# Present continuous

The present continuous is used to talk about present situations which we see as
short-term or temporary. We use the present simple to talk about present
situations which we see as long-term or permanent.
In these examples, the action is taking place at the time of speaking.

It's raining.

Who is Kate talking to on the phone?

Look, somebody is trying to steal that man's
wallet.

I'm not looking. My eyes are closed tightly.

In these examples, the action is true at the present time but we don't think it will
be true in the long term.

I'm looking for a new apartment.

He's thinking about leaving his job.

They're considering making an appeal against
the judgment.

Are you getting enough sleep?

In these examples, the action is at a definite point in the future and it has

I'm meeting her at 6.30.

They aren't arriving until Tuesday.

We are having a special dinner at a top
restaurant for all the senior managers.

Isn't he coming to the dinner?

Present simple
The present simple is used to talk about actions we see as long term or
permanent. It is very common and very important.

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In these examples, we are talking about regular actions or events.

I drive to work every day.

She doesn't come very often.

The games usually start at 8.00 in the evening.

What do you usually have for breakfast?

In these examples, we are talking about facts.

Water freezes at 0° C or 32° F.

I have three children.

What does this word mean?

I don't have any of my original teeth left.

In these examples, we are talking about future facts, usually found in a timetable
or a chart.

The plane leaves at 5.00 tomorrow morning.

Christmas Day falls on a Sunday this year.

Ramadan doesn't begin for another 2 weeks.

Does the class begin this week or next?

In these examples, we are talking about our thoughts and feelings at the time of
speaking. Notice that, although these feelings can be short-term, we use the
present simple and not the present continuous.

I think you are wrong.

She doesn't want to do it.

They don't agree with us.

Do you understand what I am trying to say?

Present simple / Present continuous
We use the Present Simple for:
regular actions or events

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I watch TV most evenings.

The sun rises in the east.

The plane leaves at 5.00 in the morning.

facts

thoughts and feelings about the time of speaking

I don't understand.

We use the Present Continuous for
the time of speaking ('now')

I'm watching a movie on TV.

things which are true at the moment but not always

I'm looking for a new job.

I'm taking my husband to New York for his
birthday.

I usually don't drink coffee but I'm having one
this morning because there is nothing else.

I often drive to work but I'm taking the train this
morning because my car is in for repair.

I'm thinking about dying my hair blonde but I
don't think my wife will be very happy about it.

My parents live in New York but I'm just visiting.

present plans for the future

Look at these sentences :

Notice how in all these examples we use the present continuous to talk about
events which are temporary/limited in time and the present simple to talk about
events which are habits/permanent.

Past simple
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We use the past simple to talk about actions and states which we see as completed in the past. It can also be used to talk about a period of time. I went to all the art exhibitions I could.  I saw her in the street.  She came back last Friday. You will often find the past simple used with time expressions such as these:  Yesterday  three weeks ago  last year  in 2002  from March to June  for a long time  for 6 weeks  in the 1980s  in the last century  in the past Past continuous We use the past simple to talk about actions and states which we see as completed in the past. 4 .  She lived in Tokyo for seven years. We can use it to talk about a specific point in time.  They didn't agree to the deal.  When I was living in New York.  They were in London from Monday to Thursday of last week.

We use the past continuous to talk about past events which went on for a period of time.  We were just talking about it before you arrived.  I was thinking about him last night.  They were still waiting for the plane when I spoke to them. Past simple / Past continuous Both the past simple and the past continuous refer to completed actions in the past. we use the past simple.We can use it to talk about a specific point in time. 5 . Most of the time when we are talking about such actions. were you sleeping?  I was just making some coffee.  I was making a presentation in front of 500 people when the microphone stopped working.)  While I was driving home.  In the 1990s few people were using mobile phones. We use it when we want to emphasize the continuing process of an activity or the period of that activity.  Were you expecting any visitors?  Sorry. (If we just want to talk about the past event as a simple fact.  The company was declining rapidly before he took charge. Peter was trying desperately to contact me.  She was talking to me on the phone and it suddenly went dead. This is by far the most common way of talking about the past.  I was walking in the street when I suddenly fell over. we use the past simple. We often use it to describe a "background action" when something else happened.

 I asked her but she didn't know anything. 6 .  Were you expecting that to happen? When we use these two forms in the same sentence. we use the past continuous to talk about the "background action" and the past simple to talk about the shorter completed action.) We use the present perfect when we want to look back from the present to the past.  It was raining hard when we left the building. The explanation and exercises here refer to British English.  They were really trying hard but couldn't do it. I don't have one.  I've broken my watch so I don't know what time it is.  He was going out to lunch when I saw him. Only use the past continuous when you want to emphasize the continuity of the action.  I was thinking about you the other day.  The company made 100 people redundant last year. Present perfect (Please note that British and American English have different rules for the use of this tense.  The company was doing well when I last visited it. I lived there for 6 years.  They have cancelled the meeting. We can use it to look back on the recent past. In American English.  I was reading the report when you rang.  Everybody was talking about it all evening.  I only found out a few moments ago.  She's taken my copy. it is often acceptable to use the past simple in some of these examples.

we often use the words 'just' 'already' or the word 'yet' (in negatives and questions only). When we look back on the recent past. Present perfect continuous This tense is used to talk about an action or actions that started in the past and continued until recently or that continue into the future: We can use it to refer to an action that has finished but you can still see evidence.  We've mentioned it to them on several occasions over the last six months. 7 .  She hasn't arrived yet.  They've already met.  She's done this type of project many times before. we often use the words 'ever' (in questions) and 'never'.  Have you spoken to him yet?  Have they got back to you yet? It can also be used to look back on the more distant past.  We've already talked about that.  We've been to Singapore a lot over the last few years.  We've never considered investing in Mexico. The sales team has doubled its turnover.  I've just done it. When we look back on the more distant past.  They don't know yet.  They've often talked about it in the past.  Have you ever been to Argentina?  Has he ever talked to you about the problem?  I've never met Jim and Sally.

the kitchen is a mess. Present perfect simple / Present perfect continuous 8 . 'for'. I've been working too long on computer.  He's been telling me about it for days. They're on strike  He hasn't been talking to me for weeks.  You haven't been getting good results over the last few months. Oh.  He's been phoning me all week for an answer.  I've been wanting to do that for ten years.  She's been writing to her regularly for a couple of years.  I've been waiting for him for 30 minutes and he still hasn't arrived. I wish he would stop.  The university has been sending students here for over twenty years to do work experience. 'over the last few months'.  I've been learning Spanish for 20 years and I still don't know very much. 'all week'. Who has been cooking?  You look tired. It can refer to an action that has not finished. 'for days'.  We've been working hard on it for ages.  I've been looking at other options recently. 'lately'. 'recently'.  He's been working here since 2001. It can refer to a series of actions.  They haven't been working all week. The present perfect continuous is often used with 'since'. Have you been sleeping properly?  I've got a a stiff neck.

I've never met them.  I've made fifteen phone calls this morning. When an action is finished and you can see the results. haven't you?  You're red in the face. we use the simple form.  We've been working really hard for a couple of months. Present perfect / past simple 9 . In many cases. To emphasize the result of the action.Often there is very little difference between the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous. both are equally acceptable.  I've been reading this book for two months but I've only read half of it.  They've been talking about this for month and they still haven't found a solution. To emphasize the action. It's very difficult to read.  He's written a very good report.  Have you ever heard anything so strange in your life. Look at the difference in these examples.  She's been having a hard time. use the simple form.  They've been working here for a long time but Andy has worked here for even longer.  I don't know them.  I've lived here for 10 years and she has been living here for 12 years. You've been calling your boyfriend in Australia. use the continuous form. we use the continuous form. Have you been running? When you use the words 'ever' or 'never'.  The phone bill is enormous.  She's been trying to convince him for 20 minutes but she hasn't managed to yet.

However.  I haven't done it yet.  She came in a few moments ago. Typical time phrases always used with the present perfect in British English but often used with the past simple in American English are 'already'.  I've never seen so many people. We use the present perfect simple to look back on actions in the past from the present.  Have you ever been more shocked?  I've done a lot since we last spoke.  I spoke to him yesterday. 'since'. 'never'. (UK) 10 . in American English.  I ate too much at lunchtime. The comments being made here and the exercises state the correct grammar for British English. 'in 1999'. it is often considered acceptable to use the past simple in some of these examples. I've eaten too much.  We made our last purchase over a year ago. Typical time phrases that we use with the past simple are 'yesterday'.(British English and American English have different rules for the use of the present perfect. 'just'.  I've known him for 10 years.  I've worked here since 1987. It always includes 'now'. Typical time phrases that we use with the present perfect are 'ever'. It talks about 'then' and definitely excludes 'now'. 'yet'.  My stomach hurts. 'last year'.) We use the past simple to talk about actions in the past that have finished.  I first met him 10 years ago.  I started work here in 1987.  He joined the company in 1999. Now look at these same situations seen from the present. 'ago'. These sentences are in the past with no connection to the present.

 I'm going to see him later today. not 'will'.  I'm going out later. There are 4 future forms.Going to There is no one 'future tense' in English. We can replace 'going to go' by 'going'.  In ten years time. We're going to make a loss.  You look very tired.  These figures are really bad. Notice that this plan does not have to be for the near future.  We're going to have lunch first. 14 . It's going to rain soon.  I'm not going to talk for very long. You're going to need to stop soon.  They're going to launch it next month.  When I retire I'm going to go back to Barbados to live. We use 'going to' when we want to talk about a plan for the future. I'm going to be boss of my own successful company.  Look out! That cup is going to fall off. The one which is used most often in spoken English is 'going to'.  She's going to see what she can do.  She's going to the exhibition tomorrow. We use 'going to' when we want to make a prediction based on evidence we can see now.  Look at those black clouds.

 I think she'll do well in the job.  Maybe it will be OK.  I won't tell him. Often we add 'perhaps'.Will – future Some people have been taught that 'will' is 'the future' in English.  He'll possibly find out when he sees Jenny. 'possibly' to make the belief less certain.  I'll go.  There won't be any snow.  I think I'll go to bed now. 'maybe'. Sometimes when we use 'will' we are not talking about the future.  Bye.  I'll probably come back later. I'll be 50. I promise.  The sun will rise over there tomorrow morning. Sometimes when we talk about the future we cannot use 'will'.  I'll answer that. It's too warm. I'll phone you when I get there.  Perhaps we'll meet again some day. 15 . 'probably'.  Next year. We use 'will' at the moment we make a new decision or plan.  I hope you won't make too much noise.  That plane will be late. The thought has just come into our head. I'm certain. We often use 'will' with 'I think' or 'I hope'. This is not correct. We can use 'will' to talk about future events we believe to be certain.  I hope you'll enjoy your stay. It always is.

 I hope you'll visit me in my home one day. 'I hope'.  I'll call Jenny to let her know. 16 .  I'll possibly come but I may not get back in time.  I think we'll get on well.  The boss won't be very happy.  Be careful! You're going to spill your coffee. It's going to be another warm day. use 'will'. At the moment of making a decision.  I'll come and have a drink with you but I must let Harry know. If you are making a future prediction based on evidence in the present situation. We're going to miss our flight. we use 'will'.  Not a cloud in the sky.Going to or will When we want to talk about future facts or things we believe to be true about the future. Sarah. I'm going to have a drink with Simon. we use 'will' with expressions such as 'probably'. Harry.  The traffic is terrible.  She'll probably be a great success. If we are not so certain about the future. 'possibly'. I'm going to call her about the meeting.  The President will serve for four years.  Look at the queue. use 'going to'.  I'm certain he'll do a good job. Once you have made the decision. 'I think'. We're not going to get in for hours. talk about it using 'going to'.  I'm sure you'll like her. I need Jenny's number.

We use the present simple to talk about events in the future which are 'timetabled'./I'm doing it. 17 . In many situations when we talk about future plans we can use either the present continuous or the 'going to' future.  I'm going to see him. We can also use the present continuous to talk about these.30. A key factor to remember about 'will' is that when we talk about the future we cannot always use 'will' and that when we use 'will' we are not always talking about the future.32 tomorrow.  The shop is closing at 7.  I'm seeing Julie at 5 and then I'm having dinner with Simon. Will ./I'm seeing him.00.  My plane is leaving at 8.  The shop opens at 9.  The company is giving everyone a bonus for Christmas. I'm leaving on Thursday.  The sun rises a minute earlier tomorrow. when we use the present continuous.Present forms for the future We use the present continuous to talk about things that we have already arranged to do in the future.other uses A lot of students have been confused by older textbooks which refer to 'will' as 'the future tense'.30. However.  I'm going to do it.  I've got my ticket. there is more of a suggestion that an arrangement has already been made.  The sun is rising at 6.  He's picking me up at the airport.  My plane leaves at 6 in the morning.

o I'll answer that.In these examples 'will' is clearly referring to the future. o My car won't start. I wish he would leave me alone. I'll phone him immediately. I'll tell her about it. I'll get my own back some day. o I'll probably visit Sue when I go to Oxford. You will do as I say. Use 'will' for habit. 18 . orders. o I need quiet to write this but he will keep on talking to me. o Will you have another cup of tea? When we use 'will' referring to the present. in these examples 'will' is referring to events happening at the present. o I'll remember this. Use 'will' for promises and threats. o I am the boss. o I'll do it at once. However. Use 'will' for requests. o Will you help me? o Will you please sit down? o Will you have some cake? o I'll help you. o Next year she'll be 42. Or so she says. o If I see her. the idea being expressed is usually one of 'showing willingness' or 'will power'. o My baby won't stop crying. invitations and offers. I've tried everything and I'm really exhausted. o A cat will always find a warm place to sleep.

particularly in American English. They are all to do with the present or are 'timeless' Shall We don't use 'Shall' very frequently in modern English. In older grammar. When we do use 'shall'. Look again at all of these examples of 'will'.  I shan't object if you go without me. it has an idea of a more personal. o The phone's ringing. The imperative 19 .o My car won't go any faster than this. 'shall' was used as an alternative to 'will' with 'I' and 'we'. Today.  I don't like these people and I shall not go to their party. o I expect he'll want us to start without him. It is used to make offers and suggestions and to ask for advice. That will be Mark. subjective future. Notice that the negative of 'shall' can be 'shall not' or 'shan't' – though the second one is now very rare in American English. Use 'will' for deduction. Read the rest of this only if you want to know more about how some older speakers still use 'shall'. 'will' is normally used.  I shall go to see the boss and I shall ask him to explain this decision.  What time shall we meet?  Shall we vote on it now?  What dress shall I wear?  Shall I open the window? You only really need to know that about 'shall' in modern English.

Don't go. Speak to him. 1.  Do be quiet. 1. We can use the imperative to give instructions. 1. Get some sleep and recover.  Do come. We can use the imperative on signs and notices. 3. Have a quiet word with her about it. We can use the imperative to make an invitation. Stay at home and rest up. Tell him how you feel. Open your book. 20 . Have a piece of this cake. 2. 2. 2. Take two tablets every evening. 2. Do not use. I'll be there shortly. Come in and sit down. 2. Please start without me.We can use the imperative to give a direct order. We can make the imperative 'more polite' by adding 'do'. It's delicious. 3. Push.  Do sit down. Take a left and then a right. Make yourself at home. 1. 3. Take that chewing gum out of your mouth. Give me the details. 3. We can use the imperative to give friendly informal advice. 3. Stand up straight. 1. Insert one dollar.

 Marketing is a very inexact science. We use the passive form when we don't know who did the action.  I don't like dancing. For example:  The car was damaged while it was parked on the street.  I repaired the flat tire on the car.  The car is being repaired.  Smoking is forbidden. We use the passive form to say what happens to people and things.  The shirts were made in Turkey. For example:  It was approved by Gerry last week. to say what is done to them.  I was informed by the Human Resources Manager only two days ago. We use the passive form when what was done is more important than who did it. 21 . When it is used like a noun it may or may not have an article before it.The Passive We use the active form to say what the subject does.  I have a long working day. For example:  I speak English every day at work. For example:  English is spoken here. like an adjective or like a verb. The -ing form The –ing form can be used like a noun.

In formal English.  Speaking to an audience is always stressful. There are many verb + -ing combinations. the –ing form can be used before a noun.  I avoid speaking to him.  I'm angry about his missing the meeting.  After discussing it with her.  Do you mind my coming? As an adjective. do some work for charity.  I'm looking forward to seeing him again. you need to speak to Sarah. The –ing form is used after prepositions. I've changed my mind. many people do not. it is followed by the –ing form.  Before leaving.  Swimming after work is very relaxing.  I consider blowing your nose in public to be wrong.  I don't object to working this Sunday.  Let's go to the meeting room.  I'm used to working long hours. we would use a possessive with the –ing form. Here are some common ones:  I admit telling her. 22 .  Instead of feeling sorry for yourself. It can also be part of a 'noun phrase'.  I appreciate having the raise. Notice that when 'to' is used as a preposition. The marketing of the product will continue for a few months yet. In informal English.  I was met by a welcoming party at the airport.

 He denied telling her.  I love going shopping. (A memory of the past.  I've finished writing the report. (I stopped what I was doing and had a cigarette.)  I stopped to smoke a cigarette.) Some verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or –ing form but with the same meaning. I delayed coming until the last possible moment.)  I must remember to tell him.  I detest going to parties.)  I remember telling him.  I can't stand drinking beer.)  I was interested to read his report.  I enjoy dancing.)  I'm interested in finding out more details.  I can't imagine ever leaving this company.  I feel like having a party. (Interested in the past. Some verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or –ing form but with different meanings.  I don't mind doing that. (Interested about the future. (Something to remember for the future.  He put off talking to her as long as he could. Here are some common ones:  I stopped smoking last month. (I no longer smoke.  I can't help thinking about it. 23 .  I've given up going to the gym. Here are some common ones:  I love to go shopping.

These mean exactly the same thing.  I started learning English 5 years ago.  I'm afraid of flying. requests and instructions. we usually say 'can't'.  You can't come in.  I started to learn English 5 years ago.  You cannot smoke in here. When we are speaking. We use 'can' to talk about 'ability'. I'm afraid to fly.  Can you do that?  I can't manage to do that. Notice that there are two negative forms: 'can't' and 'cannot'.  You can leave your car in that parking space. We use 'can' to ask for and give permission.  I can't drive.)  Can I speak to you or are you too busy?  You can use my phone. you can take out the garbage.  I can speak French. We use 'can' in offers. 24 .  Can I help?  Can you give me a hand?  When you finish that. Can We use 'can' to talk about 'possibility'. (We also use 'may' for this but is more formal and much less common.

(Where you would use the present continuous with most other verbs. 'Could' is used to make polite requests.  Can you hear that noise?  I can't see anything.  I could see him clearly but I couldn't hear him and then the videoconference line went dead. You haven't eaten anything all day.We use 'can' with 'see' 'hear' 'feel' 'smell' 'taste' to talk about something which is happening now . He can't be here yet. We can use 'can't' for deduction. please?  Could you lend me some money?  Could I have a lift?  Could I bother you for a moment? 25 .  You can't be hungry.  He was in London one hour ago when I spoke to him. Could 'Could' can be used to talk about the past. 'Could' is a past form of 'can'  When I was living in Boston.  You must be hungry. You've just eaten. The opposite of 'can't' in this context is 'must'.  Could you help me. We can also use 'can' for these but 'could' is more polite.  He phoned to say he couldn't come. the present or the future.)  I can smell something burning. I could walk to work.

'Could' is used to talk about theoretical possibility and is similar in meaning to 'might'.  I could give you a lift as far as Birmingham.  It could rain later.  I may not have time to do it today. If you agree to the request. it suggests that we do not really want to do it.  He could be there by now.If we use 'could' in reply to these requests. Take an umbrella.  Of course I can.  Pete may come with us might 26 .  Could he be any happier?  It could be Sarah's. However this is rather formal and not used very often in modern spoken English  May I borrow your pen?  May we think about it?  May I go now? We use 'may' to suggest something is possible  It may rain later today.  I could help you if it's really necessary but I'm really busy right now. May / might may We can use 'may' to ask for permission.  I could lend you some money but I'd need it back tomorrow without fail. it is better to say 'can'.

We use 'should' to give an opinion or a recommendation. Should 1 We use 'should' for giving advice.  You should ask a lawyer.  You should speak to him about it. we use 'might have'.  She might be at home by now but it's not sure at all. Often we read that 'might' suggests a smaller possibility that 'may'.  I think they should replace him.  I might not have time to go to the shops for you. there is in fact little difference and 'might is more usual than 'may' in spoken English.  Do you think I should tell her? 27 .  I might not go.We use 'might' to suggest a small possibility of something.  It might rain this afternoon.  He should resign.  You should see a doctor. For the past.  He might have tried to call while I was out. It is often introduced by ' I think'.  They should do something about this terrible train service.  We should invest more in China.  I don't think they should keep the contract. 'Should' expresses a personal opinion and is much weaker and more personal than 'must' or 'have to'.  I might have dropped it in the street.

 It's natural that you should be anxious. Not an obvious choice. We can use 'should' after various adjectives. it is also possible to say exactly the same thing by omitting the 'should' and just using the infinitive form without 'to' . surprised.  The committee recommends that Jane should be appointed. Typical examples are: funny.  I have proposed that he take charge of the organization. However. 28 .Should 2 We can use 'should' after 'reporting verbs' such as demand insist propose recommend suggest  He demanded that we should pay for the repair. strange. typical  It's funny that you should say that. interesting.  He demanded that we pay for the repair. Some people call this the 'subjunctive' form. surprising.  She insisted that she should pay for the meal. I was thinking exactly the same thing. Nobody likes speaking in public.  Isn't it odd that he should be going to the same tiny hotel? What a coincidence.  We have suggested that Michael be given a reward for his hard work.  I have proposed that he should take charge of the organization. odd.  She insisted that she pay for the meal.  The committee recommends that Jane be appointed.  It's interesting that they should offer him the job. natural.  We have suggested that Michael should be given a reward for his hard work.

just give me a call and I'll sort it out. 29 . We are making a logical deduction based upon some clear evidence or reason.  If anyone should ask where I am.  You must be worried that she is so late coming home.It's strange that you should think so.  If you should happen to see him before I do. You really shouldn't have. I must be getting old.  To emphasize a visible emotion You should have seen the look on her face when she found out that she had got the promotion. We use 'should' in various fixed expressions: To show strong agreement They're paying you compensation? I should think so. You must be freezing.  To express pleasure when you receive a gift What a fantastic present. say I'm in a meeting. Must or have to We can use 'must' to show that we are certain something is true. can you tell him that I want to speak to him urgently?  If there should be a problem.  There's no heating on.  It must be nice to live in Florida.  I can't remember what I did with it. Nobody else does.  We can use 'should' in 'if clauses' when we believe that the possibility of something happening is small.

we often use 'have got to' to mean the same as 'have to'.  I'll have to get back to you on that. I don't think you were very nice to him.We also use 'must' to express a strong obligation.  You have to pass your exams or the university will not accept you.  I have to send a report to Head Office every week. In British English.  We've got to finish now as somebody else needs this room. (Remember that 'will' is often used to show 'willingness'. When we use 'must' this usually means that some personal circumstance makes the obligation necessary (and the speaker almost certainly agrees with the obligation.)  I must go to bed earlier. We can also use ' will have to' to talk about strong obligations.  We have to give him our answer today or lose out on the contract.  I must say. We can also use 'have to' to express a strong obligation.  I have to arrive at work at 9 sharp.)  I'll have to speak to him. When we use 'have to' this usually means that some external circumstance makes the obligation necessary.  They must do something about it.  You must come and see us some time. 30 . My boss is very strict. Like 'must' this usually means that that some personal circumstance makes the obligation necessary.  We'll have to have lunch and catch up on all the gossip.  I've got to take this book back to the library or I'll get a fine.  They'll have to do something about it.

you get black coffee. In the result clause. 31 . not a specific event. However.As you can see.  We mustn't talk about it.  They mustn't see us talking or they'll suspect something.  I don't have to listen to this. It's confidential. I'm leaving.  When you fly budget airline.  I haven't got to go. In the condition clause.  We don't have to get there on time. there can only be the present simple or imperative. The boss is away today. We use 'don't have to' (or 'haven't got to' in British English) to state that there is NO obligation or necessity.  He doesn't have to sign anything if he doesn't want to at this stage.  Unless you need a lot of leg-room. the differences between the present forms are sometimes very small and very subtle.  You don't have to come if you don't want to.  We use 'mustn't' to express strong obligations NOT to do something. We aren't allowed personal calls. Notice that we are talking about something which is generally true. you don't expect to get anything to eat.  You mustn't phone me at work. there is a huge difference in the negative forms. It's bad for me. there can be a variety of present forms.  I mustn't eat chocolate. don't pay the extra for first class. we can use: If / When / Unless plus a present form PLUS present simple or imperative  If you press this button. Only if I want to Zero conditional When we want to talk about things that are always or generally true.

take plenty of sun cream. look out for the spectacular architecture. she'll want to drive. If you visit Barcelona.  When you go to Barbados. The first conditional We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen. I'll pay you back tomorrow.  If we take John.  When I've written a new article.  If Mary comes. it's not a good investment. go home.  If I go to New York again. 32 .  Unless he asks you to continue.  If unemployment is rising. please be quiet. stop all work on the project. I run it through my spell-checker. Notice that 'unless' means the same as 'if not'.  If you've finished everything.  If they tell us they want it. people tend to stay in their present jobs. he'll be really pleased. I'll buy you a souvenir from the Empire State Building.  Unless you've been to Tokyo yourself.  If you give me some money. The 'if' clause can be used with different present forms. we'll have to give it to them.  Unless interest rates are rising. you don't really understand how fantastic it is.  When I'm working.

you must have the cheesecake in Lindy's. Second conditional We can use the Second Conditional to talk about 'impossible' situations.  If she hasn't heard the bad news yet.  If we were in New York today.  If we don't get the contract. I'll tell her. you can get a lift home with him. I'd change my job. it would be a much better place. Notice the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice. If he's feeling better. he'll come. (Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was' is equally 'correct' . Notice that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'.  If there were no more hungry people in this world.)  If I were in Tokyo.  If she were really happy in her job.  If IBM were to enter our market. I'd give a lot to charity.  If I were you. The "future clause" can contain 'going to' or the future perfect as well as 'will'. I'm going to tell him exactly how angry I am. we'll have wasted a lot of time and money. we would have big problems.  If you go to New York.  If I see him. 33 . we would be able to go to the free Elton John concert in Central Park.  If he comes. she'd be working much harder.  If I had one million dollars. I'd have sushi every day. The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as 'can' and 'must'.

she would be here by now.  If I spoke to him directly. I'd bring back some moon rock. consider two people Peter Pessimist and Otto Optimist. For example. Notice that the main clause can contain 'would' 'could' or 'might.  If I was still living in Brighton.  Peter – If my team won the Cup. I would commute by train. I'll throw a big party.  Peter – If I got promoted.  If you met him. you'd really like him.  If we met up for lunch one day.  Otto – If I get promoted. I'd sign up for Pearson's fantastic English lessons. I'd buy champagne for everybody.  Otto – If I win the lottery. I wouldn't recognize him.  If I met him again. If I were you. I'll buy champagne for everybody. Notice that the 'If clause' can contain the past simple or the past continuous. I'd throw a big party. I'd buy a big house.  If she were coming.  If I went to the moon.  If they were thinking of coming. Notice that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts. 34 .  Otto – If my team win the Cup.  Peter – If I won the lottery. we might be able to reach an agreement.  If I won the lottery. I could take you to that new restaurant. We can also use the Second Conditional to talk about 'unlikely' situations. I'll buy a big house. they would let us know. I'd buy my parents a big house.

However. ("if he had tried that with me. I wish it wasn't raining so hard. He wouldn't have let him get away with that.  I wish to see the manager.  I never win at tennis.  I wish you a safe and pleasant journey.  I'm overweight. I wish I won a game occasionally.  We hope you have the best of luck. Notice that when you want to offer good wishes using a verb. that we have regrets about the present situation.  He wishes he lived in Paris. I wish I was slimmer.") Wish Let's start off with the easy part.  I wish I was rich. much more formal and much.  We wish you a merry Christmas.  I wish to make a complaint. you must use 'hope ' and not 'wish'. much less common.  They wish they'd chosen a different leader.  I wish you all the best in your new job. You can also use 'wish' with a noun to 'offer good wishes'.  It's raining hard. 36 . the main use of 'wish' is to say that we would like things to be different from what they are. ' I wish to' can mean the same as 'I want to' but it is much.  I wish I hadn't told him.  We wish you the best of luck. Notice that the verb tense which follows 'I wish' is 'more in the past' than the tense corresponding to its meaning.  I hope you have a safe and pleasant journey.

Where 'will' means a future event. we use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was' after 'wish'. I wish you would be quiet. I wish I had gone.  I wish I were taller.  I can't go to the party. I wish I wasn't. I went to the pub last night.  You keep interrupting me. In the case of 'will' . In more formal English. I wish I could go. I wish I could have done them all.  I wish the options were a little clearer.  He won't help me.  I couldn't do all the questions in the exam.  I wish it were Saturday today. we cannot use 'wish' and must use 'hope'. I wish he would help me. I wish you wouldn't do that.  I hope everything will be fine in your new job. I wish I hadn't eaten so much.  There's a strike tomorrow. I wish I hadn't had so many beers. Had better 37 . I wish I hadn't been wearing jeans.  You're making too much noise.  I was wearing jeans. I hope some buses will still be running.  I'm going to see her later.  I didn't go to the cinema. where 'will' means 'show willingness' we use 'would'.  I've eaten too much.

I've done it for quite a long time.  They've always lived in hot countries so they aren't used to the cold weather here. We also use it for something that was true but no longer is.  I'm used to living on my own. since his promotion.  I didn't use to like him but now I do.  I didn't understand the accent when I first moved here but I quickly got used to it.  There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isn't. he doesn't. to get used to doing We use 'to get used to doing' to talk about the process of something becoming normal for us. not unusual. to be used to doing We use 'to be used to doing' to say that something is normal.  She used to have really long hair but she's had it all cut off. 39 .  Hans has lived in England for over a year so he is used to driving on the left now.  Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now.  She has started working nights and is still getting used to sleeping during the day.'Used to do' is different from 'to be used to doing' and 'to get used to doing' Used to do We use 'used to' for something that happened regularly in the past but no longer happens.  I used to smoke a packet a day but I stopped two years ago.  I used to drive to work but now I take the bus.

= Have you been smoking? If there is no auxiliary. = Does she live in Brussels?  They lived in Manchester. I have always lived in the country but now I'm beginning to get used to living in the city. = Have they lived here a long time?  She will arrive at ten o'clock. = Do you speak fluent French?  She lives in Brussels. Questions 1 The basic rule for asking questions in English is straightforward: Invert the order of the subject and the first auxiliary verb. = Can he speak German?  They have lived here a long time. = Will she arrive at ten o'clock?  He was driving fast.  It is snowing. use part of the verb 'to do'.  You speak fluent French. = Was he driving fast?  You have been smoking. = Is it snowing?  He can speak German. = Did he have an accident? Most questions with question words are made in the same way:  How often does she use it?  Why don't you come?  Where do you work?  How many did you buy?  What time did you go? 40 . = Did they live in Manchester?  He had an accident.

To make a question. Which one do you like?  Whose car were you driving? Note who. we looked at how to ask direct questions. we often say 'Do you know…?' or 'Could you tell me…. use part of the verb 'to do'. we invert the order of the subject and the first auxiliary verb.  Where is Johnny?  Has he found it yet? If there is no auxiliary. For example:  Do you know where Johnny is?  Have you any idea if he has found it? 41 . For example:  What time did he arrive?  How often do you play tennis? However. when we ask for information. Compare:  Who is coming to lunch? (who is the subject of the verb)  Who do you want to invite to lunch? (you is the subject of the verb)  What happened? (what is the subject of the verb)  What did you do? (you is the subject of the verb) Note the position of the prepositions in these questions:  Who did you speak to?  What are you looking at?  Where does he come from? Questions 2 In the section Questions 1. what and which can be the subject.?' These are indirect questions and the word order is different.

 It's beautiful. If there is no auxiliary. isn't it?  He has been. They are not really questions but are a way of asking the other person to make a comment and so keep the conversation open. make a negative tag and with a negative sentence. mustn't it?  You know him. With a positive sentence. Note that in reported questions. didn't he? 42 .  Has he done it? = Do you know if he has done it?  Is it ready? = Can you tell me if it is ready? The same changes in word order happen when we report questions. use do. don’t you?  He finished it. make a positive tag. For example:  Could you tell me what time he arrived?  Would you mind telling me how often you play tennis? Use if or whether when there is no question word.  What have you done about it? = He asked me what I had done about it. Questions tags We use tags in spoken English but not in formal written English. hasn't he?  You can. use the first auxiliary. To make a tag. Making a tag is very mechanical.Note that we don’t use do. does or did.  Do you work with Pamela? = He asked me if I worked with Pamela. does or did. can't you?  It must be. the verb changes to the past:  What are you doing? = He asked me what I was doing.

the rules are very simple and mechanical. does she?  They didn't leave.  He says he wants it. is it? ~ No. it's terrible.  It isn't very good.  Yesterday you said you didn't like it but now you do!  She told me he had asked her to marry him. Reported speech 1 We use reported speech when we are saying what other people say. isn't it? ~ Yes. I think it's fabulous. in order to use them easily in conversation. it is. is there?  Let's have a cup of coffee. use the same auxiliary:  It's beautiful. is it?  It hasn't rained.  I believe he loves her. 43 . So you need to hear and practice them very often.  We think you are right. think or believe. can it?  Jenny doesn't know James. shall we? Notice these: To reply. will he?  There isn't an ATM here. has it?  It can't be. Although. they have to be automatic. it isn't. He will come. In fact. won't he?  It isn't very good. did they?  He won’t do it.

"I like Sarah. For example: "The train doesn't stop here. = He said he would give me a hand. I told you she was ill. = She said Polly had bought a new car.  He's working in Siberia now.  Polly has bought a new car." 44 .  I'll give you a hand. = He told me Paul had called and had left me a message. However.  We thought he was in Australia.  Jo can't come for the weekend.  Paul called and left a message. When we tell people what someone has said in the past.  I'll tell her you are coming. it is not obligatory to make the tense 'more in the past'. when we are reporting something that was said in the past but is still true."  He said the train doesn't stop here.  She said she likes Sarah.  You look very nice.  She said she liked Sarah.  He has said he'll do it.  He said the train didn't stop here. future or present perfect we don't change the tense. we generally make the tense 'more in the past'. The choice is up to the speaker. = She said Jo couldn't come for the weekend. = She told me he was working in Siberia now.  He thinks he loves her. = I told him he looked very nice. When we are reporting things in the present.

 "When will you be arriving?" = He wanted to know when we would be arriving."  I said I didn't want to go. Compare these two sentences. In each case the person actually said "I don't want to go.  "What time is it?" = He asked me what time it was.  "What were you doing?" = They questioned him about what he had been doing.  (If we are in the place he is coming to) He said he would be here at ten tomorrow.  Bill said he didn't want to go. We use the same structure when we report answers. we sometimes have to change other words in the sentence."  (If it is later the same day) He said he would be there at ten tomorrow. Reported speech 2 We also use reported speech when we are saying what other people asked or wanted to know. We do not use do or question marks in indirect questions. We have to change words referring to 'here and now' if we are reporting what was said in a different place or time. In each case the person actually said "I'll be there at ten tomorrow. Now compare these two sentences:  (If we are in a different place) He said he would be there tomorrow at ten.  "Why hasn't he come? = She wondered why he hadn't come. 45 . Compare these two sentences.  (If it is the next day) He said he would be there at ten today.When we are reporting what was said. We have to change the pronoun if we are reporting what someone else said.

" = I told him what my address was. Will you be here later? = She asked me whether I would be here later.  I suppose you two know each other? Notice that 'suppose' is not normally used in the continuous form.  I don't suppose you know where Mary is?  I don't suppose he'll do anything. 46 ." = He demonstrated how the scanner worked. not the other verb.  "I didn't have time to do it." = She explained why she hadn't done it. "147 Oak Street. Yes/no questions are reported with if or whether.  Now I suppose we'll have to do something else. Notice that for 'imagine not' or 'guess not' that we make 'suppose' negative." = She showed me what she had bought.  At this moment I suppose it doesn't matter. Suppose 1 We often use 'suppose' to mean 'imagine' or 'guess'  I suppose you'll be meeting Danielle when you go to Paris?  When you weren't there.  "Put the paper here and press this button.  We're waiting for John and I suppose he must be stuck in traffic. We do not usually say 'I am supposing'. Do you want a ride? = Mike asked me if I wanted a ride.  "Look at this dress and bag. I supposed you must have been held up. Are you coming? = They wanted to know if I was coming.

'Supposed to be' can also be used to talk about what is arranged. intended or expected. 'Not supposed to' often suggest that something is not allowed or prohibited.  We're not supposed to use the Internet for personal reasons at work.  He is supposed to have been rude to Mark but I don't believe it.  I'm supposed to be getting on a plane to Tokyo at this very minute. It is a bit like 'should'.  John is supposed to turn off all the lights when he leaves. Often there is a suggestion that the action 'supposed to' happen does not actually happen  I'm supposed to be there before 8 but I'm often late.  Is Susan coming to this meeting? ~ -I suppose so.  I'm supposed to pay my rent on the first of the month.  It is supposed to be the best restaurant in town.  You're not supposed to smoke in here. I don't suppose you have a Nokia phone charger here? When responding to an idea with 'suppose'. 47 .  I'm supposed to get to work by 8.  I'm not supposed to tell you.  You were supposed to phone me. you can use 'so' to avoid repeating the idea that has already been expressed. 'Supposed to be' can be used to mean 'it is said/believed'.  The new James Bond movie is supposed to be excellent.

 I'm supposed to pay my rent on the first of the month. 'Supposed to be' can also be used to talk about what is arranged. 48 . put 'more in the past'.  There's nobody in reception to let our visitors in.  You were supposed to phone me.'Suppose' can also be used as a conjunction to mean 'what if'. ~ Suppose we took the plane instead? That would give us even more time.  It's not supposed to be here. ~ Suppose I sit there until somebody comes?  I'm going to ask him for a pay increase. intended or expected.  John is supposed to turn off all the lights when he leaves. Notice that the verb which follows it is sometimes.  It is supposed to be the best restaurant in town. but not always.  The new James Bond movie is supposed to be excellent.  He is supposed to have been rude to Mark but I don't believe it. Often there is a suggestion that the action 'supposed to' happen does not actually happen  I'm supposed to be there before 8 but I'm often late.  I'm supposed to get to work by 8. ~ Suppose he said 'no'? What would you do? Suppose 2 'Supposed to be' can be used to mean 'it is said/believed'.  Suppose we take the earlier train to Munich? It would give us more time there. It is a bit like 'should'.

 She's having her house redecorated. Notice that the verb which follows it is sometimes. Suppose I sit there until somebody comes?  I'm going to ask him for a pay increase.  I'm going to have my hair cut. I'm supposed to be getting on a plane to Tokyo at this very minute.  You're not supposed to smoke in here. we can replace 'have' by 'get'. put 'more in the past'.  Suppose we took the plane instead? That would give us even more time. 'Suppose' can also be used as a conjunction to mean 'what if'.  Suppose we take the earlier train to Munich? It would give us more time there. 'Not supposed to' often suggest that something is not allowed or prohibited. ~ Suppose he said 'no'? What would you do? Have something done If you 'have something done'. you get somebody else to do something for you.  We're getting a new telephone system installed.  There's nobody in reception to let our visitors in.  We're not supposed to use the Internet for personal reasons at work.  I'm having a copy of the report sent to you In informal English.  I got the bill sent direct to the company.  They will be getting the system repaired as quickly as they can.  I'm not supposed to tell you. but not always. 49 .

 They shouldn't have sent the report off for printing yet.  We had our car damaged by a falling tree.  I should have let her know what was happening but I forgot. It's time to send the next one.  They should have all read that first email by this stage. This is not something they wanted to happen.We can also use 'have/got something done' in situations where something bad has happened to people or their possessions. Let's try ringing him. We can probably still get hold of him. We can also use 'should have' to speculate about events that may or may not have happened.  She should have got the letter this morning. 50 .  He should have sent everybody a reminder by email. There is still time to make changes. Should have We can use 'should have' to talk about past events that did not happen.  He shouldn't have boarded his plane yet.  He should have arrived at his office by now.  She shouldn't have left work yet. I expect she'll give us a call about it later.  John had all his money stolen from his hotel bedroom.  I got my nose broken playing rugby.  They should have remembered that their guests don't eat pork. I'll call her office. We can use ' should not have' to speculate negatively about what may or may not have happened.

I apologise.)  She could have taken the earlier train.  We shouldn't have left the office so late. We can use 'couldn't have' to talk about something we were not capable of doing.  She could have married him but she didn't want to.  I couldn't have managed without you. Can have / Could have We can use 'could have' to talk about something somebody was capable of doing but didn't do.  They shouldn't have sacked him. Sorry. We can use 'could have' to speculate about what has happened.  I shouldn't have shouted at you.  They could have bought a house here 20 years ago but chose not to.  I could have done more to help you. Often. He was always going to appoint his nephew. Thank you for a lovely day. We should have anticipated this bad traffic.We can also use 'should not have' to regret past actions.  I couldn't have enjoyed myself more. there is a sense of criticism. (We can also use 'may have' or 'might have' in these situations.  I could have gone to Oxford University but I preferred Harvard.  They could have helped me instead of just sitting there. He was the most creative person on their team.  You could have phoned me to let me know. 51 .  I couldn't have got the job.

and with no pressure. 53 . We can use 'will be doing' to predict what is happening now.  I'll have finished this project by Friday.  They'll be thinking about this very carefully over the next few months.  She'll have visited ten countries in twelve days by the time she gets back.  They'll be deciding who gets the contract at this very moment. We won't be doing any work while you are not here. In fact. about future plans. She'll be having lunch in the canteen.  Try phoning his hotel.  He'll be looking after the factory until we can appoint a new manager.  Will you be eating with us this evening?  Will you be needing anything else?  Will they be joining us for dinner? Will have done We can use 'will have done' to talk about what will have been achieved by a certain moment in time. boss.  We'll have been in these offices for eight years next month. We'll be enjoying ourselves too. We can use 'will be doing' to talk about future events that are fixed or decided. I'm very nervous. I'm going to be coming next month. He'll probably still be having breakfast. We can use 'will be doing' to ask extremely politely.  I'll be visiting your country on a regular basis.  She's not in her office.

 He'll have already read the report by now.  They'll have decided by now. c I think I’ll go to bed.  She'll have been driving for more than fifteen hours straight by the time she gets here. Where’s Tom? He’s smoking a cigarette outside. g No. h I don’t know but it doesn’t suit her! Who’s she talking to? Oh. Present continuous  Mix and match 1 Who’s she talking to? a He’s smoking a cigarette outside. it’s still raining. Sit down. 4 What is she wearing? d Have you seen it? 5 Is anyone sitting here? e Oh. I think I’ll go to bed. we can use the continuous form.  She'll have boarded her plane. no. We should hear the result today or tomorrow. I’m just brushing my hair. We can also use 'will have done' to predict what we think has already happened at present. It's too late to contact her. it’s still raining. Too late to change it. Shall we go for a walk? No. Sit down. 54 . 2 Shall we go for a walk? b No. 7 I’ll be ready in a few minutes. 6 Where’s Tom? f I’m just brushing my hair.  They'll have been working with us for 15 years by the end of this year. Have you seen it? What is she wearing? I don’t know but it doesn’t suit her! Is anyone sitting here? No. I’ll be ready in a few minutes. 3 I’m looking for my bag. 8 I’m getting tired.  I'll have been working here for 35 years by the time I retire. I’m getting tired.If we want to emphasise the continuity of the activity. that’s her brother. that’s her brother. no. I’m looking for my bag.

Are you going to university next year? ~ No. ____________. ____________ the train. ____________ their house on the market at a very high price. He’s looking 3. ____________. I’m not  Complete the sentences 1. It’s too far to walk. I’m going to take a year out. They’re putting 8. She’s thinking 6. ____________ for a bike. ____________. you are 5. ____________. they aren’t 4. ____________ to the cinema later. I’m picking him up later. It’s the easiest way to get there. Are you coming this evening? ~ Yes. ____________. I think ____________ a cold. I must take some vitamin C. Is Henry helping you with it? ~ No. I’m playing 5. Are we talking a taxi? ~ Yes. Complete the sentences 1. How ____________ now? A bit better? are you feeling 9. ____________. I’m getting 2. Are Carl and Bob eating with us? ~ No. Is she studying French? ~ No. ____________. we are 6. ____________ tennis tonight. Are they still looking for a new house? ~ No. Are they still waiting for me? ~ Yes. Hurry up! they are 10. he’s sitting They’re putting / We’re taking / he’s sitting / He’s looking / are you feeling / She’s thinking / I’m getting / We’re going / I’m playing Present simple  Mix and match 1 The Seine flows through 2 British Airways flies to a 550 destinations. He’s done nothing so far. They’re having dinner with some friends. You can’t give up now. In fact. ____________. We’re taking 4. I am 3. ____________. she isn’t 7. I’ll meet you there. he is 9. Do you want to come? We’re going 7. He wants to cycle to work from now. they aren’t 8. b meat. 55 . She’s doing German. he isn’t 2. ____________. I’m not this anymore! ~ Yes. Is Dave coming for the weekend? ~ Yes. I think ____________ his final exams next month. They’ve found one near the park. I do lots of sports. ____________ of leaving the company and working for herself.

we drive 9 About 20% of Canadians speak The Seine flows through Paris. they don’t 4. ____________. ____________. She’s moved to London. Do Jim and Sally see each other very often? ~ No. I’ll buy him a ticket. Does she still live in Edinburgh? ~ No. Cars produce a lot of pollution.3 It takes 10 hours to 4 Cars produce 5 Vegetarians don’t eat 6 Pandas come from 7 The US president lives in 8 In Britain. About 20% of Canadians speak French. you do you do / we do / he does / she does / we do / they don’t / I don’t / she doesn’t / they do  Complete the sentences 56 . Does she know him? ~ Yes. They would be very upset if we didn’t. ____________. we drive on the left. a lot of pollution. The US president lives in the White House. you never will. Do I have to finish this now? ~ Yes. c d e f g h i French. fly from London to Miami. If you don’t do it now. the White House. ____________. we do 6. Do you agree? ~ No. I think you’re completely wrong. he does 3. Do we have to invite them? ~ Yes. We can have dinner in the hotel. British Airways flies to550 destinations. She met him a few times. In Britain. they do 8. Does Kevin want to come? ~ Yes. she does 7. ____________. I don’t 2. Pandas come from China. It takes 10 hours to fly from London to Miami. Vegetarians don’t eat meat. They open at 9 every day. China. ____________. ____________. Do we get there before dinner? ~ Yes. ____________. she doesn’t 5. Do they open at 9? ~ Yes. Paris. on the left. ____________. we do 9.  Complete the sentences 1. Maybe once or twice a month.

He ____________ about buying a house. When friends over. we do. 6 Does it always rain so much here? f I don’t think she is. Does it always rain so much here? Yes. they aren’t. If not. On Sunday evening I ____________ TV and then go to bed early. 7 Do they have everything they need? g Yes. I ____________ next week off. they aren’t. Does she eat meat? No. at this time of year. Do you see him very often? No. it is. I ____________ cooking although I’m not very good at desserts. I ____________ the Sunday newspapers. I ____________ late on Sunday morning. Are we going to Greece this year? No. If the weather is good. she doesn’t 2 Do we have to pay for it? b Yes. at this time of year. she doesn’t Is this still raining? Yes. As I often ____________ to bed late on Saturday. they don’t. Are you waiting to see the doctor? Yes. we do. ‘m taking 57 . 8 Are you waiting to see the doctor? h Yes. we aren’t. We can’t afford it. Do we have to pay for it? Yes. it does. In the afternoon. they don’t. We can’t afford it. I ____________ some time in my garden. we aren’t. it does. 0 Are they coming to the party? No. it is. ‘s thinking 2. I want to relax. That usually ____________ most of the day. I ____________ the housework and ____________ shopping because I ____________ time the rest of the week.  Complete the sentences 1. I don’t. He’s very late. Do they have everything they need? No. He’s very late. I am. work / do / go / don’t have / takes / go out / invite / come / enjoy / go / sleep / spend / read / visit / lives / walk / watch Present simple / Present continuous  Mix and match 1 Are they coming to the party? a No. 5 Is this still raining? e No. so at the weekend. I am. She ____________ quite close to me so I usually ____________ to her house. Is she coming back? I don’t think she is. 1 Are we going to Greece this year? j No.During the week I ____________ very hard. 4 Does she eat meat? d Yes. I ____________ my mother for tea. 3 Is she coming back? c No. I often ____________ or ____________ friends over for dinner. 9 Do you see him very often? i No. Saturday evening. On Saturday though. I don’t.

She ____________ with friends over the holidays.   7. (tastes)  6. was 4. He’s not understanding what I’m saying. The weather ____________ very good all week. didn’t rain 58 . She doesn’t believe what you’re saying. ‘s staying 7. They are knowing him well. stay 4. She ____________ a baby very soon. I don’t drink very much coffee. I see what you mean. I need to see the doctor. Last week we ____________ on holiday. We always ____________ at the Sofitel when we go to Lyon. He ____________ French and German fluently. You’re such a good cook.3.  5. Past simple  Complete the sentences with the following verbs not want / be / have / fly / stay / go / not rain / spend / walk / get 1. agree)   (doesn’t    (know) 9. It ____________ at all. understand)   (doesn’t 3.  10. ____________ a wireless network in your office? Do you have 5. We ____________ it’s a good idea. went 2. take 9. stayed 3.    Grammatically correct or not? 1. He’s looking a lot better than he did a few days ago. ‘s speaking 6. don’t think 8. I ____________ a vitamin supplement every day. He ____________ at the conference next week. speaks ‘s staying / speaks / Do you have / ‘s thinking / don’t think / ‘s having / ‘m taking / stay / ‘s speaking / take   2. He isn’t agreeing with me. We ____________ in a lovely hotel by the sea. The food is tasting fantastic.   8. What do you think about? thinking)   (are you 4. ‘s having 10.

We ____________ back on Saturday. Who told you? Pete told me. 5 How long did it take? e He started work here in 2001. flew 11. was 10. We ____________ to come home! didn’t want  Match the questions and answers 1 What time did they arrive? a I don’t know why he did it. we arrived. we ____________ dinner in the hotel restaurant. Past continuous  Mix and match 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I was waiting for him for over They were talking on the It was still raining when I I was trying to phone Sorry. We ____________ most days sitting on the beach. Why did he do it? I don’t know why he did it. Where did you buy it? I bought it in New York. What time did they arrive? They arrive at ten o’clock. was I She was living in Leeds in I was working on that a b c d e f g 59 went out. 3 Where did you buy it? c It cost about \$100. phone for thirty minutes. shouting? report all night. We ____________ back very late and very tired. 8 When did he start work here? h Pete told me. walked 9. . 6 Who told you? f They arrive at ten o’clock. After dinner. two hours. 8 What did he study at university? h I bought it in New York. How far was it from London? It was about 50 miles. had 7. got 12. 7 How far was it from London? g I took a couple of hours to do. you all morning. were 8. How much did it cost? It cost about \$100. The food and the service ____________ excellent. 4 Why did he do it? d He studied archeology.5. How long did it take? I took a couple of hours to do. When did he start work here? He started work here in 2001. It ____________ very romantic. 2 How much did it cost? b It was about 50 miles. What did he study at university? He studied archeology. spent 6. In the evening. we ____________ along the beach in the moon light.

3 Were you waiting a long time? c To the shops.  Match the questions and answers 1 What were you doing? a Henry. just the people in the street. was I shouting? She was living in Leeds in 1999. 7 When were they leaving? g Oh.8 He was still cooking when h dinner when he called. What were you thinking about? Oh. What was she wearing? Just jeans and a T-shirt. I think. . Sorry. he was living in Spain. I was trying to phone you all morning. were having a glass of wine on the terrace. I was just thinking about work. We were having dinner when he called. I was just thinking about work. They were talking on the phone for thirty minutes. What were you looking at? Oh. Where were you going? To the shops. I was working on that report all night. Were you waiting a long time? More than haft an hour. just the people in the street. He won. 5 Who were you playing tennis with? e At ten this morning. He won. Past simple / Past continuous  Mix and match 1 2 3 4 5 6 They arrive early while I Paul cooked dinner while we The doorbell rang He wrote six novels when She had a car accident because We took a lot of photos while the bride and a b c d e f 60 she was driving too fast. while I watch TV. 9 We were having i in 1999. were standing outside the church. I think. 2 What were you thinking about? b More than haft an hour. Who were you playing tennis with? Henry. was still sleeping. He was still cooking when we arrived. 6 What was she wearing? f Oh. When were they leaving? At ten this morning. 4 Where were you going? d I was trying to fix the lamp. What were you doing? I was trying to fix the lamp. I was waiting for him for over two hours. 8 What were you looking at? h Just jeans and a T-shirt. It was still raining when I went out.

We took a lot of photos while the bride and groom were standing outside the church. d Only ten minutes.groom They arrive early while I was still sleeping. He (walk) ____________ very quickly and not looking where he (go) ____________. He only stayed a few moments. He almost (bump) ____________ into me. What time did they arrive? At about ten o’clock. Just jean and T-shirt as usual. 2 How long were you waiting? 3 What time did they arrive? 4 What was she wearing? 5 Where were you rushing off to yesterday when I e saw you? 6 Why did he leave so early? f 7 Who were they speaking to when we arrived? g 8 How long did he stay? h What were you doing? I was repairing my bike. he (sound) ____________ very angry. Like a lot of people when they talk on their mobile. 61 . The doorbell rang while I watch TV. he (talk) ____________ rather loudly and everybody could hear what he (say) ____________. At about ten o’clock. Why did he leave so early? He had to get up early for work. In fact.  Complete the stories I (see) ____________ Jerry in town this morning but he (not see) ____________ me. He wrote six novels when he was living in Spain. How long were you waiting? Only ten minutes. What was she wearing? Just jean and T-shirt as usual. He (talk) ____________ to someone on his phone. They are old friends. c To the bank before it closed. saw / didn’t see / walked / was going / was coming / was walking / was going / bumped / was talking / was having / sounded / was talking / was saying  Match the questions and answers 1 What were you doing? a To Sara and Freddie. He had to get up early for work. Where were you rushing off to yesterday when I saw you? To the bank before it closed. Paul cooked dinner while we were having a glass of wine on the terrace. b I was repairing my bike. She had a car accident because she was driving too fast. I (go) ____________ into the bank as he (come)____________ out. I think he (have) ____________ an argument. he (walk) ____________ straight past me.

(was trying) 8. left  Complete the sentences with the verbs below look / drive / try / sit / think 1. She ____________ to park the car. I ____________ about her when she called me. They are old friends. She ____________ for a new coat but she bought some boots and a dress instead! (was looking) 4. was talking 4. This time last week we ____________ on the beach in Jamaica. (sat) 5.  Complete the sentences 1. We ____________ down on a bench to watch the children playing in the park. We were walking down by the river when it (start) ____________ raining. He broke his foot while he (play) ____________ football on Sunday. It was odd. He (phone) ____________ me to say they were running late. I (drive) ____________ at 50 in a 30 zone when I was caught by the speed camera. He (drive)____________ into London but it would have been easier to take the train. phoned 3. (drove) 2. was driving 11. was playing 9. He ____________ to park his car there but he couldn’t get into the space. (tried) 7. met 8. (was thinking) 62 . She (talk) ____________ to Jim on the phone when I walked in. (thought) 3. They (meet) ____________ when they were working in Paris.Who were they speaking to when we arrived? To Sara and Freddie. I cut my finger while I (chop) vegetables. I ____________ for it but I couldn’t find it. (were sitting) 6. The plane (leave) ____________ a little over an hour late. I met them in the street while I (shop) ____________. How long did he stay? He only stayed a few moments. was shopping 6. (looked) 9. I ____________ she was coming on Friday but it seems she’s coming on Saturday. started 7. He was waiting half an hour before they (arrive) ____________. was chopping 10. How many people (sit) ____________ in the waiting room when you arrived? were sitting 5. I saw her a few minutes ago. arrived 2.

b 3 I haven’t got my keys. He knows. e 6 He’s decided to get fit. I’ve bought the tickets. I don’t know what time is it. She (just arrive) ____________. d 5 It’s working fine now. She’s gone out. I (already speak) ____________ to him about it. It’s started to rain We’re going to the concert. c 4 It’s his birthday. I do know him. I can’t find it anywhere. He’s decided to get fit. (have finally found) 63 . i 1 I’m sorry. She’s in reception. she’s not here. j 0 I’ve lost my purse.  Complete the sentences 1. (’ve spent) 7. (hasn’t finished) 5. I haven’t got my keys. g 8 Let me get my umbrella. He (not finish) ____________ it yet.10. I’ve been there many times. She’s gone out. I’ve made him a cake. I’ve made him a cake. We (already meet)____________ a couple of times. It’s working fine now. I’ve fix it. I ____________ home when I heard the news on the radio. f 7 I know Paris very well. I (spend) ____________ it all. (’ve already met) 4. He’s started running twice a week. It’s started to rain I can’t find it anywhere. h 9 We’re going to the concert. she’s not here. I’ve been there many times. It’ll take another couple of hours. I’ve left them at home. My watch has stopped. I’ve fix it. We (finally find) ____________ the house we want to buy. I know Paris very well. He’s started running twice a week. Let me get my umbrella. I’ve bought the tickets. (’s just arrived) 6. It’s his birthday. (was driving) Present perfect  Mix and match 1 I’ve lost my purse. My watch has stopped. a 2 I don’t know what time is it. I don’t have any cash left. I’ve left them at home. (’ve already spoken) 3. He (call) ____________ you back yet? (Has he called) 2. I’m sorry.

8. She’s very tired because she (just have) ____________ another baby. (has just
9. The garden looks great now I (cut) ____________ the grass. (’ve cut)
10. They (buy) ____________ a house in Spain and will be moving there next
month. (’ve bought)

 Match the questions and answers
1
2
3
4

Have you read anything by John Grisham?
Has she got a new car?
Have they been in touch yet?
Has Freddy finished at university yet?

a
b
c
d

5 Have your parents given you a car?
e
6 Have we decided on a time for the meeting?
f
7 Have you been on holiday yet this year?
g
8 Have I passed?
h
Have you read anything by John Grisham?

Yes, I think we said ten o’clock.
Yes, they have. I’m very lucky.
Yes, you have. Congratulations.
No, we haven’t. We‘re going away next
month.
Yes, she bought a Ford.
Yes, I have. I really like his books.
No, he hasn’t. He’s got another year to do.
No, they haven’t. I’ve had no news.
Yes, I have. I really like his books.

Has she got a new car? Yes, she bought a Ford.
Have they been in touch yet? No, they haven’t. I’ve had no news.
Has Freddy finished at university yet? No, he hasn’t. He’s got another year to do.
Have your parents given you a car? Yes, they have. I’m very lucky.
Have we decided on a time for the meeting? Yes, I think we said ten o’clock.
Have you been on holiday yet this year? No, we haven’t. We‘re going away next
month.
Have I passed? Yes, you have. Congratulations.

Present perfect continuous
 Mix and match
1
2
3

You look very tired.
The cooker’s hot.
June’s very red in the face.

a She hasn’t been eating enough.
b I suppose he’s been skiing again.
c We’ve been living in a rented flat while we
looked.
d They’ve been waiting for you.
e Have you been smoking?
f You’ve been working to hard.
g I’ve been thinking about it all day.
h Have you been cooking?
i Has she been crying?
j Has she been running?

4 It smells of cigarettes in here.
5 Pete has broken his leg.
6 Andrea has red eyes.
7 I still can’t make my mind up.
8 She has lost a lot of weight.
9 They arrive ten minutes ago.
1 We’ve just bought a house.
0
You look very tired. You’ve been working to hard.

64

The cooker’s hot. Have you been cooking?
June’s very red in the face. Has she been running?
It smells of cigarettes in here. Have you been smoking?
Pete has broken his leg. I suppose he’s been skiing again.
Andrea has red eyes. Has she been crying?
I still can’t make my mind up. I’ve been thinking about it all day.
She has lost a lot of weight. She hasn’t been eating enough.
They arrive ten minutes ago. They’ve been waiting for you.
We’ve just bought a house. We’ve been living in a rented flat while we looked.

 Complete the sentences with the present perfect continuous
1. I (work) ____________ on it for ages but I still haven’t finished. (‘ve been
working)
2. I (train) ____________ for the marathon for six months but I still don’t feel ready.
(‘ve been training)
3. How long they (learn) ____________ Spanish? (have they been learning)
4. He (ask) ____________ about it for says now. I don’t know what to tell him. (‘s
5. I (wait) ____________ to get a new phone for ages and it still hasn’t come. (‘ve
been waiting)
6. How long you (wait) ____________ for me? (‘ve been waiting)
7. She (diet) ____________ for only a couple of months but has lost twenty pounds.
(‘s been dieting)
8. How long you (work) ____________ for them? (have you been working)
9. I (drive) ____________ for a long time but never had an accident. Touch wood.
(‘ve been driving)
10. How long they (think) about selling their house? (have they been thinking)

 Match the questions and answers
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

How long have you been working there?
How long have you been living in Oxford?
How long has she not been talking to you?
What have you been doing? You are all
dirty.
Why have you been working so hard?
Has Pete been meeting his targets recently?
How long were you waiting for an answer?

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

65

It’s my first job so since I left school.
No, he hasn’t for a few months now.
Not long. They decided quite quickly.
contract.
Since I bought my house there in 1998.
Since I told her she was stupid!
I’ve been working in the garden.

How long have you been working there? ~ It’s my first job so since I left school.
How long have you been living in Oxford? ~ Since I bought my house there in
1998.
How long has she not been talking to you? ~ Since I told her she was stupid!
What have you been doing? You are all dirty. ~ I’ve been working in the garden.
Why have you been working so hard? ~ I had a tight deadline to meet on a big
contract.
Has Pete been meeting his targets recently? ~ No, he hasn’t for a few months
now.
How long were you waiting for an answer? ~ Not long. They decided quite
quickly.

Present perfect / Present perfect continuous
 Mix and match
1
I’ve been waiting for
2
How many kilometers have you
3
Who has she been talking
4
What have you done with my
5
I’ve never spoken to
6
She looks terrible because she
7
Have you ever been
8
What have you been doing since
9
Have they bought
I’ve been waiting for him for hours.

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

there?
has been crying.
doing it for years.
I last saw you?
driven this week?
a new dog yet?
keys. I can’t find them.
him for hours.
to all this time?

How many kilometers have you driven this week?
Who has she been talking to all this time?
What have you done with my keys. I can’t find them.
I’ve never spoken to him about it.
She looks terrible because she has been crying.
Have you ever been there?
What have you been doing since I last saw you?
Have they bought a new dog yet?
I’ve been thinking about doing it for years.

 Correct or not

1. I’ve been going to the gym regularly.

66

She can’t find them anywhere. I’m pleased she’s got his promotion. He hasn’t got much hair. They never (learn) ____________ to swim. He (smoke) ____________ since he was only ten.   6. (’s lost) 7. (have never learnt) 10. She’s been saving up for a new car. He (wait) ____________ a long time for it. She a b c d are still very close. (have been learning) Present perfect / Past simple  Mix and match 1 2 3 4 5 We’ve been friends for years and We were friends for a long time but now I worked with him for a few years. I never (smoke) ____________ a cigar. I’ve forgotten his name. We’ve known them for a long time. They (learn) ____________ to drive for a couple of months. (’ve never smoked) 9. He (wait) in your office since he arrived.  3. I’ve only been reading a few pages. 2. He (loose) ____________ it since he was only thirty.   8. She (cut up) ____________ magazines for a collage all morning.   9. She’s not here. I (cut up) ____________ all the meat. They have been playing football all morning. (’s been smoking) 8.   10. Have you been seeing the weather forecast? (seen)   4. I think I will. She (lost) ____________ her keys. hated living there so he sold it. What shall I do now? (’ve cut up) 2. She’s gone out. (’s been losing) 6. (’s been cutting up) 3. She has been saving \$5000. (has waited) 5.   (read) (saved)  Complete the sentences 1. then I’ve worked with him for a few years and still Jane’s lived there all her life. 67 . he left to join the competition. John’s daughter has been growing since I saw her. e we don’t see each other much. (grown)   5. (’s been waiting) 4.   7.

(‘ve known / were / ‘ve always been) 4. He bought a house in Scotland but hated living there so he sold it. Paul lived in London when he was a student. He’s bought a house in Scotland and g he was a student. He’s bought a house in Scotland and will be moving there next month. He bought a house in Scotland but h will be moving there next month. We (see) ____________ Johnny for ages. (studied / ‘ve forgotten / ‘ve never had) Past perfect  Mix and match 68 . A friend (give) ____________ me his first book and since then. 0 company and We’ve been friends for years and are still very close. (didn’t see / was) 3. I (read) ____________ them several times. I love his books. Jane’s lived there all her life. I’ve thought about starting my own company and I think I will. I don’t know what (happen) ____________ to him.6 7 8 9 Paul lived in London when f will never live anywhere else. but 1 I’ve thought about starting my own j learn a lot from him. I (wear) ____________ it many times. She will never live anywhere else. Do you know where he (be) ____________. I (see) ____________ Tom in the office yesterday. (‘ve read / gave / ‘ve bought) 6.  Complete the sentences 1. I (study) ____________ Spanish in school but I (forget) ____________ most of it because I never (have) ____________ the chance to practice it. I worked with him for a few years. then he left to join the competition. We were friends for a long time but now we don’t see each other much. I thought about starting my own company i decided I didn’t want to. I (buy) ____________ it when I (go) ____________ to New York a few years ago. They (know) ____________ each other since they (be) ____________ at school together. They always (be) ____________ very good friends. (haven’t seen / has happened) 2. I thought about starting my own company but decided I didn’t want to. (‘ve had / ‘ve worn / bought / went) 5. I (buy) ____________ them all. I’ve worked with him for a few years and still learn a lot from him. I (have) ____________ this dress for ages.

6 She hadn’t been working there very long
f she got promoted.
when
7 He told me he had only been
g she’d been on a spending spree.
8 I thought he had been attending classes
h he asked her to marry him.
regularly
9 I was very angry when I found out
i she’d been smoking in the warehouse.
It was a meter deep it had been snowing all night.
She didn’t have any money left she’d been on a spending spree.
He’d only been seeing her once a week he asked her to marry him.
She was sacked because she’d been smoking in the warehouse.
I had been trying to get hold of him for hours before I finally spoke to him.
She hadn’t been working there very long when she got promoted.
He told me he had only been waiting a few minutes.
I was very angry when I found out she had been stealing money from me.

 Mix and match.
1
2

I don’t have my favorite car.
I fell exhausted.

a
b

they’ve been fixing the car.
I’ve been reading these legal documents all
day.
Have you been waiting long?
I’ve just been swimming.
I’ve driven everything including a Ferrari!
I’ve been driving since I was 17.
I’ve just swum 100 lengths.
I’ve only read half of it.
I’ve waited long enough.
They’ve fixed the car.

3 My eyes are really tired.
c
4 I got my license years ago.
d
5 My hair is wet because
e
6 I paid the garage \$500.
f
7 I still haven’t finished this book.
g
8 Their hands are dirty because
h
9 I’m going home.
i
1 I’m sorry I’m late.
j
0
I don’t have my favorite car. I’ve driven everything including a Ferrari!
I fell exhausted. I’ve just swum 100 lengths.

My eyes are really tired. I’ve been reading these legal documents all day.
I got my license years ago. I’ve been driving since I was 17.
My hair is wet because I’ve just been swimming.
I paid the garage \$500. They’ve fixed the car.
I still haven’t finished this book. I’ve only read half of it.
Their hands are dirty because they’ve been fixing the car.
I’m going home. I’ve waited long enough.
I’m sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long?

77

Going to
 Mix and match.
1 I’ve bought a guide book.
a
2 I’ve have join the gym club.
b
3 I’ve bought some nicotine patches.
c
4 He’s really annoying me.
d
5 I’ve just bought a bike.
e
6 Mission impossible is on TV tonight.
f
7 My car is dirty.
g
8 I’m going to redecorate the sitting room.
h
9 We’ve just got engaged.
i
I’ve bought a guide book. Now I’m going to

Are you going to watch it?
We’re going to get married in June.
I’m going to take it to the car wash.
I’m going to get angry.
Now I’m going to find a hotel.
I’m going to exercise regularly.
I’m going to cycle to work.
I’m going to stop smoking.
I’m going to paint it yellow.
find a hotel.

I’ve have join the gym club. I’m going to exercise regularly.
I’ve bought some nicotine patches. I’m going to stop smoking.
He’s really annoying me. I’m going to get angry.
I’ve just bought a bike. I’m going to cycle to work.
Mission impossible is on TV tonight. Are you going to watch it?
My car is dirty. I’m going to take it to the car wash.
I’m going to redecorate the sitting room. I’m going to paint it yellow.
We’ve just got engaged. We’re going to get married in June.

 Complete the sentences
‘m not going to tell / ‘m going to enroll / ‘re going to get / ‘re going to look / ‘m
going to make / ‘m going to be / are you going to do / ‘m going to go
1. I’m hungry. I ________ a sandwich. (‘m going to make)
2. Sue and Carl are expecting their third child so they ________ for a bigger house.
(‘re going to look)
3. It’s a beautiful day. I ________ for a walk. (‘m going to go)
4. I’ll just phone Raphael to say I ________ late. (‘m going to be)
5. I’ve got the application forms. I ________ on the course. (‘m going to enrol)l
6. What ________ about it? (are you going to do)
7. I ________ him. He doesn’t need to know. (‘m not going to tell)
8. Put a sweater on. You ________ cold. (‘re going to ge)t

 Mix and match.

78

1
2
3
4

Steve has got his tennis racket.
a
Paul’s in the kitchen.
b
Look at those black clouds.
c
Sophie and Felicity are going to the
d
supermarket.
5 Felicity is getting her credit card out of her
e
bag.
6 Andrew is studying medicine.
f
7 Be careful.
g
Steve has got his tennis racket. He is going

He’s going to cook dinner.
He is going to play tennis.
She’s going to pay.
You’re going to drop it.
He’s going to be a doctor.
It’s going to rain.
They are going to buy something for dinner.
to play tennis.

Paul’s in the kitchen. He’s going to cook dinner.
Look at those black clouds. It’s going to rain.
Sophie and Felicity are going to the supermarket. They are going to buy
something for dinner.
Felicity is getting her credit card out of her bag. She’s going to pay.
Andrew is studying medicine. He’s going to be a doctor.
Be careful. You’re going to drop it.

 Mix and match.
1
2

What are you going to wear?
Are you going to sell your house?

a
b

3

What color are you going to paint the
kitchen?
What are you going to do?
Where are you going to stay?

c

4
5

I don’t know. What can I do?
In a hotel. I booked it on the internet
yesterday.
Today. I have to give one month’s notice.

d
e

Yes, we need a bigger one.
Jeans, I think. The weather isn’t very warm
today.
6 When are you going to stay?
f Pale yellow. I bought the paint yesterday.
What are you going to wear? Jeans, I think. The weather isn’t very warm today.
Are you going to sell your house? Yes, we need a bigger one.
What color are you going to paint the kitchen? Pale yellow. I bought the paint
yesterday.
What are you going to do? I don’t know. What can I do?
Where are you going to stay? In a hotel. I booked it on the internet yesterday.
When are you going to stay? Today. I have to give one month’s notice.

Will – future
 Complete the sentence
‘ll wear / ‘ll like / ‘ll have to / ‘ll be / ‘ll have / ‘ll buy / ‘ll be able to / ‘ll have / ‘ll
stop / ‘ll give

79

j They won’t pay that price. There’s lots of people at the check in. He’s coming to the party. f I’m sure he’ll forget. It’ll rain later. That’s far too much. 1 The weather forecast isn’t very good. The others are moving out on Friday. 0 The weather forecast isn’t very good. 2 He’s coming to the party. (‘ll wear) 6. (‘ll have) 4. (‘ll give) 8. It is much too expensive. (‘ll stop) 2. He prefers things that are simple. I’ll put it in today’s post but you won’t get it until Thursday. I hope I ________ enough money to pay for it.1. You’ll see him then. 4 He’s the best player. h I’m sure he will be late. I didn’t bring my credit card. I think I ________ now. We don’t think we ________ it. d you won’t get it until Thursday. I think I ________ him a call and ask him what he thinks. I think I ________ the red dress. 8 That’s far too much. 1 We’re having a party on Friday. (‘ll be able to) 7. (‘ll have) 9. John will be forty. (‘ll be)  Mix and match. a It’ll rain later. I don’t think he ________ that very much. 9 Hurry up or i You’ll see him then. They won’t pay that price. I told him ten o’clock but I’m sure he will be late. We don’t think they ________ here until eight. I asked him to do it but I’m sure he’ll forget. 5 I asked him to do it but e you won’t be ready when they arrive. 7 I told him ten o’clock but g John will be forty. 6 There’s lots of people at the check in. It’s a long drive. I’m tired. She thinks she ________ time to finish it before the weekend. Hurry up or you won’t be ready when they arrive. It’s perfect for a summer’s evening. We have no choice. They think they ________ move in the next week. I’m sure he’ll win the competition. The plane will be full. 3 I’ll put it in today’s post but c The plane will be full. 80 . We’re having a party on Friday. He’s the best player. We think we ________ agree to it. b I’m sure he’ll win the competition. (‘ll buy) 5. (‘ll like) 10. (‘ll have to) 3.

she isn’t. No. No. Andrea is off today. Have you decided what to do? How much more have you got to do? How old is Shelagh? Is Anne happy in her new job? 6 7 8 9 1 0 I’d love a cup of tea.Eddie has been made a supervisor. He’s going to call me back. How old is Shelagh? She’ll be forty next birthday. He’s going to be a doctor. I’m not going to sell. Don’t forget to give me your keys. How much more have you got to do? Too much. Theresa doesn’t know whether to accept. Have you decided what to do? Yes. Yes. She’ll be forty next birthday. I think he’ll be good in that job. she isn’t. I’m busy tonight. I’ll call him now. What is Jack studying? Medicine. She’s going to think about it. Great. I’ll never get it finished. Is Anne happy in her new job? No. Medicine. I have to loose weight. We’re going to spend it in Spain. Too much.  Mix and match. I’m glad you’re coming. Can you call him back? What do you think the weather will be like tomorrow? Don’t forget to give me your keys. I’ll make some. I’ll never get it finished. Can you call him back? Of course. I’ll pick you up at seven. Freddy doesn’t know. He’s going to call me back with it. I’ll call him now. . He said he’d find out the price for me. 1 2 3 4 5 I’ve bought my plane ticket. She’ll be back tomorrow. We’re moving on the 30th. 1 2 3 4 5 I’d love a cup of tea. I’ll give you them now. I’m sorry. I called Jerry but he was busy. What do you think the weather will be like tomorrow? The forecast is sunny. He’s going to be a doctor. She’s going to resign. No. f g h i j We’re going to spend it in Spain. She’s going to resign. I’ll make some. I’m having dinner at Gerry’s. I’ll give you them now. week. a b c d e 82 I’m going to go on a diet. The forecast is sunny. What is Jack studying? What are you doing over the summer. We’ve signed the lease. a b c d e Of course. Present forms for the future  Mix and match. I’m not going to sell. What are you doing over the summer. I’m going to tell him.

7 The new shop opens next g get there? 8 I leave at ten on h I’m going to work harder in the future. 1 What time do you j a couple of weeks. will you open the window? My plane arrives late. We’ve signed the lease. will you f I’ll take it. I’m sorry. 8 Thanks for the cash. I didn’t do very well in my exams. Will you pick me up at the airport? Thanks for the cash. 7 My plane arrives late. 9 The car needs a service. The new shop opens next week. I leave at ten on Monday morning. I’m busy tonight. f Monday morning. I’ll pay h you back tomorrow. please? Will you have some more coffee? You cooked so we’ll wash up. Will you call me as soon as you have some news? If you wait a minute I’ll give you a hand. I have to loose weight. He’s going to call me back with it. Will you i have some news? 1 That bag looks heavy. We’re moving on the 30 th. I’m going to go on a diet. It’s hot in here.other uses  Mix and match these requests and offers 1 Will you send me a copy as a open the window? 2 Will you have some more b pick me up at the airport? 3 You cooked so we’ll c drop it off at the garage? 4 Will you call me as soon as you d coffee? 5 If you wait a minute I’ll e soon as possible. I’m having dinner at Gerry’s. He said he’d find out the price for me. Will you g give you a hand. 9 The course starts in i I’m flying out tomorrow. 0 Will you send me a copy as soon as possible. I’m flying out tomorrow. 83 . What time do you get there? Will . 0 I’ve bought my plane ticket. please? 6 It’s hot in here. j wash up.6 I didn’t do very well in my exams. I’m going to work harder in the future. The course starts in a couple of weeks. I’ll pay you back tomorrow.

 Complete the sentences won’t start / won’t eat / ‘ll pay / won’t close / ‘ll fax / ‘ll help / ‘ll call / won’t do / won’t forget / won’t stop 1. Shall we ________ away for the weekend? (go) 4. If you need a hand moving the furniture. No. (won’t do) 9. Shall I ________ the doctor? (call) 7. I ________ you back as soon as I can. Will you drop it off at the garage? That bag looks heavy. (‘ll help) 10.The car needs a service. I’ll take it. I ________ you back as soon as I have some news. Thanks for the money. She doesn’t like them. I think you should accept. What time shall I ________? (come)  Mix and match 1 Shall we have lunch together? a Yes. Shall we ________ now? (go) 8. 84 . Who shall we ________ to lead the team? (ask) 3. Shall I ________ you up from airport? (pick) 2. Shall I ________ the window? (open) 9. What shall we ________ for lunch? (have) 6. Thank you. I ________ you a copy immediately if you give me your number. Shall I ________ you a ticket? (get) 5. (won’t close) 8. (won’t eat) Shall  Complete the questions have / go / get / come / call / open / pick / go / ask 1. It ________ properly now. The door’s broken. I’m fed up. I ________ it. (‘ll fax) 3. I ________ you. I’m sorry. Please don’t ask me again. Sara ________ green vegetables. I ________ it. (won’t forget) 5. (won’t start) 6. (‘ll call) 4. that’s very kind of you. 2. My car ________ again. That dog ________ barking! (won’t stop) 7.

I hadn’t been told. 0 Has everyone been informed of the latest change? Everything possible is being done to find the children. 5 She doesn’t have a book. 4 I didn’t know anything about it. It was filmed in an old village near here. 5 The bottles are filled before the labels e are put on. He was taken to the hospital yesterday. 88 . They weren’t invited. The project was completed on time. They aren’t coming. The tickets were posted to you more than a week ago. a b c d e f g h i j It hasn’t been cleaned. It was stolen. It was broken in transit. 3 He is at the police station. I didn’t know anything about it.  Mix and match 1 I didn’t lose it. 0 I didn’t lose it. It was stolen. They weren’t invited. 6 I don’t have my car.2 Everything possible is being b booked yet? 3 The project was completed c from the car park. 7 They aren’t coming. I don’t have my car. 4 Have all the rooms been d on time. I hadn’t been told. We haven’t given the results. She wasn’t given one. She wasn’t given one. He didn’t break it. It was broken in transit. He was arrested this morning. 6 The car was stolen f done to find the children. 9 The books are printed i you more than a week ago. 1 It was filmed in an old j the company made a huge loss. It hasn’t been repaired yet. The books are printed by a subcontractor. He is at the police station. 8 We don’t know who the winner is. Have all the rooms been booked yet? The bottles are filled before the labels are put on. It hasn’t been repaired yet. 9 He had a hear attack. He was arrested this morning. 7 He was force to resign when g of the latest change? 8 The tickets were posted to h village near here. 2 He didn’t break it. She doesn’t have a book. 1 This room is dirty. He was force to resign when the company made a huge loss. The car was stolen from the car park.

 Complete the sentences training / writing / Playing / teaching / Crossing / Smoking / Waiting / lying / acting / spending 1. Her ________ is always interesting. The ________ was very excellent. 7 Drinking g is my favorite sport. Writing your ideas down is a good way to clarify them. Her ________ is wonderful. (writing) 89 . a new language is very hard work. Eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables is essential for good health. 8 Eating h a glass of wine is a good way to relax. ________ is such a bad habit. plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables is essential for good health. She’s the best modern author. Drinking a glass of wine is a good way to relax. Buying online is very easy and safe now. the truth is always the best policy. He had a hear attack.We don’t know who the winner is. Giving up smoking requires great will power. 6 Running f smoking requires great will power. Please put your cigarette out. I loves the film. Teaching young children is a very rewarding career. a marathon needs lots of training. The -ing form  Mix and match 1 2 3 4 5 Learning Telling Swimming Giving up Writing a b c d e young children is a very rewarding career. 1 Buying j your ideas down is a good way to clarify 0 them. It hasn’t been cleaned. We haven’t given the results. Swimming is my favorite sport. That’s my favorite class. (teaching) 3. Running a marathon needs lots of training. (acting) 2. This room is dirty. (Smoking) 4. Learning a new language is very hard work. He was taken to the hospital yesterday. Telling the truth is always the best policy. 9 Teaching i online is very easy and safe now.

for forgetting my birthday. at getting people to do what I want. (to pay) 2. He was sorry for forgetting my birthday.5. I am feed up of waiting for him to call. He suggested (pay) ________ monthly. (Waiting)  Mix and match 1 Are you interested 2 She apologized 3 They succeeded 4 Thank you 5 I am very good 6 We’re very excited 7 I am feed up 8 They insisted 9 He was sorry 1 I don’t know his name. I am very good at getting people to do what I want. To reach that level of competition.  Write the correct form of the verb in brackets 1. (paying) 4. We’re very excited about meeting the actors. (lying) 8. They succeeded in reaching their target. ________ the road here is dangerous. at remembering people’s names. We agreed (see) ________ him on Tuesday. for being late. I don’t know his name. Thank you for coming. in working with us? about meeting the actors. for coming. They insisted on having the most expensive room. I am very bad 0 Are you interested in working with us? a b c d e f g h i j on having the most expensive room. (spending) 6. of waiting for him to call. I don’t want (pay) ________ that much for a car. ________ the guitar is great fun. His ________ is dreadful. ________ has to be very intensive. Does anyone feel like (go) ________ for a drink? (going) 3. She apologized for being late. (to see) 90 . ________ for them to arrive is very annoying. I am very bad at remembering people’s names. A lot of young people have huge debts. (training) 9. Their ________ is uncontrolled. (Playing) 10. in reaching their target. (Crossing) 7. Don’t believe a word he says.

(to pay) 9. (to go) Can  Mix and match 1 Can I pay by 2 I can’t get there before 3 You can take the train 4 He can bring it back when 5 You can go outside for 6 We can’t wait any 7 You can’t wait 8 I can’t get to work without 9 She can’t finish it in such a 1 You can get a cup of coffee 0 Can I pay by credit card? a b c d e f g h i j a cigarette. She’s finished (read) ________ the papers. I offered (make) ________ dinner for you. You can get a cup of coffee in the bar. You can’t wait here. She spent a lot of time (make) ________ lunch. to Oxford. (swim) 91 .  Complete the sentences find / play / drive / swim / change / understand / walk / speak / eat / cook 1. he comes. I miss (spend) ________ time with my kids. I can’t get there before ten o’clock. (to make) 11. short time. (spending) 6. credit card? here. ten o’clock. You can take the train to Oxford. I can’t get to work without my car. my car. She can’t finish it in such a short time. longer. (to read) 7. in the bar. (reading) 10.5. He can bring it back when he comes. I can ________ more than 100 lengths. I decided (go) ________ to Portugal for the summer. We can’t wait any longer. You refused (pay) ________ for the damage. (making) 12. We put off (see) ________ them until next week. You can go outside for a cigarette. (seeing) 8. She promised (read) ________ the first draft of my book.

it’s bedtime. That’s very kind. Not many British can ________ French fluently. Can you baby-sit tonight? Can you get me a sandwich while you’re out. I’m going out tonight. I’d love to stay. g Thank you. Can you lend me your pen? Can we stay up a bit longer? ~ No. please? 5 Can you do the washing up? 6 Can you help me with my homework? 7 You can stay over the weekend if you want. h Thank you. What sort would you like? That’s very kind. I ________ a cat meowing. Can you get me a sandwich while you’re out. I can’t ________ dairy products. please? ~ Certainly. f Sorry. What sort would you like? Can you do the washing up? ~ I’ll do it as soon as I’ve put the washing on. 8 Can you fill out this form. Can you lend me your pen? I’ll do it as soon as I’ve put the washing on. it’s bedtime. e No. I’m going out tonight. (drive) 9. Can you baby-sit tonight? ~ Sorry. I’m lactose intolerant. Can you? (can hear) 92 . She can ________ wonderful traditional food. (speak) 8. Can you ________ your way home OK? (find)  Mix and match 1 2 3 4 Can I give you a hand? You can go now.  Complete the sentences can feel / can you hear / can see / can’t taste / can tell / can hear / can see / can’t see / can smell / can hear 1. I can’t. Can you fill out this form. (walk) 5. i Yes. (eat) 7. ~ Thank you. He hasn’t passed his test. I’d love to stay. Sorry. You can go now. See you tomorrow. (change) 4. I’m not very good at French. ~ Thank you. Their son can’t ________ yet. I’m not very good at French. He’s only seven months old.2. You can stay over the weekend if you want. Can you ________ what she is talking about? (understand) 3. please? 9 Can we stay up a bit longer? Can I give you a hand? ~ Oh thank you. (cook) 10. Can all their children ________ the piano? (play) 6. I can’t. Can you help me with my homework? ~ Sorry. Oh thank you. He can’t ________. He knows nothing about cars. please? ~ Yes. See you tomorrow. He can’t even ________ a wheel. a b c d Certainly.

I paid much less before. I ________ something funny. It’s nearly seven o’clock. you ________ Mont Blanc from the garden. g 8 I can’t have passed. They said it was near the pub. He looks much too old! You can’t be hungry. (can see) 10. That can’t be the postman. That can’t be her husband.2. Is something burning? (can smell) 4. It’s nearly seven o’clock. It can’t be this house. It’s dark in here. It can’t cost that much. She’s not here yet. We only had lunch an hour ago. it’s too early. You ________ summer is coming. You must be joking. d 5 It can’t be this house. we’d be there by now. I ________ someone playing the piano. I ________ him looking at me. This can’t be the right road or we’d be there by now. e 6 That can’t be her husband. I ________ anything. h 9 They can’t still be in the office. I didn’t prepare the exam at all. I ________ anything. (can’t taste) 7. ________ the traffic on the motorway from your house? (Can you hear) 5. c 4 She’s not here yet. They said it was near the pub. (can see) 6. (can’t see) 3. f 7 You can’t be hungry. We only had lunch an hour ago. b 3 It can’t cost that much. (can feel) 8. She can’t be coming. They can’t still be in the office. i 1 This can’t be the right road or j 0 You can’t be serious! You must be joking. it’s too early. We ________ she is making a huge mistake but she can’t. He looks much too old! I didn’t prepare the exam at all. (can hear)  Match up the sentences 1 You can’t be serious! a 2 That can’t be the postman. I paid much less before. I’ve got a very bad cold. I can’t have passed. Could  Mix and match 93 . Everyone is wearing shorts! (can tell) 9. She can’t be coming. On a good day.

if you need it. Well. I could come with you. we could You could borrow some of mine. take the train. might visit 9. might have 2. might have left 10. g I don’t know what to do about Nick. Wait. might be Should 1 95 . d I don’t want to go to this party. ~ Yes. Our friends will be there. Flying is very expensive. ~ You could borrow some of mine. might not get 8. we could go see ‘Superman’. h I haven’t got any shoes to wear with this i dress. I could come with you. I haven’t got any shoes to wear with this dress. What are we going to do for the holidays? ~ We could go to France again.4 5 6 7 8 9 I’m going now. Sophie ________ next week if she can get a couple of days off work. might have done 5. I don’t know what to do about Nick. we could go see ‘Superman’. What shall we do for lunch? ~ We could go to the pub for a sandwich. I don’t have enough to buy it. They ________ it if they can get a good price. May / might  Complete the sentences using these verbs BE / BUY / DO / GET / GIVE / GO / GO / HAVE / LEAVE / VISIT 1. I’ve got a lot of work to finish before I can leave. there were lots of good candidates. ~ Wait. Let’s go to the cinema. We could go to France again. might buy 7. I ________ Sue a call and see if she wants to come. I ________ home late. I ________ it if he had asked nicely but not now. I ________ the job. ~ I could lend you some money. We could go to the pub for a sandwich. I don’t know where it is. ~ You could stay at home. I ________ it at home. ~ Well. We ________ to Jamaica next year. I ________ some change. I don’t want to go to this party. we could take the train. might go 3. e What are we going to do for the holidays? f I don’t have enough to buy it. ~ You could try talking to him. might go 6. I’m going now. might give 4. I think he ________ to the football match tonight. Yes.

9 I don’t know where to go on holiday. Cycling in the city is dangerous. I think they are too young. h You shouldn’t spend so much on clothes. I need to loose some weight. You can’t trust him. You should go to the police. b c d e f You should eat less bread. shouldn’t 7. I think you ________ move your car. I don’t know where to go on holiday. This room is a mess! You ________ tidy it up. Paul still hasn’t repaid me the money I lent him. should 10. My purse has been stolen.~ You should go to Paris. I ________ go to bed so late. 5 My eyes hurt. They ________ get married so soon.~ You should take it back to the shop.  Should or shouldn’t 1. You ________ park on the double yellow lines. should 9. 6 I’m still feeling very sick. I’m still feeling very sick. 7 I wish I had more money. I’m really tired.~ You should ask him for it. I hate my job. i You should call the doctor. 8 My purse has been stolen. I wish I had more money. She ________ spend so much. I bought this but it’s broken. should / shouldn’t 4.~ You shouldn’t spend so much time on the computer.~ You should try nicotine patches. shouldn’t 5.~ You should call the doctor. should 6. g You should take it back to the shop. You should ask him for it. You ________ believe everything he tells you. a You should try nicotine patches. Mix and match 1 Paul still hasn’t repaid me the money I lent him.~ You shouldn’t spend so much on clothes. 2 I bought this but it’s broken. You shouldn’t spend so much time on the computer. My eyes hurt. I want to stop smoking. I ________ start looking for a new one.~ You should eat less bread. To have clearer skin. you ________ eat more fruit and vegetables. should 8. shouldn’t 2. shouldn’t  Mix and match 96 . She never has any money left. It’s beautiful. 4 I want to stop smoking. It’s beautiful. What are those children doing in the street? They ________ be at school. 3 I need to loose some weight. You should go to Paris. you ________ wear a helmet.~ You should go to the police. should 3.

he shouldn’t. I said the a Usually there is some warning. She’s not the most qualified. 4 It’s odd he should be nervous. 5 I think I should go to the gym more regularly. g He’s used to speaking in public. if you don’t get them now. c I said the same thing. Twice a week is good. 8 It’s interesting he should call now. ~ I don’t drink that much. 7 It’s strange he should choose her. It’s very dangerous. Any exam is stressful. He usually calls at the weekend. Do you think he should take that job? Should I book the ticket? You shouldn’t drink so much coffee. b Any exam is stressful. 6 I think you should get a job. if you don’t get them now. It’s very dangerous. I’ll talk to my boss tomorrow. I don’t. It’s strange he should choose her. It’s strange you should think that because no one else does. 7 Do you think he should do it? g No. f She’s not the most qualified. Should I book the ticket? ~ Well. It’s funny you should say that. I could work in a bar. ~ Yes. I didn’t think he liked this sort of thing. It’s odd he should be nervous.1 2 3 4 I think you should ask for a raise. there’ll be none left. 3 It’s natural you should be anxious. d I didn’t think he liked this sort of thing. he shouldn’t. I don’t. i He usually calls at the weekend. The salary’s not good enough. Twice a week is good. 2 It’s interesting he should be here. Just two cups a day. there’ll be none left. Well. I don’t drink that much. It’s funny he should take that job. ~ You’re right. 97 . 5 It’s strange you should think that 6 It’s funny he should take that job. ~ You’re right. Do you think he should do it? ~ No. I thought he liked to be outdoors. e I thought he liked to be outdoors. He’s used to speaking in public. Just two cups a day. h because no one else does. It’s interesting he should call now. same thing. 9 It’s odd it should stop so suddenly. I think you should ask for a raise. Do you think he should take that job? ~ No. I’ll talk to my boss tomorrow. e You’re right. Should 2  Mix and match 1 It’s funny you should say that. The salary’s not good enough. It’s natural you should be anxious. f You’re right. I think I should go to the gym more regularly. You shouldn’t drink so much coffee. No. It’s interesting he should be here. a b c d Yes. I think you should get a job. I could work in a bar.

 Mix and match 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 If If you should see him. If you should find it. f If you should go to the shops. help yourself to what’s there. can you get me some milk? don’t hesitate to call. b If anyone should ask. 4 I just came in and 5 You’ll get that promotion. If anyone should ask.  Mix and match 1 He’s agreed to it? 2 Thank you so much 3 You should have seen the look on her face. tell her I’m still here. 7 You shouldn’t gossip. i you should see him. 6 He didn’t do it. don’t hesitate to call. If he should call. c If you should find it. Usually there is some warning. 8 They should be shot for that! He’s agreed to it? I should think so. h If you should need anything. tell him I’ll call him back. If you should need anything. tell him I’ll call him back.It’s odd it should stop so suddenly. help yourself to what’s there. ~ I know. ~ I should think not. It was priceless. ~ You should talk! You do it too. g If you should bump into her. 98 . put it somewhere safe. ~ I should be so lucky! who should be there but Greg. don’t say anything. can you get me some milk? If you should bump into her. put it somewhere safe. tell him I was here. Thank you so much but you really shouldn’t have. ~ I should be so lucky! He didn’t do it. don’t say anything. he’ll have to wait. tell her I’m still here. I should think so. tell him I was here. he’ll have to wait. ~ I should think not. but you really shouldn’t have. If there should be a problem. I just came in and who should be there but Greg. it’s outrageous. e If he should turn up now. You’ll get that promotion. d If he should call. a If there should be a problem. If you should go to the shops. If he should turn up now. You shouldn’t gossip. It was priceless. You should have seen the look on her face. a b c d e f g h ~ You should talk! You do it too.

a so that it can be read by the scanner. e We can’t just travel on our passports. Must or Have to  Mix and match 1 2 3 4 5 6 The deadline is tonight. I have to go now. 9 I have to work this weekend. h My plane leaves in less than two hours. module 8 You have to turn left at the lights. You quickly learn that you mustn’t spend able to look after yourself! You have to wash 99 . You have to score more than 60% in every module to pass the exams. i I have to finish it today. you also have to be your own clothes and manage your own budget. You have to have very good grades to get in. But you do have to work able to plan your own work. Every item has to have the barcode f Health and safety regulations. The standard is very high. b The standard is very high. I have to work this weekend. You have to turn left at the lights. c It’s a one-way system. d so I can’t come with you. Every item has to have the barcode positioned correctly so that it can be read by the scanner. As you live away from home.  Rearrange the lines Being a student at university is very all your money on clothes and going out but you have to of seft study so you do have to be a uniform and you don’t have to be different from being at school. positioned correctly 7 You have to score more than 60% in every g before they start school. you don’t have to wear hard.They should be shot for that! ~ I know. 0 vaccinations The deadline is tonight. We have to apply for a visa. Children have to have a series of vaccinations before they start school. At university. You have to have very good grades to get in. My plane leaves in less than two hours. We can’t just travel on our passports. We have to apply for a visa. so I can’t come with you. Health and safety regulations. Everyone has to wear safety shoes in here. it’s outrageous. You have to do a lot there all day every day. 1 Children have to have a series of j to pass the exams. I have to finish it today. It’s a one-way system. I have to go now. Everyone has to wear safety shoes in here.

When you ________ to Lyon. have finished 4. try some of the specialities in the typical restaurants. When 4. When or Unless? 1. don’t do it. go home early. have painted 7. say hello from me. I want to keep it secret. ________ you have finished with it. Take the train ________ they are on strike again. If 101 .If you see him. take a taxi. give me a call. tell him I want to speak to him. If you don’t receive it tomorrow. If it ________. don’t say anything to him. you have to buy your snack. Unless you pay extra. When you buy online. you get the basic service. pick me up. If 3. call me. ________ you get there. When you fly on one of the budget airlines. ________ you can’t find yours. When 5. you can paint the hall. please don’t make so much noise. When you ________ the kitchen. When he ________ here. gets 5. are having 6. are going 3. ‘s raining  If. If you get there early. am 8. Don’t talk about things like that when we ________ lunch. unless 2. use mine. Unless he is going to pay you. talk to John. If you ________. bring it back. are thinking 9. When I ________ on the phone. expect me at eight o’clock. If you ________ of going to Prague. ‘m speaking 10. Unless I phone to say I’ll be late. When you do exercise. drink plenty of water. If you ________ all your work. I’ll give you a call when I ________ ready to leave. you save ten per cent. go 2. He knows it very well.  Complete the sentences go / ‘m speaking / are having / are going / am / have painted / have finished / are thinking / gets / ‘s raining 1. ________ you see them. wait for me in the hall.

6. It’s not woth buying ________ house prices are rising quickly. unless
7. Come with me ________ you have something better to do. unless
8. ________ he asks you again, say no. If
9. ________ you want to get there on time, the best thing is to take a train. If
10. ________ you are reading in a foreign language, don’t translate. When

The first conditional
 Complete the sentences
are going to get / should tell / ‘m going to hang / could ask / mustn’t mention /
will have to wait / ‘m going to speak / ‘ll be / must visit / will have wasted
1. If I don’t get this finished today, I________behind schedule. ‘ll be
2. If I buy that picture, I ________ it in the hall. ‘m going to hang
3. If he doesn’t pass his exams, he ________ a whole year. will have wasted
4. If we miss the train, we ________ an hour for the next. will have to wait
5. If you get the opportunity, you ________ London. must visit
6. If you see him, you ________ him today. He needs to know. should tell
7. If you don’t want to do it, you ________ Sally. could ask
8. If Danny comes, I ________ to him about it. ‘m going to speak
9. If you continue breaking the speed limit, you ________ caught. are going to get

 Match up the sentences
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

If you buy it today in the sale,
If you don’t pay your taxes,
If you get a dog,
If you don’t finish your studies,
If you want to go to university,
If Dave hasn’t made dinner yet,

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

I’m not going to take the job.
you must go.
you’ll find him at the library.
you must work hard.
I’ll make some soup.
you’ll save twenty per cent.
you’ll have to put it in kennels during your
holiday.
h you’ll have wasted a lot of time and money.
i you will end up in court.
j my father will buy me a car.

8 If they are not paying more than that,
9 If you’re looking for Andrew,
1 If you haven’t already been to Paris,
0
If you buy it today in the sale, you’ll save twenty per cent.
If you don’t pay your taxes, you will end up in court.
If I get my license, my father will buy me a car.

If you get a dog, you’ll have to put it in kennels during your holiday.

102

If you don’t finish your studies, you’ll have wasted a lot of time and money.
If you want to go to university, you must work hard.
If Dave hasn’t made dinner yet, I’ll make some soup.
If they are not paying more than that, I’m not going to take the job.
If you’re looking for Andrew, you’ll find him at the library.
If you haven’t already been to Paris, you must go.

FIRST CONDITIONAL
It doesn’t matter if you don’t finish today. You can finish tomorrow,
If he doesn’t get here soon. I’m going to go without him.
The economy isn’t doing very well. If you wad a little white, the price will go
down.
It you want to eat there, you must book a table. They get very busy.
If he fails his exams, his father‘s going to be very angry.
I’ll make you a sandwich if you’re hungry.
If she breaks the contract, she’ll end up in court.
They’ll buy the house if they can get the money from the bank.
If the weather is good, we‘II have a picnic.
If you want someone to work on Saturday, I can do it.
You’re going to have a lot of problems if you aren’t carefull.

Second conditional
 Mix and match
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
If I

If I knew his number,
She would do it
I wouldn’t do that
If we lived in the country,
If there were less cars on the road,
If I had more spare time,
If the weather were good,
You would get better results
You should meet more people

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

we would travel more often.
there would be less pollution.
if you worked harder for your exams.
if you went out more often.
we would need a second car.
we could go to the beach.
I would give him a call.
if she could.
I would join the sports club.
if I were you.

knew his number, I would give him a call.

She would do it if she could.
I wouldn’t do that if I were you.
If we lived in the country, we would need a second car.
If there were less cars on the road, there would be less pollution.
If I had more spare time, I would join the sports club.

103

If the weather were good, we could go to the beach.
If we had enough money, we would travel more often.
You would get better results if you worked harder for your exams.
You should meet more people if you went out more often.

SECOND CONDITIONAL
Mix and match
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0

If they were going to build a garage,
You might find the address of a shop
If I saw him again,
I’ll do it for you
If she was going to do it,
If you came shopping with us,
If I was still working in London,
You could stay at my house
If you took the six o’clock train,

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

they’d need planning permission.
if you looked on the internet.
if you wanted to.
you could look for a new dress.
I wouldn’t speak to him.
he may be able to tell you.
you could be here in plenty of time
she’d tell me.
I wouldn’t be as happy as I am now.

1-a / 2-b / 3-e / 4-f / 5-I / 6-d / 7-j / 8-c / 9-g / 10-h

 Complete the sentences
were working / were spending / were selling / was coming / were thinking / were
buying / were going / were living / were going
1. If you ________ of going, you should buy your tickets on line. were thinking
2. If he ________, he would be here by now. was coming
3. If they ________ to do it, they would tell us. were going
4. If I ________ a new car, I would do it on the internet and save money. were
5. If we ________ together, we would do a much better job. were working
6. If we ________, we’d take the bus. were going
7. If she ________ her house, I would buy it. were selling
8. If I ________ that much money, I would want something better. were spending
9. If you ________ near the beach, you could go swimming every day. were living

104

you’d be there before lunch. If you buy it. would 6. b you’ll like him. you’d use it all the time. 3 If you see him. d you’ll be there for lunch. Match the questions and answers 1 If he gets here in time. 4 If you saw him. If you see him. 7 If you buy it. f we can have drink before the film. If we put in a slightly higher offer. I know how to do. j you’d be there before lunch. a you’ll use it all the time. h you’ll get out for a walk more often. If I asked him. 0 If he gets here in time. you’d like him. I’m sure she ________ do it for me. If you bought it. I ________. 2 If he got here in time. could 8. e you’d use it all the time. 1 If you got a dog. we ________ go to that concert in the park. It was so long ago. I ________ help you with it. he ________ do it for me. would 3. we ________ get the contract but it’s not sure. If you get a dog.  Complete the sentences wouldn’t / could / would / might / would / could / might / could 1. might 2. If you came on Tuesday. 6 If you went before ten. you’ll get out for a walk more often. you’ll use it all the time. we can have drink before the film. g we could have a drink before the film. If I asked her. might 7. I ________ recognize him if I saw him again. 9 If you get a dog. If you went before ten. If you got a dog. we could have a drink before the film. If you saw him. 5 If you go at ten. you’ll like him. c you’d get out for a walk more often. you’ll be there for lunch. you’d get out for a walk more often. 8 If you bought it. Jenny ________ replace me if I took a couple of weeks holiday. wouldn’t Third conditional 105 . If he got here in time. could 4. If you go at ten. could 5. if you paid me. If you wanted me to do it. i you’d like him. She knows my job quite well.

She isn’t here. Had better  Mix and match 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 We’d better go now You’d better take an umbrella. I wish I’d passed my exams but I didn’t. a b c d e f g h i j 109 The forecast is for rain. but you won’t. I wish she ________. You’d better tidy up before You’d better not throw that out. I wish you wouldn’t use bad language but you do. but it was so expensive. a b c d e f g h i j but I am. I wish he ________.7. I wish she were here but she isn’t. but you do. There won’t be any left tomorrow. They won’t help me. but I did. I wish I’d bought it but it was so expensive. It’s getting cold now. but I do. I’d better not spend any more money I’d better close the window. I’m not seeing him until Thursday. . I wish I weren’t going but I am. She’d better get started. wasn’t 9. or I won’t have any left. or we’ll be late. I wish they ________. They don’t take checks. but I didn’t. I wish he lived nearer but he doesn’t. I wish I ________ him tonight. but I can’t. We’d better book the tickets now. but he doesn’t. your mother comes back. but she isn’t. I wish I didn’t have to go but I do. was seeing 8. I wish you should go away but you won’t. He won’t be long. it may come in useful. We’d better get some cash. He is right as usual. would  Mix and match 1 I wish I hadn’t done it 2 I wish I’d passed my exams 3 I wish she were here 4 I wish you should go away 5 I wish you wouldn’t use bad language 6 I wish I’d bought it 7 I wish I didn’t have to go 8 I wish I could see him more often 9 I wish he lived nearer 1 I wish I weren’t going 0 I wish I hadn’t done it but I did. I’d better wait for him. Otherwise she won’t get it finished. was 10. I wish I could see him more often but I can’t.

I’d better get back to work or I won’t get finished before 5. They ________ not be late.  Had better or Should? 1. You’d better pass your exams or you won’t get into university. We’d better get some cash. We’d better book the tickets now. It’s getting cold now. We’d better find a babysitter or we can’t go out. I’d better take the early train or I will be late. You ________ tidy up or your mum will be very angry. I’d better do it now or it will be too late.0 We’d better go now or we’ll be late. I’m going to wait for them. You’d better put a coat on or you’ll be cold. f you’ll be cold. You’d better not throw that out. should 3. You’d better invite them or they will be offended. You’d better hand in your homework or you’ll get a punishment. They don’t take checks. I’d better wait for him. b it will be too late. You’d better tidy up before your mother comes back. i he’ll be very angry. ‘d better 2. You’d better take an umbrella. The forecast is for rain. ‘d better 110 .  Mix and match 1 You’d better not tell him or 2 I’d better get back to work or 3 I’d better do it now or 4 You’d better pass your exams or 5 You’d better invite them or 6 I’d better take the early train or 7 We’d better find a babysitter or 8 You’d better hand in your homework or 9 You’d better put a coat on or You’d better not tell him or he’ll be very a they will be offended. g I won’t get finished before 5. angry. There won’t be any left tomorrow. He won’t be long. That would be the right thing to do. Otherwise she won’t get it finished. She’d better get started. e I will be late. d you’ll get a punishment. I’d better close the window. h you won’t get into university. You ________ apologize to him. c we can’t go out. it may come in useful. I’d better not spend any more money or I won’t have any left.

Paul used to work in London but now he works in Sheffield. He used to take the train to work but now he drives. now he works in Sheffield. ‘d better 6. on a diet. They used to go to a very traditional school where they wore a uniform. We used to go to the beach for our holidays when we were children. It’s not that important. I didn’t use to eat cheese but When I lived in the city. I ________ go get ready or I’ll be late. She used to play the piano but now she plays the guitar. You ________ be more careful in future then it won’t happen again. You ________ go out tonight. should 9. now I find him a bit boring. I ________ let it upset me. ‘d better Used to  Mix and match 1 2 3 4 I used to eat a lot of chocolate but Paul used to work in London but He used to take the train to work but When I was younger. I often used to go to the theatre. when we were children. I didn’t use to eat cheese but now I eat a lot. now I’m on a diet. It’s great. He ________ work harder if he wants to keep his job. It’d do you good. I get up at 5. I often used to go to the theatre. You ________ go see that film. ‘d better 10. When I lived in the city.30 every day so I’m used to ________ early. now he drives. When I was younger. now I eat a lot. I used to really enjoy his company but now I find him a bit boring. shouldn’t 8. now she plays the guitar. They used to go to a very traditional school I used to really enjoy his company but She used to play the piano but We used to go to the beach for our holidays He used to have a motorbike but a b c d 5 e 6 f 7 g 8 h 9 i 1 j 0 I used to eat a lot of chocolate but now I’m where they wore a uniform. now he drives a very boring family car.  Complete the sentences sharing / getting up / living / having / looking / driving / telling / flying / living / driving 1.4. You ________ be more careful. should 7. He used to have a motorbike but now he drives a very boring family car. getting up 111 . should 5.

As the oldest child. My father is often away on business so I’m used to only ________ my mother at home. h it’s difficult getting used to working in a team. Andy used to play a lot of football but now he doesn’t have time. we aren’t used to not having a garden. 9 We’ve always lived in the country so 1 There used to be lots of small shops but 0 They used to live in Manchester but now they’ve moved to Birmingham. j they’ve moved to Birmingham.2. driving 7. The children went to boarding school so they are used to ________ away from home. living 8. looking 10. They are used to ________ in big houses. b I just can’t get used to getting up every morning. flying 9. I come from a big family so I’m used to ________ with my brothers and sisters. I haven’t lived in the country for very long so I’m not used to ________ miles to the nearest shop. nobody does. driving 3. He’s always had one. He travels a lot for work so he is used to ________. She’s German so she isn’t used to ________ on the left yet. I have always worked on my own so Andy used to play a lot of football but now I’ve changed to the morning shift at work and She didn’t use to drink coffee but now 4 5 6 7 8 a I’m still getting used to it. He’s always had one. I’ve changed to the morning shift at work and I just can’t get used to getting up every morning. having 6. It’s a big change so I’m still getting used to it. c he doesn’t have time. i she drinks lots. d e f g everyone goes to the supermarket now. living 4. I have always worked on my own so it’s difficult getting used to working in a team. telling  Mix and match 1 2 They used to live in Manchester but now It’s a big change so 3 Everyone used to grow their own fruit and vegetables but now He’s used to driving a big car. she is used to ________ after other children. I’m new in this job so I’m not used to ________ people what to do. sharing 5. She didn’t use to drink coffee but now she drinks lots. 112 . Everyone used to grow their own fruit and vegetables but now nobody does. He’s used to driving a big car.

working 3.We’ve always lived in the country so we aren’t used to not having a garden. 113 . No. since nine o’clock. I was just getting used to (wear) ________ glasses when I change to contact lenses. She isn’t used to (live) ________ on her own. I haven’t. f No. She works at the hospital. work 2. When I worked in the city. Ten minutes late as usual. he is. I am. Had he done it? No. I don’t think she will be back till tomorrow. I don’t. Do you know him? No. having 9. We’re used to a warm one. I find it very hard. living 7. I’ve never met him. get up 5. Yes. I’m not used to (sit) ________ in an office all day. please? Had he done it? 5 Have they been sitting there all morning? 6 Did he arrive on time? 7 Have you seen him today? 8 Does she work with Jim? 9 Is Jack coming to dinner tonight? 1 Will she be back soon? 0 Are you married? Yes. he hadn’t. Now I wear jeans. I don’t. I am. j Yes. Are you getting used to (live) ________ in your new house yet? living 6. No. he hadn’t. wear 10. I used to (work) ________ in a bar. living 4. i No. a b c d Yes. Since I retired from my job. He’ll be here soon. it’s ten to ten. I don’t know where he is. please? Sure. Can you tell me the time. I will never get used to (work) ________ nights. g No. I much prefer working days. The house feels quite empty. she doesn’t.  Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets 1. wearing Questions 1  Match the questions and answers 1 2 3 4 Are you married? Do you know him? Can you tell me the time. it’s ten to ten. he didn’t. e Sure. In my last job I used to (wear) a suit and tie. I used to (be) ________ a gardener. I used to (get up) ________ really early to commute to work. h No. There used to be lots of small shops but everyone goes to the supermarket now. be / sitting 8. I’ve never met him. I can’t get used to (have) ________ nothing to do all day. We’re not used to (live) ________ in a cold climate. When I was a student.

________ times have you been here? ~ Twice. How many 3. Ten minutes late as usual. Patricia’s? Whose 2. Is Jack coming to dinner tonight? Yes. Does she work with Jim? No. She works at the hospital. Have you seen him today? No. usually on Wednesday. ________ does the film start? ~ At 7.30. I don’t know where he is. 7 Which one did you get? g Darren and Lily.  Complete the sentences How / How many / Who / How much / Whose / What time / Where / How old / Which / How often 1. 4 When did he die? d Nick’s. he didn’t. ________ do you live now? ~ In Liverpool. Who 4. 3 How many people were there? c Originally from Spain. ________ bag is it? ~ I’m not sure. 2 Whose house are you going to? b Twenty. Whose house are you going to? ~ Nick’s. How old 9. since nine o’clock. 9 Who did you see in the café? i In 1997. 1 Why did he do it? j Once a week. What time 10. ________ do you change the channel? ~ Use the red button. ________ do you know about it? ~ Nothing at all. Did he arrive on time? No. 114 . I don’t think she will be back till tomorrow. 5 How much did you pay for it? e A coat and a pair of boots. Where 8. ________ house is yours? ~ The one at the end of the street with blue shutters. How often 7. he is. I haven’t. she doesn’t.Have they been sitting there all morning? Yes. 0 What did you buy? ~ A coat and a pair of boots. ________ did you see at the party? ~ Sally and Alan. ________ is Jackie? ~ 19. 6 Where do they come from? f Because he thought it was a good idea. ________ do you visit your parents? ~ Once a week. 8 How often do they come for dinner? h Just over \$250. How  Match the questions and answers 1 What did you buy? a The black one. He’ll be here soon. Will she be back soon? No. Which 6. How much 5.

Just over \$500. I dropped something. I gave it to someone. Five for you and five for me. ________ dress did you get? ~ The long red one. Somebody told me. How much 6. Usually with Brian. Where do they come from? ~ Originally from Spain. Somebody gave me it. ________ did you ask? ~ Everyone but no one knew the answer. Who 10. Something strange happened? ~ ________? What happened? 6. ________ are you staying? ~ At a friend’s. How often do they come for dinner? ~ Once a week. Why did he do it? ~ Because he thought it was a good idea.How many people were there? ~ Twenty. ~ ________? Who did you speak to? 3. They grow up too quickly! How old 7. How often 5. How many 3. I spoke to someone. How 9. usually on Wednesday. ________ are your children now? ~ Sixteen and fourteen. ________ did you buy? ~ I bought ten. Diana told me something interesting. ~ ________? Who spoke to you? 2. I told someone. ~ ________? What did she tell you? 9. ~ ________? What did you break? 115 . How much did you pay for it? ~ Just over \$250. ________ shoes are these? ~ I think they belong to Tim. ________ did it cost? ~ A lot.  Complete the questions 1. the most expensive! Which 4. ________ did you arrive yesterday? ~ Just after ten. ~ ________? Who did you tell? 8. What time 2. ~ ________? Who told you? 7. Who did you see in the café? ~ Darren and Lily. When did he die? ~ In 1997. Somebody spoke to me. ________ do you play tennis? ~ Every day. ~ ________? Who did you give it to? 5. Which one did you get? ~ The black one. Whose 8. Where  Make questions with ‘Who’ or ‘What’ 1. ________ do you make tomato soup? ~ I don’t know but I have a recipe book. ~ ________? Who gave you it? 4.

Who is that man?  Can you tell me ________? who that man is 2. What does he do?  Can you tell me ________? what he does 10. Did they get my message?  Do you know ________ my message? if they got 5. Can you tell me ________ is in change? who 8. Where does he come from?  Do you know ________ from? where he comes 9. What do you want to do?  Would you mind telling me ________ to do? what you want 7. I met someone last night. What does it mean?  Do you know ________? what it means 4. Can you tell me ________ he will be here? if  Rewrite the questions 1. Could you tell me ________ the dress is? how much 9.10. Could you tell me ________ the film starts? what time 6. Can you explain ________ he is so angry? why 3. ~ ________? Who broke it? 11. ~ ________? Who did you meet? Question 2  Complete the questions if / if / if / where / how much / how often / what time / why / how long / who 1. Has he called?  Could you tell me ________? if he has called 116 . Do you know ________ the station is? where 2. Somebody broke it. Is he coming?  Do you know ________? if he is coming 3. Would you mind telling me ________ you have been waiting? how long 4. Do you know ________ it is on time? if 5. Could you tell me ________ he is coming? if 7. What time did they leave?  Could you tell me ________? what time they left 6. Do you know ________ the train runs to London? how often 10. Is there an ATM near here?  Could you tell me ________ an ATM near here? if there is 8.

It isn’t what we wanted. ________? isn’t it 8. ________? is it 10. is he? He’s very tall. He’s really good-looking. He must have seen it. It isn’t any good. isn’t he? It’s easy. They can’t have finished yet. 1 They were late. a b c d e f g 119 can’t he? shall we? hasn’t he? should she? mustn’t he? can it? shouldn’t we? . ________? is it 4. He isn’t going to do it. We should do it now. isn’t she? He isn’t very happy about it. She isn’t here yet. isn’t there? There isn’t enough time. 9 He was angry. ________? is he  Match the sentences and tags 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 You haven’t got one. ________? isn’t she 9. It’s can’t be them.8 There isn’t enough time. It’s the last one. There isn’t an answer. 0 She isn’t very old. ________? isn’t there 5. ________? is she 7. She’s leaving tomorrow. ________? is he 11. They weren’t enjoying it. wasn’t he? They were late. ________? isn’t he 3. is it? There’s a lot to do. He has told you. There’s a pub on the corner. is there? He was angry. He isn’t very happy with it. is she? h is it? i isn’t it? j weren’t they? She’s very graceful. ________? is there 2. ________? were they 6. isn’t it? It isn’t very difficult. She shouldn’t have said anything. weren’t they?  Add the tags 1.

He must have seen it. It doesn’t work. He doesn’t write very well. She works in sales. do they? She works in sales. They’ve been there for years. It looks perfect there. it doesn’t. I don’t know him. No. You enjoyed that. don’t we. you don’t. can it? We should do it now. ________? do they 6. ________? doesn’t she 7. We went there last year. it does. mustn’t it? He can do it. should she? Let’s do that. I don’t like his books. can’t he?  Add the tags 1. doesn’t she? It looks perfect there. ________? doesn’t it 8. . He didn’t say that. they do. 1 He can do it. ________? did he 11. ________? does he 3. ________? don’t they  Match up the answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 You enjoyed that. ________? does it 5. Yes. ________? didn’t you 2. No. ________? don’t we 4. They don’t live in Liverpool. have you? h mustn’t it? i can they? j have you? It’s can’t be them. It never did. I’m afraid he did. No. 9 It must be him. It looks great. He’s new to the job. 0 You haven’t got one. Yes. shall we? It must be him. ________? didn’t we 9. ________? do I 10. he doesn’t.8 Let’s do that. we do. It doesn’t work. We love it. doesn’t it? a b c d e f g 120 Yes. didn’t you? He doesn’t write very well. hasn’t he? They can’t have finished yet. James and Olivia work together. does he? We love it. can they? She shouldn’t have said anything. does it? They don’t live in Liverpool. shouldn’t we? He has told you. It’s great.

________ ~ ________. I haven’t / / No. do I? No. it does. he has 8.  Complete the questions and answers Yes. He’s new to the job. they do. doesn’t it? Yes. I don’t know him. It’s great. didn’t we? No. will he?/ No. I don’t like his books. Very much. Yes. we could / Yes. did he? I’m afraid he did. I shouldn’t 9. She’s in accounts now. She works in sales. Why? have you?/ No. Fiona can cook really well. do they? Yes. I think it would work. Very much. ________ ~ ________. I did. He won’t do it. It was the year before. I haven’t 5. he won’t 6. didn’t you? Yes. She doesn’t have a car. ________ ~ ________ but I don’t think he’ll get it. I’ve heard it’s very good. ________ ~ ________. i Actually she doesn’t. does she?/ No. ________ ~ ________. ________ ~ ________ but perhaps Sylvie will. Rick’s also applied for the job. They don’t live in Liverpool. We went there last year. It doesn’t work. ________ ~ ________. they did / didn’t they? / does she? / / No. ________ ~ ________ but I want to! should you?/ No. we didn’t. I did. ________ ~ ________ but I think she is getting one. They finished on time.8 9 We went there last year. He didn’t say that. do I? h Yes. 1 He didn’t say that. you don’t. Just! didn’t they?/ Yes. does it? No. he won’t / wouldn’t you? / No. does he? No. he doesn’t. We could try it. I love going to dinner at her house! can’t she?/Yes. It never did. You’d like to see the play. couldn’t we?/ Yes. She’s in accounts now. j No. It was the year before. I would 3. she doesn’t 121 . we didn’t. You haven’t been back to the office. they did 7. she can 2. We love it. doesn’t she? Actually she doesn’t. didn’t we? I don’t know him. He doesn’t write very well. we could 4. wouldn’t you?/ Yes. hasn’t he?/ Yes. we do. It looks perfect there. don’t we. They’ve been there for years. he has / No. it doesn’t. You shouldn’t do that. I shouldn’t / should you? / couldn’t we? / have you? 1. It looks great. she doesn’t / hasn’t he? / will he? / can’t she? / Yes. did he? 0 You enjoyed that.

Where does she work? Yellow is the best color. He has said he’ll do it when he can. He will be nice. 9 I think it is a good idea. He’s very nice. He says he’s coming tomorrow. wouldn’t be 9. h She thinks he’s very nice.  She has told me she will give it to me next week.  She said he ________ nice. g He says he loves her. I’m coming tomorrow. I love her.  She said he ________ nice. I’ll do it when I can.  She said he ________ nice. He is being nice. a b c d e f I’ll tell her you think so. was being 6.  He has said he’ll do it when he can. wasn’t going to be 7. He isn’t nice.  She said he ________ nice. He can’t be nice. could be 10. He was nice. You’re a very good driver.  She said he ________ nice. He can be nice.  She said he ________ nice. He isn’t going to be nice. I’ll give it to you next week.Reported speech 1  Match the questions and answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 He’s very nice. He believes yellow is the best color.  He says he’s coming tomorrow. She has told me she will give it to me next week.  Complete the sentences 1. hadn’t been 5. I’ll do it when I can.  He thinks I’m a very good driver.  He believes yellow is the best color.  He says he loves her. 7 You’re a very good driver. I love her. was 2. would be 8. Yellow is the best color. I’m coming tomorrow.  She said he ________ nice. I think it is a good idea. wasn’t 3. 8 I’ll give it to you next week. had been 4. He is nice. He wasn’t nice. Where does she work?  I wonder where she works. He thinks I’m a very good driver. couldn’t be  Complete the sentences 122 .  She said he ________ nice.  She thinks he’s very nice. i I wonder where she works. He won’t be nice.  I’ll tell her you think so.  She said he ________ nice.  She said he ________ nice.