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Chapter 3

Fluid Dynamics

**In the production and use of steam there are many
**

fluid dynamics considerations. Fluid dynamics addresses steam and water flow through pipes, fittings,

valves, tube bundles, nozzles, orifices, pumps and turbines, as well as entire circulating systems. It also considers air and gas flow through ducts, tube banks, fans,

compressors and turbines plus convection flow of gases

due to draft effect. The fluid may be a liquid or gas

but, regardless of its state, the essential property of a

fluid is that it yields under the slightest shear stress.

This chapter is limited to the discussion of Newtonian

liquids, gases and vapors where any shear stress is

directly proportional to a velocity gradient normal to

the shear force. The ratio of the shear stress to the velocity gradient is the property viscosity represented by

the symbol µ.

Liquids and gases are recognized as states of matter. In the liquid state, a fluid is relatively incompressible, having a definite volume. It is also capable of

forming a free surface interface between itself and its

vapor or any other fluid with which it does not mix. On

the other hand, a gas is highly compressible. It expands

or diffuses indefinitely and is subject only to the limitations of gravitational forces or an enclosing vessel.

The term vapor generally implies a gas near saturation conditions where the liquid and the gas phase

coexist at essentially the same temperature and pressure, during a process such as vaporization or boiling.

In a similar sense the term gas denotes a highly superheated steam. Sometimes steam may be treated as

an ideal gas and careful judgment is needed when

doing so.

Fluid dynamics principles normally consider the

fluid to be a continuous region of matter, a continuum,

and a molecular model is not required except for rare

instances. However, one property is noteworthy to consider due to the effect on steam generation fluid flow

and due to intermolecular forces. Surface tension, σ,

is a liquid property of the vapor-liquid interface and

is the energy per unit area required to extend the interface. Surface tension is important in two-phase systems, such as a mixture flowing in a boiler tube, and

relates to the shape and flow regime of the bubble interface and also to the heat transfer area of droplets.

Vapor bubbles increase the resistance to fluid flow.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The surface tension of water is dependent on temperature and its value goes to zero at the critical temperature (705.47 F, 374.15C). Supercritical water is considered single phase in fluid dynamic analysis due to

zero surface tension.

The recommended correlation1 for the surface tension of water and its vapor, σ, is:

(T − T )

σ = 235.8 × 10 N / m c

T

1.256

−3

Tc − T

1 − 0.625 T

(1)

**where Tc = 647.15K and T is the fluid temperature in K.
**

Water in steam generators operating at supercritical pressure (above 3200.1 psia, 22.1 MPa) will behave as a single phase fluid converting from liquid to

steam without creating bubbles. At the critical pressure and critical temperature, the density of water and

steam are identical and there is no distinguishable interface at equilibrium conditions. Surface tension is

also related to the latent heat of vaporization which

also decreases to zero at the critical temperature.2 This

chapter discusses single phase fluid flow. Chapter 5

pertains to two-phase fluid flow that occurs in boiling

tube circuits.

Fundamental relationships

Three fundamental laws of conservation apply to

fluid dynamic systems: conservation of mass, momentum and energy. With the exception of nuclear reactions where minute quantities of mass are converted

into energy, these laws must be satisfied in all flowing systems. Fundamental mathematical relationships

for these principles are presented in several different

forms that may be applied in particular fluid dynamic

situations to provide an appropriate solution method.

However, full analytical solutions are frequently too

complex without the use of a computer. Simplified

forms of the full equations can be derived by applying engineering judgment to drop negligible terms and

consider only terms of significant magnitude for cer3-1

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

tain classes of problems. Fluid dynamics problems can

be classified as compressible or incompressible, viscous

or inviscid. Engineering practice is based upon applying various assumptions and empirical relationships

in order to obtain a practical method of solution. A

more complete discussion of the derivation of these

conservation law relationships and vector notation

representing three dimensional spaces may be found

in References 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Conservation of mass

The law of conservation of mass simply states that

the rate of change in mass stored in a system must

equal the difference in the mass flowing into and out

of the system. The continuity equation of mass for one

dimensional single phase flow in a variable area channel or stream tube is:

A

∂V

∂A

∂ρ

∂ρ

= 0

+ ρA

+ ρV

+ AV

∂x

∂x

∂x

∂t

(2)

**In its simplest form in x, y and z three dimensional
**

Cartesian coordinates, conservation of mass for a small

fixed control volume is:

∂ρ

∂

∂

∂

ρu +

ρv +

ρw = −

∂t

∂z

∂y

∂x

(3)

**where u, v and w are the fluid velocities in the x, y
**

and z coordinate directions; t is time and ρ is the fluid

density. An important form of this equation is derived

by assuming steady-state (∂ /∂ t = 0) and incompressible (constant density) flow conditions:

∂u ∂v ∂w

= 0

+

+

∂x ∂y ∂z

(4)

Although no liquid is truly incompressible, the assumption of incompressibility simplifies problem solutions and is frequently acceptable for engineering

practice considering water and oils.

Another relationship useful in large scale pipe flow

systems involves the integration of Equation 3 around

the flow path for constant density, steady-state conditions. For only one inlet (subscript 1) and one outlet

(subscript 2):

**The conservation of momentum for one dimensional
**

single phase flow in a variable area channel or stream

tube is:

τ Pf

1 ∂G 1 ∂ G 2 A

+

+

gc ∂t

A ∂x ρ

A

∂P

g

= 0

+

ρ sin θ +

∂x

gc

where

P

G

A

ρ

τ

Pf

g

gc

θ

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

**pressure, psia (MPa)
**

mass flux, G = ρV, lb/h ft2 (kg/s m2)

flow area of channel ft2 (m2)

density lb/ft3 (kg/m3)

wall shear stress, lb/ft2 (N/m2) (refer to Equation 26)

channel wetted perimeter, ft (m)

32.17 ft /s2 (9.8 m /s2)

32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 (1 kg m /N s2)

angle of channel inclination for x distance

**This relationship is useful in calculating steam generator tube circuit pressure drop.
**

The conservation of momentum is a vector equation and is direction dependent, resulting in one equation for each coordinate direction (x, y and z for Cartesian coordinates), providing three momentum equations for each scaler velocity component, u, v and w.

The full mathematical representation of the momentum equation is complex and is of limited direct use in

many engineering applications, except for numerical

computational models. As an example, in the x coordinate direction, the full momentum equation becomes:

∂u

∂u

∂u

∂u

+w

+v

+u

ρ

∂z

∂y

∂x

∂t

= ρ fx

∂P

∂x

∂ 2 ∂u ∂v ∂w

+

−

−

µ 2

∂x 3 ∂x ∂y ∂z

−

(5)

+

where ρ is the average density, V is the average velocity, A is the cross-sectional area, and m is the mass

flow rate.

∂ ∂v ∂u

+

µ

∂y ∂x ∂y

+

∂ ∂w ∂u

+

µ

∂z

∂z ∂x

= ρ1 A1 V1 = ρ 2 A2 V2

m

Conservation of momentum

The law of conservation of momentum is a representation of Newton’s Second Law of Motion – the

mass of a particle times its acceleration is equal to the

sum of all of the forces acting on the particle. In a flowing system, the equivalent relationship for a fixed (control) volume becomes: the rate of change in momentum entering and leaving the control volume is equal

to the sum of the forces acting on the control volume.

3-2

(6)

Term 1

Term 2

Term 3

Term 4

(7)

**where ƒx is the body force in the x direction, P is the
**

pressure, and µ is the viscosity. This equation and the

corresponding equations in the y and z Cartesian coordinates represent the Navier-Stokes equations

which are valid for all compressible Newtonian fluids

with variable viscosity. Term 1 is the rate of momentum change. Term 2 accounts for body force effects

such as gravity. Term 3 accounts for the pressure gradient. The balance of the equation accounts for moSteam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

mentum change due to viscous transfer. Term 1 is

sometimes abbreviated as ρ (Du /Dt) where Du /Dt is

defined as the substantial derivative of u. For a function β (scaler or vector), D /Dt is the substantial derivative operator on function β defined as:

∂β

∂β

∂β

Dβ

+v

+u

=

∂y

∂x

∂t

Dt

∂β

∂β

+ v i ∇β

=

+w

∂t

∂z

(8)

**∇β or grad β or del β = i ∂ β/∂x + j ∂ β/∂y + k ∂ β/∂z
**

For the special case of constant density and viscosity,

this equation reduces to (for the x coordinate direction):

(9)

**The y and z coordinate equations can be developed
**

by substituting appropriate parameters for velocity u,

pressure gradient ∂P / ∂x, and body force ƒx. Where viscosity effects are negligible ( µ = 0), the Euler equation

of momentum is produced (x direction only shown):

1 ∂P

Du

= fx −

Dt

ρ ∂x

(10)

**Energy equation (first law of thermodynamics)
**

The law of conservation of energy for nonreacting

fluids states that the energy transferred into a system less the mechanical work done by the system must

be equal to the rate of change in stored energy, plus

the energy flowing out of the system with a fluid,

minus the energy flowing into the system with a fluid.

A single scaler equation results. The one dimensional

single phase flow energy equation for a variable area

channel or stream tube is:

ρ

P

∂H

∂H

1 ∂P

= q′′ H + q′′′ +

+G

A

J ∂τ

∂x

∂t

(11)

where

P

G

A

ρ

τ

PH

x

H

J

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

**pressure, psia (MPa)
**

mass flux, lb/h ft2 (kg/s m2)

flow area of channel, ft2 (m2)

density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3)

wall shear stress, lb/ft2 (N/m2)

channel heated area, ft2 (m2)

channel distance, ft (m) for x distance

enthalpy, Btu/lb (kJ/kg)

mechanical equivalent of heat = 778.17 ft lbf/

Btu (1 N m/J)

q ′′ = heat flux at boundary, Btu/h ft2 (W/m2)

q ′′′ = internal heat generation, Btu/h ft3 (W/m)

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

ρ

DH

= q′′′ +

Dt

DP

µ

+ ∇ik∇T +

Φ

Dt

gc

Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4

**where the vector gradient or grad or del operator on
**

function β is defined as:

1 ∂P

Du

µ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u

+ 2 + 2 + 2

= fx −

∂z

∂y

Dt

ρ ∂x

ρ ∂x

**A general form of the energy equation for a flowing system using an enthalpy based formulation and
**

vector notation is:

Term 5

(12)

**where ρ is the fluid density, H is the enthalpy per unit
**

mass of a fluid, T is the fluid temperature, q′′′ is the

internal heat generation, k is the thermal conductivity, and Φ is the dissipation function for irreversible

work.6 Term 1 accounts for net energy convected into

the system, Term 2 accounts for internal heat generation, Term 3 accounts for work done by the system,

Term 4 addresses heat conduction, and Term 5 accounts for viscous dissipation.

As with the momentum equations, the full energy

equation is too complex for most direct engineering

applications except for use in numerical models. (See

Chapter 6.) As a result, specialized forms are based

upon various assumptions and engineering approximations. As discussed in Chapter 2, the most common

form of the energy equation for a simple, inviscid (i.e.,

frictionless) steady-state flow system with flow in at

location 1 and out at location 2 is:

**JQ − W = J ( u2 − u1 ) + ( P2v2 − P1v1 )
**

+

g

1

V22 − V12 + ( Z2 − Z1 )

gc

2 gc

(

)

(13a)

or

JQ − W = J ( H 2 − H1 )

+

g

1

V22 − V12 + ( Z2 − Z1 )

gc

2 gc

(

)

(13b)

where

Q = heat added to the system, Btu lbm (J/kg)

(See Note below)

W = work done by the system, ft-lbf/lbm (N m/kg)

J = mechanical equivalent of heat = 778.17 ft lbf/

Btu (1 N m/J)

u = internal energy, Btu/lbm (J/kg)

P = pressure, lbf/ft2 (N/m2)

υ = specific volume, ft3/lbm (m3/kg)

V = velocity, ft /s (m/s)

Z = elevation, ft (m)

H = enthalpy = u + Pυ/J, Btu/lbm (J/kg)

g = 32.17 ft /s2 (9.8 m /s2)

g c = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 (1 kg m /N s2)

Note: Where required for clarity, the abbreviation lb is augmented by f (lbf) to indicate pound force and by m (lbm) to

indicate pound mass. Otherwise lb is used with force or

mass indicated by the context.

3-3

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

**Energy equation applied to fluid flow
**

(pressure loss without friction)

The conservation laws of mass and energy, when

simplified for steady, frictionless (i.e., inviscid) flow of

an incompressible fluid, result in the mechanical energy balance referred to as Bernoulli’s equation:

P1v + Z1

V2

V2

g

g

+ 1 = P2v + Z2

+ 2

gc

gc

2 gc

2 gc

(14)

**The variables in Equation 14 are defined as follows
**

with the subscripts referring to location 1 and location 2 in the system:

P

υ

Z

V

=

=

=

=

**pressure, lbf/ft2 (N/m2)
**

specific volume of fluid, ft3/lbm (m3/kg)

elevation, ft (m)

fluid velocity, ft/s (m/s)

Briefly, Equation 14 states that the total mechanical energy present in a flowing fluid is made up of pressure energy, gravity energy and velocity or kinetic

energy; each is mutually convertible into the other

forms. Furthermore, the total mechanical energy is

constant along any stream-tube, provided there is no

friction, heat transfer or shaft work between the points

considered. This stream-tube may be an imaginary

closed surface bounded by stream lines or it may be

the wall of a flow channel, such as a pipe or duct, in

which fluid flows without a free surface.

Applications of Equation 14 are found in flow measurements using the velocity head conversion resulting from flow channel area changes. Examples are the

venturi, flow nozzle and various orifices. Also, pitot

tube flow measurements depend on being able to compare the total head, Pυ + Z + (V2 /2 gc ), to the static

head, Pυ + Z, at a specific point in the flow channel.

Descriptions of metering instruments are found in

Chapter 40. Bernoulli’s equation, developed from

strictly mechanical energy concepts some 50 years

before any precise statement of thermodynamic laws,

is a special case of the conservation of energy equation or first law of thermodynamics in Equations 13a

and b.

Applications of Equation 13 to fluid flow are given

in the examples on water and compressible fluid flow

through a nozzle under the Applications of the Energy Equation section in Chapter 2. Equation 18,

Chapter 2 is:

V2 =

2 gc J ( H1 − H 2 ) = C H1 − H 2

(15)

where

V2 =

gc =

J =

H1 =

H2 =

C =

downstream velocity, ft/s (m/s)

32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 = 1 kg m/Ns2

778.26 ft lbf/Btu = 1 Nm/J

upstream enthalpy, Btu/lb (J/kg)

downstream enthalpy, Btu/lb (J/kg)

223.8 lbm/Btu × ft/s (1.414 kg/J × m/s)

This equation relates fluid velocity to a change in enthalpy under adiabatic (no heat transfer), steady, inviscid (no friction) flow where no work, local irrevers3-4

**ible flow pressure losses, or change in elevation occurs.
**

The initial velocity is assumed to be zero and compressible flow is permitted. If the temperature (T ) and pressure (P ) of steam or water are known at points 1 and

2, Equation 15 provides the exit velocity using the enthalpy (H) values provided in Tables 1, 2 and 3 of Chapter 2. If the pressure and temperature at point 1 are

known but only the pressure at point 2 is known, the

outlet enthalpy (H2) can be evaluated by assuming constant entropy expansion from points 1 to 2, i.e., S1 = S2.

**Ideal gas relationships
**

There is another method that can be used to determine velocity changes in a frictionless adiabatic expansion. This method uses the ideal gas equation of

state in combination with the pressure-volume relationship for constant entropy.

From the established gas laws, the relationship between pressure, volume and temperature of an ideal

gas is expressed by:

Pv = RT

or

Pv =

(16a)

R

T

M

(16b)

where

P

υ

M

**= absolute pressure, lb/ft2 (N/m2)
**

= specific volume, ft3/lb of gas (m3/kg)

= molecular weight of the gas, lb/lb-mole

(kg/kg-mole)

T = absolute temperature, R (K)

R = gas constant for specific gas, ft lbf/lbm R

(N m/kg K)

MR = R = the universal gas constant

= 1545 ft lb/lb-mole R (8.3143 kJ/kg-mole K)

The relationship between pressure and specific volume along an expansion path at constant entropy, i.e.,

isentropic expansion, is given by:

Pvk = constant

(17)

**Because P1 and υ1 in Equation 13 are known, the constant can be evaluated from P1υ1k. The exponent k is
**

constant and is evaluated for an ideal gas as:

k = c p / cv = specific heat ratio

(18)

where

cp = specific heat at constant pressure, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

cv = specific heat at constant volume, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

= (u1 – u2)/(T1 – T2)

For a steady, adiabatic flow with no work or change

in elevation of an ideal gas, Equations 13, 16, 17 and

18 can be combined to provide the following relationship:

V22 − V12

k −1

P2 k

k

= 2 gc

P1 v1 1 − P

k −1

1

(19)

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

When V1 is set to zero and using English units Equation 19 becomes:

V2 = 8.02

k −1

P2 k

k

P1 v1 1 − , ft/s

k −1

P1

(20)

Equations 19 and 20 can be used for gases in pressure drop ranges where there is little change in k, provided values of k are known or can be calculated.

Equation 20 is widely used in evaluating gas flow

through orifices, nozzles and flow meters.

It is sufficiently accurate for most purposes to determine velocity differences caused by changes in flow

area by treating a compressible fluid as incompressible. This assumption only applies when the difference

in specific volumes at points 1 and 2 is small compared

to the final specific volume. The accepted practice is

to consider the fluid incompressible when:

(v2 − v1 ) / v2 < 0.05

(21)

**Because Equation 14 represents the incompressible
**

energy balance for frictionless adiabatic flow, it may

be rearranged to solve for the velocity difference as

follows:

V22 − V12 = 2 gc ∆ ( Pv ) + ∆Zg / gc

22)

where

∆(Pυ) = pressure head difference between locations

1 and 2 = (P1 – P2) υ, ft (m)

∆Z

= head (elevation) difference between locations 1 and 2, ft (m)

V

= velocity at locations 1 and 2, ft/s (m/s)

When the approach velocity is approximately zero,

Equation 22 in English units becomes:

V2 =

2 gh = 8.02 h , ft/s

most flow situations there are also bulk fluid interchanges known as eddy diffusion. The net result of

all inelastic momentum exchanges is exhibited in

shear stresses between adjacent layers of the fluid. If

the fluid is contained in a flow channel, these stresses

are eventually transmitted to the walls of the channel. To counterbalance this wall shear stress, a pressure gradient proportional to the bulk kinetic energy,

V 2 / 2 gc, is established in the fluid in the direction of

the bulk flow. The force balance is:

π

**D = tube diameter or hydraulic diameter Dh ft (m)
**

Dh = 4 × (flow area)/(wetted perimeter) for circular or noncircular cross-sections, ft (m)

dx = distance in direction of flow, ft (m)

τw = shear stress at the tube wall, lb/ft2 (N/m2 )

Solving Equation 24 for the pressure gradient (dP /

dx):

4

dP

=

τw

dx

D

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

(25)

**This pressure gradient along the length of the flow
**

channel can be expressed in terms of a certain number of velocity heads, ƒ, lost in a length of pipe equivalent to one tube diameter. The symbol ƒ is called the

friction factor, which has the following relationship to

the shear stress at the tube wall:

τw =

f 1 V2

4 v 2 gc

(26)

**Equation 25 can be rewritten, substituting for τw from
**

Equation 26 as follows:

4 f 1 V2

dP

f 1 V2

=

=

dx

D 4 v 2 gc

D v 2 gc

(27)

**The general energy equation, Equation 13, expressed
**

as a differential has the form:

VdV

+ d ( Pv ) = dQ − dWk

gc

(28a)

VdV

+ Pdv + vdP = dQ − dWk

gc

(28b)

du +

**Pressure loss from fluid friction
**

So far, only pressure changes associated with the

kinetic energy term, V 2/2 gc, and static pressure term,

Z, have been discussed. These losses occur at constant

flow where there are variations in flow channel crosssectional area and where the inlet and outlet are at

different elevations. Fluid friction and, in some cases

heat transfer with the surroundings, also have important effects on pressure and velocity in a flowing fluid.

The following discussion applies to fluids flowing in

channels without a free surface.

When a fluid flows, molecular diffusion causes

momentum interchanges between layers of the fluid

that are moving at different velocities. These interchanges are not limited to individual molecules. In

(24)

where

(23)

In this equation, h, in ft head of the flowing fluid, replaces ∆(Pυ) + ∆Z. If the pressure difference is measured in psi, it must be converted to lb/ft2 to obtain Pυ

in ft.

D2

( dP ) = τ wπ D ( dx )

4

or

du +

**Substituting Equation 26 of Chapter 2 (du = Tds –
**

Pdυ) in Equation 28 yields:

VdV

Tds +

+ vdP = dQ − dWk

(29)

gc

The term Tds represents heat transferred to or from

the surroundings, dQ, and any heat added internally

to the fluid as the result of irreversible processes.

These processes include fluid friction or any irrevers3-5

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

ible pressure losses resulting from fluid flow. (See

Equation 29 and explanation, Chapter 2.) Therefore:

Tds = dQ + dQF

(30)

**where dQF is the heat equivalent of fluid friction and
**

any local irrecoverable pressure losses such as those

from pipe fittings, bends, expansions or contractions.

Substituting Equation 30 into Equation 29, canceling dQ on both sides of the equation, setting dWk equal

to 0 (no shaft work), and rearranging Equation 29

results in:

dP = −

dQF

VdV

−

vgc

v

dQF

dx V 2

= f

D v 2 gc

v

(32)

Substitution of Equation 32 into Equation 31 yields:

VdV

f V2

dx

−

vgc

D v 2 gc

(33)

**From Equation 5, the continuity equation permits
**

definition of the mass flux, G, or mass velocity or mass

flow rate per unit area [lb/h ft2 (kg/m2 s)] as:

V

= G = constant

(34)

v

Substituting Equation 34 into Equation 33 for a flow

channel of constant area:

dP = − 2

G2 v

G2

dx

dv − f

2 gc

2 gc D

(35)

Integrating Equation 35 between points 1 and 2, located at x = 0 and x = L, respectively:

P1 − P2 = 2

3-6

G2 1

G2

(v2 − v1 ) + f

2 gc

2 gc D

dx =

and

∫

(31)

Three significant facts should be noted from Equation 31 and its derivation. First, the general energy

equation does not accommodate pressure losses due

to fluid friction or geometry changes. To accommodate

these losses Equation 31 must be altered based on the

first and second laws of thermodynamics (Chapter 2).

Second, Equation 31 does not account for heat transfer except as it may change the specific volume, υ,

along the length of the flow channel. Third, there is

also a pressure loss as the result of a velocity change.

This loss is independent of any flow area change but

is dependent on specific volume changes. The pressure

loss is due to acceleration which is always present in

compressible fluids. It is generally negligible in incompressible flow without heat transfer because friction

heating has little effect on fluid temperature and the

accompanying specific volume change.

Equation 27 contains no acceleration term and

applies only to friction and local pressure losses. Therefore, dQF/υ in Equation 31 is equivalent to dP of

Equation 27, or:

dP = −

**The second term on the right side of Equation 36 may
**

be integrated provided a functional relationship between υ and x can be established. For example, where

the heat absorption rate over the length of the flow

channel is constant, temperature T is approximately

linear in x, or:

∫

L

0

vdx

(36)

L

0

vdx =

L

dT

T2 − T1

L

T2 − T1

∫

2

1

vdT = Lvav

(37)

(38)

The term υaυ is an average specific volume with respect to temperature, T.

vav = φ (v2 + v1 ) = φv1 (vR + 1 )

(39)

where

υR = υ 2 / υ 1

φ = averaging factor

In most engineering evaluations, υ is almost linear in T and φ ≈ l/2. Combining Equations 36 and

37, and rewriting υ 2 – υ 1 as υ 1 (υ R – 1):

P1 − P2 = 2

+ f

G2

v1 ( vR − 1 )

2 gc

L G2

v1φ ( vR + 1 )

D 2 gc

(40)

**Equation 40 is completely general. It is valid for compressible and incompressible flow in pipes of constant
**

cross-section as long as the function T = F(x) can be assigned. The only limitation is that dP/dx is negative at

every point along the pipe. Equation 33 can be solved

for dP/dx making use of Equation 34 and the fact that

P1υ1 can be considered equal to P2υ2 for adiabatic flow

over a short section of tube length. The result is:

dP

=

dx

Pf / 2 D

g Pv

1− c 2

V

(41)

**At any point where V 2 = gcPυ, the flow becomes choked
**

because the pressure gradient is positive for velocities

greater than (gcPυ)0.5. The flow is essentially choked

by excessive stream expansion due to the drop in pressure. The minimum downstream pressure that is effective in producing flow in a channel is:

P2 = V 2 / v2 gc = v2 G 2 / gc

(42)

**Dividing both sides of Equation 40 by G2 υ l / 2gc,
**

the pressure loss is expressed in terms of velocity

heads. One velocity head equals:

∆P (one velocity head) =

V2

ρV 2

=

2 gcCv

2 gcC

(43)

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

where

∆P = pressure drop equal to one velocity head, lb/

in.2 (N/m2)

V = velocity, ft/s (m/s)

υ = specific volume, ft3/lb (m3/kg)

g c = 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s2 = 1 kg m/N s2

C = 144 in.2/ft2 (1 m2/m2)

ρ = density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3)

In either case, ƒ represents the number of velocity

heads (Nvh) lost in each diameter length of pipe.

The dimensionless parameter defined by the pressure loss divided by twice Equation 43 is referred to

as the Euler number:

(

Eu = ∆P / ρV 2 / gc

)

(44)

**where ρ is the density, or l/υ .
**

Two other examples of integrating Equation 35

have wide applications in fluid flow. First, adiabatic

flow through a pipe is considered. Both H and D are

constant and Plυ lm = P2υ 2m where m is the exponent

for constant enthalpy. Values of m for steam range

from 0.98 to 1.0. Therefore, the assumption Pυ = constant = P1υ 1 is sufficiently accurate for pressure drop

calculations. This process is sometimes called isothermal pressure drop because a constant temperature ideal

gas expansion also requires a constant enthalpy. For Pυ

= P1υ 1, the integration of Equation 35 reduces to:

v

G 2 2v1 v2

n 2

2 gc v1 + v2

v1

L G 2 2v1v2

+ f

D 2 gc v1 + v2

P1 − P2 = 2

L G2

v

D 2 gc

L G

v

De 105

2

(47)

where

∆P =

ƒ =

L =

De =

**fluid pressure drop, psi
**

friction factor from Fig. 1, dimensionless

length, ft

equivalent diameter of flow channel, in. (note

units)

υ = specific volume of fluid, ft3/lb

G = mass flux of fluid, lb/h ft2

Friction factor

The friction factor (ƒ) introduced in Equation 26, is

defined as the dimensionless fluid friction loss in velocity heads per diameter length of pipe or equivalent

diameter length of flow channel. Earlier correlators in

this field, including Fanning, used a friction factor one

fourth the magnitude indicated by Equation 26. This

is because the shear stress at the wall is proportional

to one fourth the velocity head. All references to ƒ in

this book combine the factor 4 in Equation 25 with ƒ as

has been done by Darcy, Blasius, Moody and others.

The friction factor is plotted in Fig. 1 as a function of

the Reynolds number, a dimensionless group of variables defined as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous

forces. The Reynolds number (Re) can be written:

Re =

ρVDe

VDe

GDe

or

or

µ

ν

µ

(48)

where

(46)

**All terms in Equations 45 and 46 are expressed in
**

consistent units. However, it is general practice and

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

∆P = f

(45)

**Neither P2 nor υ2 are known in most cases, therefore
**

Equation 45 is solved by iteration. Also, the term 2υ1 υ2

/(υ1 + υ2) can usually be replaced by the numerical average of the specific volumes – υav = 1/2 υ1(PR + 1) where

PR = P1 /P2 = υ2/υ1. The maximum high side error at PR

= 1.10 is 0.22% and this increases to 1.3% at PR = 1.25.

It is common practice to use a numerical average for

the specific volume in most fluid friction pressure drop

calculations. However, where the lines are long, P2

should be checked by Equation 42. Also, where heat

transfer is taking place, P2 is seldom constant along the

flow channel and appropriate averaging factors should

be used. Computation using small zone subdivisions

along the length of the tube circuit is recommended to

limit errors in widely varying property values.

The second important example considering flow

under adiabatic conditions assumes an almost incompressible fluid, i.e., υ1 is approximately equal to υ2. (See

Equation 21.) Substituting υ for υ1 and υ2 in Equation 45, the result is:

P1 − P2 = f

**often more convenient to use mixed units. For example, a useful form of Equation 46 in English units
**

is:

ρ =

ν =

µ =

V =

G =

De =

**density of fluid, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3)
**

kinematic viscosity = µ /ρ, ft2/h (m2/s)

viscosity of fluid, lbm/ft h (kg/m s)

velocity of fluid, ft/h (m/s)

mass flux of fluid, lb/h ft2 (kg/m2 s)

equivalent diameter of flow channel, ft (m)

**Fluid flow inside a closed channel occurs in a viscous
**

or laminar manner at low velocity and in a turbulent

manner at high velocities. Many experiments on fluid

friction pressure drop, examined by dimensional

analysis and the laws of similarity, have shown that

the Reynolds number can be used to characterize a

flow pattern. Examination of Fig. 1 shows that flow

is laminar at Reynolds numbers less than 2000, generally turbulent at values exceeding 4000 and completely turbulent at higher values. Indeterminate conditions exist in the critical zone between Reynolds

numbers of 2000 and 4000.

Fluid flow can be described by a system of simultaneous partial differential equations. (See earlier Fundamental relationships section.) However, due to the

complexity of these equations, solutions are generally

only available for the case of laminar flow, where the

only momentum changes are on a molecular basis. For

laminar flow, integration of the Navier-Stokes equa3-7

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

tion with velocity in the length direction only gives the

following equation for friction factor:

f = 64 / Re

(49)

**The straight line in the laminar flow region of Fig. 1
**

is a plot of this equation.

It has been experimentally determined that the

friction factor is best evaluated by using the Reynolds

number to define the flow pattern. A factor ε/De is then

introduced to define the relative roughness of the

channel surface. The coefficient ε expresses the average height of roughness protrusions equivalent to the

sand grain roughness established by Nikuradse.6 The

friction factor values in Fig. 1 and the ε/De values in

Fig. 2 are taken from experimental data as correlated

by Moody.7

Laminar flow

Laminar flow is characterized by the parallel flowing of individual streams like layers sliding over each

other. There is no mixing between the streams except

for molecular diffusion from one layer to the other. A

**small layer of fluid next to the boundary wall has zero
**

velocity as a result of molecular adhesion forces. This

establishes a velocity gradient normal to the main body

of flow. Because the only interchanges of momentum

in laminar flow are between the molecules of the fluid,

the condition of the surface has no effect on the velocity gradient and therefore no effect on the friction

factor. In commercial equipment, laminar flow is usually encountered only with more viscous liquids such

as the heavier oils.

Turbulent flow

When turbulence exists, there are momentum interchanges between masses of fluid. These interchanges are induced through secondary velocities,

irregular fluctuations or eddys, that are not parallel

to the axis of the mean flow velocity. In this case, the

condition of the boundary surface, roughness, does

have an effect on the velocity gradient near the wall,

which in turn affects the friction factor. Heat transfer is substantially greater with turbulent flow (Chapter 4) and, except for viscous liquids, it is common to

induce turbulent flow with steam and water without

Fig. 1 Friction factor/Reynolds number relationship for determining pressure drop of fluids flowing through closed circuits (pipes and ducts).

3-8

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

excessive friction loss. Consequently, it is customary

to design for Reynolds numbers above 4000 in steam

generating units.

Turbulence fluctuations in the instantaneous velocity introduce additional terms to the momentum

conservation equation called Reynolds stresses. These

fluctuations influence the mean motion and increase

the flow resistance in a manner producing an increase

in the apparent viscosity. Analysis of turbulent flow

must consider the impact of the fluctuating velocity

component along with the mean flow velocity or resort to empirical methods that account for the additional momentum dissipation.4, 6, 8

Velocity ranges

Table 1 lists the velocity ranges generally encountered in the heat transfer equipment as well as in duct

and piping systems of steam generating units. These

values, plus the specific volumes from the ASME

Steam Tables (see Chapter 2) and the densities listed

in Tables 2 and 3 in this chapter, are used to establish

mass velocities for calculating Reynolds numbers and

fluid friction pressure drops. In addition, values of

viscosity, also required in calculating the Reynolds

number, are given in Figs. 3, 4 and 5 for selected liquids and gases. Table 4 lists the relationship between

various units of viscosity.

**Resistance to flow in valves and fittings
**

Pipelines and duct systems contain many valves and

fittings. Unless the lines are used to transport fluids

over long distances, as in the distribution of process

steam at a factory or the cross country transmission

of oil or gas, the straight runs of pipe or duct are relatively short. Water, steam, air and gas lines in a power

plant have relatively short runs of straight pipe and

many valves and fittings. Consequently, the flow resistance due to valves and fittings is a substantial part

of the total resistance.

Methods for estimating the flow resistance in valves

and fittings are less exact than those used in establishing the friction factor for straight pipes and ducts.

In the latter, pressure drop is considered to be the result of the fluid shear stress at the boundary walls of

the flow channel; this leads to relatively simple boundary value evaluations. On the other hand, pressure

losses associated with valves, fittings and bends are

mainly the result of impacts and inelastic exchanges

Table 1

Velocities Common in Steam Generating Systems

Velocity

Nature of Service

Air:

Air heater

Coal and air lines,

pulverized coal

Compressed air lines

Forced draft air ducts

Forced draft air ducts,

entrance to burners

Ventilating ducts

Crude oil lines [6 to 30

in. (152 to 762 mm)]

Flue gas:

Air heater

Boiler gas passes

Induced draft flues

and breaching

Stacks and chimneys

Natural gas lines (large

interstate)

Steam:

Steam lines

High pressure

Low pressure

Vacuum

Superheater tubes

Fig. 2 Relative roughness of various conduit surfaces. (SI conversion: mm = 25.4 X in.)

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

ft/min

m/s

1000 to 5000

5.1 to 25.4

3000 to 4500

1500 to 2000

1500 to 3600

15.2 to 22.9

7.6 to 10.2

7.6 to 18.3

1500 to 2000

1000 to 3000

7.6 to 10.2

5.1 to 15.2

60 to 3600

0.3 to 18.3

1000 to 5000

3000 to 6000

5.1 to 25.4

15.2 to 30.5

2000 to 3500

2000 to 5000

10.2 to 17.8

10.2 to 25.4

1000 to 1500

5.1 to 7.6

8000 to 12,000 40.6 to

12,000 to 15,000 61.0 to

20,000 to 40,000 101.6 to

2000 to 5000

10.2 to

Water:

Boiler circulation

Economizer tubes

Pressurized water

reactors

Fuel assembly channels

Reactor coolant piping

Water lines, general

61.0

76.2

203.2

25.4

70 to 700

150 to 300

0.4 to 3.6

0.8 to 1.5

400 to 1300

2400 to 3600

500 to 750

2.0 to 6.6

12.2 to 18.3

2.5 to 3.8

3-9

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Table 2

Physical Properties of Liquids at 14.7 psi (0.101 MPa)

Liquid

Temperature F (C)

Water

70 (21)

212 (100)

70 (21)

Automotive oil

SAE 10

SAE 50

Mercury

Fuel oil, #6

70

70

180

70

Kerosene

55 to 57

57 to 59

846

60 to 65

60 to 65

50 to 51

(21)

(21)

(82)

(21)

Table 3

Physical Properties of Gases at 14.7 psi (0.101 MPa)**

Instantaneous

Specific Heat

Temperature Density, cp

cv

k,

F

lb/ft3 Btu/lb F Btu/lb F cp/cv

Air

70

200

500

1000

0.0749

0.0601

0.0413

0.0272

0.241

0.242

0.248

0.265

0.172

0.173

0.180

0.197

1.40

1.40

1.38

1.34

70

200

500

1000

0.1148

0.0922

0.0634

0.0417

0.202

0.216

0.247

0.280

0.155

0.170

0.202

0.235

1.30

1.27

1.22

1.19

H2

70

200

500

1000

0.0052

0.0042

0.0029

0.0019

3.440

3.480

3.500

3.540

2.440

2.490

2.515

2.560

1.41

1.40

1.39

1.38

Flue gas*

70

200

500

1000

0.0776

0.0623

0.0429

0.0282

0.253

0.255

0.265

0.283

0.187

0.189

0.199

0.217

1.35

1.35

1.33

1.30

70

200

500

1000

0.0416

0.0334

0.0230

0.0151

0.530

0.575

0.720

0.960

0.406

0.451

0.596

0.836

1.30

1.27

1.21

1.15

CO2

CH4

*** From coal; 120% total air; flue gas molecular weight 30.
**

** SI conversions: T, C = 5/9 (F-32); ρ, kg/m3 = 16.02 x lbm/

ft3; cp, kJ/kg K = 4.187 x Btu/lbm F.

3-10

Specific Heat

Btu/lb F (kJ/kg C)

62.4 (999.4)

59.9 (959.3)

**of momentum. These losses are frequently referred to
**

as local losses or local nonrecoverable pressure losses.

Even though momentum is conserved, kinetic energies are dissipated as heat. This means that pressure

losses are influenced mainly by the geometries of

valves, fittings and bends. As with turbulent friction

factors, pressure losses are determined from empirical correlations of test data. These correlations may

Gas

Density

lb/ft3 (kg/m3 )

1.000 (4.187)

1.000 (4.187)

(881 to 913)

(913 to 945)

(13,549)

(961 to 1041)

(961 to 1041)

(801 to 817)

0.435

0.425

0.033

0.40

0.46

0.47

(1.821)

(1.779)

(0.138)

(1.67)

(1.93)

(1.97)

**be based on equivalent pipe lengths, but are preferably defined by a multiple of velocity heads based on
**

the connecting pipe or tube sizes. Equivalent pipe

length calculations have the disadvantage of being

dependent on the relative roughness (ε/D) used in the

correlation. Because there are many geometries of

valves and fittings, it is customary to rely on manufacturers for pressure drop coefficients.

It is also customary for manufacturers to supply

valve flow coefficients (CV) for 60F (16C) water. These

are expressed as ratios of weight or volume flow in the

fully open position to the square root of the pressure

drop. These coefficients can be used to relate velocity

head losses to a connecting pipe size by the following

expression:

(50)

N v = kD 4 / CV 2

Table 4

Relationship Between Various Units of Viscosity

Part A: Dynamic (or Absolute) Viscosity, µ

Pa s

Ns

m2

=

Centipoise

kg

ms

0.01 g

cm s

1.0

0.001

1.49

413 x 10−6

47.90

1000

1.0

1488

0.413

47,900

lbm

ft s

672 x 10−3

672 x 10−6

1.0

278 x 10−6

32.2

lbm

ft h

lbf s

ft2

20.9 x 10−3

20.9 x 10−6

0.0311

8.6 x 10−6

1.0

2420

2.42

3600

1.0

115,900

**Part B: Kinematic Viscosity, ν = µ/ρ
**

Centistoke

m2

s

1.0

10−6

92.9 x 10−3

25.8 x 10−6

0.01 cm2

s

ft2

s

ft2

h

106

1.0

92,900

25.8

10.8

10.8 x 10−6

1.0

278 x 10−6

38,800

0.0389

3600

1.0

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

**Fig. 4 Absolute viscosities of some common gases at atmospheric
**

pressure.

**Fig. 3 Absolute viscosities of some common liquids (Pa s =
**

0.000413 X lbm/ft h).

where

Nυ = number of velocity heads, dimensionless

k = units conversion factor: for CV based upon

gal/min/(∆ρ)1/2, k = 891

D = internal diameter of connecting pipe, in.

(mm)

CV = flow coefficient in units compatible with k and

D: for k = 891, CV = gal/min/(∆ρ)1/2

CV and corresponding values of Nυ for valves apply

only to incompressible flow. However, they may be extrapolated for compressible condition using an average

specific volume between P1 and P2 for ∆P values as high

as 20% of P1. This corresponds to a maximum pressure

ratio of 1.25. The ∆P process for valves, bends and fittings is approximately isothermal and does not require

the most stringent limits set by Equation 21.

When pressure drop can be expressed as an equivalent number of velocity heads, it can be calculated by

the following formula in English units:

∆P = N v

v

12

G

105

2

(51)

where

∆P = pressure drop, lb/in.2

Nυ = number of equivalent velocity heads, dimensionless

υ = specific volume, ft3/lb

G = mass flux, lb/ft2 h

Another convenient expression, in English units only,

for pressure drop in air (or gas) flow evaluations is:

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

∆P = N v

30 T + 460 G

B 1.73 × 105 103

2

(52)

where

∆P = pressure drop, in. wg

B = barometric pressure, in. Hg

T = air (or gas) temperature, F

Equation 52 is based on air, which has a specific

volume of 25.2 ft3/lb at 1000R and a pressure equivalent to 30 in. Hg. This equation can be used for other

gases by correcting for specific volume.

The range in pressure drop through an assortment

of commercial fittings is given in Table 5. This resistance

to flow is presented in equivalent velocity heads based

on the internal diameter of the connecting pipe. As noted,

pressure drop through fittings may also be expressed as

the loss in equivalent lengths of straight pipe.

**Contraction and enlargement irreversible
**

pressure loss

The simplest sectional changes in a conduit are converging or diverging boundaries. Converging boundaries can stabilize flow during the change from pressure energy to kinetic energy, and local irrecoverable

flow losses (inelastic momentum exchanges) can be

practically eliminated with proper design. If the included angle of the converging boundaries is 30 deg

(0.52 rad) or less and the terminal junctions are

smooth and tangent, any losses in mechanical energy

are largely due to fluid friction. It is necessary to consider this loss as 0.05 times the velocity head, based

on the smaller downstream flow area.

3-11

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

When the elevation change (Z2 – Z1) is zero, the

mechanical energy balance for converging boundaries

becomes:

P1v +

V12

2 gc

= P2v +

V22

V2

+ Nc 2

2 gc

2 gc

(53)

**Subscripts 1 and 2 identify the upstream and downstream sections. Nc, the contraction loss factor, is the
**

number of velocity heads lost by friction and local nonrecoverable pressure loss in contraction. Fig. 6 shows

values of this factor.

When there is an enlargement of the conduit section in the direction of flow, the expansion of the flow

stream is proportional to the kinetic energy of the

flowing fluid and is subject to a pressure loss depending on the geometry. Just as in the case of the contraction loss, this is an irreversible energy conversion

to heat resulting from inelastic momentum exchanges. Because it is customary to show these losses

as coefficients of the higher kinetic energy term, the

mechanical energy balance for enlargement loss is:

P1v +

V12

V2

V2

= P2v + 2 + N e 1

2 gc

2 gc

2 gc

(54)

**The case of sudden enlargement [angle of divergence
**

β = 180 deg (π rad)] yields an energy loss of (V1 - V2)2/

2gc. This can also be expressed as:

Ne

A

= 1 − 1

A2

2

(55)

**where A1 and A2 are the upstream and downstream
**

cross-sectional flow areas, respectively and (A1 < A2).

Even this solution, based on the conservation laws,

depends on qualifying assumptions regarding static

Fig. 5 Absolute viscosities of saturated and superheated steam.

Table 5

Resistance to Flow of Fluids Through

Commercial Fittings*

Fitting

Loss in Velocity Heads

**L-shaped, 90 deg (1.57 rad)
**

standard sweep elbow

L-shaped, 90 deg (1.57 rad)

long sweep elbow

T-shaped, flow through run

T-shaped, flow through 90 deg

(1.57 rad) branch

Return bend, close

Gate valve, open

Check valve, open

Globe valve, open

Angle valve, 90 deg (1.57 rad) open

Boiler nonreturn valve, open

0.3 to 0.7

0.2 to 0.5

0.15 to 0.5

0.6

0.6

0.1

2.0

5.0

3.0

1.0

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

1.6

1.7

0.2

10.0

16.0

7.0

3.0

*** See Fig. 9 for loss in velocity heads for flow of fluids
**

through pipe bends.

3-12

Fig. 6 Contraction loss factor for β >30 deg (Nc = 0.05 for β ≤30 deg).

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

pressures at the upstream and downstream faces of

the enlargement.

Experimental values of the enlargement loss factor, based on different area ratios and angles of divergence, are given in Fig. 7. The differences in static

pressures caused by sudden and gradual changes in

section are shown graphically in Fig. 8. The pressure

differences are shown in terms of the velocity head at

the smaller area plotted against section area ratios.

**Flow through bends
**

Bends in a pipeline or duct system produce pressure

losses caused by both fluid friction and momentum

exchanges which result from a change in flow direction. Because the axial length of the bend is normally

included in the straight length friction loss of the pipeline or duct system, it is convenient to subtract a calculated equivalent straight length friction loss from

experimentally determined bend pressure loss factors.

These corrected data form the basis of the empirical

bend loss factor, Nb.

The pressure losses for bends in round pipe in excess of straight pipe friction vary slightly with Reynolds numbers below 150,000. For Reynolds numbers

above this value, they are reasonably constant and

depend solely on the dimensionless ratio r/D, the ratio of the centerline radius of the bend to the internal

diameter of the pipe. For commercial pipe, the effect

of Reynolds number is negligible. The combined effect of radius ratio and bend angle, in terms of velocity heads, is shown in Fig. 9.

Flow through rectangular ducts

The loss of pressure caused by a direction change

in a rectangular duct system is similar to that for cylindrical pipe. However, an additional factor, the shape

Fig. 8 Static pressure difference resulting from sudden and gradual

changes in section.

**of the duct in relation to the direction of bend, must
**

be taken into account. This is called the aspect ratio,

which is defined as the ratio of the width to the depth

of the duct, i.e., the ratio b/d in Fig. 10. The bend loss

for the same radius ratio decreases as the aspect ratio

increases, because of the smaller proportionate influence

of secondary flows on the stream. The combined effect

of radius and aspect ratios on 90 deg (1.57 rad) duct

bends is given in terms of velocity heads in Fig. 10.

The loss factors shown in Fig. 10 are average values of test results on ducts. For the given range of

aspect ratios, the losses are relatively independent of

the Reynolds number. Outside this range, the variation with Reynolds number is erratic. It is therefore

recommended that Nb values for b/d = 0.5 be used for

all aspect ratios less than b/d = 0.5, and values for b/

d = 2.0 be used for ratios greater than b/d = 2.0. Losses

for bends other than 90 deg (1.57 rad) are customarily considered to be proportional to the bend angle.

Fig. 7 Enlargement loss factor for various included angles.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

Turning vanes

The losses in a rectangular elbow duct can be reduced by rounding or beveling its corners and by in3-13

**The Babcock & Wilcox Company
**

For applications requiring a uniform velocity distribution directly after the turn, a full complement or

normal arrangement of turning vanes (see Fig. 12b)

is required. However, for many applications, it is sufficient to use a reduced number of vanes, as shown in

Fig. 12c.

For nonuniform flow fields, the arrangement of

turning vanes is more difficult to determine. Many

times, numerical modeling (see Chapter 6) and flow

testing of the duct system must be done to determine

the proper vane locations.

Fig. 9 Bend loss for round pipe, in terms of velocity heads.

**stalling turning vanes. With rounding or beveling, the
**

overall size of the duct can become large; however,

with turning vanes, the compact form of the duct is

preserved.

A number of turning vane shapes can be used in a

duct. Fig. 11 shows four different arrangements. Segmented shaped vanes are shown in Fig. 11a, simple

curved thin vanes are shown in Fig. 11b, and concentric splitter vanes are shown in Fig. 11c. In Fig. 11c,

the vanes are concentric with the radius of the duct.

Fig. 11d illustrates simple vanes used to minimize flow

separation from a square edged duct.

The turning vanes of identical shape and dimension, Fig. 11b, are usually mounted within the bend

of an elbow. They are generally installed along a line

or section of the duct and are placed from the inner

corner to the outside corner of the bend. Concentric

turning vanes, Fig. 11c, typically installed within the

bend of the turn, are located from one end of the turn

to the other end.

The purpose of the turning vanes in an elbow or turn

is to deflect the flow around the bend to the inner wall

of the duct. When the turning vanes are appropriately

designed, the flow distribution is improved by reducing flow separation from the walls and reducing the

formation of eddy zones in the downstream section of

the bend. The velocity distribution over the downstream

cross-section of the turn is improved (see Fig. 12), and

the pressure loss of the turn or elbow is decreased.

The main factor in decreasing the pressure losses

and obtaining equalization of the velocity field is the

elimination of an eddy zone at the inner wall of the

turn. For a uniform incoming flow field, the largest

effect of decreasing the pressure losses and establishing a uniform outlet flow field for a turn or elbow is

achieved by locating the turning vanes closer to the

inner curvature of the bend. (See Figs. 11d and 12c.)

3-14

Fig. 10 Loss for 90 deg (1.57 rad) bends in rectangular ducts.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

**Fig. 12 Velocity profiles downstream of an elbow: a) without
**

vanes, b) with typical vanes, and c) with optimum vanes (adapted

from Idelchik, Reference 12).

**Fig. 11 Turning vanes in elbows and turns: a) segmented, b) thin
**

concentric, c) concentric splitters, and d) slotted (adapted from

Idelchik, Reference 12).

Pressure loss

A convenient chart for calculating the pressure loss

resulting from impact losses in duct systems conveying air (or flue gas) is shown in Fig. 13. When mass

flux and temperature are known, a base velocity head

in inches of water at sea level can be obtained.

Flow over tube banks

Bare tube The transverse flow of gases across tube

banks is an example of flow over repeated major crosssectional changes. When the tubes are staggered, sectional and directional changes affect the resistance.

Experimental results and the analytical conclusions

of extensive research by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) indicate that three principal variables

other than mass flux affect this resistance. The primary variable is the number of major restrictions, i.e.,

the number of tube rows crossed, N. The second variable is the friction factor ƒ which is related to the

Reynolds number (based on tube diameter), the tube

spacing diameter ratios, and the arrangement pattern

(in-line or staggered). The third variable is the depth

factor, Fd (Fig. 14), which is applicable to banks less

than ten rows deep. The friction factors ƒ for various

in-line tube patterns are given in Fig. 15.

The product of the friction factor, the number of

major restrictions (tube rows) and the depth factor is,

in effect, the summation of velocity head losses

through the tube bank.

N v = f N Fd

**Flow through stacks or chimneys
**

The flow of gases through stacks or chimneys is established by the natural draft effect of the stack and/

or the mechanical draft produced by a fan. The resistance to this flow, or the loss in mechanical energy be-

(56)

**The Nυ value established by Equation 56 may be
**

used in Equations 51 or 52 to find the tube bank pressure loss. Some test correlations indicate ƒ values

higher than the isothermal case for cooling gas and

lower for heating gas.

Finned tube In some convective boiler design applications, extended surface tube banks are used.

Many types of extended surface exist, i.e., solid helical fin, serrated helical fin, longitudinal fin, square fin

and different types of pin studs. For furnace applications,

the cleanliness of the gas or heat transfer medium dictates whether an extended surface tube bank can be used

and also defines the type of extended surface.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

**Several different tube bank calculation methods
**

exist for extended surface, and many are directly related to the type of extended surface that is used.

Various correlations for extended surface pressure loss

can be found in References 9 through 15. In all cases,

a larger pressure loss per row of bank exists with an

extended surface tube compared to a bare tube. For

in-line tube bundles, the finned tube resistance per

row of tubes is approximately 1.5 times that of the bare

tube row. However, due to the increased heat transfer absorption of the extended surface, a smaller number of tube rows is required. This results in an overall

bank pressure loss that can be equivalent to a larger

but equally absorptive bare tube bank.

Fig. 13 Mass flux/velocity head relationship for air.

3-15

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

**Fig. 14 Draft loss depth factor for number of tube rows crossed in
**

convection banks.

**tween the bottom and the top of the stack, is a result of
**

the friction and stack exit losses. Application examples

of these losses are given in Chapter 25.

**example of inelastic momentum exchanges occurring
**

within the fluid streams.

The injector is a jet pump that uses condensing steam

as the driving fluid to entrain low pressure water for

delivery against a back pressure higher than the pressure of the steam supplied. The ejector, similar to the

injector, is designed to entrain gases, liquids, or mixtures of solids and liquids for delivery against a pressure less than that of the primary fluid. In a waterjet aspirator, water is used to entrain air to obtain a

partial vacuum. In the Bunsen type burner, a jet of

gas entrains air for combustion. In several instances,

entrainment may be detrimental to the operation of

steam boilers. Particles of ash entrained by the products of combustion, when deposited on heating surfaces, reduce thermal conductance, erode fan blades,

and add to pollution when discharged into the atmosphere. Moisture carrying solids, either in suspension

or in solution, are entrained in the stream. The solids

may be carried through to the turbine and deposited

on the blades, decreasing turbine capacity and efficiency. In downcomers or supply tubes, steam bubbles

are entrained in the water when the drag on the

bubbles is greater than the buoyant force. This reduces the density in the pumping column of natural

circulation boilers.

**Pressure loss in two-phase flow
**

Evaluation of two-phase steam-water flows is much

more complex. As with single-phase flow, pressure loss

occurs from wall friction, acceleration, and change in

elevation. However, the relationships are more complicated. The evaluation of friction requires the assessment of the interaction of the steam and water phases.

Acceleration is much more important because of the

large changes in specific volume of the mixture as

water is converted to steam. Finally, large changes in

average mixture density at different locations significantly impact the static head. These factors are presented in detail in Chapter 5.

**Entrainment by fluid flow
**

Collecting or transporting solid particles or a second fluid by the flow of a primary fluid at high velocity is known as entrainment. This is usually accomplished with jets using a small quantity of high pressure fluid to carry large quantities of another fluid or

solid particles. The pressure energy of the high pressure fluid is converted into kinetic energy by nozzles,

with a consequent reduction of pressure. The material to be transported is drawn in at the low pressure

zone, where it meets and mixes with the high velocity jet. The jet is usually followed by a parallel throat

section to equalize the velocity profile. The mixture

then enters a diverging section where kinetic energy

is partially reconverted into pressure energy. In this

case, major fluid flow mechanical energy losses are an

3-16

**Fig. 15 Friction factor (f ) as affected by Reynolds number for
**

various in-line tube patterns; crossflow gas or air.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Boiler circulation

An adequate flow of water and steam-water mixture is necessary for steam generation and control of

tube metal temperatures in all circuits of a steam generating unit. At supercritical pressures this flow is

produced mechanically by pumps. At subcritical pressures, circulation is produced by the force of gravity

**or pumps, or a combination of the two. The elements
**

of single-phase flow discussed in this chapter, twophase flow discussed in Chapter 5, heat input rates,

and selected limiting design criteria are combined to

evaluate the circulation in fossil-fired steam generators. The evaluation procedures and key criteria are

presented in Chapter 5.

References

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

**Meyer, C.A., et al., ASME Steam Tables, Sixth Ed.,
**

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York,

New York, 1993.

Tabor, D., Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other

States of Matter, First Ed., Penguin Books, Ltd.,

Harmondsworth, England, United Kingdom, 1969.

Lahey, Jr., R.T., and Moody, F.J., The Thermal-Hydraulics of a Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor, American Nuclear Society, Hinsdale, Ilinois, 1993.

Rohsenow, W., Hartnett, J., and Ganic, E., Handbook

of Heat Transfer Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1985.

Burmeister, L.C., Convective Heat Transfer, Second

Ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, New York, 1993.

Schlichting, H.T. Gersten, K., and Krause, E.,

Boundary-Layer Theory, Eighth Ed., Springer-Verlag,

New York, New York, 2000.

Moody, L.F., “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow,” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Vol. 66, 8, pp. 671-684, November, 1944.

Hinze, J.O., Turbulence: An Introduction to Its

Mechanism and Theory, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill

Company, New York, New York, 1975.

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

**9. Briggs, D.E., and Young, E.H., “Convective heat
**

transfer and pressure drop of air flowing across triangular pitch banks of finned tubes,” Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series (Heat Transfer),

AIChE, Vol. 41, No. 41, pp. l-10, Houston, Texas, 1963.

10. Grimison, E.D., “Correlation and utilization of new

data on flow resistance and heat transfer for crossflow

of gases over tube banks,” Transactions of ASME,

Process Industries Division, Vol. 59, pp. 583-594, New

York, New York, 1937.

11. Gunter, A.Y., and Shan, W.A., “A general correlation

of friction factors for various types of surfaces in crossflow,” Transactions of ASME, Vol. 67, pp. 643-660,

1945.

12. Idelchik, I.E., Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance,

Third Ed., Interpharm/CRC, New York, New York,

November, 1993.

13. Jakob, M., Discussion appearing in Transactions of

ASME, Vol. 60, pp. 384-386, 1938.

14. Kern, D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, p. 555, McGrawHill Company, New York, New York, December, 1950.

15. Wimpress, R.N., Hydrocarbon Processing and Petroleum Refiner, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 115-126, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, 1963.

3-17

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Laser velocity measurements in a steam generator flow model.

3-18

Steam 41 / Fluid Dynamics

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