6
2636.1
2645.2
2652.9
2665.2
2674.9
2675.5
2683.1
2690.0
2696.0
2701.4
2706.2
2716.5
2724.9
2738.1
2748.1
2756.1
2768.3
2777.1
2783.8
2788.9
2792.9
2796.0
2798.4
2802.0
2803.3
2800.9
2794.2
2784.6
2772.6
2758.6
2725.5
2706.4
2685.6
2662.9
2638.1
2580.8
2509.5
2411.4
2087.5

8.9992
8.8690
8.7624
8.6720
8.5935
8.5242
8.4621
8.3303
8.2222
8.0510
7.9177
7.8083
7.6349
7.4997
7.3887
7.2945
7.2127
7.1403
7.0753
6.9371
6.8235
6.6431
6.5020
6.3859
6.2011
6.0562
6.0477
5.9369
5.8352
5.7464
5.6677
5.5968
5.4452
5.3198
5.1188
4.9600
4.8281
4.6156
4.4465
4.3054
4.1836
4.0762
3.9798
3.8921
3.7015
3.5402
3.2731
3.0530
2.8626
2.6926
2.5372
2.2556
2.1246
1.9977
1.8733
1.7500
1.5006
1.2339
0.9145
0.0

9.0567
8.9749
8.9083
8.8521
8.8036
8.7609
8.7227
8.6422
8.5766
8.4735
8.3939
8.3291
8.2274
8.1489
8.0850
8.0312
7.9847
7.9437
7.9072
7.8302
7.7675
7.6690
7.5930
7.5311
7.4339
7.3588
7.3544
7.2976
7.2460
7.2014
7.1620
7.1269
7.0524
6.9916
6.8954
6.8206
6.7592
6.6615
6.5850
6.5217
6.4675
6.4200
6.3776
6.3392
6.2560
6.1858
6.0697
5.9737
5.8901
5.8146
5.7448
5.6159
5.5545
5.4941
5.4339
5.3730
5.2463
5.1055
4.9299
4.4120

1. See Note 1, Table 2.1
2. See Note 2, Table 2.1

T-6

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

0.001000
7.763
0.0283

0.001000
7.769
0.0283

0.001000
7.779
0.0283

0.001000
7.799
0.0283

0.001000
7.830
0.0283

0.001000
7.861
0.0283

0.001000
7.961
0.0283

0.001000
8.163
0.0283

0.001000
8.364
0.0283

0.001000
8.566
0.0283

0.001000
8.768
0.0283

0.000999
9.272
0.0284

0.000999
9.776
0.0284

0.000999
10.279
0.0284

0.000999
10.782
0.0284

0.000998
11.284
0.0284

0.000998
11.786
0.0284

v,m3/kg
0.004 H,kJ/kg
(302.11) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
0.01 H,kJ/kg
(318.96) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
0.02 H,kJ/kg
(333.21) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
0.04 H,kJ/kg
(349.10) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
0.07 H,kJ/kg
(363.08) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

0.002
(290.65)

v,m3/kg
0.2 H,kJ/kg
(393.36) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
0.4 H,kJ/kg
(416.76) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
0.6 H,kJ/kg
(431.98) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
0.8 H,kJ/kg
(443.56) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
1 H,kJ/kg
(453.04) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
1.5 H,kJ/kg
(471.45) s,kJ/(kg K)

2 v,m3/kg
(485.53) H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

2.5 v,m3/kg
(497.11) H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

3 v,m3/kg
(507.01) H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

3.5 v,m3/kg
(515.71) H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

4 v,m3/kg
(523.51) H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

1. See Notes 1 and 2, Table 2.1

0.101325
(373.12)

0.001000
7.761
0.0283

v,m3/kg
H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

0.001
(280.12)

275

0.001000
7.760
0.0283

v,m3/kg
H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

Pressure MPa
(sat. temp.)

0.001002
116.250
0.3920

0.001002
115.791
0.3922

0.001002
115.331
0.3923

0.001002
114.872
0.3924

0.001003
114.412
0.3926

0.001003
113.952
0.3927

0.001003
113.492
0.3928

0.001003
113.308
0.3929

0.001003
113.124
0.3930

0.001003
112.940
0.3930

0.001003
112.756
0.3931

0.001003
112.665
0.3931

0.001003
112.636
0.3931

0.001003
112.609
0.3931

0.001003
112.590
0.3931

0.001003
112.581
0.3931

0.001003
112.575
0.3931

69.16
2550.6
8.7826

138.4
2551.0
9.1037

300

0.001025
324.910
1.0353

0.001025
324.508
1.0356

0.001026
324.107
1.0359

0.001026
323.705
1.0362

0.001026
323.304
1.0366

0.001026
322.903
1.0369

0.001027
322.501
1.0372

0.001027
322.341
1.0373

0.001027
322.180
1.0375

0.001027
322.020
1.0376

0.001027
321.859
1.0377

0.001027
321.780
1.0378

0.001027
321.755
1.0378

4.005
2638.0
7.6747

8.044
2641.6
8.0029

16.121
2643.3
8.3268

40.351
2644.3
8.7520

80.73
2644.7
9.0727

161.5
2644.9
9.3930

0.001065
535.523
1.5977

0.001065
535.179
1.5981

0.001065
534.835
1.5986

0.001065
534.492
1.5991

0.001066
534.149
1.5996

0.001066
533.806
1.6000

0.001066
533.463
1.6005

0.001066
533.326
1.6007

0.001066
533.189
1.6009

0.001067
533.052
1.6011

0.903
2720.5
7.1629

1.802
2730.3
7.4961

2.618
2733.2
7.6726

4.596
2736.0
7.9363

9.211
2737.8
8.2597

18.442
2738.7
8.5814

46.133
2739.2
9.0053

92.29
2739.4
9.3256

184.6
2739.5
9.6456

0.001121
750.890
2.1048

0.001121
750.629
2.1055

0.001121
750.367
2.1062

0.001122
750.107
2.1068

0.001122
749.847
2.1075

0.001123
749.587
2.1082

0.001123
749.328
2.1089

0.2450
2784.7
6.6982

0.3320
2798.8
6.8560

0.5054
2811.9
7.0659

1.025
2824.0
7.4068

2.037
2829.7
7.7303

2.954
2831.4
7.9039

5.179
2833.1
8.1650

10.371
2834.2
8.4868

20.756
2834.7
8.8076

51.909
2835.1
9.2311

103.83
2835.2
9.5512

207.7
2835.2
9.8712

0.001201
975.761
2.5785

0.001202
975.651
2.5794

0.001202
975.542
2.5804

0.080796
2811.705
6.2754

0.104394
2841.382
6.4265

0.143300
2867.592
6.6009

0.220627
2891.277
6.8251

0.2785
2900.1
6.9417

0.3748
2908.7
7.0876

0.5672
2916.9
7.2872

1.144
2924.8
7.6191

2.268
2928.5
7.9386

3.287
2929.7
8.1111

5.760
2930.8
8.3710

11.529
2931.6
8.6920

23.067
2932.0
9.0125

57.681
2932.2
9.4357

115.37
2932.3
9.7557

230.8
2932.3
10.0757

0.0549
2893.1
6.2417

0.0642
2914.0
6.3337

0.0765
2933.7
6.4331

0.0936
2952.2
6.5436

0.1192
2969.7
6.6713

0.1616
2986.2
6.8272

0.2464
3001.9
7.0360

0.3099
3007.9
7.1473

0.4158
3013.9
7.2881

0.6274
3019.6
7.4832

1.262
3025.3
7.8107

2.498
3028.1
8.1283

3.619
3028.9
8.3001

6.339
3029.8
8.5595

12.685
3030.3
8.8802

25.377
3030.6
9.2005

63.453
3030.7
9.6236

126.91
3030.8
9.9436

253.8
3030.8
10.2635

0.0631
3034.3
6.4877

0.0730
3047.8
6.5668

0.0863
3060.9
6.6546

0.1048
3073.5
6.7548

0.1326
3085.7
6.8733

0.1788
3097.5
7.0209

0.2712
3109.0
7.2224

0.3405
3113.5
7.3309

0.4559
3117.9
7.4692

0.6867
3122.3
7.6618

1.379
3126.6
7.9870

2.727
3128.7
8.3035

3.950
3129.4
8.4750

6.917
3130.0
8.7340

13.840
3130.5
9.0545

27.686
3130.7
9.3746

69.223
3130.8
9.7977

138.45
3130.8
10.1176

276.9
3130.9
10.4376

0.0703
3159.1
6.6877

0.0810
3168.9
6.7608

0.0953
3178.5
6.8431

0.1154
3188.0
6.9382

0.1454
3197.2
7.0518

0.1954
3206.3
7.1950

0.2955
3215.2
7.3924

0.3705
3218.7
7.4994

0.4955
3222.2
7.6361

0.7455
3225.6
7.8272

1.495
3229.1
8.1510

2.956
3230.8
8.4668

4.281
3231.3
8.6381

7.495
3231.8
8.8970

14.995
3232.2
9.2172

29.995
3232.3
9.5373

74.994
3232.4
9.9604

149.99
3232.5
10.2803

300.0
3232.5
10.6002

Table 2.3 (Part 1 of 2)

0.0770
3277.3
6.8629

0.0886
3284.9
6.9327

0.1040
3292.5
7.0120

0.1255
3299.9
7.1041

0.1579
3307.2
7.2149

0.2117
3314.5
7.3554

0.3194
3321.6
7.5502

0.4002
3324.5
7.6562

0.5348
3327.3
7.7920

0.8040
3330.1
7.9821

1.612
3332.9
8.3050

3.185
3334.3
8.6203

4.612
3334.8
8.7914

8.073
3335.2
9.0501

16.150
3335.5
9.3703

32.303
3335.6
9.6904

80.763
3335.7
10.1134

161.53
3335.7
10.4333

323.1
3335.7
10.7532

0.0835
3392.8
7.0222

0.0959
3398.9
7.0900

0.1124
3405.0
7.1673

0.1355
3411.1
7.2575

0.1701
3417.1
7.3665

0.2278
3423.0
7.5052

0.3432
3428.9
7.6982

0.4297
3431.3
7.8036

0.5739
3433.6
7.9387

0.8624
3436.0
8.1281

1.728
3438.3
8.4503

3.413
3439.5
8.7653

4.942
3439.8
8.9364

8.651
3440.2
9.1950

17.304
3440.4
9.5151

34.611
3440.5
9.8352

86.533
3440.6
10.2581

173.07
3440.6
10.5780

346.1
3440.6
10.8980

0.0898
3507.3
7.1700

0.1030
3512.4
7.2364

0.1206
3517.4
7.3124

0.1452
3522.5
7.4013

0.1821
3527.5
7.5090

0.2437
3532.5
7.6464

0.3668
3537.4
7.8382

0.4591
3539.4
7.9431

0.6129
3541.4
8.0777

0.9206
3543.3
8.2667

1.844
3545.3
8.5884

3.641
3546.3
8.9032

5.272
3546.6
9.0741

9.228
3546.9
9.3327

18.459
3547.0
9.6528

36.920
3547.1
9.9728

92.303
3547.2
10.3957

184.61
3547.2
10.7156

369.2
3547.2
11.0356

0.0960
3621.7
7.3088

0.1100
3626.0
7.3742

0.1287
3630.3
7.4492

0.1549
3634.5
7.5372

0.1941
3638.8
7.6439

0.2595
3643.0
7.7805

0.3903
3647.2
7.9714

0.4883
3648.9
8.0758

0.6518
3650.6
8.2101

0.9787
3652.2
8.3987

1.959
3653.9
8.7201

3.870
3654.7
9.0347

5.602
3655.0
9.2056

9.805
3655.3
9.4641

19.613
3655.4
9.7842

39.228
3655.5
10.1041

98.072
3655.6
10.5271

196.15
3655.6
10.8470

392.3
3655.6
11.1669

0.1021
3736.7
7.4402

0.1170
3740.3
7.5049

0.1368
3744.0
7.5792

0.1644
3747.6
7.6664

0.2060
3751.3
7.7725

0.2752
3754.9
7.9084

0.4137
3758.5
8.0986

0.5175
3759.9
8.2028

0.6906
3761.4
8.3368

1.0367
3762.8
8.5251

2.075
3764.3
8.8463

4.098
3765.0
9.1607

5.932
3765.2
9.3316

10.383
3765.4
9.5900

20.767
3765.6
9.9101

41.536
3765.6
10.2300

103.842
3765.7
10.6529

207.69
3765.7
10.9729

415.4
3765.7
11.2928

SI Properties of Superheated Steam and Compressed Water (Temperature and Pressure)1
Temperature, K
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900

0.1082
3852.5
7.5654

0.1238
3855.6
7.6296

0.1447
3858.8
7.7033

0.1740
3861.9
7.7900

0.2178
3865.1
7.8956

0.2909
3868.2
8.0309

0.4370
3871.3
8.2206

0.5466
3872.6
8.3246

0.7293
3873.8
8.4584

1.0947
3875.1
8.6465

2.191
3876.3
8.9674

4.326
3876.9
9.2818

6.262
3877.1
9.4526

10.960
3877.3
9.7110

21.921
3877.4
10.0310

43.844
3877.5
10.3510

109.611
3877.5
10.7739

219.22
3877.6
11.0938

438.4
3877.6
11.4137

950

0.1142
3969.3
7.6852

0.1307
3972.1
7.7490

0.1527
3974.8
7.8223

0.1834
3977.6
7.9086

0.2296
3980.3
8.0138

0.3065
3983.0
8.1487

0.4603
3985.8
8.3380

0.5757
3986.9
8.4418

0.7680
3988.0
8.5754

1.1526
3989.0
8.7634

2.306
3990.1
9.0842

4.554
3990.7
9.3984

6.592
3990.8
9.5692

11.537
3991.0
9.8276

23.075
3991.1
10.1476

46.151
3991.2
10.4676

115.380
3991.2
10.8905

230.76
3991.2
11.2104

461.5
3991.2
11.5303

1000

0.1261
4206.7
7.9115

0.1442
4208.9
7.9747

0.1684
4211.0
8.0474

0.2023
4213.2
8.1331

0.2530
4215.3
8.2377

0.3376
4217.5
8.3721

0.5069
4219.6
8.5608

0.6338
4220.4
8.6644

0.8453
4221.3
8.7978

1.2684
4222.2
8.9855

2.538
4223.0
9.3061

5.010
4223.4
9.6202

7.252
4223.6
9.7910

12.691
4223.7
10.0494

25.383
4223.8
10.3693

50.767
4223.8
10.6893

126.919
4223.8
11.1122

253.84
4223.8
11.4321

507.7
4223.9
11.7520

1100

0.1379
4449.7
8.1228

0.1577
4451.4
8.1857

0.1841
4453.1
8.2580

0.2210
4454.8
8.3434

0.2764
4456.6
8.4476

0.3687
4458.3
8.5815

0.5533
4460.0
8.7699

0.6918
4460.7
8.8733

0.9225
4461.3
9.0066

1.3840
4462.0
9.1942

2.769
4462.7
9.5146

5.465
4463.0
9.8287

7.911
4463.2
9.9994

13.845
4463.3
10.2578

27.691
4463.3
10.5777

55.383
4463.4
10.8977

138.457
4463.4
11.3206

276.92
4463.4
11.6405

553.8
4463.4
11.9604

1200

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

T-7

T-8

0.0010
15.79
0.0285

0.0010
17.78
0.0285

0.0010
22.74
0.0285

0.0010
27.67
0.0283

0.0010
29.70
0.0283

0.0010
32.57
0.0281

0.0010
37.43
0.0279

0.0010
42.26
0.0276

0.0010
47.06
0.0271

0.0010
51.83
0.0267

0.0010
56.57
0.0261

0.0010
61.29
0.0256

0.0010
65.98
0.0249

0.0010
70.64
0.0242

0.0010
75.28
0.0234

0.0010
79.90
0.0226

0.0010
84.49
0.0217

0.0010
102.62
0.0178

v,m3/kg
5 H,kJ/kg
(537.09) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
8 H,kJ/kg
(568.16) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
10 H,kJ/kg
(584.15) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
15 H,kJ/kg
(615.31) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
20 H,kJ/kg
(638.9) s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
25 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
30 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
35 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
40 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
45 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
50 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
55 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
60 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
65 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
70 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
75 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
80 H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

v,m3/kg
H,kJ/kg
s,kJ/(kg K)

1. See Notes 1 and 2, Table 2.1

100

22.064
(647.1)

275

0.0010
12.79
0.0284

Pressure MPa
(sat. temp.)

300

0.0010
201.46
0.3618

0.0010
184.14
0.3686

0.0010
179.78
0.3702

0.0010
175.41
0.3719

0.0010
171.02
0.3735

0.0010
166.61
0.3751

0.0010
162.20
0.3767

0.0010
157.77
0.3783

0.0010
153.32
0.3799

0.0010
148.86
0.3814

0.0010
144.38
0.3830

0.0010
139.89
0.3845

0.0010
135.38
0.3860

0.0010
132.72
0.3868

0.0010
130.85
0.3874

0.0010
126.31
0.3889

0.0010
121.75
0.3903

0.0010
119.92
0.3909

0.0010
117.17
0.391737

0.0010
401.71
0.9791

0.0010
385.78
0.9901

0.0010
381.79
0.9929

0.0010
377.80
0.9958

0.0010
373.80
0.9986

0.0010
369.80
1.0015

0.0010
365.80
1.0044

0.0010
361.80
1.0073

0.0010
357.80
1.0102

0.0010
353.79
1.0132

0.0010
349.78
1.0162

0.0010
345.77
1.0192

0.0010
341.76
1.0222

0.0010
339.41
1.0240

0.0010
337.75
1.0253

0.0010
333.74
1.0284

0.0010
329.73
1.0315

0.0010
328.12
1.0328

0.0010
325.71
1.0347

0.0010
603.78
1.5187

0.0010
589.29
1.5336

0.0010
585.69
1.5374

0.0010
582.09
1.5413

0.0010
578.50
1.5452

0.0010
574.91
1.5492

0.0010
571.34
1.5532

0.0010
567.77
1.5573

0.0010
564.22
1.5614

0.0010
560.67
1.5656

0.0010
557.14
1.5699

0.0011
553.62
1.5742

0.0011
550.11
1.5785

0.0011
548.05
1.5811

0.0011
546.61
1.5830

0.0011
543.13
1.5875

0.0011
539.66
1.5921

0.0011
538.28
1.5939

0.0011
536.21
1.5967

0.0011
807.98
1.9996

0.0011
795.28
2.0187

0.0011
792.15
2.0237

0.0011
789.05
2.0288

0.0011
785.97
2.0339

0.0011
782.91
2.0391

0.0011
779.88
2.0444

0.0011
776.88
2.0498

0.0011
773.90
2.0553

0.0011
770.96
2.0609

0.0011
768.05
2.0666

0.0011
765.17
2.0724

0.0011
762.33
2.0784

0.0011
760.69
2.0819

0.0011
759.54
2.0844

0.0011
756.78
2.0907

0.0011
754.07
2.0970

0.0011
753.00
2.0996

0.0011
751.42
2.1035

0.0011
1015.39
2.4366

0.0011
1005.17
2.4609

0.0011
1002.72
2.4673

0.0011
1000.33
2.4739

0.0011
997.99
2.4805

0.0011
995.70
2.4874

0.0011
993.48
2.4944

0.0012
991.32
2.5015

0.0012
989.23
2.5089

0.0012
987.22
2.5164

0.0012
985.30
2.5242

0.0012
983.5
2.5322

0.0012
981.7
2.5405

0.0012
980.8
2.5455

0.0012
980.1
2.5490

0.0012
978.6
2.5578

0.0012
977.21
2.5670

0.0012
976.70
2.5708

0.0012
975.99
2.5765

0.0012
1227.99
2.8418

0.0012
1221.50
2.8732

0.0012
1220.11
2.8816

0.0012
1218.84
2.8903

0.0012
1217.70
2.8992

0.0012
1216.68
2.9084

0.0012
1215.8
2.9180

0.0012
1215.1
2.9280

0.0012
1214.6
2.9383

0.0013
1214.3
2.9490

0.0013
1214.2
2.9603

0.0013
1214.4
2.9721

0.0013
1214.8
2.9845

0.0013
1215.3
2.9922

0.0013
1215.6
2.9977

0.0013
1216.9
3.0117

0.0013
1218.5
3.0266

0.0013
1219.4
3.0329

0.0418
2846.5
6.0698

0.0013
1448.46
3.2253

0.0013
1448.06
3.2673

0.0013
1448.5
3.2789

0.0013
1449.2
3.2910

0.0013
1450.2
3.3036

0.0013
1451.6
3.3170

0.0013
1453.3
3.3311

0.0014
1455.6
3.3461

0.0014
1458.3
3.3621

0.0014
1461.7
3.3793

0.0014
1466.0
3.3980

0.0014
1471.2
3.4186

0.0015
1477.8
3.4416

0.0015
1482.5
3.4566

0.0015
1486.3
3.4679

0.0015
1497.5
3.4992

0.0201
2819.8
5.7754

0.0276
2905.5
5.9969

0.0490
3005.8
6.3477

0.0014
1679.5
3.5950

0.0014
1689.7
3.6539

0.0014
1693.5
3.6709

0.0015
1698.1
3.6892

0.0015
1703.6
3.7089

0.0015
1710.1
3.7305

0.0015
1718.0
3.7543

0.0016
1727.6
3.7811

0.0016
1739.6
3.8118

0.0017
1755.1
3.8482

0.0017
1776.3
3.8937

0.0018
1808.5
3.9569

0.0020
1876.4
4.0760

0.0054
2418.6
4.9231

0.0079
2624.9
5.2618

0.0140
2868.6
5.7198

0.0247
3022.5
6.1007

0.0324
3072.4
6.2645

0.0552
3138.9
6.5609

Table 2.3 (Part 2 of 2)

0.0015
1924.9
3.9586

0.0016
1954.3
4.0459

0.0017
1965.2
4.0732

0.0017
1978.2
4.1040

0.0018
1994.1
4.1391

0.0018
2014.0
4.1804

0.0019
2039.9
4.2308

0.0020
2075.5
4.2956

0.0022
2129.0
4.3873

0.0026
2222.5
4.5379

0.0036
2402.0
4.8159

0.0054
2631.5
5.1754

0.0080
2817.3
5.4884

0.0099
2906.0
5.6524

0.0116
2961.6
5.7635

0.0173
3078.8
6.0322

0.0283
3177.3
6.3304

0.0365
3212.6
6.4724

0.0608
3261.8
6.7431

0.0018
2188.4
4.3221

0.0020
2251.1
4.4552

0.0021
2275.0
4.5005

0.0022
2304.5
4.5539

0.0023
2341.8
4.6184

0.0025
2390.0
4.6986

0.0028
2453.4
4.8008

0.0032
2536.4
4.9314

0.0039
2639.2
5.0920

0.0048
2754.1
5.2741

0.0061
2868.9
5.4635

0.0079
2976.2
5.6529

0.0103
3074.0
5.8434

0.0122
3127.0
5.9580

0.0139
3162.4
6.0410

0.0198
3242.2
6.2579

0.0314
3314.6
6.5199

0.0401
3341.6
6.6505

0.0662
3380.3
6.9067

0.0021
2466.7
4.6813

0.0025
2567.9
4.8640

0.0026
2605.0
4.9265

0.0029
2648.9
4.9985

0.0031
2700.4
5.0815

0.0035
2759.7
5.1764

0.0040
2826.6
5.2833

0.0046
2898.8
5.4003

0.0054
2973.9
5.5251

0.0064
3049.3
5.6560

0.0077
3123.2
5.7924

0.0095
3194.4
5.9350

0.0120
3262.2
6.0867

0.0140
3300.4
6.1820

0.0158
3326.5
6.2530

0.0220
3386.9
6.4447

0.0344
3443.7
6.6866

0.0436
3465.4
6.8103

0.0713
3497.0
7.0573

0.0025
2743.0
5.0163

0.0031
2864.7
5.2241

0.0033
2904.4
5.2898

0.0036
2948.2
5.3617

0.0040
2995.7
5.4400

0.0044
3046.3
5.5244

0.0050
3099.2
5.6144

0.0057
3153.7
5.7097

0.0065
3208.8
5.8103

0.0076
3263.9
5.9165

0.0090
3318.4
6.0293

0.0109
3371.8
6.1503

0.0135
3423.8
6.2827

0.0156
3453.6
6.3679

0.0175
3474.1
6.4321

0.0240
3522.4
6.6090

0.0371
3568.7
6.8382

0.0470
3586.7
6.9574

0.0764
3613.1
7.1980

0.0029
3000.5
5.3109

0.0037
3120.2
5.5164

0.0040
3155.8
5.5774

0.0043
3193.5
5.6424

0.0048
3232.8
5.7114

0.0053
3273.6
5.7845

0.0058
3315.5
5.8618

0.0066
3358.2
5.9437

0.0075
3401.4
6.0306

0.0086
3444.6
6.1232

0.0101
3487.6
6.2229

0.0121
3530.2
6.3315

0.0148
3572.1
6.4523

0.0171
3596.3
6.5310

0.0190
3613.1
6.5910

0.0259
3653.0
6.7583

0.0398
3691.7
6.9788

0.0502
3706.9
7.0948

0.0814
3729.3
7.3309

SI Properties of Superheated Steam and Compressed Water (Temperature and Pressure)1
Temperature, K
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950

0.0033
3231.5
5.5607

0.0043
3340.0
5.7543

0.0046
3370.5
5.8096

0.0050
3402.1
5.8681

0.0054
3434.8
5.9298

0.0060
3468.3
5.9951

0.0066
3502.5
6.0641

0.0074
3537.3
6.1374

0.0083
3572.4
6.2156

0.0095
3607.7
6.2997

0.0111
3643.0
6.3909

0.0132
3678.1
6.4914

0.0161
3712.8
6.6045

0.0184
3733.0
6.6789

0.0205
3747.1
6.7360

0.0278
3780.8
6.8966

0.0424
3813.8
7.1109

0.0534
3826.8
7.2245

0.0863
3846.1
7.4572

0.0038
3440.4
5.7751

0.0048
3535.3
5.9547

0.0051
3561.3
6.0055

0.0056
3588.1
6.0590

0.0060
3615.6
6.1155

0.0066
3643.8
6.1752

0.0073
3672.4
6.2385

0.0081
3701.5
6.3059

0.0091
3730.9
6.3782

0.0104
3760.4
6.4564

0.0120
3790.1
6.5418

0.0142
3819.7
6.6366

0.0173
3849.1
6.7443

0.0197
3866.3
6.8157

0.0219
3878.4
6.8706

0.0296
3907.3
7.0263

0.0450
3935.8
7.2359

0.0565
3947.0
7.3478

0.0911
3963.8
7.5779

1000

0.0500
4180.7
7.4694

0.0626
4189.4
7.5788

0.1007
4202.4
7.8053

1100

0.0548
4429.0
7.6854

0.0687
4435.9
7.7932

0.1102
4446.2
8.0174

1200

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Fig. 2.1 Mollier diagram (H-s) for steam – SI units.

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

T-9

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Fig. 2.2 Pressure-enthalpy diagram for steam – SI units.

T-10

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Fig. 2.3 Psychrometric chart – SI units.

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

T-11

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Fig. 3.1 Temperature-enthalpy diagram (MPa = 0.006895 × psi).

Fig. 3.2 Estimates of the weight of air required for selected fuels
and excess air levels.

T-12

Fig. 3.3 Estimates of the weight of the products of combustion for
selected fuels and excess air levels.

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Fig. 3.6 Estimates of theoretical air required for the combustion of
coal based on volatile matter contents.

Fig. 3.4 Estimates of the percent total air for flue gas percent
oxygen for selected fuels.

Table 3.1
SO2, SO3 Estimated Emissions from
Boilers Firing Coal or Fuel Oil
SO2:
lb SO2 produced/lb fuel = K

lb SO2 produced/h

= K

% SO2 by weight

=

lb sulfur
lb fuel

64 lb SO2/mole
32 lb sulfur/mole

lb fuel

% sulfur in fuel x 2

h

100

lb SO2/h x 102
lb flue gas/h

ppm SO2 by weight = (% SO2 by weight) x 104
% SO2 by volume

=

100 (% SO2 by weight/64)
(% SO2 by weight) 100−(% SO2 by weight)
+
64
M

ppm SO2 by volume = % SO2 by volume x 104
where K = 0.95 Cyclone furnace firing
0.97 dry bottom PC firing
0.99 oil firing
M = molecular weight of flue gas
30.2 coal firing
29.0 oil firing

Fig. 3.5 Estimates of efficiency loss due to unburned combustibles
for selected fuels and ash contents.

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

SO3:
SO3 quantity

= 1% of SO2 quantity (coal firing)
= 2% of SO2 quantity (oil firing)

T-13

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Table 3.2

Conversion Formulae for Emission Rates
EPA F-Factor Method
A common method of reporting emissions is in pounds of
pollutant per million Btu of fuel input. An EPA-approved
conversion formula called the dry, oxygen based F-factor
method can be used to convert ppm by dry volume of a
pollutant to lb/106 Btu as follows:

(

2.59 x 10−9 = A constant based on the ideal gas law that
equals 106 moles per DSCF. The ideal gas law, PV=nRT,
says that 1 mole of ideal gas will occupy 385.5 ft3 at 68F
and 14.7 psia. 106 moles would, therefore, occupy 385.5 x 106
ft3 and 106 moles per DSCF = 1/385.5 x 106 = 2.59 x 10−9.

)

lb
20.9
= ppmdv ×
× F × 2.59 × 10−9 × M
106 Btu
( 20.9 - %O2dv ) d

M = the molecular weight of the pollutant being measured
(lb/lb-mole), where

where: Fd = a fuel factor representing the dry standard
cubic feet (DSCF) of flue gas produced by burning a million
Btu of fuel at theoretical air (0% excess air). Standard
conditions are 68F and 14.7 psia. Fd can be calculated from
an ultimate fuel analysis, or a fuel specific default value
may be used as follows:
Fd =

Pollutant

Expressed as
Equivalent

M

NOx
CO
SO2
VOC
SO3

NO2
CO
SO2
CH4
SO3

46.01
28.01
64.06
16.04
80.06

1, 000, 000 3.64 ( % H ) + 1.53 ( % C ) + 0.57 ( % S ) + 0.14 ( % N ) − 0.46 ( % O )
Higher heating value, Btu/lb

Note: The percentage by weight of each constituent in the
above equation is acquired from an ultimate fuel
analysis and must be on the same basis as the
higher heating value (both wet or both dry).
Fuel Type

ppmdv

= the parts per million of pollutant in the
flue gas measured on a dry volume basis.

20.9

factor for the amount of excess
(20.9 − % O2dv ) = aaircorrection
as measured by percent O2 on a dry

Fd Default Values

volume basis in the flue gas.

Refuse (Municipal solid waste)
9,570
Bituminous and subbituminous coal 9,780
Anthracite
10,100
Lignite
9,860
Natural gas
8,710
Fuel oils
9,190
Black liquor
8,800
Wood
9,400
Additional Conversion Methods
Instructions: Multiply the given pollutant value by the factor listed to convert to the units listed in the left-hand column.
Given Value
ppm (dry vol.)

grains/DSCF

ppm (dry vol.)

1

5.504 x 10
(M)

grains/DSCF

1.817 x 10-5 (M)

1

mg/DSCM

4.157 x 10-2 (M)

2.288 x 10

3

mg/Nm3

4.461 x 10 (M)

2.455 x 10

3

(M)(N′)

5.506 x 10 (N′)
(HI)
23.716 (N′)
(HI)

lb/106 Btu
ng/Joule*

-2

6

1 x 10 (HI)
4.308 x 10-4 (M)(N′)
(HI)

mg/DSCM

4

2.321 x 103 (HI)
(M)(N′)

4.074 x 10 -4

18.162 (HI)
(N′)

4.217 x 10-2 (HI)
(N′)

1

0.932

4.156 x 10 (HI)
(N′)

1.073

1

2.406 x 10 (N′)
(HI)
1.037 x 10-2 (N′)
(HI)

-4

-5

6

ng/Joule*

1 x 10 (HI)
(M)(N′)

grains/DSCF = grains per dry standard cubic foot (68F and
29.92 in. Hg)
mg/DSCM = milligrams per dry standard cubic meter
(68F and 29.92 in. Hg)
mg/Nm3 = milligrams per normal cubic meter (0C and
760 mm Hg)
lb/106 Btu = pounds per million Btu, fuel heat input
(HHV basis)
ng/Joule = nanograms per Joule, fuel heat input (HHV
basis)
* Caution: Should not be used for conversion
calculations when ng/Joule is stated as an
electrical output based standard.

T-14

lb/106 Btu

22.417
(M)

24.056
(M)
4.371 x 10

-2

mg/Nm3

4

96.432 (HI)
(N′)

4.458 x 10 (HI)
(N′)

4

1.035 x 10 (HI)
(N′)

2.243 x 10-5 (N′)
(HI)

1

2.321 x 10

9.664 x 10-3 (N′)
(HI)

430.8

1

2

-3

M = molecular weight of pollutant (lb/lb-mole)
N′ = moles of dry flue gas per hour
HI = heat input in fuel, 106 Btu/h (HHV basis)
N′
HI

and its reciprocal occur in many of the
above conversion formulae.

N′
HI

can be calculated using the EPA F-factor
(Fd ) discussed above as follows:

Fd
N′
moles dry flue gas
20.9
=
×
6
HI
385.5 (20.9 − %O2dv)
10 Btu

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

Table 3.3
Periodic Table of the Elements

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables

T-15

The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Table 4.3

Table 4.1

Environmental Equipment
Nominal 500 MW PC-Fired Drum Boiler Plant

Coal and Ash Analysis, an Example of a
High Sulfur Bituminous Coal
Proximate
Analysis, %
Moisture
VM
FC
Ash

Ultimate
Analysis, %

12.0
35.7
40.3
12.0

Moisture
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Sulfur
Oxygen
Ash
Chlorine

12.0
60.6
4.1
1.2
4.1
5.9
12.0
0.1

Ash Fusion Temperatures, F
(Reducing Atmosphere)
Initial Deformation
Softening
Hemispherical
Fluid

Sulfur
Forms, %
Pyritic
Organic
Sulfate

2.0
2.0
0.1
4.1

NOx Control
Type:

Si as SiO2
Al as Al2O3
Fe as Fe2O3
Ti as TiO2
Ca as CaO
Mg as MgO
Na as Na2O
K as K2O
S as SO3
P as P2O5

Other
Btu/lb = 10,950 as received
Grindability = 56 HGI
Theoretical air = 7.6 lb/10,000 Btu

SCR, OFA and low NOx
burners
0.07 lb/106 Btu

Emissions:
Ash Analysis, %

1950
2030
2100
2150

Wet Limestone Scrubber (full load)
Limestone usage rate: 30.3 t/h
Gypsum production:
48.4 t/h
SO2 at scrubber inlet:
36,568 lb/h
SO2 at scrubber outlet: 731 lb/h
Required SO2 removal: 98%

45.0
20.0
18.0
1.0
7.0
1.0
0.6
1.9
3.5
0.2

Particulate Control
Type:
Emissions:
Specific collector area:

Table 4.4
Plant Performance Summary
Nominal 500 MW PC-Fired Drum Boiler Plant
Turbine Steam Conditions
Pressure
2400psig
Temperature
1000F
Reheat temperature 1000F
Fuel Input

Table 4.2
Mechanical Equipment
Nominal 500 MW PC-Fired Drum Boiler Plant
Steam Generator
Balanced draft, direct-fired, pulverized coal
Pulverizers
Six, roll wheel mills, 50 t/h each
Main Steam
Flow
3.625 x 106 lb/h
Temp
1005F
Pressure 2415 psi

Reheat Steam
Flow
3.336 x 106 lb/h
Temp
1000F
Pressure 532 psi

Electrostatic precipitator
0.03 lb/106 Btu
350 ft2/1000 SCFM

Coal feed 223 t/h
9
Btu input 4.88 x 10 Btu/h
Ash Flow Rates

t/h

Furnace bottom ash
Economizer ash
Flyash
Total through unit
Mill rejects (pyrites)

5.1
2.2
20.7
28.0
0.5

Heat Rates at Full Load
Steam cycle
Gross
Net

7880 Btu/kWh
8985 Btu/kWh
9871 Btu/kWh

Rated Output
Power Production
Total gross
Total Net

536 MW
494 MW

Thermal
Discharge

6
10 Btu/h

Cooling towers
Stack
Controlled Emissions

lb/h

SO2
NOx as NO2
Particulate

731 *
342 *
146

Efficiencies
Boiler (coal to steam)
Plant (coal to busbar)

Turbine/Generator
Tandem-compound, four-flow, 3600 rpm,
640,000 kVa at 24 kV, 3 phase, 60 Hz.

Untreated Flue Gas Characteristics

Fans
FD: 2 motor-driven, total 4,000,000 lb/h
PA: 2 motor-driven, total 710,000 lb/h
ID: 4 motor-driven, total 5,174,000 lb/h

Nitrogen
Carbon dioxide
Oxygen
Water
Sulfur dioxide

Fan Horsepower Requirements
FD: 2400 HP based on static rise from −0.5 to 14 in. wg
PA: 1700 HP based on static rise from −0.5 to 50 in. wg
ID: 9900 HP based on static rise from −23 to 10 in. wg
Fan data assumes 8% air heater leakage and
87% fan/motor efficiency.
Feedwater Pumps
Main:
2 turbine-driven, 50% capacity,
5000 GPM each, TDH: 7200 ft
Booster:

2 turbine-driven, 50% capacity,
4800 GPM each, TDH: 1280 ft

Condensate: 2 motor-driven, 100% capacity,
1400 hp, 7000 GPM each, TDH: 630 ft

T-16

Volume %
Dry
Wet

Component

81.07
15.28
3.26

0.39
100.00

2500
587

88%
35%

Flue Gas Molecular
Weight

73.47
13.84
2.95
9.39
0.35
100.00

30.85 (dry basis)
29.64 (wet basis)

Excess air leaving economizer 17.9%
Mass Flows

lb/10,000 Btu

Actual dry air
Wet gas from fuel
Moisture in air
Wet gas weight
Water from fuel
Water in wet gas
Dry gas weight

8.888
0.800
0.116
9.804
0.444
0.560
9.244

Water in wet gas (as%) 5.711%

Losses
Dry gas loss
Water from fuel
Moisture in air
Unburned
combustibles
Radiation
Unaccounted for
manufacturer's
margin

%
4.659
5.056
0.116
0.500
0.170
1.500
12.001

*Local requirements vary.

Steam 41 / Conversion Factors, SI Steam Properties and Useful Tables