Health and Environmental Issues

NOTE Free publications with an asterisk are subject to a $10.00 handling charge for
each total order, plus actual shipping charges.

Air Research
EMISSIONS: GENERAL
Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies
for the Oil and Gas Industry
API Tools for Estimating GHG Emissions
Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas emissions is indispensable to
responsibly addressing climate change. Through API, the U.S. oil and natural
gas industry has provided a suite of tools for estimating emissions. It
includes API's updated 2009 compendium of emissions estimation
methodologies, software for emissions estimation and inventorying, and
guidelines (created by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental
Conservation Association) to assist in the accounting and reporting of
emissions. Pages: 807
August 2009 | Available for download at
www.api.org/ehs/climate/new/upload/2009_GHG_COMPENDIUM.pdf

DR 76
Determination of Emissions from Retail Gasoline Outlets Using
Optical Remote Sensing: Pilot Field Study at a Non-Vapor Recovery
Site, Project Summary Report, Volume I
Results of this study are presented in a three-volume report. Volume I
presents the results of a pilot study to evaluate the use of optical remote
sensing (ORS) technology for determining emission factors as well as the
dispersion of the emissions at an uncontrolled retail gasoline outlet
(RGO). ORS techniques may be able to provide a direct method of
determining the total emissions from an RGO under varied conditions and
to provide this information with little interference with the operation of
RGO. Pages: 50
November 1999 | Product Number: I00076 | Price: $122.00

DR 141
Global Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Petroleum Sources
Describes carbon dioxide emission estimates developed for a broadly
defined petroleum industry whose five segments include (1) exploration and
extraction; (2) crude petroleum transportation to refineries; (3) refining
operations; (4) refinery products transportation; and (5) end uses. Emission
estimates for carbon dioxide have been developed for each industry
segment and for each country. Activity factors describe the activity level for a
particular industrial activity. Corresponding emission factors for each activity
factor were developed from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and
industry documents. Pages: 91
July 1991 | Product Number: I00141 | Price: $59.00

Publ 326
The Cost Effectiveness of VOC and NOx Emission Control Measures
Provides air pollution control planners and other interested parties in ozone
nonattainment areas with a “menu” of possible control options using the
most up-to-date information and accurate analyses for significant sources of
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx. The menu provides a
preliminary demonstration of how cost-effective packages of attainment
strategies and control measures can be developed to reduce VOC emissions
by 15 % by 1996. Appendices provide a detailed analysis of costs,
effectiveness, and application limitations. Pages: 354
September 1994 | Product Number: J32600 | Price: $148.00

 This publication is a new entry in this catalog.

Publ 332
Comparison of Screening Values from Selected Hydrocarbon
Screening Instruments
Describes a study carried out at two refineries to compare differences in
equipment leak screening values obtained from four instruments commonly
used to measure fugitive emissions. The effect of screening distance was
also evaluated, and the results from the study were compared to those of an
earlier study conducted in 1979. Adjustment factors to relate screening
values from one instrument are presented, which are applicable to
marketing, transportation, and exploration and production facilities as well
as refineries. Pages: 128
August 1995 | Product Number: J33200 | Price: $90.00

Publ 342 and Publ 343
Fugitive Emissions from Equipment Leaks I: Monitoring Manual and
Fugitive Emissions from Equipment Leaks II: Calculation Procedures
for Petroleum Industry Facilities
A number of federal, state, and local regulations are designed to control
fugitive emissions of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air
pollutants. API sponsored this project to present options and
recommendations on procedures for obtaining inspection and maintenance
data from certain process equipment with the potential to leak fugitive
emissions. The two resulting manuals focus on the recommended fugitive
emission practices in the petroleum industry, specifically for refineries,
marketing terminals, and the oil and gas production industries. Pages: 204
June 1998
Product Number for Publ 342: J34200 | Price: $63.00
Product Number for Publ 343: J34300 | Price: $63.00

Publ 344
Critical Review of Source Sampling and Analysis Methodologies
for Characterizing Organic Aerosol and Fine Particulate Source
Emission Profiles
Intended for use in designing future measurement programs for
characterizing emissions from stationary sources that contribute to fine
particle concentrations in the atmosphere. The benefits and drawbacks of
various measurement approaches are discussed, and a recommended
approach for combustion sources is presented. Pages: 128
June 1998 | Product Number: J34400 | Price: $74.00

Publ 347
Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Loading
Operations at Bulk Gasoline Terminals
Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission testing was conducted at 33 bulk
gasoline terminals across the United States. Emissions were measured from
the loading of gasoline cargo tanks at facilities with a vapor control system.
Emission tests from 23 carbon adsorption units, 8 thermal oxidizers, and 2
refrigeration units were included. Control efficiencies for eight HAP
compounds were derived for the carbon adsorption units and thermal
oxidizers; no control efficiencies were reported from the refrigeration units
due to the limited data collected. The HAP control efficiencies presented in
this report have been used to develop HAP emission factors that can be
used to determine HAP emissions based on the volume of gasoline loaded
at a facility. Pages: 138
October 1998 | Product Number: J34700 | Price: $83.00

 This publication is related to an API licensing, certification, or accreditation program.

121

Health and Environmental Issues
Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U.S. and Canada)

Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International)

Publ 348
Air Toxics Emission Factors for Combustion Sources Using
Petroleum-Based Fuels, Volume 1—Development of Emission
Factors Using API/WSPA Approach

assess the contribution of petroleum industry combustion sources to
ambient PM 2.5 concentrations. This report presents particulate
measurement results from a 550,000 pounds per hour steam boiler firing
refinery process gas. The particulate stack measurements were made using
both a dilution tunnel research test method and traditional EPA sampling
methods. Pages: 119
July 2001 | Product Number: I47030 | Price: $88.00

This project was performed with the cooperation of the California Air
Resources Board (CARB) and Western States Petroleum Association to
develop updated air toxic emission factors for combustion sources using
petroleum-based fuels. The emission factors developed using the best
available source testing information in this project will help the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency to revise AP-42. In addition, the emission
factors will be integrated into CARB’s California Air Toxics Emission Factor
database. Environmental, health, and safety engineers can use these
emission factors to develop more accurate and complete emission
inventories without additional source testing, which could help facilities in
the permitting process. Pages: 88
August 1998 | Product Number: J34800 | Price: $100.00

Publ 4645
Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from U.S.
Petroleum Sources
This study was conducted to obtain refined estimates of the U.S. petroleum
industry’s emissions of greenhouse gases. Methane and carbon dioxide
emissions were estimated using 1990 as the base year and projecting those
emissions to the year 2000. The emission estimates resulting from the study
were reasonably consistent with previous estimates and showed little change
from 1990 to 2000. Pages: 114
January 1997 | Product Number: I46450 | Price: $79.00

Publ 4653
Fugitive Emission Factors for Crude Oil and Product Pipeline
Facilities
Presents the results of a study to determine equipment component fugitive
emission factors for crude oil and product pipeline facilities. The emission
factors presented in this report will allow pipeline operators to estimate total
hydrocarbon emissions from equipment components located at pipeline
facilities in light crude service, heavy crude service, and product service.
Pages: 50
June 1997 | Product Number: I46530 | Price: $79.00

Publ 4667
Vehicle Emissions Testing of Rapidly Aged Catalysts
A test program was conducted to measure the effect of changing fuel sulfur
content on the exhaust emissions of a 1993 Honda Civic VX certified to
meet California Transitional Low Emission Vehicle (TLEV) standards. The
results showed that: (a) on average, lowering fuel sulfur content from 600 to
35 ppm reduced exhaust emissions measured over the Federal Test
Procedure (FTP) by 21 % to 27 % depending on the pollutant; (b) fuel sulfur
content did not have an effect on the long-term emissions performance of
catalysts that have been artificially aged; (c) rapid catalyst aging did not
have a large effect on sulfur response compared to in-use aging; (d) gasoline
sulfur content did not have a significant effect on catalyst oxygen storage
capacity for this catalyst type; and (e) the emissions response to lower sulfur
obtained from measurements on a Honda Civic VX, TLEV-operated under
transient conditions according to the FTP, was less than one-half of that
observed in a previous study using an identical Honda catalyst in a
laboratory setting. Pages: 52
November 1997 | Product Number: I46670 | Price: $61.00

Publ 4703
Gas Fired Boiler—Test Report Site A: Characterization of Fine
Particulate Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles from Stationary
Petroleum Industry Combustion Sources
In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new
ambient air standards for particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5
micrometers in diameter (PM 2.5). Source emissions data are needed to

122

 This publication is a new entry in this catalog.

Publ 4704
Gas Fired Heater—Test Report Site B: Characterization of Fine
Particulate Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles from Stationary
Petroleum Industry Combustion Sources
In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new
ambient air standards for particulate matter (PM) smaller than
2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM 2.5). Source emissions data are needed
to assess the contribution of petroleum industry combustion sources to
ambient PM 2.5 concentrations. This report presents particulate
measurement results from a 114 million British thermal unit (MMBtu) per
hour gas-fired refinery process heater. The particulate stack measurements
were made using both a dilution tunnel research test method and traditional
EPA sampling methods. Pages: 118
August 2001 | Product Number: I47040 | Price: $88.00

Publ 4712
Gas-Fired Steam Generator—Test Report Site C: Characterization of
Fine Particulate Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles from
Stationary Petroleum Industry Combustion Sources
In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated new
ambient air standards for particulate matter (PM) smaller than
2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM 2.5). Source emissions data are needed
to assess the contribution of petroleum industry combustion sources to
ambient PM 2.5 concentrations. This report presents that the gas fired
steam generator has a maximum heat input of 62.5 MMBtu/Hr with an
average rate of approximately 50 MMBtu/hr. Pages: 100
July 2001 | Product Number: I47120 | Price: $83.00

Publ 4720
Comparison of API and EPA Toxic Air Pollutant Emission Factors for
Combustion Sources
Compares and explains differences in published toxic air pollutant emission
factors for combustion sources and recommends priorities for gathering
additional emission factor information. Pages: 50
September 2002 | Product Number: I47200 | Price: $92.00

Publ 4772
Measuring Particulate Emissions from Combustion Sources
Since the inception of the Clean Air Act, the petroleum refining industry has
been faced with the need to determine criteria pollutant emissions from
combustion sources. While some of these species, such as NOx, SO2, and
CO remain in the vapor phase during and after combustion and are relatively
simple to measure, particulate matter (PM) measurements are much more
challenging. This is because while some PM such as fly ash or catalytic
cracking catalyst fines is clearly solid material that is readily collected and
measured on a sampling filter, other species that may exist in the vapor
phase during combustion can later condense into aerosols downstream from
the combustion zone. This can occur before or after any control devices,
depending upon the temperature and composition of the combustion gases.
Consequently, it has been customary to refer to PM as being composed of
two PM components, filterable and condensable, the relative amounts of
each depending on the stack gas composition and temperature, control
devices in use at the unit, and the method for measuring PM. While
measuring filterable PM is relatively straightforward (i.e. PM collected on a
filter), condensable PM is a more esoteric quantity and its contribution to
total PM emissions is very much dependent upon the choice of the
measurement method. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency apparently
recognized this issue, and until the interest in measuring and controlling
 This publication is related to an API licensing, certification, or accreditation program.

Pages: 62 July 1996 | Product Number: I46380 | Price: $61. screening data. emission calculations. which should be considered in the development of a conceptual site model for each site. and sediment investigation and remediation. At the time that these methods were originally instituted. the best available pollution control devices were mainly limited to filterable PM and could not control the condensable portion of PM emissions.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. A workbook included in the report provides site operators with three different options to calculate emissions from their facilities. are used to develop emission factors for individual components and groups of components. The report contains emissions factors for five types of production operations—light crude production. most regulatory guidance for assessing potential human health risks via vapor intrusion to indoor air either neglect biodegradation or only allow for one order of magnitude additional attenuation for aerobically degradable compounds.ihs. and sources of PAHs in the environment and the regulatory implications.S. oxygen supply and degradation rates are likely to be sufficient at many sites to mitigate potential risks from vapor intrusion for low vapor concentration sources (less than about 2 mg/L-vapor total hydrocarbons).0 (EPEC II) is a software tool that can be used to estimate emissions for exploration and production facilities. Mass emission rates from “bagged” emitters. A simplified version was developed that could be incorporated into control applicability criteria for glycol dehydrator vent emissions. efforts were centered on determining the contribution of the PM 2. The simulations conducted in this study provide a framework for understanding the degree to which bioattenuation will occur under a variety of scenarios and provide insight into site conditions that will result in significant biodegradation. Pages: 53 April 2009 | Product Number: I47750 | Price: $108. See also Publ 4615. Assessment and the Regulation of PAHs in the Aquatic Environment Designed to be an introductory guide to understanding and assessing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment (water and sediments).com PM 2. and the Gas Research Institute. source depth. fate. is a valuable tool for petroleum producers who are interested in estimating fugitive emissions from their oil and gas production sites. gas processing plants. API prepared this guide primarily for refinery personnel and home office environmental staff who may have to address PAH issues. Pages: 263 December 1993 | Product Number: I45890 | Price: $142. In addition. aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors in the unsaturated zone will reduce the soil gas concentrations and the potential risks from vapor intrusion to indoor air compared to nondegrading compounds. Provided that oxygen is present in the vadose zone. and offshore production. valves. this guide may also be useful to staff in regulatory agencies that work with PAHs in wastewater discharge permits. and data summaries for many equipment types common to exploration and production facilities. The guide provides an overview on the chemistry. and leak emission data are also included. which should be defined as part of a site conceptual model. or accreditation program.00  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. including straightforward ways to help identify or rule out potential sources. The magnitude of the reduction depends on sitespecific conditions. Environmental Protection Agency and API collaborated to develop a methodology to estimate benzene exposures and associated risks under representative emission conditions applicable to glycol dehydrators. At lower source concentrations and/or deeper source depths.5 fraction that was believed to most responsible for these effects and principally composed of condensable matter. As interest in the health effects associated with PM emissions increased. and other components. See also Publ 4589. Four methods of calculating fugitive emissions are presented: EPA average emission factor method. however. in most cases. gas production. Component inventory data. It also contains profiles of speciated emissions including air toxics and assesses regional differences in fugitive emissions and control efficiency of inspection and maintenance programs. heavy crude production. EPEC II integrates user inputs. their PM sampling methods were centered on measuring only filterable PM. The guide also includes descriptions of the different sources of PAHs (petrogenic.000 components at 20 offshore and onshore facilities. Pages: 56 January 1995 | Product Number: I46150 | Price: $61. This paper describes results from three-dimensional numerical model simulations of vapor intrusion for petroleum hydrocarbons to assess the influence of aerobic biodegradation on the attenuation factor for a variety of source concentrations and depths for buildings with basements and slab-on-grade construction.00 Publ 4776 A Guide to Understanding. This improved understanding may be used to select site-specific attenuation factors for degradable compounds and develop soil vapor screening levels appropriate for particular combinations of source concentrations. Investigators use portable detectors to screen more than 180. and leak quantification method.S. This report will review the conditions leading to the formation of condensable particulate matter from stack gas components along with the methods used to measure PM emissions from refinery combustion sources. Pages: 60 September 2011 | Product Number: I47760 | Price: $107. Published references that provide background information for the calculation methods used in EPEC II are given for each equipment type in both the software and in each section of this user's guide. connectors. which is the result of five years of field testing of equipment components at production facilities across the United States. Pages: 27 September 2008 | Product Number: I47720 | Price: $62. Environmental Protection Agency in 1994. certification. EPA correlation method. API. aerobic biodegradation may result in a reduction in vapor intrusion attenuation factors by many orders of magnitude. Pages: 96 2nd Edition | January 2007 | Product Number: I46610 | Price: $125.5 emissions emerged in the 1990s.00 Publ 4644 A Methodology for Estimating Incremental Benzene Exposures and Risks Associated with Glycol Dehydrators The U. Environmental Protection Agency. which may be overly conservative in many cases. waste load allocations (total maximum daily loadings). pyrogenic. 123 . Pages: 84 February 1997 | Product Number: I46440 | Price: $79. such as seals and vents. Publ 4589 Fugitive Hydrocarbon Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Operations The emission factors derived in this report indicate that fugitive emissions from production facilities are considerably lower than they were in the late 1970s.00 Publ 4638 Calculation Workbook for Oil and Gas Production Equipment Fugitive Emissions This workbook.00  This publication is related to an API licensing. The calculation techniques and emission factors utilized by the EPEC II software were. diagenic. The result (spreadsheet program and Monte Carlo routine) was a PC-based model called SIMRISK. and building characteristics.00 Publ 4661 Exploration and Production Emission Calculator II (EPEC II) User's Guide The Exploration and Production Emission Calculator Version 2.00 EMISSIONS: EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION Publ 4775 Simulating the Effect of Aerobic Biodegradation on Soil Vapor Intrusion into Buildings—Evaluation of Low Strength Sources Associated with Dissolved Gasoline Plumes Aerobic biodegradation can contribute significantly to the attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors in the unsaturated zone. biogenic) and techniques for differentiating these sources through their characteristic fingerprints. EPA screening value range emission method. However.00 Publ 4615 Emission Factors for Oil and Gas Production Operation Supplements the information found in Publ 4589 and contains revised emission factors developed from 1993 API data using correlation equations established by the U.S. established by the U.

5 million values. The output generated by the software can be used for regulatory reporting by unit operators according to the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Information was obtained to help determine (1) the design and operational characteristics that influence emissions and (2) whether a focused leak detection and repair program could be more cost-effective while reducing emissions than the current method of monitoring all system components. Approximately 2 MB of hard disk space are required to hold the program and its supporting run-time libraries. emitter data. See also Publ 4679. Pages: 338 October 1997 | Product Number: I46620 | Price: $117. it is recommended that the user set the monitor to a high color 16 bit (or higher) resolution. 8 MB RAM or more. or accreditation program. Pages: 68 August 1996 | Product Number: J33700 | Price: $74.0 was developed.00 Publ 4697  Production Tank Emissions Model (E&P TANK. working. Emission testing was performed on storage tank vents located at seven sites in widely diverse oil and gas producing regions across the United States. This report provides revised emission factors applicable to refinery components in heavy liquid service. Pages: 82 December 1998 | Product Number: I46830 | Price: $79. See also Publ 4588. Four marketing terminals were tested. nonaromatic speciation data. and standing losses and calculates losses using specific operations for each user's tank.eptanks. toluene. The report also highlights some issues to consider in planning an ORS field study and clarifies the attendant tradeoffs for issues such as selection of appropriate ORS systems. and meeting the conditions of various permits and compliances. and xylenes (BTEX). ethylbenzene. Pages: 64 November 1997 | Product Number: J31000 | Price: $57. and (3) NGL process (liquid feed) simulation. Pages: 217 May 1993 | Product Number: I45881 | Price: $115. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) Publ 4662 Evaluation of a Petroleum Production Tank Emissions Model tank condition information to generate air emission reports. including benzene. vented flash gas molecular weight. Volume 2 This volume is the appendix to Publ 4588. Mass emission rates of hazardous air pollutants. See also Publ 4680. Visit www. See also appendices to this document. AMINECalc Version 1. System requirements for running AMINECalc Version 1. Analyses were performed of oil and gas sampling results and emissions modeling results for more than 100 crude oil E&P storage tanks. and separator gas specific gravity. now compatible with 32-bit and 64-bit Windows 7 as well as Windows 2000/XP/Vista. Correlation equations or statistical averages were recommended to estimate Reid Vapor Pressure.  This publication is related to an API licensing.0 AMINECalc is a user-friendly Windows®-based software program that estimates hydrocarbon emissions from amine-based sour gas and natural gas liquid sweetening units. which were based on extensive field measurements. E&P TANK was evaluated for petroleum production tanks in an emission measurement project sponsored by API and the Gas Research Institute.00 Publ 4588 Development of Fugitive Emission Factors and Emission Profiles for Petroleum Marketing Terminals. Version 3. Publ 45881.S. and the results of the study are presented in this report. Pages: 146 May 1993 | Product Number: I45880 | Price: $123. It also recommends improvements and modifications to refine the predictions. Cited by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Pages: 76 January 1999 | Product Number: I46790 | Price: $494.00 EMISSIONS: MARKETING Publ 4679 Amine Unit Air Emissions Model and User’s Guide. comprising 11.00 EMISSIONS: REFINING Validation of Heavy Gas Dispersion Models with Experimental Results of the Thorney Island Trials Volumes I & II June 1986 Publ 310 Analysis of Refinery Screening Data Analyzes five and a half years of screening data from seven Los Angeles California refineries.com for pricing and information. consideration of 124  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. a study was designed to determine average emission factors and fugitive emission correlation equations for components in light liquid and gas vapor services. (2) gas process (gas feed) simulation. determining emission fees.00 Publ 4683 Correlation Equations to Predict Reid Vapor Pressure and Properties of Gaseous Emissions for Exploration and Production Facilities Establishes simple techniques for exploration and production (E&P) operators of petroleum storage tank facilities to use for the preparation of site-specific emission inventories to meet environmental regulations. Volume 1 To evaluate the accuracy of fugitive emission estimates for petroleum marketing terminals.0 are IBM PC 486 compatible or higher. and aromatic speciation data. hydrocarbon speciation (including hazardous air pollutants). . Appendices include statistical analyses of data. Pages: 96 December 1998 | Product Number: I46800 | Price: $120.0) Publ 4587 Remote Sensing Feasibility Study of Refinery Fenceline Emissions E&P TANKS (API Publ 4697) is a computer-based software designed to use site-specific information to predict emission from petroleum production storage tanks. and volatile organic compounds can be estimated with the use of AMINECalc. it allows the user to enter specific Reviews the state of the art of optical remote sensing (ORS) technology and examines the potential use of ORS systems combined with ancillary measurements. Measured emissions were found to be in agreement with E&P TANK model predictions. called Amine Unit Air Emission Model (AMINECalc) Version 1. field inventory sheet data.00 Publ 4680 Amine Unit Air Emissions Model Evaluation The implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments in the United States has created the need for a reliable method to estimate and report hydrocarbon emissions from amine units. A simulation package. such as meteorological and tracer gas release data to determine fugitive emission rates. vented working and standing gas molecular weight. certification. For better interface viewing.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. It estimates flashing. This report evaluates the AMINECalc model by comparing the simulation results with field data collected from operating gas plants. and Windows® 95/98/NT. AMINECalc performs three types of calculation options: (1) mass balance calculation.00 Publ 45881 Development of Fugitive Emission Factors and Emission Profiles for Petroleum Marketing Terminals. It also provides data analyses to determine whether the type of distillate or residual hydrocarbon in the stream would influence the emission factors.00 Publ 337 Development of Emission Factors for Leaks in Refinery Components in Heavy Liquid Service Estimating air pollutants from stationary sources is necessary for compiling emission inventories.

and • identify and characterize secondary particulate (i. Pages: 104 April 1999 | Product Number: I46780 | Price: $97. over 20 processes.00 Publ 4681 Fugitive Emissions from Refinery Process Drains.00 Publ 4713 Test Report: Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit at a Refinery (Site A).) to reduce emissions. Volume three of a three-part study—the computer model with user’s guide to estimate emissions from refinery process drains.11 platform. and Publ 4678. which may overestimate refinery process drain fugitive emissions. The APIDRAIN model is enhanced with automatic functions that enable the user to easily summarize important reporting information and to generate tabular emissions totals for both specific refinery process units and for the entire refinery.0 Publ 4612 1993 Study of Refinery Fugitive Emissions from Equipment Leaks.e. Volume II contains descriptions of the testing approach. The minimum system requirements for running APIDRAIN Version 1. The user must have Windows® and Excel® installed on a personal computer to begin using the software. and over 50 process streams was contributed by the project participants. connectors. Pages: 248 April 1994 | Product Number: I46120 | Price: $142. and Publ 4681. It is not necessary for the user to possess a rigorous understanding of Excel® to use APIDRAIN. 125 . Pages: 92 April 1999 | Product Number: I46810 | Price: $412. and the requisite meteorological measurements. the results of a survey of process drains at three refineries. Environmental Protection Agency to construct the exhaust emission rate equations in MOBILE5a developed from data collected from an operating inspection and maintenance (I/M) program.com detection limits and beam placement. See also Publ 4639. The model user can quickly and easily predict the contribution of process drain emissions to the total emission inventory of a refinery. only a few common principles of the Windows® operating environment are needed (such as point-and-click and navigation of tab and arrow keys). Neither the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum or the project participants make any claims as to the suitability or acceptability of the stream composition data reported for specific reporting or regulatory purposes.ihs. time scale and timing of field studies.S.e. Volume III This volume is the appendix to Publ 4612. Pages: 325 November 2002 | Product Number: I47230 | Price: $164. See also companion document Publ 4613. Fugitive emissions from valves. The results of this project will be of use in estimating the emissions of specific compounds. a review of models that describe VOC emissions from drain structures. particularly with regard to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants because of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. use of tracer gas releases. Pages: 200 March 1996 | Product Number: I46390 | Price: $87.00 Publ 4639 Estimation of Fugitive Emissions from Petroleum Refinery Process Drains Presents a protocol to facilitate the measurement and modeling of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from refinery process drains. and open-ended lines of five refineries were measured to develop new emission correlation equations and emission factors. Volume II. Pages 113 March 2002 | Product Number: I47130 | Price: $145. The model allows the user to sum up the emissions from a refinery process unit area or from the entire refinery. Fundamentals of Fugitive Emissions from Refinery Process Drains Volume two of a three-part study initiated by API to update the AP-42 emission factor for refinery process drains. The model can provide insight on how to change process drain variables (flow rate. in-depth discussions of calculations and statistics. particulate formed via reaction of stack emissions in the atmosphere) precursor emissions. and documentation of quality control results. and more complete. API developed a test protocol to address this data gap. pumps. Pages: 132 April 1999 | Product Number: I46770 | Price: $97.0 are PC 486 DX2 Windows® 3. or accreditation program. Characterization of Fine Particulate Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles from Stationary Petroleum Industry Combustion Sources There are few existing data on emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from petroleum industry combustion sources. special studies to enhance data analysis. and Publ 4681. and the limited information that is available is incomplete and outdated.00 Publ 4677 Fugitive Emissions from Refinery Process Drains. This volume describes theoretical concepts and equations that may be used in a model (APIDRAIN) to estimate speciated volatile organic compound emissions. Publ 4677. This report presents the results of a pilot project to evaluate the test protocol on a refinery fluid catalytic cracking unit. in preparing permit applications and in other environmental control activities. See also Publ 4639. It includes an extensive critique of the adjustments used to correct I/M program data for variations in fuel  This publication is related to an API licensing. etc. Data representing 31 refineries. See also companion document Publ 4612.00 Publ 4613 1993 Study of Refinery Fugitive Emissions from Equipment Leaks. especially organic aerosols from gasfired combustion devices. and the results from a series of tests carried out to evaluate the suitability of the equipment and procedures that make up the protocol. 8 MB RAM.00 Publ 4678 Fugitive Emissions from Refinery Process Drains.00  This publication is a new entry in this catalog.00 Publ 4723 Refinery Stream Speciation Contains the results of a study to determine the range of compositions for a number of compounds in typical refinery process streams. Publ 4677. Volume III. Fugitive Emission Factors for Refinery Process Drains Emissions from refinery process drains are under increasing scrutiny. Publ 4678.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. which may overestimate refinery process drain fugitive emissions. Process Drain Emission Calculator: APIDRAIN Version 1. certification. APIDRAIN is a user-friendly Windows®-based software program operating under the Microsoft Excel® for Windows® environment. See also Publ 4639. This publication is volume one of a three-part study initiated by API to update the AP-42 emission factor for refinery process drains. It contains raw data. Pages: 307 April 1994 | Product Number: I46130 | Price: $97. It includes a comprehensive literature review on fugitive emissions from refinery process drains. particulate present in the stack flue gas including condensable aerosols). This volume contains simplified emission factors that can be used to quickly estimate total VOC emissions from refinery process drains. Unit operators can use the output generated by the software for regulatory reporting according to the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. independent audit results. Pages: 105 April 1994 | Product Number: I45870 | Price: $70. specifically to: • develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of primary fine particulate matter (i. Volumes I and II Describes a study to document how fugitive emissions from equipment leaks have changed since the 1980s. Volume I. choice of dispersion models. Volume I contains the summaries and results of data analysis. temperature.00 EMISSIONS: VEHICLES Publ 4605 Investigation of MOBILE5a Emission Factors: Evaluation of IM240to-FTP Correlation and Base Emission Rate Equations TA detailed investigation and critique of the methodology used by the U. and Windows 95®/Windows NT®.

and breathing rate 126  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. their prevalence and overall contribution to fleet emissions are described. Seven additional time/activity databases not used in the current pNEM methodology are described as well as models simulating maximum sustainable ventilation rates as a function of exercise duration. and butyl alcohol—at service stations. gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW or TIG).Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. total hydrocarbons. outdoor adult workers. This report presents an analysis of the data collected during this project. A comparison of the results from vehicles tested in this program to estimates from the EPA MOBILE5a model suggested that the latter may be overpredicting exhaust emissions.833 workplace concentration measurements associated with potential occupational exposures. Pages: 45 June 1994 | Product Number: I46050 | Price: $61. Meteorological parameters. This study was conducted in response to the U. Algorithms producing equivalent ventilation rate values according to age. toluene. grinding. The analysis involves a comparison of emissions test data collected both before and after the performance of repairs on 1981 and newer cars and trucks. Pages: 104 February 1996 | Product Number: I46370 | Price: $70. and xylenes at 10 service stations in the New York area. high-school children. carbon monoxide. and benzene. It provides a detailed description of the survey questionnaire as well as a statistical analysis of some 1. certification. flux cored arc welding (FCAW).00 Publ 4642 A Study to Quantify On-Road Emissions of Dioxins and Furans from Mobile Sources: Phase 2 Presents the results of a study to assess on-road emissions of dioxins and furans from light. toluene. it was determined that 15 samples from one of the projects were listed as carbon steel base metal and should have been listed as stainless steel. and addition of ethanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). the California Air Resources Board. Emission control defects. Pages: 168 March 1995 | Product Number: I46170 | Price: $79. to evaluate the conditions under which vapors from reformulated gasoline contained in automobile fuel tanks become flammable. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) characteristics and temperature conditions and an assessment of the correlations developed to relate emissions data measured in an I/M program to that measured on the Federal Test Procedure. The results show that temperature limits of flammability correlate with RVP. at the station perimeters. and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW or stick). After the First Edition of this report was published.S. 63 samples were at or above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level of 2.00 Publ 4650 Analysis of High-Mileage-Vehicle Emissions Data from Late-Model.00  This publication is related to an API licensing. tertiary butyl alcohol. The aromatics—benzene. pentane-to-butane ratio. the addition of ethanol or MTBE or both affects the upper flammability limits. Publ 4619 A Study to Characterize Air Concentrations of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at Service Stations in the Northeast Describes a study to measure air concentrations of MTBE. Of the 271 total samples. Pages: 144 February 1995 | Product Number: I46190 | Price: $79. Pages: 12 June 2007 | Product Number: I46290 | Price: $85. The emission factor determined for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in this work was less than the EPA estimate.00 Publ 4637 Analysis of Causes of Failure in High Emitting Cars Describes an investigation to evaluate the primary causes of high exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles on the road. it was felt that a complete update was needed. Pages: 96 December 1996 | Product Number: I46420 | Price: $130. and one joint EPA-industry program.S.00 Publ 4629 Hexavalent Chromium Exposures During Hot Work Details the findings from an air sampling survey contracted by API to evaluate inhalation exposures to hexavalent chromium [chromium (VI)] during seven types of hot work: carbon arc cutting (CAC). formaldehyde. xylene.S. MD. Emissions were measured in the Fort McHenry Tunnel in Baltimore. . activity duration.00 EXPOSURE: ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING Publ 4617 A Monte Carlo Approach to Generating Equivalent Ventilation Rates in Population Exposure Assessments Describes a study to improve breathing rate simulations in computer-based models used to estimate the exposures of urban populations to ozone and carbon monoxide. Pages: 105 August 1995 | Product Number: I46220 | Price: $61. and construction workers. Pages: 144 December 1996 | Product Number: I46460 | Price: $97. and in the breathing zones of motorists and attendants. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) MOBILE5a on-road emission factors model overpredicted the exhaust emissions of newer-model. fuel-injected vehicles with high mileage. gender.S. activity. While the original report was careful to point out the use of electrodes typical for stainless work. It is an analysis of emissions data from tests previously conducted by the U. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) draft dioxin reassessment document. and the ratio of pentane to butane has no consistent effect at similar RVP levels. Fuel-Injected Vehicles Seventy-five light-duty vehicles were procured and tested over the Federal Test Procedure to assess whether the U. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).and heavy-duty vehicles in the United States. tertiary amyl methyl ether. and deliveries were also monitored.00 Publ 4622 Petroleum Industry Data Characterizing Occupational Exposures to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): 1983–1993 Describes the results of a survey of API member companies to acquire data relating to occupational exposure to MTBE for various activities associated with petroleum facilities. Full shift (approximately 8-hour time-weighted average) and short-term (15–20 minutes) samples were collected at each station. sales. Pages: 62 February 1997 | Product Number: I46500 | Price: $69. which was based on data developed from studies conducted outside of the United States. ethylbenzene. gasoline composition. gas metal arc welding (GMAW or MIG). Eighty-three samples were collected in October and November 2005 at two petroleum sites during maintenance turnarounds by API member companies. Volatility and meteorological measurements were also taken. and ethylbenzene— were also measured. Pages: 144 August 1995 | Product Number: I46250 | Price: $65. and gender.00 category were developed from measured rates in primary-school children. Researchers assessed concentrations of MTBE in the areas around gas pumps.00 Publ 4625 Service Station Personnel Exposures to Oxygenated Fuel Components Describes a study in four ozone nonattainment areas to measured exposures of refueling attendants and mechanics to fuel oxygenate species—methyl ttertiary butyl ether. para-xylene. age.5 ug/m3 and 51 were at or above the OSHA permissible exposure limit of 5 ug/m3. based on techniques tested and proven in Phase 1 of this study. oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC or torch cutting). or accreditation program.00 Publ 4646 Evaluation of Fuel Tank Flammability of Low RVP Gasolines Twenty-two test fuels were varied with respect to Reid vapor pressure (RVP). An additional 188 samples were collected April–June 2006 at three different petroleum company sites by ICU Environmental Health and Safety. ethanol.

Among the areas covered are biogenic emission measurements. NW. Illnesses. Pages: 240 June 1992 | Product Number: J30900 | Price: $113. e-mail: apipubs@api. Illnesses.00 June 1994 | Product Number: K19985 | Price: $96. Illnesses. ambient concentration measurements. emission inventories.00 Publ 4669 Review of Air Quality Models for Particulate Matter API has published a review of existing source and receptor models available for analyzing particulate matter (PM) concentrations. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry March 1999 | Product Number: K23771 | Price: $103. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry June 1998 | Product Number: K23761 | Price: $96. Plausible alternative conditions were established to define acceptable base cases. The alternative base cases used in this study produced significant differences in estimates of the air quality benefits of hypothetical emissions reductions.com MODELING Publ 4616 The Importance of Using Alternative Base Cases in Photochemical Modeling Publ 4546 Hazard Response Modeling Uncertainty (a Quantitative Method): Evaluation of Commonly-Used Hazardous Gas Dispersion Models— Volume 2 Contains an evaluation of a group of 14 hazardous gas dispersion models.00 Publ 2376 1997 Summary of Occupational Injuries. All available measurement programs were considered for the evaluation. Pages: 156 August 1991 | Product Number: J30500 | Price: $83. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ recordkeeping guidelines. underestimating control requirements. illness. the change in nonattainment status that may occur should the existing ozone national ambient air quality standards be modified. Pages: 311 March 1998 Environment and Safety Data The following summaries report on cases that are recorded under the U. Illnesses. and identifies areas where the models need improvement.00 Publ 2375 1996 Summary of Occupational Injuries. Given a particular type of release and the chemicals or petroleum fractions involved.00 Publ 309 Current Status and Research Needs Related to Biogenic Hydrocarbons Describes the literature on the state of science on biogenic hydrocarbons.S. This report critically reviews existing air modeling tools for PM. Occupational Injuries. some of which provided model performance comparable to the best achieved for the episodes. A series of Urban Airshed Model sensitivity studies were conducted using two summer O3 episodes. lost workday cases. and modeling studies from 1960 to 1992. certification. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry June 1995 | Product Number: K19984 | Price: $96. Illnesses. Occupational Injuries. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry August 1993 | Product Number: K19986 | Price: $83. and incidence rates by function. The surveys are based on data submitted to API by oil and gas companies.00 Publ 2377 1998 Summary of Occupational Injuries. 1220 L Street. eight data sets are used in the evaluation. A number of the models give predictions that reasonably match field data. This report analyzes information on components of ozone exposure that elicit adverse effects on vegetation.S.S. recommends models for State Implementation Plan applications. Pages: 364 September 1994 | Product Number: I46160 | Price: $137.00 1995 Summary of U. or incurring costs to implement unnecessary controls. The study strongly recommends that current photochemical modeling practices include this type of analysis to reduce the risk of focusing on the wrong ozone precursor.00 1994 Summary of U. and the need for future research efforts to explore the development of a suitable multiparameter index to protect vegetation from ozone exposure. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry May 1996 | Product Number: K19983 | Price: $96.org. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry January 1989 | Product Number: K19996 | Price: $59. Statistical procedures and residual plots are used to characterize performance. A list of references with 163 abstracts is included.00  This publication is related to an API licensing.00 Publ 4628 A Guidance Manual for Modeling Hypothetical Accidental Releases to the Atmosphere Presents methods for modeling hypothetical accidental releases of fluids and gases into the atmosphere from process operations. DC 20005. The models are reviewed for their scientific validity. Washington. Illnesses. Pages: 212 November 1996 | Product Number: I46280 | Price: $142. phone: 202-682-8156. Illnesses. chemical kinetics. Illnesses. fatalities. please contact the Intellectual Property Department at API.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. Illnesses.00 1993 Summary of Occupational Injuries. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry June 1997 | Product Number: K23751 | Price: $96. Detailed simulation of eight hypothetical release scenarios are presented to demonstrate how the modeling procedures can be implemented. Illnesses. The reports include information regarding injuries. covering both the releases of dense gases and nondense tracer gases. ways to describe these components in the form of ozone exposure indices that may be useful in the standard-setting process for protecting vegetation.00 1990 Summary of Occupational Injuries. methods for modeling the release and subsequent dispersion phenomena are treated in a step-wise. or accreditation program.00 1992 Summary of Occupational Injuries. 127 . and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry July 1991 | Product Number: K19988 | Price: $83.00.ihs. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry OZONE Publ 305 Protecting Agricultural Crops from Ozone Exposures—Key Issues and Future Research Directions Identifies and reviews some of the key issues related to assessing the effects of ozone exposure on vegetation.00  This publication is a new entry in this catalog.00 1991 Summary of Occupational Injuries. 1989 Summary of Occupational Injuries. and Fatalities in the Petroleum Industry September 1992 | Product Number: K19987 | Price: $83. If you would like API to provide you with a hard copy of this publication for a cost of $42. The results of the review are used to identify areas of understanding as well as uncertainty in present-day knowledge. Pages: 351 October 1992 | Product Number: I45460 | Price: $142. comprehensive manner.

Illnesses. Illnesses. Illnesses.00 Publ 2380 2001 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. On day 20. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) Publ 2378 1999 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only TR 400 Toluene: A Preliminary Study of the Effect of Toluene on Pregnancy of the Rat May 2008 | Product Number: K23861 | Price: $103. This tool is intended for use without specific training on human factors. TR 401 Toluene: The Effect on Pregnancy of the Rat Describes a study to assess the toxicity of toluene on the pregnant rat as well as on the developing fetus. Illnesses. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only March 2009 | Product Number: K23871 | Price: $103. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only Human Health Related Research Human Factors in New Facility Design Tool Describes a human factors tool that may be used by operating plants as an aid to incorporate human factors principles in the design of equipment that will be operated and maintained by people. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only June 2003 | Product Number: K23811 | Price: $103. Pages: 71 2nd Edition | October 2005 | Product Number: I0HF02 | Price: $149.00 Publ 4714 A Guide to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for the Non-Specialist Provides an introduction to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for persons working in the petroleum industry.00 Describes a preliminary experiment performed on the pregnant rat to determine appropriate exposure levels of toluene. Pages: 14 1st Edition | February 2006 | Product Number: I0HF03 | Price: $62.S. Pages: 36 February 2002 | Product Number: I47141 | Price: $79. This document focuses only on equipment design. PAH environmental transport. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only June 2007 | Product Number: K23851 | Price: $103. This information is of particular relevance to the petroleum industry due to the natural presence of PAHs in crude oil. The number and distribution of live young as well as the number of fetal deaths and abnormalities were also recorded. Pages: 215 June 1993 | Product Number: I00401 | Price: $87. Illnesses. however. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only March 2002 | Product Number: K23801 | Price: $103. many ideas provided in this tool may be used to improve the operating of existing plants where feasible. for future investigation of embryofetal toxicity in the rat when administered via the inhalation route from days 5 to 15 of pregnancy inclusive. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only April 2010 | Product Number: K23881 | Price: $103. and • improve how process hazards analysis/hazard evaluation/revalidation process address human factors.00  This publication is related to an API licensing.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. Illnesses. Illnesses. Illnesses.00 June 2000 | Product Number: K23781 | Price: $103. and 3000 ppm toluene via inhalation for 6 hours a day from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy. The intended audience for this report includes environmental professionals who must address PAH regulatory issues and field personnel who are responsible for the sampling and analyses of PAHs. The tool covers equipment that is common to both upstream producing and downstream manufacturing operations. certification. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only refining processes. See related document TR 401. This is a simple process for gathering a few operators and mechanics who are familiar with the equipment/process and who are qualified to identify where traps (latent conditions) in the equipment and tasks (error likely scenarios) exist that make it easy for people to do something wrong.00 Objectives of this tool include the following: • provide a tool for operating crews to identify opportunities for latent conditions and human error. Illnesses.00 Publ 2385 2006 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. It describes in general terms what PAHs are and how they are formed. behavior-based safety. Illnesses. fate. The human factors principles described in this document are intended for new equipment designs. Illnesses. . Equipment associated with specific activities such as drilling rigs is not specifically addressed. and operating procedure issues are not in the scope. The scope of this tool includes existing operations and equipment and human tasks. 1500.00 Publ 2381 2002 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries.00 Human Factors Tool for Existing Operations Publ 2383 2004 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. Items such as human error. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only March 2001 | Product Number: K23790 | Price: $103. the formation of PAHs during some 128  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. The exposure levels were chosen following a review of currently available information. and analytical methods for measuring PAH concentrations in the environment.00 Publ 2386 2007 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. and health effects. See related document TR 400.00 March 2005 | Product Number: K23831 | Price: $103. animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity.00 Publ 2384 2005 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. The inhalation route of administration was chosen as the most likely route of exposure in humans.00 Publ 2379 2000 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only May 2006 | Product Number: K23841 | Price: $103. Pages: 113 June 1993 | Product Number: I00400 | Price: $61. or accreditation program. Pregnant rats were exposed to 250. the females were sacrificed and examined for abnormalities.00 Publ 2388 2009 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. and the potential for production of PAHs during the combustion of petroleum products.00 Publ 2382 2003 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries.00 May 2005 | Product Number: K23821 | Price: $103. Throughout the exposure period. Control rats were exposed to filtered air for the same length of time. 750. and Fatalities Summary Report: Aggregate Data Only Publ 2387 2008 Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injuries. regulatory requirements related to PAHs.

unleaded gasoline vapors did not produce evidence of developmental toxicity. Pages: 44 June 1997 | Product Number: I46470 | Price: $79. Body weights were obtained and general health monitored weekly. Informative abstracts provide useful background on each study and give information on publication availability.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global.00 TR 405 An Inhalation Oncogenicity Study of Commercial Hexane in Rats and Mice. the second part of a two-part set. The amendment and table of contents to the unabridged final report are included. and community and occupational health research areas. It covers industrial hygiene and exposure assessment. The recognition threshold is the minimum concentration at which 50 % of a given population can recognize the odorant. toxicology. Adult male rats received inhalation exposure to toluene scfromheduled to approximate occupational exposure for up to 42 days. fetal body weight. Part II—Mice This abridged report. Test rabbits were exposed dermally to unleaded gasoline according to a specified protocol and observed daily for signs of skin irritation. 3000 and 9000 ppm in air. (This volume includes publications TR 412 and TR 414. The results show that developmentally there were no differences between treated and control groups in malformations. Under the conditions of this study.00 TR 411 Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) HGPRT Mutation Assay of Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME) Describes a study conducted to evaluate the mutagenic potential of the test article. The composition of the unleaded gasoline vapor condensate and the treatment pattern used are representative of real-world exposure conditions encountered at service stations and in other occupational settings. or viability. Summary text as well as pertinent data on changes in body weight.00  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. Pages: 58 March 1995 | Product Number: I00409 | Price: $61. and individual and overall tumor incidence including differences in survivorship between control and exposed groups are provided. TAME was concluded to be positive for the induction of structural chromosome abberations in CHO cells. evaluates the oncogenic potential of commercial hexane administered to four groups of 50 B6C3F1 mice at concentrations of 0. The odor detection threshold is the minimum concentration at which 50 % of a given population can differentiate between a sample containing the odorant and a sample of odor-free air.com TR 403 Closed-Patch Repeated Insult Dermal Sensitization Study of TAME in Guinea Pigs TR 412 and TR 414 A Range-Finding Developmental Inhalation Toxicity Study of Unleaded Gasoline Vapor Condensate in Rats and Mice via WholeBody Exposure and an Inhalation Developmental Toxicity Study of Unleaded Gasoline Vapor Condensate in the Rat via Whole-Body Exposure Describes a study to evaluate the allergic contact sensitization potential of tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) in guinea pigs. Pages: 56 December 1996 | Product Number: I00410 | Price: $87. The table of contents to the unabridged final report is included. Pages: 160 September 1995 | Product Number: I46340 | Price: $79. Based on the findings of this study. pathology.00 TR 404 An Inhalation Oncogenicity Study of Commercial Hexane in Rats and Mice. the concentration of GFAP was determined in four brain regions and compared with standard criteria of neurotoxicity: behavioral or neuropathological changes.00 TR 409 Primary Skin Irritation Study in Rabbits of API 91-01 and PS-6 Unleaded Test Gasolines Describes a study conducted to assess primary dermal irritation data for two motor fuels according to Toxic Substances Control Act and Federal Hazardous Substances Act guidelines. Pages: 106 January 1995 | Product Number: I00405 | Price: $61. Pages: 152 January 1995 | Product Number: I00404 | Price: $79. ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). and pathology are provided.00  This publication is related to an API licensing. changes in body weight. resorptions. Such information is valuable for accurate hazard assessment and first aid treatment. The addition of 11 % to 15 % by volume MTBE or 15 % by volume of TAME or ETBE reduce the odor detection and recognition thresholds of gasoline. Pages: 32 February 1995 | Product Number: I00403 | Price: $61.ihs. 900. organization. Pages: 46 December 1996 | Product Number: I00411 | Price: $87. Observations for mortality were made daily. 900. total variations. ETBE and TAME Examines the effects on odor detection and recognition of adding oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). the first part of a two-part set. evaluates the oncogenic potential of commercial hexane administered to four groups of 50 Fischer 344 rats at concentrations of 0.00 Publ 4592 Odor Threshold Studies Performed with Gasoline and Gasoline Combined with MTBE. product safety.00 Publ 4647 Brain Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) as a Marker of Neurotoxicity During Inhalation Exposure to Toluene Evaluates the concentration of GFAP in the rat’s brain as a practical biomarker of toluene-induced neurotoxicity. 129 . Under the conditions of the study. certification. Pages: 33 September 1995 | Product Number: I46230 | Price: $61. 3000 and 9000 ppm in air.00 Publ 4623 Anecdotal Health-Related Complaint Data Pertaining to Possible Exposures to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): 1993 and 1994 Follow-Up Surveys Describes the development and administration of an informal survey of API member companies and state agencies to acquire anecdotal complaint data relating to MTBE exposure. During and after exposure. Pages: 76 January 1994 | Product Number: I45920 | Price: $79. environmental biology.) Pages: 300 April 1998 | Product Number: I00412 | Price: $97. TAME based on quantitation of forward mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus of CHO cells. or accreditation program.00 TR 410 Chromosome Aberrations in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells Exposed to Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME) Evaluates the clastogenic potential of TAME using CHO cells compared to the solvent control group. Summary text and pertinent data on differences in survivorship between control and exposed groups. Data associated with 71 occupational and 13 nonoccupational health-related complaints including reported symptoms are presented. TAME was concluded to be negative in the CHO/HGPRT mutation assay. and subject indices for research investigations and scientific reviews conducted for API between 1959 and 1994. Commercial grade MTBE is also evaluated for its taste threshold in water.00 Publ 4634 Index and Abstracts of API Health-Related Research This compendium of health-related research provides author. and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Part I—Rats This abridged report. Dermal evaluations were made approximately 24 and 48 hours after exposure. to gasoline. This two-part inhalation study sought to specifically evaluate the potential of unleaded gasoline for developmental toxicity in rodents.

Pages: 76 November 2005 | Product Number: I47430 | Price: $149. Users need 640 KB RAM. cause more severe impacts than the oil spill alone. DOS 2.S. 130  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. specifically. certification. These data can then be used in the future to link field effects to laboratory toxicity data. Outstanding responses by the refineries (115 out of the total U. These people had 0–18 years of education and represented the following cultural groups: European-descent majority. and algae are assembled into a database—OILTOX. Native American Indian. refining industry. All factors affected the outcome of the behavioral tests studied.00 Publ 302 Waste Minimization in the Petroleum Industry: A Compendium of Practices In early 1988. Pages: 171 1st Edition | October 1991 | Product Number: J30400 | Price: $83. The goal of this study was to obtain field effects data using shipboard.S. then potential differences in pharmacokinetics (metabolism) and pharmacodynamics (sensitivity and mode of action) between the animal species and humans is considered in the estimation of human equivalent doses and in extrapolation from high doses typically used in the animal bioassays to low doses to which humans may be potentially exposed. Pages: 184 February 1991 | Product Number: J30000 | Price: $74. The discussion includes potential risks of basic components and products of concern. CAS Number 75-65-0 The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a quantitative risk assessment according to U.00 Publ 4743 Hazard Narrative for Tertiary-Butyl Alcohol (TBA). lubes. Environmental factors that may affect exposure and a brief summary of other exposure considerations are also included. are extrapolated to humans to provide estimates of lifetime cancer risks. The report concludes that in general.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. Pages: 110 December 1996 | Product Number: I46480 | Price: $97. Differences in educational level and locale (rural vs.S.5-in.00 Publ 4594 A Critical Review of Toxicity Values and an Evaluation of the Persistence of Petroleum Products for Use in Natural Resource Damage Assessments This document and accompanying 3. Key methodological aspects of toxicity tests can be made as well as determinations of which test procedures have a significant impact on results.00 DR 342 Toxicity Bioassays on Dispersed Oil in the North Sea: June 1996 Field Trials The purpose of the study described in this report was to gain more information on water column impacts by taking advantage of the ongoing efficacy and monitoring studies done by the Norwegian Clean Seas Association for Operating Companies (NOFO) in order to conduct field toxicity tests. diskette provide a review of the literature (post-1970) on the toxicity of crudes and oil products in aquatic environments. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines in which data on the mode of action by which TBA induced renal tumors in rats and thyroid tumors in mice was considered. When data from animal studies.00 Publ 4689 Chemical Human Health Hazards Associated with Oil Spill Response Contains an overview of human health hazards that could be encountered by personnel involved with spills or leaks of petroleum products. Text may be downloaded onto a diskette and stored as a file or printed. Pages: 190 January 1995 | Product Number: I45592 | Price: $79. invertebrates. prominent studies that feature nonuse measurement are highlighted.00 Natural Resource Damage Assessment Publ 304 Evaluation of Restoration Alternatives for Natural Resources Injured by Oil Spills Builds upon previous work in the field of oil spill impact assessment and habitat restoration to assess the technical feasibility and practicality of proactive restoration following oil spills and presents an approach for evaluating tradeoffs between natural recovery and active restoration. Pharmacokinetic.00 Pollution Prevention Publ 300 The Generation and Management of Waste and Secondary Materials in the Petroleum Refining Industry In 1989. toxicity. . The theory of option value is used to frame the concept of nonuse. and at least a 2 MB hard disk. API initiated a census survey of domestic refineries to document the management of waste and secondary materials in 1987 and 1988. shale oils. The scenarios developed to represent a broad spectrum of possible oil spills were based on selected case studies. API undertook a project to develop a compendium of the waste minimization practices for several different segments of the petroleum industry. solvents. Publ 316 Identifying and Measuring Nonuse Values for Natural and Environmental Resources: A Critical Review Takes an in-depth look at the theoretical arguments for using the contingent value method (CVM) as a scientifically valid and reliable tool for valuing nonuse public goods. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) Publ 4648 Human Neurobehavioral Study Methods: Effects of Subject Variables on Results available restoration techniques are not very effective for enhancing natural recovery and may. African American. A three-ring binder is provided to house this edition and future updates.0 or higher. Pages: 196 January 1995 | Product Number: I45940 | Price: $117. heavy fuels. The compendium discusses a large variety of practices that can and  This publication is related to an API licensing. including gasoline and gasoline streams. Pages: 51 August 2001 | Product Number: I46890 | Price: $83. and miscellaneous products. and Latin American. population of 176 refineries participated) aided in making confident estimates of the amount of waste managed by the U. Results suggested that education and cultural group should be controlled in the design of the study rather than in the statistical analysis. It also provides details of the tests performed and the species tested. Pages: 108 June 2002 | Product Number: I34200 | Price: $139. The potential biases of the CVM method are mentioned with suggestions on improving values. and mode of action data for TBA were reviewed and data selected for quantitative dose-response modeling. in certain cases. LC50 values can be identified as well as information on taxonomic groups and toxicity endpoints of interest. realtime toxicity tests with field water. environmental resources.00 Behavioral tests from two consensus neurotoxicity batteries were administered to 715 subjects aged 26–45. urban) and gender were examined.S. Pages: 134 August 1995 | Product Number: J31600 | Price: $59. and failure to do so could lead to false conclusions about the presence or absence of neurotoxic effects. such as the TBA bioassays.00 Publ 45592 Results of Toxicological Studies Conducted for the American Petroleum Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Department Lists and provides the results through December 1994 of all toxicological studies performed on petroleum-based materials. middle distillates. or accreditation program. Some 748 toxicity values for fish.

Pages: 123 August 1993 | Product Number: J32400 | Price: $89. the types of wastewater treatment processes used. or accreditation program. Pages: 4 June 1993 | Product Number: J31700 | Price: Free* Publ 324 Generation and Management of Residual Materials: Petroleum Refining Performance This document is third in a series that presents the results of API’s annual survey of the types and amounts of wastes and residuals generated and managed by the petroleum refining industry. normalized efficiency. and the methods used to calculate source reduction. Two long-term trends are worth noting: (1) the amount of total residuals being recycled continues to rise.00 increased to 18. Much of the increased quantity reflects generation peaks associated with construction and remediation activities. For 1990. This document also describes API’s initiatives for pollution prevention research. Pages: 30 September 1994 | Product Number: J33100 | Price: $63. trends in management practices. The quantitative results of the generation of the 28 waste and residual streams and their management according to the environmental management hierarchy (i.00 Executive summary to Publ 311. and various petroleum industry segments presented their views on pollution prevention. A trend analysis was performed on the last five years.2 million wet tons as compared to 16. recycling. Included in the report are detailed assessments of generated quantities and management practices for 14 individual and 2 combined residual streams.00 Informal proceedings of a pollution prevention plenary session held at API’s 1990 Health and Environment Annual Meeting. average costs for selected residual stream management. It also documents the influence of the primary sludge rule and new toxicity characteristic under RCRA. stormwater. and other traditional waste streams at refineries. Oil companies can use the data in this report to compare their residual generation and management practices with the rest of the industry. Pages: 16 1990 | Product Number: J31200 | Price: Free* Publ 317 Industry Experience with Pollution Prevention Programs The API Pollution Prevention Task Force has been actively involved in promoting pollution prevention within the industry since 1990.00 Publ 331 Environmental Performance Indicators: Methods for Measuring Pollution Prevention Presents methods that can be used to measure progress toward pollution prevention. Pages: 214 February 1993 | Product Number: J31100| Price: $148.00 Publ 303 Generation and Management of Wastes and Secondary Materials: 1989 Petroleum Refining Performance This report is a follow-up to Publ 300 and documents the results of the 1989 Refining Solid Waste Survey. the industry generated 14. Pages: 93 June 1992 | Product Number: J30300 | Price: $90.00 Publ 311 Environmental Design Considerations for Petroleum Refining Processing Units Demonstrates the application of pollution prevention concepts in the design of a refinery crude processing unit. source reduction. the regions in which the refineries are located. Pages: 172 June 1994 | Product Number: J32900 | Price: $100. treatment. The document is intended to serve as a reference for refinery designers during the preliminary design phase of building a new crude unit or revamping an existing crude unit.ihs. Petroleum Refining Performance This report is the seventh in a series of reports presenting the results of the API Annual Refining Residual Survey. certification. source reduction activities doubled over the previous year. It investigates a series of measurement parameters presented in five categories: program-based. the document contains a discussion of the state of source reduction activities underway within the industry. Members of the Task Force have accumulated a comprehensive body of knowledge on the subject of pollution prevention and have compiled a resource brochure on the key elements that make pollution prevention programs successful. types of wastewater treatment systems employed at refineries.000 wet tons of materials. and disposal) is presented. and (2) the amount of hazardous wastes going to land treatment and disposal continues to fall. Speakers representing federal and state government. activity-based. Publ 336 Management of Residual Materials: 1994. Included are realistic waste and emission reduction changes that would be economically and technically attractive to refiners. In 1991. Pages: 170 February 1995 | Product Number: J33300 | Price: $100.e. pollution prevention  This publication is related to an API licensing. Petroleum Refining Performance This report is the sixth in a series of reports presenting the results of the API Annual Refining Residual Survey. 131 .3 million wet tons in 1989. Within each category of measures. The quantity of residuals generated  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. the amounts of different residual streams produced and how they are managed.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global.00 Publ 31101 Executive Summary: Environmental Design Considerations for Petroleum Refining Crude Processing Units Publ 329 Generation and Management of Residual Materials: Petroleum Refining Performance This document is the fourth in a series that describes the 1991 data from API’s annual survey of the types and amounts of residual materials generated and managed by the refining industry. including a quantitation of source reduction achievements on the 28 streams.com are being utilized by the industry to reduce both the volume and toxicity of wastes. the compendium illustrates the various practices available to minimize wastes in the industry. public interest groups. and concentration-based.00 Publ 339 Management of Residual Materials: 1995. It presents the results of the 1992–1993 survey and includes information on how the industry has achieved compliance with the land disposal restrictions on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous K-wastes (K0448-K052). and the average cost of residual stream management. the benefits and limitations are discussed and illustrated with industry examples. mass-based. Pages: 13 February 1993 | Product Number: J31101 | Price: $58. It provides a detailed assessment of the size of refinery throughput.8 million wet tons of residual materials—the smallest quantity generated since API began this collection effort in 1987. Pages: 152 November 1991 | Product Number: J30200 | Price: $90. the types of crude oil utilized. Pages: 98 August 1996 | Product Number: J33600 | Price: $100. The industry also reported that pollution prevention activities accounted for a reduction in 715. From “good housekeeping practices” for marketing facilities to the recycling of solvents. In addition.00 Publ 333 Generation and Management of Residual Materials Publ 312 Responding to Environmental Challenge: The Petroleum Industry and Pollution Prevention This report is the fifth in a series of reports detailing waste and residual and management practices in the refining sector.

Further. 15 Vadose Zone Natural Attenuation of Hydrocarbon Vapors: An Emperical Assessment of Soil Gas Vertical Profile Data December 2001 Bulletin No. In 1995. certification.org/environment-health-and-safety/clean-water/ground-water/ bulletins. 5 Evaluation of Sampling and Analytical Methods for Measuring Indicators of Intrinsic Bioremediation Bulletin No. The user supplies site-specific information. 14 Predicting the Effect of Hydrocarbon and Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soil on Groundwater September 2001 Bulletin No. Pages: 106 July 1997 | Product Number: J33900 | Price: $100. or accreditation program.00 Bulletin No. 10 Simulation of Transport of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) to Ground-Water from Small-Volume Releases of Gasoline in the Valdose Zone June 2000 Bulletin No.g. The data in this report indicate a decrease of greater than 25 % in the quantity of residuals generated by the refining industry from 1994 to 1995.S. 12 No-Purge Sampling: An Approach for Long-Term Monitoring Publ 4722 Groundwater Sensitivity Toolkit—Users Guide. 9 Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) Mobility Limits in Soil Bulletin No. The toolkit examines three aspects of sensitivity: resource value. a methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)-oxygenated fuel].0 October 2000 API and the California MTBE Research Partnership have produced a new software utility to help site managers. over half of the refinery residuals generated were recycled rather than being treated or disposed. the industry trend towards increased recycling of residuals has continued. and natural sensitivity. Industry trend towards increased recycling of residuals has continued. 3 Ten Frequently Asked Questions About MTBE in Water Bulletin No.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. 8 Characteristics of Dissolved Petroleum Hydrocarbon Plumes: Results from Four Studies Publ 345 Management of Residual Materials: 1996 Petroleum Refining Performance June 2000 This report is the eighth in a series of reports presenting the results of the API Annual Refining Residual Survey.S. 11 Strategies for Characterizing Subsurface Releases of Gasoline Containing MTBE Soil and Groundwater Research August 2000 www. and regions in which refineries are located. Included in the report are detailed assessments of generated quantities and management practices for 14 residual streams representing approximately 80 % of all residuals managed at U. Human Exposures and Remediation Technologies Applicable to Low Permeability Soils September 1996 September 2001 Bulletin No. Although this utility was designed with petroleum hydrocarbon releases in mind. presentations. 16 Migration of Soil Gas Vapors to Indoor Air: Determining Vapor Attenuation Factors Using a Screening-Level Model and Field Data from the CDOT-MTL April 2002 Bulletin No. The Task Force disseminates information and research results through publications. water purveyors. refinery capacities.00 December 1998 Bulletin No.api. The bulletins listed below can be downloaded at www. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) activities.  This publication is related to an API licensing. 18 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Managing Risk at LNAPL Sites March 1998 May 2003 Bulletin No. . Pages: 51 August 2002 | Product Number: I47220 | Price: $59. 13 Dissolution of MTBE from a Residually Trapped Gasoline Source API Soil and Groundwater Research Bulletins API Soil and Groundwater Research bulletins summarize research results from project overseen by API’s Soil and Groundwater Technical Task Force. 17 Identification of Critical Parameters for the Johnson and Ettinger (1991) Vapor Intrusion Model May 2002 Bulletin No. In 1996.aspx. 19 Evaluation of Small-Volume Releases of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline at UST Sites March 1998 October 2003 132  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. Pages: 106 June 1998 | Product Number: J34500 | Price: $100. Bulletin No. well over half of the refinery residuals generated were recycled rather than being treated or disposed. 1 Summary of Processes. it can be used when dissolved chlorinated and inorganic compounds are the chemicals of concern. and regulators evaluate the sensitivity of a groundwater resource to a potential release of compounds of concern [e. and interaction with industry clients and regulatory agencies. refineries.api. The toolkit runs on Microsoft Excel® and comes with a user’s guide.org/groundwater Bulletin No.00 Bulletin No. receptor vulnerability. and the toolkit returns a “scorecard” addressing the three aspects of sensitivity. Version 1.

Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. MTBE and Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons in a Shallow Sand Aquifer December 2003 Describes a field investigation into the effect of oxygenates methanol and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) on the fate and transport of benzene. toluene. ethylbenzene. 25 Remediation Progress at California LUFT Sites: Insights from the GeoTracker Database February 2012 Bulletin No. Natural gradient tracer experiments were conducted to simulate the transport of dissolved plumes resulting from subsurface releases of oxygenated fuels. ethylbenzene.ihs. and BTEX concentrations were monitored by sampling from a dense network of multilevel piezometers. 23 The Impact of Gasohol and Fuel-Grade Ethanol on BTX and Other Hydrocarbons in Ground Water: Effect on Concentrations Near a Source December 2005 Bulletin No. The toxicity of barium to marine and freshwater organisms and humans is discussed in relation to the concentrations and forms in which it occurs in aquatic environments. 26 Tertiary Butyl Alcohol (TBA) Biodegradation: Some Frequently Asked Questions March 2012 CONTAMINANT FATE AND TRANSPORT Publ 4531 Chemical Fate and Impact of Oxygenates in Groundwater: Solubility of BTEX from Gasoline-Oxygenate Mixtures Oxygenated hydrocarbon compounds may be added to gasoline mixtures to improve emission quality and octane ratings or to conserve petroleum resources. It discusses the factors that influence the rate of precipitation of barium as barite. Pages: 204 July 1996 | Product Number: I46430 | Price: $97. certification.00 Bulletin No. Laboratory microcosm experiments were performed to further characterize the biodegradation of benzene. 21 Evaluation of Potential Vapor Transport to Indoor Air Associated with Small-Volume Releases of Oxygenated Gasoline in the Vadose Zone January 2005 Bulletin No.00 Publ 4643 Estimation of Infiltration and Recharge for Environmental Site Assessment A risk-based corrective action analysis of a site suspected of chemical contamination requires site-specific knowledge of the rate water infiltrates through the soil to the water table. It also explores the nature of the dissolved contaminant plumes that could develop from a spill of gasoline containing methanol. and xylenes (BTEX) in groundwater. The relative mobility and persistence of BTEX and the oxygenates were characterized based on field and laboratory study data. toluene. 133 .00 Publ 4593 Transport and Fate of Non-BTEX Petroleum Chemicals in Soils and Groundwater This literature survey documents available information on the chemical composition of petroleum products and the subsurface fate and transport of selected non-BTEX (benzene. depending on site conditions. Finally.00 Publ 4633 Barium in Produced Water: Fate and Effects in the Marine Environment Provides a summary of what is currently known about the physical and chemical behavior of barium in produced water and in the ocean. A laboratory study on the effects of methanol and MTBE on the biodegradation of BTEX in groundwater was also conducted. groundwater modeling studies were conducted to facilitate the interpretation of field data and to evaluate various approaches for predicting the fate and effects of these gasoline constituents in the subsurface. Pages: 68 September 1995 | Product Number: I46330 | Price: $59. 20 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Ethanol Impacts to Groundwater Publ 4601 Transport and Fate of Dissolved Methanol. Publ 4627 In-Situ and On-Site Biodegradation of Refined and Fuel Oils: A Review of Technical Literature 1988–1991 Reviews more than 200 technical articles published between 1988 and 1991 in the area of on-site and in-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons. insitu conditions. Pages: 338 April 1994 | Product Number: I46010 | Price: $123. collectively referred to as BTEX) from gasoline.S. and xylenes (BTEX) and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) under ambient. MTBE. Pages: 110 August 1991 | Product Number: I45310 | Price: $61. and xylenes) constituents of these products. ethylbenzene.00 Publ 4654 Field Studies of BTEX and MTBE Intrinsic Bioremediation A gasoline release field site in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina was monitored for more than three years to allow calculation of in-situ biodegradation rates. Navy. are provided in this report. 22 Maximum Potential Impacts of Tertiary Butyl Alcohol (TBA) on Groundwater from Small-Volume Releases of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline in the Vadose Zone January 2005 Bulletin No. or accreditation program. The review is designed to complement an earlier (pre-1988) review published by the U.00  This publication is related to an API licensing. toluene. Pages: 146 June 1995 | Product Number: I46270 | Price: $61. Recent work in fate and transport modeling that can be applied to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater is also covered. A comprehensive discussion of the current physical/chemical methods and mathematical models available to quantify those rates along with suggestions for selecting an appropriate technique. toluene.com Bulletin No. methanol. The evaluation focuses on a representative group of 12 hydrocarbons and hetero-organic compounds based on their abundance in petroleum products and anticipated future interest from regulatory agencies.00  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. and plume contours were mapped through application of moment analysis. Pages: 200 September 1994 | Product Number: I45930 | Price: $65. 24 Downward Solute Plume Migration: Assessment Significance and Implications for Characterization and Monitoring of “Diving Plumes” April 2006 Bulletin No. Pages: 244 October 1997 | Product Number: I46540 | Price: $76. In these experiments. ethylbenzene. It focuses specifically on current field and laboratory research related to petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation including biodegradation of crude oil and solvents. and the isomers of xylene. This study evaluates the effects of oxygenate additives such as methanol or methyl tertiary-butyl ether on the aqueous solubility of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene. which may alter the behavior of dissolved organic compounds in groundwater following a fuel spill.

In 70 % of these scenarios. what response actions are appropriate and effective? Pages: 29 1st Edition | September 2006 | Product Number: I47580 | Price: $70. Pages: 124 January 2005 | Product Number: I47340 | Price: $123. ethylbenzene. The current presence of 1. Soil. and water resources. Within Sections III and IV. The compounds of primary interest were benzene.00 134  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. and xylene compounds was biodegraded. 1. and then monitoring data. The two structures differ only with the presence of either bromine or chlorine substituents.org/ehs/groundwater/upload/4774_e1. and time is available to adequately address the problem on a site-specific basis. Secondary objectives of the study included evaluation of the effect of heterogeneity on the migration of chloride through the vadose zone. followed by abiotic and biotic transformation processes. Pages: 56 December 1998 | Product Number: I46740 | Price: $79. the results of over 1000 modeled release scenarios reveal that 49 % of singleevent releases do not cause impairment of groundwater above drinking water standards for chloride (250 mg/L) in a monitoring well that is adjacent to the edge of the release. summarizes.2-DCA was also used as a leaded gasoline additive. the physical trapping of pure EDB by soil samples was well studied because of its use as a soil fumigant. • use of near-foundation or near-surface soil gas sampling results. or accreditation program. toluene. where advection and diffusion occur through a soil layer and into an enclosed space.S. • use of site-specific homogeneous and layered soil diffusion coefficients in generic algorithms.2DCA are considered separately. Pages: 220 October 1998 | Product Number: I00225 | Price: $97. and xylene isomers (BTEX) as well as the oxygenates methyl tertiary-butyl ether and isopropyl  This publication is related to an API licensing. the impact of repeat releases. and/or groundwater? • In the event of such an impact. while Section IV contains the available information for 1. volume. concentrations are lower and the concern is for longer term health risks. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) Publ 4674 Assessing the Significance of Subsurface Contaminant Vapor Migration to Enclosed Spaces—Site-Specific Alternative to Generic Estimates Publ 4774 The Environmental Behavior of Ethylene Dibromide and 1. soil vapor extraction and in-situ air sparging. >96 %. Environmental Protection Agency. A synthetic gasoline blend of known mass. surface water. ethylbenzene. and Groundwater Vapors in enclosed spaces pose two levels of concern. The options considered in this document include the following: • direct measurement through sampling of enclosed-space vapors. ethylene dibromide (EDB) and 1. unintentional releases can occur. However. Based on mass balance data.2-DCA are structurally similar.00 Publ 4734 Modeling Study of Produced Water Release Scenarios Provides a scientific basis for operators. The two principal research objectives of this study are (1) the identification of produced water release scenarios that have a potential to cause groundwater quality impairment in homogeneous subsurface geologic profiles and (2) the prediction of chloride movement through the vadose zone for different release scenarios. Section II briefly describes the literature search process. In the second class of sites. This report focuses exclusively on this second class of sites. Depending on the chemical composition of the produced water and the nature of the local environment. and summary information from more detailed guidance manuals to help you address the following assessment and response issues: • Will a produced water release cause an unacceptable impact on soils. EDB was previously used as a soil fumigant and as a leaded gasoline additive while 1. a significant portion of the benzene. regulators. Assuming homogeneous unsaturated zone soil profiles. . and • assessment of bioattenuation potential. certification. Samples were collected and analyzed for gasoline range organics to establish the three-dimensional distribution of the release. Similar studies were not conducted for 1. transport processes are considered initially. and leaded gasoline additive are no longer permitted by the U. Although these numbers give no information about the fate of chloride from a specific produced water release. Ontario. were able to remove ~40 % of the spilled mass during the initial two months of operation. models. The sensitivity analysis performed in this study provides an overview of the likelihood of groundwater impairment for large release volumes (100 bbls and 10. plants. In such cases. and landowners to determine if assessment or remediation of produced water releases will provide a meaningful environmental benefit.api. While these particular names suggest that these two compounds have different structures. Ontario This study was conducted over a three-year period at a well-characterized test site located in Canada near Sarnia. and composition was released into a test cell. First.pdf REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGIES DR 225 Remediation of a Fractured Clay Till Using Air Flushing: Field Experiments at Sarnia. toluene. Soil. primarily low-volatility compounds remained in the soil and almost no benzene or toluene remained. Following active remediation. they do indicate that a release does not necessarily cause groundwater impairment. EDB is not typically found in recent air or surface water samples since its use as a soil fumigant.S.2-DCA as well. however. and the effect on groundwater quality of surface soil restoration by revegetation and soil leaching.2-DCA. and groundwater samples can be attributed mainly to its high production volume. While EDB and 1.00 Publ 4758 Strategies for Addressing Salt Impacts of Produced Water Releases to Plants. Conventional air flushing technologies. Pages: 142 December 2008 | Available for download at www.2-dichloroethane (1. Neither compound contains a double bond despite the common names of ethylene dibromide and ethylene dichloride. the reader is referred back to the relevant section of the report where the original data are reported. EDB and 1. Section III contains all available environmental information for EDB. Provides a collection of simple rules of thumb. and evaluates cost and treatment effectiveness data for air stripping and carbon adsorption systems designed to remove dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons from groundwater.2-DCA). it is likely to be important for 1.2-DCA. chloride concentrations in groundwater do not exceed 1000 mg/L.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. based on the mechanism reported for EDB and the structural similarity of the two compounds. These sites warrant immediate attention and response as required by most state and federal regulatory guidance. For example. enclosed-space vapors may be found at concentrations near those that pose immediate flammability and/or health risks.2-DCA is currently produced in large quantities as a commercial chemical (nearly 8. Reviews the available environmental fate literature for two compounds.2Dichloroethane in Surface Water. salts associated with such releases can impair soils. However. and Groundwater The exploration and production industry uses great care during the handling and disposal of the produced water that is generated as part of oil and gas production. it has been reported in groundwater and soil samples affected by historical uses. the environmental processes relevant for each compound are expected to be similar. decision charts.000 bbls).00 Publ 4525 A Compilation of Field-Collected Cost and Treatment Effectiveness Data for the Removal of Dissolved Gasoline Components from Groundwater Documents.2 billion kilograms in the mid-1990s) with most of this. used as a chemical intermediate. vegetation.2-DCA in air. Provides a review of environmental fate data for both compounds as well as monitoring data from sites where direct release occurred and from larger monitoring studies where concentrations cannot be attributed to a single release.

and the ultraviolet light/ hydrogen peroxide process—to evaluate their effectiveness in the treatment of petroleum marketing terminal wastewater contaminated with methyl tertbutyl ether (MTBE). Operating data were gathered from 57 field sites throughout the United States. or a zone within an aquifer of interest) and (2) the change in remediation timeframe. The LDRM provides information about light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) distribution in porous media and allows the user to estimate LNAPL recovery rates. This report provides theory and concepts needed to evaluate light  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. its performance judged from measurements of accuracy and precision. September 2002 | Software and documentation can be downloaded at www. Publ 4635 Compilation of Field Analytical Methods for Assessing Petroleum Product Releases Presents a compilation of the most widely used field analytical methods available to perform on-site analyses of organic compounds in soil and groundwater. Four example problem applications are presented which highlight model use. The data will be used to assist companies in planning pump-and-treat remediation systems for removal of BTEX and oxygenates from groundwater. the papers address four key areas: (1) processes affecting the migration and removal of LNAPLs. and (4) techniques of remediation. and limitations of scenario-based models. infrared analyzers. Pages: 194 August 1997 | Product Number: I46550 | Price: $123. and system operation. Topics covered include: site characterization.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. API-LNAST users can screen whether incremental LNAPL removal provides any risk-reduction benefit over a time frame of interest.00 Publ 4730 Groundwater Remediation Strategies Tool Provides strategies for focusing remediation efforts on (1) the change in contaminant mass flux in different subsurface transport compartments (e. Pages: 52 July 1998 | Product Number: I46710 | Price: $70. smear zone. volumes. toluene. (2) exposure potential posed by clay soil and hydrocarbons via soil. (3) models for predicting LNAPL removal. Design and operational data are analyzed for relationships that can be used to optimize the technology or provide a better understanding of its fundamental processes. dissolution.g. field gas chromatography. and practical qualification levels are estimated for each method. Pages: 298 September 1995 | Product Number: I46310 | Price: $87.api.ihs. links the multiphase and chemical processes controlling in-situ LNAPL distribution. Contaminated groundwater was the primary constituent of the wastewater. gasoline-range organics. mobility. Documentation for the LDRM is provided in two volumes. and petroleum hydrocarbons—used to analyze hydrocarbons in soils. and xylenes (BTEX). All three technologies were able to remove at least 95 % of the MTBE and BTEX in the feed waters. e. The full text of each method is included in the report. and cleanup to quantify estimates of the timedependent concentrations within the LNAPL source and the down gradient dissolved plume. system design and installation.00 Publ 4655 Field Evaluation of Biological and Non-Biological Treatment Technologies to Remove MTBE/Oxygenates from Petroleum Product Terminal Wastewaters A pilot/demonstration study was conducted on three treatment technologies—the fluidized bed biological reactor process. 30 years. the activated sludge process incorporated with iron flocculation.api. groundwater flow and contaminant concentration data are combined to estimate the rate of contaminant mass transfer past userselected transects across a contaminant plume. and air pathways. This technical bulletin provides a systematic approach for evaluating the utility of ORM treatment and for designing ORM installations.00 Publ 4760 LNAPL Distribution and Recovery Model (LDRM) Simulates the performance of proven hydraulic technologies for recovering freeproduct petroleum liquid releases to groundwater. Each method is validated.00 Publ 4715 Evaluating Hydrocarbon Removal from Source Zones and its Effect on Dissolved Plume Longevity and Concentration Provides valuable information and utilities for regulators and practitioners interested in understanding the possible benefits of free-product removal. In this approach. and performance. Volume 2—User and Parameter Selection Guide—provides step-by-step instructions for the LDRM software.g. Design and Operation Describes the important literature findings as well as the hands-on experiences of the petroleum industry at 59 air sparging sites.00 Publ 4631 Petroleum Contaminated Low Permeability Soil: Hydrocarbon Distribution Processes. immunoassay. the vadose zone. pilot testing. 135 . parameter estimation using the API LNAPL Parameters Database. ethylbenzene. Pages: 132 May 1995 | Product Number: I46090 | Price: $97. or accreditation program. January 2007 | Software and documentation can be downloaded at www. The method provides the user with a means to estimate the baseline mass flux and remediation timeframe for various transport compartments and then evaluate how different remedies reduce the mass flux and the remediation timeframe in each transport compartment. Pages: 71 December 2003 | Product Number: I473000 | Price: $127. Pages: 166 July 1994 | Product Number: I47990 | Price: $97. Volume 1—Distribution and Recovery of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Liquids in Porous Media—documents the LDRM and provides background information necessary to characterize the behavior of LNAPL in porous media with regard to performance of LNAPL liquid recovery technologies. chemistry. and treatment system profiles were generated for each site. API-LNAST. These methods include total organic vapor analyzers. It summarizes the current state of understanding of this technology to provide guidance for site managers evaluating options for enhanced groundwater remediation.org/lnapl Publ 4609 In-Situ Air Sparging: Evaluation of Petroleum Industry Sites and Considerations for Applicability. certification.00 Presents the results of an interlaboratory study of three methods—dieselrange organics. The companion software. groundwater. and the effects various remediation strategies may have on risk reduction for the groundwater and vapor exposure pathways.aspx SITE CHARACTERIZATION Publ 4671 Technical Bulletin on Oxygen Releasing Materials for In-Situ Groundwater Remediation Publ 4599 Interlaboratory Study of Three Methods for Analyzing Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils Oxygen releasing materials (ORMs) are commercially available materials that are being used to enhance bioremediation treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater aquifers.org/environment-health-and-safety/clean-water/ground-water/ lnapl/ldrm-form. and times. Pages: 240 November 1990 | Product Number: I45250 | Price: $79. Exposure Pathways and In-Situ Remediation Technologies Presents a set of 10 papers on light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) in low permeability soils. Collectively.com ether. and dissolved oxygen/  This publication is related to an API licensing. which also contained benzene.00 nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) source distribution. monitoring.

Pages: 100 February 2001 | Product Number: I47090 | Price: $83. This publication consists of two documents. Currently. These methodologies were also applied to polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The first document describes the technical basis for the graphical approach for determining sitespecific dilution attenuation factors. The mass of BTEX in the plume diminished significantly with time due to intrinsic biodegradation. Pages: 233 February 1998 | Product Number: I46590 | Price: $117. and Cl– was monitored in detail for about 16 months. A subsurface investigation may then be conducted to obtain information on sources and pathways. The publication also provides training suggestions for personnel who will perform the testing. the user’s guide. The migration of benzene. Methods to measure each parameter are presented in order of relevance for use in environmental free-product mobility/recovery assessments. condensate. pathways. Additional evidence is necessary to confirm this possibility. Laboratory-scale soil property parameters include: capillary  This publication is related to an API licensing. Presents a decision-tree approach for selecting and using field analytical methods for on-site analyses of organic compounds in soil. Pages: 88 August 1998 | Product Number: I46700| Price: $87. to develop a DAF. Important fluid and soil property parameters are explained. and considering potential biases introduced into data through the sampling and analytical techniques employed in the site investigation. as well as a detailed review of the tools and techniques used for subsurface assessment. Solutions of groundwater mixed with oxygenated gasoline were injected below the water table along with chloride (Cl–). since these approaches are especially well suited for use at MTBE-affected sites. and it is hypothesized that biodegradation played an important role in its attenuation. Fluid property parameters covered include density. Pages: 96 November 1997 | Product Number: I46580 | Price: $70. and receptors. and detailed. a comprehensive groundwater sampling program was undertaken to define the mass of MTBE still present in the aquifer. graphically-based approach for determining generic and site-specific DAFs was developed. Additional resources contained in this manual include a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of crude oil. provides a concise set of instructions for use of the graphical approach. and soil gas samples at petroleum release sites. and benzene in TPH. was not measurably attenuated.00 Publ 4711 Methods for Determining Inputs to Environmental Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mobility and Recovery Models This publication is an invaluable reference for operators. The expedited site assessment process and the use of modern direct-push tools are particularly emphasized. A simplistic. and a listing of key equations used for calculating RBSLs. Based on these risk factors. affected by a leak. Includes a review of the chemical properties and subsurface behavior of MTBE and other oxygenated fuel additives.00 Publ 4668 Delineation and Characterization of the Borden MTBE Plume: An Evaluation of Eight Years of Natural Attenuation Processes In 1988. or may be. The appropriate level of assessment is initially determined based on receptor data. toluene. MTBE. a summary of the federal regulatory status of E&P wastes. The second document. Pages: 86 November 1997 | Product Number: I46570 | Price: $61. and cost. level of effort.00 Publ 4658 Methods for Measuring Indicators of Intrinsic Bioremediation: Guidance Manual Intended to be a resource for practitioners of intrinsic bioremediation in allowing selection of sampling and analytical methods that meet projectspecific and site-specific needs in scoping field investigations. certification. This approach will assist project or site managers with guidance for on-site investigations from initial site assessment to site closure. The decision-tree charts are supported by quality control packages to increase the credibility of the data by documenting method performance. allowing for varying levels of site specificity. or other accidental release of hydrocarbons or other chemicals of concern. which can typically be obtained from a survey of nearby wells and land uses. Pages: 88 June 1998 | Product Number: I46680 | Price: $61. It also provides an overview of characterization monitoring issues at oxygenate release sites. Sampling and analytical methods were tested in the laboratory and in the field.00 136  This publication is a new entry in this catalog.00 Publ 4670 Selecting Field Analytical Methods—A Decision-Tree Approach Publ 4657 Effects of Sampling and Analytical Procedures on the Measurement of Geochemical Indicators of Intrinsic Bioremediation: Laboratory and Field Studies Evaluates the effects of various sampling and analytical methods of collecting groundwater geochemical data for intrinsic bioremediation studies. three levels of assessment are defined: standard. Pages: 120 February 2000 | www. and interfacial tension. a natural gradient tracer test was performed in the shallow sand aquifer at Canada Forces Base Borden to investigate the fate of a methyl tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) plume introduced into the aquifer.api.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. providing procedures that will improve the representative quality of the collected data.00 Publ 4699 Strategies for Characterizing Subsurface Releases of Gasoline Containing MTBE Applies the principles of risk-informed decision making to the evaluation of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)-affected sites by adding exposure and risk considerations to the traditional components of the corrective action process. The risk factors at a given site are evaluated through a “conceptual site model. groundwater. Environmental Protection Agency and research groups such as the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group are used to calculate RBSLs for TPH in crude oil and condensates obtained from around the world.S. Practical applications and limitations of each method are discussed and an objective-oriented data quality classification scheme is presented to assist in selecting an appropriate method. The methods vary in accuracy. or accreditation program. metals. and exploration and production (E&P) wastes (contrasted with refined products). In 1995–1996. ethylbenzene. limited.org/mtbe Publ 4709 Risk-Based Methodologies for Evaluating Petroleum Hydrocarbon Impacts at Oil and Natural Gas E&P Sites The process of calculating human health risk-based screening levels for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is described in an easy-to-understand question and answer format. Pages: 100 December 1996 | Product Number: I46350 | Price: $87. Easy to use checklists for field quality control and formal documentation are included. surface tension. Information is also presented on emerging technologies. Only about 3 % of the initial MTBE mass was found. . however. The level of assessment can be “upgraded” or “downgraded” as warranted by the resulting source and pathway information. MTBE.] Risk assessment concepts developed by the U. viscosity. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) oxidation-reduction potential electrodes.S. one must make complicated calculations by hand or use computer-based modeling software. and xylenes (BTEX). Several groundwater sampling and analytical methods may be appropriate for measuring geochemical indicators of intrinsic bioremediation. spill. [Risk-based screening levels (RBSLs) are chemical-specific concentrations in environmental media that are considered protective of human health. a conservative tracer. consultants and regulators responsible for cleanup of subsurface petroleum releases.00 Publ 4659 Graphical Approach for Determining Site-Specific DilutionAttenuation Factors (DAFs): Technical Background Document and User’s Guide The DAF plays a key role in assessing potential impact from the soil-togroundwater pathway at sites where groundwater quality is.” which is an inventory of all known or potential oxygenate sources.

as well as other physical parameters measured.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. Health and Safety (EHS) Management System and Guidance Document Comes with a binder complete with both Publ 9100A and Publ 9100B—see descriptions listed below. December 2003 | Product Number: I47310 | Price: $127. Field-scale bail-down and production tests are explained and cited. but where there are more direct and laboratory observations available. and • guidance on the presentation of natural attenuation data/information to facilitate regulatory and other stakeholder review and acceptance of MNA remedies. existing. Eleven major program elements are included for application to these facilities and operations. Several resources are provided to support an MNA evaluation. The translated versions shall neither replace nor supersede the English-language versions. focuses on people and procedures by pulling together company EHS policies.ihs.api. including API-LNAST Version 2. water and nonaqueous phase liquid saturation.0—Users Guide A collection of information about samples that have had their capillary parameters determined. and field sampling techniques.00 Publ 9100A Model Environmental. A listing and abstract of relevant ASTM methods are provided in the appendix.aspx Publ 4761 Technical Protocol for Evaluating the Natural Attenuation of MtBE Addresses data collection. Identification and management of safety and environmental hazards are addressed in design. It intends to serve as self-study source material that enhances efficiency of interchange among employees by use of *These translated versions are provided for the convenience of our customers and are not officially endorsed by API. start-up.00 You may access RP 75 in a read-only platform at publications. Health and Safety (EHS) Management System Intended to be used as a voluntary tool to assist companies interested in developing an EHS management system or enhancing an existing system. guidance for data quality assurance and interpretation. evaluation. saturation. August 2004 | Available for download at www. • technical references for relevant chemical properties.api. • a discussion of data that can be used to assess MtBE (and other oxygenates or degradation byproducts) natural attenuation. “Charbeneau” spreadsheets for LNAPL recovery (August 2003). and • an extensive reference list.00 Publ 9100 Model Environmental. or accreditation program.org RP 75 * Recommended Practice for Development of a Safety and Environmental Management Program for Offshore Operations and Facilities—Chinese Chinese translation of RP 75. relative permeability vs.00 • Publ 4731 Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) Parameters Database— Version 2.api.00 The database is available from API’s website: www. and assessing environmental. and examining methods to enhance site closure opportunities. servicing.api. chemical. Other databases of related parameters have typically been derived from measurements in the agricultural or the petroleum extraction industries. analytical methods. Please refer to the companion document Publ 9100B for additional information. 137 . saturation.org/environment-health-and-safety/clean-water/ ground-water/lnapl/api-interactive-lnapl-guide. which remain the official standards. and maintenance of new. and modified facilities Pages: 41 3rd Edition | May 2004 | Reaffirmed: April 2013 Product Number: G07503 | Price: $89.aspx Publ 4739 API Interactive LNAPL Guide—Version 2. The guide is designed to provide an overall approach for evaluating light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) at a site. A tiered approach is provided that can be used by stakeholders to interpret several lines of evidence to evaluate natural attenuation on a site-specific basis. assessing its potential risk. 3rd Edition | May 2004 | Product Number: G07503C | Price: $63.0. quantitatively defining mobility and recoverability. These guidelines are applicable to well drilling. • 14 assessment tools. Sample collection and handling procedures are summarized. and Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten model parameters. Capillary properties are critical in multiphase calculations. certification. which applies a quality systems approach to managing EHS activities.org/mtbe Environmental Stewardship Program Publications RP 75 Recommended Practice for Development of a Safety and Environmental Management Program for Offshore Operations and Facilities Provides guidance for use in preparing safety and environmental management programs for oil. and production and pipeline facilities and operations that have the potential for creating a safety or environmental hazard at OCS platform sites. The primary purpose of this database is to provide information to users who are trying to characterize the movement and distribution of LNAPL within a site that has a limited set of direct observations of the capillary properties of the site. neither being necessarily representative of near-surface environmental conditions. API shall not be responsible for any discrepancies or interpretations of these translations. including biodegradation and physicochemical attenuation mechanisms. the API LNAPL Parameter Database. Please check the English-language versions for any updates to the documents.org/environment-health-and-safety/clean-water/ground-water/ lnapl/lnapl-params-db. Pages: 72 July 2001 | Product Number: I47110 | Price: $112. Pages: 186 May 2007 | Available from API’s website: www. including the following: • a review of basic scientific principles relevant to the evaluation of MtBE natural attenuation. and business strategies into a set of company or facility expectations or requirements. health and safety management systems. • videos and animated figures. The model. and interpretation procedures that consider the physical. inspection. and biological properties of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and other oxygenates and degradation byproducts. • LNAPL decision-making frameworks. operation.  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. and those results have very high sensitivity to these properties. gas. and sulphur operations and facilities located on the outer continental shelf (OCS). implementing. This database give the user the opportunity to understand the range of capillary characteristics observed at sites that are geologically similar. Pages: 65 October 1998 | Product Number: R9100S | Price: $157. Publ 9100A and Publ 9100B are intended to be companion documents and can be purchased as a set or individually.0 A comprehensive and easy-to-use electronic information system and screening utility. The guide includes the following: • 11 primers covering all aspects of LNAPL from LNAPL basics to remediation. Pages: 20 October 1998 | Product Number: R9100A | Price: $76. Translations may not include any Addenda or Errata to the document.com pressure vs.00 Publ 9100B Guidance Document for Model EHS Management System Provides assistance to corporate and operating organization employees who are developing. legal requirements. including statistical analysis.  This publication is related to an API licensing. construction. developing remedial strategies.

or accreditation program. Project test results were used to rank the liners in terms of vapor permeation and relative changes in properties such as chemical resistance and liquid conductivity measured after immersion. Three leak detection technologies are examined—passive-acoustic. and operators of aboveground storage tanks understand and comply with API’s recommended practices. this report presents an overview of available equipment and procedures to prevent. Publ 9100A. tank owners. and relative costs.00 Publ 340 Liquid Release Prevention and Detection Measures for Aboveground Storage Facilities Written for managers. Six membrane and two clay liners were tested. Liner installations for secondary containment underneath tanks were excluded.00 Publ 328 Laboratory Evaluation of Candidate Liners for Secondary Containment of Petroleum Products Provides comparative data on the physical properties of liner materials as a function of their controlled exposure to fuels and/or additives. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) common terminology. Pages: 116 October 1997 | Product Number: J34000 | Price: $83. soil-vapor monitoring. API commissioned a review of environmental regulations as well as a survey of candidate liner materials and installation methods to explore the technology base. owners. Pages: 142 January 1995 | Product Number: J32800 | Price: $83.00 Storage Tank Research Describes the results of the fourth phase of a program to define and advance the state of the art of leak detection for aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). as well as maintenance and operating parameters of various control measures. Estimates are made of the number. capacity. The analytical and experimental results of this project suggest that passive-acoustic leak detection methods can be used to detect small leaks in aboveground storage tanks. A set of controlled experiments on a 117-ft 138  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. and specifications concerning leak prevention. Survey forms and statistical extrapolations methodology are included in the report. The features of a leak detection test needed for high performance are also explored. . and age of the tanks in each sector of the petroleum industry. Characteristics affecting the performance of each technology are discussed. This study also assesses the applicability of a general leak detection methodology involving multiple tests and product levels as well as determines the integrity of 14 ASTs using two or more test methods.00 Publ 306 An Engineering Assessment of Volumetric Methods of Leak Detection in Aboveground Storage Tanks Provides the results of a leak detection project in aboveground storage tanks that utilized volumetric methods to detect leaks. Pages: 86 January 1994 | Product Number: J32300 | Price: $74. acoustic. soilvapor monitoring. certification. regulators.  This publication is related to an API licensing.00 Two volumetric approaches to detecting leaks from aboveground storage tanks—precision temperature sensors and mass measurement approaches— are evaluated in this report. Pages: 80 January 1994 | Product Number: J32200 | Price: $74. The tutorial also shows how the API inspection and maintenance requirements influence the design of such tanks. Pages: 44 April 1989 | Product Number: J30100 | Price: $63. Pages: 43 October 1991 | Product Number: J30600 | Price: $74. Pages: 70 September 1994 | Product Number: J32700 | Price: $74. and Publ 9100B are intended to be companion documents and can be purchased as a set or individually. A series of field tests were conducted on a 114-ft diameter tank that contained a heavy naphtha petroleum product.00 Publ 334 A Guide to Leak Detection for Aboveground Storage Tanks Written for terminal managers. Pages: 94 May 1994 | Product Number: J32500 | Price: $90. operators. Also presented are the advantages. and inventory control—for aboveground storage tanks.S. It does not attempt to address additional rules and requirements imposed by individual jurisdictions or states. The study was limited to diked areas surrounding storage tanks. detect. and engineers.00 Publ 301 Aboveground Storage Tank Survey: 1989 Presents a survey of petroleum aboveground storage tanks.00 Publ 307 An Engineering Assessment of Acoustic Methods of Leak Detection in Aboveground Storage Tanks Provides the results of a leak detection project in aboveground storage tanks that utilized acoustic methods to detect leaks. The analytical and experimental results of this project suggest that volumetric leak detection methods can be used to detect small leaks in aboveground storage tanks.00 Publ 315 Assessment of Tankfield Dike Lining Materials and Methods To assess tankfield materials and methods of containment. standards. The report concludes that accurate and reliable leak detection of aboveground storage tanks can be achieved through the use of acoustic methods. petroleum fuels. this report provides useful background on leak detection technologies— volumetric. Pages: 50 July 1993 | Product Number: J31500 | Price: $74. describes how to evaluate effectiveness of an EHS management system and its elements. The features of a leak detection test needed for high performance are explored. or provide environmental protection from such releases. These API documents provide requirements designed to minimize environmental hazards associated with spills and leaks. and facilitates system continuity over time. facility operators. Pages: 38 September 1992 | Product Number: J33400 | Price: $74. Those using this guidance document should be familiar with Publ 9100A.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U.00 diameter refinery tank is used to examine the effects of differential pressure on conventional level and temperature measurement systems. clarifies relationships between operating and other systems. A series of field tests were conducted on a 114-ft diameter tank that contained a heavy naphtha petroleum product. and operational conditions. Pages: 76 January 1992 | Product Number: J30700 | Price: $74. disadvantages. Pages: 43 October 1998 | Product Number: R9100B | Price: $109. and engineers involved in the design and selection of facility components and prevention of liquid petroleum releases. and volumetric—over a wide range of tank types.00 Publ 322 An Engineering Evaluation of Acoustic Methods of Leak Detection in Aboveground Storage Tanks Describes a set of controlled experiments conducted on a 40-ft diameter refinery tank to determine the nature of acoustic leak signals and ambient noise under a range of test conditions.00 Publ 323 An Engineering Evaluation of Volumetric Methods of Leak Detection in Aboveground Storage Tanks Publ 325 An Evaluation of a Methodology for the Detection of Leaks in Aboveground Storage Tanks Publ 327 Aboveground Storage Tank Standards: A Tutorial Presents procedures and examples to help designers.

refineries. Constructed treatment wetlands hold considerable promise for managing some wastewaters generated by the petroleum industry. The survey data indicated that the effectiveness of liners in protecting the environment is limited because liner systems frequently fail. realtime toxicity tests with field water. Pages: 252 November 1998 | Product Number: J34600 | Price: $83. their use in treating a variety of industrial wastewaters is less well developed. Pages: 108 June 2002 | Product Number: I34200 | Price: $139. Several large-scale wetland projects currently exist at oil refineries. or accreditation program. the data do not directly demonstrate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of liner systems in containing releases.00 Publ 353 Managing Systems Integrity of Terminal and Tank Facilities Although the risk management principles and concepts in this document are universally applicable. agricultural wastewater. API conducted a survey designed to evaluate the effectiveness of diked-area liner systems and to document operational problems involved with their use. policies.00 Publ 4716 Buried Pressurized Piping Systems Leak Detection Guide Analyzes of the performance of different types of leak detection technologies that were applied to buried pressurized piping systems used in airport hydrant fueling and petroleum product terminals. DR 343 Automated Validation System for the Offshore Operations Committee Mud and Produced Water Discharge Model Describes the development of an automated validation system for the Offshore Operators Committee Mud and Produced Water Discharge Model (the “OOC Model”). The system automates the process of validating OOC Model predictive capabilities by comparing model predictions with the results of laboratory and field studies of plume behavior. • identify EPA sources for the models. risk assessment. and numerous pilot studies of constructed treatment wetlands have been conducted at terminals. These data can then be used in the future to link field effects to laboratory toxicity data. design. and combinations of methods may provide the most effective approach. Although the use of treatment wetlands is well established for wastewater categories such as municipal waste. and performance measures applicable to an overall integrity management program.00 In 1997. and refineries. • present state mixing zone regulations. This report summarizes current information about the use of treatment wetlands for managing petroleum industry wastewaters and also presents background information on the general performance. or regulatory agencies. in diameter and 250 ft to 2 miles in length were selected for field demonstration. Pages: 32 February 1998 | Product Number: J34100 | Price: $74. The automated validation system approach described here also serves as a template for routine documentation of discharge model performance that could be applied to other models used by industry. The applicable petroleum terminal and tank facilities covered in this document are associated with distribution. The appendices include two possible methodologies for conducting a risk assessment and a workbook that can be used to perform the risk assessment method outlined in Appendix A. The study was conducted by Argus Consulting and Ken Wilcox Associates on behalf of the Air Transport Association of America and API. transportation. November 2002 | CD-ROM Only Publ 4664 Mixing Zone Modeling and Dilution Analysis for Water-Quality-Based NPDES Permit Limits This report is designed to • provide an overview of the U. and operation of treatment wetlands based on experience with a variety of wastewater types.00  This publication is related to an API licensing. and acid mine drainage water.00 Publ 4672 The Use of Treatment Wetlands for Petroleum Industry Effluents Treatment wetlands are becoming widely used for cleansing some classes of wastewater effluents. it was concluded that measures that prevent aboveground storage tank releases are more effective in protecting the environment and are more cost-effective in the long run.com Publ 341 A Survey of Diked-Area Liner Use at Aboveground Storage Tank Facilities The goal of this study was to obtain field effects data using shipboard. stormwater. Four methods for testing underground pipes of 6 in. • discuss strategic issues for dischargers to consider when applying models. certification. chemical tracer testing. Because there were few releases. however. to 18 in.00 Surface Water Research DR 342 Toxicity Bioassays on Dispersed Oil in the North Sea: June 1996 Field Trials The purpose of the study described in this report was to gain more information on water column impacts by taking advantage of the ongoing efficacy and monitoring studies done by the Norwegian Clean Seas Association for Operating Companies (NOFO) in order to conduct field toxicity tests. consultants.00 Publ 346 Results of Range-Finding Testing of Leak Detection and Leak Location Technologies for Underground Pipelines This study reviewed the current leak detection and leak location methods for pressurized underground piping commonly found at airports. These technologies were constant-pressure volumetric testing. No single leak detection system was found to work in all situations. The data further showed that there are few releases from aboveground storage tanks that would be addressed by diked-area liners. risk ranking.  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. The system was developed to automate the laborious process of confirming that model code enhancements do not degrade the predictive abilities of the OOC Model. Pages: 176 April 1998 | Product Number: I46640 | Price: $97. and guidance. pressure-decay testing. This report is intended to provide an overview of the study methodology and results. Summaries of the data sets used for OOC Model validation were prepared in such a way that they could be used conveniently outside of the automated system to validate of any relevant discharge model. a computer program that predicts the initial fate of drilling fluids. Pages: 47 April 2002 | Product Number: I47160 | Price: $94. and produced water discharged into the marine environment.S.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. site-specific conditions may affect any method. Pages: 222 October 1998 | Product Number: I46720 | Price: $97. • review available mixing zone models. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) policies and technical guidance on the role of mixing zones in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting process. this publication is specifically targeted at integrity management of aboveground liquid petroleum storage facilities. and acoustic emission testing. and fuel terminals. • introduce important concepts related to the hydrodynamics of effluent dilution in receiving waters and the design of outfall diffusers. and refining facilities as described in Std 2610 and Publ 340. risk mitigation. This document covers the issues of overall risk management. and • describe the use of dye tracer studies as alternatives or supplements to mixing zone models. Pages: 316 1st Edition | October 2006 | Product Number: J35300 | Price: $146.ihs. 139 . gas and oil extraction and pumping stations. Two of relevant studies found in a literature search were incorporated into the suite of automated test cases for the OOC Model. drill cuttings.

and others who must address environmental compliance reporting and regulatory issues. and implementation of the mercury criterion in the development of total maximum daily loads and water quality-based effluent limits. Toxicity. and biological tissues. and reviewing laboratory reports. This report provides guidance on the measurement. certification. Method 1664. of cyanide compounds and related chemical species in petroleum industry wastewater effluents.S. Traditional monitoring methods relied on Freon-113r extraction of oil and grease. and regulatory standards for arsenic in the environment.00 Publ 4750 Cyanide Discharges in the Petroleum Industry: Sources and Analysis Because both industrial and municipal dischargers have been issued National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits with low (5–20 μg/L) effluent limits for cyanide. proposed methods for translating a fish tissue concentration for mercury into a concentration in water. and statistical calculations. Guidance and information are provided for setting data quality objectives. owing to the phase-out of Freon-113r these methods can no longer be used. water. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) Publ 4676 Arsenic: Chemistry. It is also useful for field personnel responsible for obtaining wastewater sample analyses to fulfill environmental regulatory requirements.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s hexane extraction method.00 Publ 4688 Temporary Treatment Options for Petroleum Distribution Terminal Wastewaters Provides guidance to terminal operators and engineers in evaluating mobile treatment systems for wastewater generated at petroleum distribution terminals. Pages: 196 October 1998 | Product Number: I46760 | Price: $97. and new methods 140  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. contractor selection. soils. Designed for environmental coordinators. Some of the variables that must be considered include the characteristics of the wastewater. and certain anthropogenic sources have caused localized adverse effects on ecological systems and human health. Pages: 138 November 1999 | Product Number: I46980 | Price: $122. planning analyses. as well as the presence and environmental fate. the toxicity of arsenic to aquatic and terrestrial species. Pages: 73 November 1999 | Product Number: I46880 | Price: $122. are provided. wastewater treatment options.00 Publ 4695 Understanding and Preparing Applications for Petroleum Facility NPDES Discharge Permits Assists member companies and others in preparing applications and negotiating with permit authorities for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for wastewater discharges. and contractor experience. Pages: 24 March 2002 | Product Number: I47170 | Price: $74. Performance information and the correlation of analytical results with the U. and how the predictive capability of the models is assessed. Of particular interest were policies for setting wastewater discharge permit limits at or below detection or quantification limits.00 Publ 4694 Laboratory Analysis of Petroleum Industry Wastewaters Assists in arranging for and understanding laboratory analysis of petroleum industry wastewaters. method-defined analytes.00 Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in rocks. Examples of case studies. plan.00 Publ 4751 Evaluation of Water Quality Translators for Mercury Discusses the technical issues and constraints associated with translation of a mercury fish tissue concentration into a water quality criterion. Examples and case histories are provided to help the user understand the permit application process. Pages: 42 November 2008 | Product Number: I47500 | Price: $94. the data required to apply the models to a specific surface water and impairment. and Wastewater Treatment Options must be sought. managers.00 Publ 4698 A Review of Technologies to Measure the Oil and Grease Content of Produced Water from Offshore Oil and Gas Production Operations Identifies and evaluates practical alternative methods for routine monitoring of oil and grease in produced waters. this monograph is intended to serve as a reference volume on the sources of arsenic in the environment. corporate staff. Although the main focus of this review was on state policies involving water quality issues. the chemistry and fate of arsenic compounds. and for using alternative approaches to determining detection or quantification limits.00 Publ 4721 Analytical Detection and Quantification Limits: Survey of State and Federal Approaches The purpose of this review was to determine the analytical detection and quantification limit policies of various state agencies.S. sediments. the permitting process. Environmental Protection Agency’s fish-tissuebased criterion for methylmercury. and implementation. The report focuses on available analytical methods for evaluating mercury in fish and water. or accreditation program. how models are selected for specific surface waters and impairments. Pages: 64 November 2006 | Product Number: I47360 | Price: $149. laboratory reports. This study evaluates two infrared detection methods and one fluorescence detection method for identifying and measuring oil and grease in produced waters. This document provides sufficient information to guide an operator/engineer through evaluation of mobile treatment systems. Pages: 129 June 2002 | Product Number: I47210 | Price: $139. included in the review were the policies of programs in other environmental areas as well as in federal regulations and statutes. in the use and implementation of the U.00 Publ 4736 Identification of Key Assumptions and Models for the Development of Total Maximum Daily Loads Provides the reader with an understanding of the use of models in the development and implementation of total maximum daily loading (TMDL) studies. The manual is intended to help permittees and permit applicants to understand the permit process from application to final permit and to provide tools and strategies for assuring that the permit is fair and properly implements the applicable regulations. . It is also present in fossil fuels. the key assumptions underlying the models. Pages: 37 1st Edition | December 2005 | Product Number: I47510 | Price: $70. for determining compliance with such limits. including problem definition. there has been considerable interest in the reliability of the available test methods at these low concentrations. method references. Based on extensive review of the literature. treatment technology selection. quality assurance/quality control practices. selecting a laboratory. Fate. Publ 4717 Predictors of Water-Soluble Organics (WSOs) in Produced Water—A Literature Review Reviews the scientific literature on the identity and physical/chemical characteristics of the WSOs in produced water in relation to characteristics of fossil fuels and their reservoirs. Pages: 175 December 1999 | Product Number: I46940 | Price: $122. Much of the information in this manual is based on practical experience with many NPDES permits and applications. biomedical effects. and data calculations are given throughout the manual. however.00  This publication is related to an API licensing.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. Arsenic in the environment has both anthropogenic and natural sources. detection and quantification limits. Checklists are provided to help users understand. Pages: 220 December 1999 | Product Number: I46950 | Price: $129. and review laboratory data. The report focuses on the types of models used for TMDLs.

or accreditation program.00 Publ 4701 Bioaccumulation: An Evaluation of Federal and State Regulatory Initiatives August 2000 | Product Number: I47010 | Price: $88. delisting. Pages: 41 November 2006 | Product Number: I47560 | Price: $76. Pages: 76 February 1995 | Product Number: I00402 | Price: $61.I.00 Publ 4656 Bioaccumulation: How Chemicals Move from the Water into Fish and Other Aquatic Organisms Provides an intermediate-level primer on the accumulation of chemicals by aquatic organisms with emphasis on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.00  This publication is related to an API licensing. Pages: 114 April 1999 | Product Number: I46660 | Price: $97. Background information on the candidate technologies. Selenastrum apricornutum Describes a study conducted to assess the effect of tert-amyl methyl ether on the growth of the freshwater alga. The second part of this manual will discuss permitting discharges to impaired waters during the interim period before TMDLs are developed. Biological observations and physical characteristics were recorded at test initiation and every 24 hours thereafter until test termination. It focuses on the effluent option and its application to National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)permitted discharges from oil refineries. calcium. and EC90 values (the concentration of test material that reduced cell densities by 10 %. Observations were recorded at test initiation and every 24 hours until the test was terminated.I. and sulfate. Publ 4610 Critical Review of Draft EPA Guidance on Assessment and Control of Bioconcentratable Contaminants in Surface Waters Reviews the U. verifying the impairment determination before the permit is issued. EC50. 30. chloride. This report presents the results of a review of toxicological and physiological data on inorganic ions that have been implicated in causing significant toxicity—bicarbonate. listing waters that are impaired but do not need a total maximum daily loading (TMDL) because they are expected to meet standards through other means.00 Addresses many water quality standards issues that facilities may encounter. 48. including timing (when the permit should be issued). nonnumeric effluent limitations. and 60 mg A. fish consumption advisories. voluntary reduction measures. Pages: 134 January 1995 | Product Number: I46100 | Price: $70. Pages: 54 May 1997 | Product Number: I46560 | Price: $87. 210. Recent investigations have indicated that deficiencies or excesses of “common” ions (inorganic ions that are nearly always present in most aquatic systems at nontoxic concentrations) can cause significant acute or chronic toxicity in WET tests. conclusions and recommendations of an API workshop held in October 1994 to identify technologies that could potentially be used for the treatment of produced water toxicity offshore. strontium. 24.I. Environmental Protection Agency’s proposed methods and underlying assumptions for assessing bioconcentratable contaminants in petroleum industry effluents. 250. information on produced water toxicity limitations. petroleum product marketing terminals. 410. use attainability analyses to revise designated uses. 50 %.00 Publ 4666 The Toxicity of Common Ions to Freshwater and Marine Organisms Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests have become a common tool in the evaluation of effluent for discharge acceptability. including existing uses. During the test. Nominal concentrations of TAME—690./L—were maintained in exposure vessels and mean exposure concentrations calculated. The review also includes a general evaluation of the suitability of the tissue residue option for evaluating oil industry effluents. Approaches for assessing the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals are examined and an evaluation of each method’s advantages and shortcomings is offered. and 120 mg A.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. watershed permitting. potassium. magnesium. 570. At 24hour intervals. Biological observations and physical characteristics were recorded at test initiation and at 3. nominal concentrations of TAME—950. 4. and calculating numeric effluent limitations. and a discussion of the engineering restrictions imposed by offshore platforms are included. and sediment criteria.com Publ 4756 Interim Permitting Manual—Navigating NPDES Permit Issues on Impaired Waters were maintained and mean exposure concentrations calculated. Selenastrum capricornutum. EC10. 340. respectively) were calculated based on cell density 72 and 96 hours after exposure. reasonable potential calculations. borate.00 EFFLUENTS: EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION DR 351 Proceedings: Workshop to Identify Promising Technologies for the Treatment of Produced Water Toxicity Presents the discussions./L—  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. Key factors governing bioaccumulation are described to enhance understanding of this complex phenomenon. Pages: 80 February 1995 | Product Number: I00408 | Price: $62.ihs. and 48 hours. and challenging an erroneous listing determination. 7. 15. fluoride. characteristics. other controls available to bring the water into attainment. including listings due to violations of narrative criteria and fish consumption advisories. 141 . and 89 mg A. 150. and 90 %. The manual will provide guidance on a number of listing issues. whole effluent toxicity criteria. results of toxicity identification evaluations. and 72 hours of exposure.6. cell counts and observations of the health of the cells were recorded.00 TR 407 TAME—Acute Toxicity to Mysid Shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) Under Static Renewal Conditions Describes the measurement of acute toxicity of tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) to mysid shrimp under static renewal conditions. Pages: 84 February 1995 | Product Number: I00407 | Price: $61. Nominal concentrations of TAME—1.00 BIOMONITORING TR 402 Toxicity to Freshwater Alga.3. Pages: 122 June 1996 | Product Number: I00351 | Price: $73.00 TR 406 TAME—Acute Toxicity to Daphnids Under Flow-Through Conditions Describes the measurement of acute toxicity of tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) to daphnids under flow-through conditions.00 TR 408 TAME—Acute Toxicity to Rainbow Trout Under Flow-Through Conditions Describes the measurement of acute toxicity of tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) to rainbow trout under flow-through conditions. S. bromide. The manual will describe the development of water quality-based effluent limitations on impaired waters and will also discuss a number of issues for affected facilities to consider during the permitting process. Pages: 76 February 1995 | Product Number: I00406 | Price: $61.0. certification. 6./L—were maintained by renewing solutions at 24. and composition. and oil/gas production platforms.

The samples were normalized to a fixed chemical oxygen demand. It was determined that PPMT wastewater discharges pose little environmental risk. Extraction and elution conditions were modified to increase chronic toxicity recovery and also reduce the complexity of the nonpolar organic effluent fraction containing toxicity. U. distribution. The toxicity of barium to marine and freshwater organisms and humans is discussed in relation to the concentrations and forms in which it occurs in aquatic environments. for minimizing wastewater flow contamination.00 Publ 4665 Analysis and Reduction of Toxicity in Biologically Treated Petroleum Product Terminal Tank Bottoms Water Objectives of this study were to measure toxicity in biologically treated petroleum product terminal tank bottoms waters. Handling. . therefore. rationale.00 Publ 4690 A Guide for the Use of Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) as Samplers of Waterborne Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants Publ 4702 Technologies to Reduce Oil and Grease Content of Well Treatment.00 Publ 4700 Primer for Evaluating Ecological Risk at Petroleum Release Sites Summarizes the results of a three-part study to evaluate the ability of U.00 EFFLUENTS: REFINING DR 148 Identification of Organic Toxicants in Treated Refinery Effluents Effluents from five oil refineries were examined for the presence of chronic toxicity caused by nonpolar. Treated samples were tested for acute toxicity in 24-hour exposure tests using Mysidopsis bahia and for chronic toxicity in 7-day static renewal toxicity tests also using Mysidopsis bahia. and 1663—for monitoring diesel oil in drilling muds. chemical analysis and quality control. Factors affecting the results of the TIEs were identified as well as potential toxicants. supplier/source. The focus is on “downstream” operations related to transportation. technical considerations. Suggestions for improving TIE procedures are included. Finally. Pages: 102 June 1996 | Product Number: I46410 | Price: $88. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) Publ 4611 Interlaboratory Study of EPA Methods 1662.S. Mineral and Crude Oils in Drilling Muds from Offshore and Gas Industry Discharges geographical locations. or accreditation program. examples of use. vapor phase sampling) and relevant research results is beyond the scope of this work. Pages: 68 September 1995 | Product Number: I46330 | Price: $59. The refinery effluent containing the most nonpolar toxicity was selected for more detailed analyses and identification of the nonpolar toxicants using Phase II procedures. Biological treatment was observed to effectively remove metals but produced highly variable degrees of chemical oxygen demand. stricter regulations for PPMT dischargers are unwarranted. identify the chemical constituents causing that toxicity. a detailed description of the sources of terminal wastewater and associated contaminants as well as guidance on means for analyzing the wastewater situation at a terminal. Pages: 172 March 2002 | Product Number: I46900| Price: $132.g. well completion.00 EFFLUENTS: MARKETING Publ 4602 Minimization. Results showed that simple modifications of EPA guidance for C18 solid phase extraction procedures. comparability to biomonitors. the constituents normally present in these waste streams were identified.00 Describes an interlaboratory round-robin study to validate the tiered approach of the U. and their possible aquatic impacts were investigated. However. and guidance is given about the preliminary investigation to assess the possible nature and extent of risk. applications. certification.S. bioassay screening. 1654A and 1663 for the Determination of Diesel. The ecological risk assessment process is briefly described. and sources of addition information.00 Technologies to reduce oil and grease content of well treatment. or marketing of petroleum products. This information is an initial part of a tiered decision-making process used to determine the depth and breadth of the site investigation. but the general principles may be adapted to other parts of the industry as well. It discusses the factors that influence the rate of precipitation of barium as barite. identify treatment options. and theoretical issues related to the use of SPMDs for monitoring priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.S. and workover fluids for overboard disposal. biochemical oxygen demand. Pages: 54 March 2001 | Product Number: I47020 | Price: $122. theory and modeling. Pages: 120 September 1994 | Product Number: I46020 | Price: $130. Designed to help site and facility managers acting as site investigators decide how and to what extent to address ecological risks that may result from a release of petroleum products. Pages: 106 April 1995 | Product Number: I46110 | Price: $73.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for Phase I toxicity characterization procedures were used. Environmental Protection Agency proposed toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) to determine the potential toxicants in produced water from oil and gas production operations in various locations. and Workover Fluids for Overboard Disposal Provides basic information and guidance on SPMD technology and its appropriate use in aquatic systems. use of this guide does not obviate the need for proper review and oversight procedures prior to the initiation of a project with SPMDs. This document includes key information on SPMD background. It includes the regulatory framework for wastewater issues. and total organic carbon. Pages: 52 April 1999 | Product Number: I46730 | Price: $97. and measure the effectiveness of the treatment techniques in removing the constituents and reducing toxicity. then subjected to biological treatment.00 Publ 4641 Summary of Produced Water Toxicity Identification Evaluation Research Publ 4673 Impacts of Petroleum Product Marketing Terminals on the Aquatic Environment Examines the potential impact of petroleum product marketing terminal (PPMT) wastewater discharges to aquatic environments to ascertain if there is a need for more stringent regulations. Wastewater discharges by PPMTs were evaluated. Nine gasoline and two diesel tank bottoms water samples were collected from petroleum product terminals at various 142  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. Treatment and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters Intended to be a basic guide and information resource for all wastewater operations at petroleum product terminals. Environmental Protection Agency’s three methods— 1662.00 Publ 4633 Barium in Produced Water: Fate and Effects in the Marine Environment Provides a summary of what is currently known about the physical and chemical behavior of barium in produced water and in the ocean. and for wastewater handling and disposal. Emphasis is given to methods. organic compounds. combined with proper toxicity testing  This publication is related to an API licensing. Pages: 52 May 2001 | Product Number: I47000 | Price: $103.S. Well Completion. Pages: 84 April 1998 | Product Number: I46650 | Price: $79. but other classes of hydrophobic organic contaminants are covered as well. Various extraction methods were evaluated and analytical measurement techniques were tested for measuring diesel oil. covering all potential environmental applications (e. 1654A.

5th Edition | April 2011 | Product Number: GD1605 Price: $258. effectiveness.com conditions. and evaluate options for dealing with those residues in the field. refineries. Industry trend toward increased recycling of residuals has continued. Prior to the 1997 survey. production. Pages: 146 February 1995 | Product Number: I45580 | Price: $87. 1946–1993 OIL SPILLS The growing concern for petroleum contamination in freshwater ecosystems led API to generate an annotated bibliography to serve as a valuable resource of existing literature on petroleum and its impact on the freshwater environment. successfully tracked and isolated toxicity in an effluent fraction. instruction. leading to the potential for damage to the aquatic bottom zone. highlights. It summarizes environmental effects from inland oil spills into fresh surface waters.00 Publ 352 Management of Residual Materials: 1997 Petroleum Refining Performance Publ 4640 Petroleum in the Freshwater Environment: An Annotated Bibliography. Pages: 64 December 1997 | Product Number: I00148 | Price: $61.00  This publication is related to an API licensing.00 (VIP editable) Product Number: I46401 | Price: $75. including public health. and decision making. Spill topics of concern in freshwater settings are discussed. There were two tasks: develop protocols for identifying ISB residues likely to sink. It cites literature from 1946 through 1993 on the impact of petroleum products and oil spill cleanup agents on the biota of freshwater ecosystems. or workover) in accordance with the regulation and guidance. Pages: 108 September 1999 | Product Number: J35200 | Price: $122. Pages: 62 February 2002 | Product Number: IDR1450 | Price: $94. Included in the report are detailed assessments of generated quantities and management practices for 14 residual streams representing approximately 80 % of all residuals managed at U. 143 . Publ 4675 Fate and Environmental Effects of Oil Spills in Freshwater Environments Provides basic information necessary for the formulation of spill response strategies that are tailored to the specific chemical. methods. conditions under which oil might sink in  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. and ecological constraints of a given spill situation. rather than from crude oil constituents. and Countermeasure (SPCC) regulation in light of the latest rule (40 CFR Part 112) and to offer guidance for developing SPCC plans wherever they are needed. and two brominated organics believed to be reaction products of cooling tower water treatment chemicals. oil weathering. This report presents a summary of the case histories and lessons learned from previous uses of burning in inland environments. Findings also indicated that sources of refinery effluent toxicants were a phenol associated with a jet fuel additive. e. Both versions are completely searchable. The electronic companion infobase has been prepared in two versions to enhance the value of the annotations: (1) the VIP editable version of the infobase allows the user to add new references.00 Addresses many of the issues related to potential uses of chemical countermeasure products in mitigating the environmental impacts of spilled oil. and disposal costs as well as reducing the time required for cleanup. This study was commissioned by API to identify those environmental conditions under which burning should be considered as a response option for oil spilled in inland and upland habitats. bookmarks. the focus of this report is on the environmental fate and effects of in-situ burning.00 | Template Only: Price: $95.00 freshwater. and pop-ups). Inc. The development of this bulletin was commissioned by API and performed by Response Management Associates. thus preventing pollution of navigable waters of the United States. and clarification for completing each section of the template.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global.00 Publ 4684 Compilation and Review of Data on the Environmental Effects of In-Situ Burning of Inland and Upland Oil Spills Burning of spilled oil provides a relatively easy. each word in the bibliography is indexed. with and without oil. This research identifies. and for others dealing with protection of the environment from possible oil spill hazards. onshore oil production. Pages: 198 March 1999 | Product Number: I46840 | Price: $117.ihs. oil behavior in ice conditions. Control. or accreditation program.g. The purpose of this rulemaking was to establish procedures. the management techniques had included recycling to the cat cracker. notes.00 Bull D16 Suggested Procedure for Development of a Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan Publ 4649 The Use of Chemical Countermeasures Product Data for Oil Spill Planning and Response. and firefighting foam use.00 Publ 4558 Options for Minimizing Environmental Impacts of Freshwater Spill Responses Developed for contingency planners and field responders. Pages: 160 December 1999 | Product Number: I46750 | Price: $142. which referred to routing a residual to a catalytic cracking unit. make personal annotations (e. It provides technical information for persons responsible for inland spill response and cleanup. Further study revealed that the quantity for residuals actually recycled to a cracking unit was very small—perhaps nonexistent— and was therefore deleted from the 1997 survey. the Plan Template.e. for researchers. and ecological implications of crude oil and petroleum products in inland waters. oil drilling. onshore excluding production. or offshore oil drilling. and compares the behavior. certification. physical. and a CD-ROM with the Microsoft® Word version of the Plan Template. Volume II contains 13 background papers for workshop participants on various scientific and operational topics. Pages: 380 April 1995 | Product Number: I46490 | Price: $57. and delete unwanted references. or workover.00 This report is the ninth in a series of reports presenting the results of the API Annual Refining Residual Survey. permafrost. and equipment to prevent and contain discharges of oil from non-transportation-related onshore and offshore facilities. aquatic toxicity. describes. Pages: 224 March 1997 (noneditable) Product Number: I46400 | Price: $60. While some information on human health and safety is included.g. low-cost cleanup method by reducing removal. and decision making. fate. Volume I summarizes workshop deliberations and presents consensus recommendations from the sessions on environmental effects. and on the review of cleanup methods in freshwater systems. Volumes I and II Assists the petroleum industry in understanding the Spill Prevention. on the chemistry and fate of petroleum and cleanup agents in freshwater.S. and (2) the standard noneditable version is read-only. The purchase of D16 includes Bull D16.00 DR 145 Identification of Oils that Produce Non-Buoyant In-Situ Burning Residues and Methods for Their Recovery There is an environmental concern about the possibility of sinking residues from in-situ burns (ISBs). Included is a template for developing SPCC plans (i. this guide provides information on 29 response methods and classifies their relative environmental impact for combinations of 4 oil types and 12 freshwater environments and habitats. Data for prior years were adjusted. The objective of the study presented in this publication was to start the process of establishing operational tools and procedures for dealing with such nonbuoyant burn residues. transportation.

effectiveness. All available data on each site were collected from those involved in the burns and the post-burn monitoring. Also provided is information on how to interpret dispersant information more effectively and how dispersants alter or affect the weathering processes of oil. Publ 4735 In-Situ Burning: The Fate of Burned Oil The in-situ burn (ISB) is an oil spill response option that has been used far less frequently than mechanical countermeasures (booms. State and local monitoring data provided additional information. how it acts in the environment. but the intentional practice of this response tool remains relatively limited for both on-water and on-land situations. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) Publ 4689 Chemical Human Health Hazards Associated with Oil Spill Response Publ 4724 Recovery of Four Oiled Wetlands Subjected to In-Situ Burning Contains an overview of human health hazards that could be encountered by personnel involved with spills or leaks of petroleum products. the report is being published in digital format on CD-ROM. effectiveness. yet clear summary of the operational requirements and limitations for ISB and allows decision-makers to better understand the function of in-situ burning and the tradeoffs facing decision-makers in smithies technology when responding to an oil spill on land or on water. Pages: 76 April 2005 | Available for download at www. creating time-series photography as a visual record of the use of in-situ burning and vegetative recovery.00 144  This publication is a new entry in this catalog.org/environment-healthand-safety/clean-water/oil-spill-prevention-and-response/spills-andreleases. With this publication you will receive a complete yet concise review of oil chemistry and oil weathering. and classify their relative environmental impacts for combinations of 5 different oil types and 25 marine habitats. burned in July 2000. Pages: 54 April 2004 | Product Number: I46350 | Price: Free* Publ 4740 In-Situ Burning—A Decision-Maker’s Guide to In-Situ Burning This scenario is fictitious. Pages: 30 March 1999 | Product Number: I46910 | Price: Free* Publ 4692 A Decision-Maker’s Guide to Dispersants: A Review of the Theory and Operational Requirements This is the second of three short summary publications commissioned for preparation by the API for oil spill response decision-makers to provide concise easy-to-use information on understanding the fate of spilled oil and dispersants. The site was photographed from the same position and perspective as photographs taken during and shortly after the spill and burn.). etc. and effects. Decision-makers need a comprehensive understanding of the oil. Site visits were conducted in July (Minnesota and Utah) and October (two sites in Louisiana). or any other oil spill response countermeasure. and consequently. burned in February 2000.S. the U. It is not a set of instructions for carrying out a specific ISB. This booklet is the second in a series that were developed as reference documents for oil spill response decision-makers.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. and aspects of the burn process in order to understand the behavior of any ISB by-products and the potential impacts from an in-situ burn. burned twice. It provides the reader with a comprehensive. highly variable mixture of hydrocarbons and other trace compounds. In-situ burning (ISB) is a response option that has been used less frequently than countermeasures like booms and skimmers or contaminated soil removal. familiarity with ISB operations is limited. Coast Guard and the U. Environmental Protection Agency developed the Marine Manual for oil spill contingency planners and field responders. A reference that every oil spill response decision-maker must have! Pages: 52 March 1999 | Product Number: I46920 | Price: Free* Publ 4693 Effects of Oil and Chemically Dispersed Oil in the Environment Crude oil is a complex. which would make traditional printing of hardcopy reports very expensive. It focuses on chemical dispersant technology and the information needs of decision-makers regarding the use of chemical dispersants and their potential benefits and risks. including a diversity of oil types burned and habitats.S. In combination with quantitative field measurements. it is important to have a clear understanding of the overall fate of the oil entering the environment. familiarity with the pros and cons of this option is limited. the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.aspx  This publication is related to an API licensing. Because this report includes a large number of color photographs for the sites. Minnesota. and surfactants used to reduce oil viscosity and help the oil break up and disperse into the water column. certification. Environmental factors that may affect exposure and a brief summary of other exposure considerations are also included. and exposure may cause a variety of adverse effects. The information allows both planners and responders to identify techniques that minimize the ecological impact of both the response action and the spilled oil. This publication provides a summary of dispersant technology. This booklet is intended to help bridge the gap in understanding information about exposure and effects of untreated oil and chemically dispersed oil in the marine environment. When making decisions regarding dispersant use. June 2003 | Product Number: I47240 | Price: $85. This document was designed to capture that knowledge and present it clearly and concisely so you will have the necessary information to understand issues associated with fate and effects of oil to which ISB has been applied. in March and April 2000. Lakehead Pipe Line spill in Ruffy Brook. The discussion includes potential risks of basic components and products of concern. Pages: 50 May 2001 | Product Number: I46930 | Price: Free* Publ 4706 Environmental Considerations for Marine Oil Spill Response API is offering a new revision of Environmental Considerations for Marine Oil Spill Response. were selected for follow-up review and evaluation of the effects of in-situ burning (ISB): Mosquito Bay spill in Louisiana. Pages: 51 August 2001 | Product Number: I14689 | Price: $83. solvents. burned in April 2001.00 Publ 4691 Fate of Spilled Oil in Marine Waters: Where Does It Go? What Does It Do? How Do Dispersants Affect It? This is the first of three short summary publications commissioned for preparation by API for oil spill response decision-makers to provide concise easy-to-use information on understanding the fate of spilled oil and dispersants. . or accreditation program. their use. Dispersants are mixtures of chemicals.S. and effects. and Chevron Pipe Line Milepost 68 near Corinne. Pages: 322 July 2001 | Product Number: I47060 | Price: $76.” API. generally known as the “Marine Manual. skimmers. concise.00 Four sites. their use. Louisiana Point pipeline spill. photography provides an excellent understanding of the specific site conditions and how the results might apply to other sites. Matrix tables allow comparison of 28 different methods for response. Utah. There are ISB “experts” in the United States and internationally.api. Consequently. but the circumstances are possible.

3 ROPME Sea Oil Spill Nearshore Geochemical Processes Study (Vol. Vol.1 Interlaboratory Calibration Testing of Dispersant Effectiveness: Phase 1 TR 93-003.1 ROPME Sea Oil Spill Nearshore Geochemical Processes Study (Vol. 3) (Remote Sensing Derived Habitat Classification and Error Evaluation for Year One) TR 93-003. Waters TR 94-001 In-Situ Burning of Water-in-Oil Emulsions TR 94-003 Waterbird Deterrent Techniques TR 94-004 A Review of the Methods and Ecological Consequences of Substrate Aeration for the Enhancement of Oil Bioremediation in Wetlands TR 94-005 Coastal Oil Spill Simulation System Prototype Testing Program TR 94-006 MSRC Workshop Report: Research on Waterbird Deterrents at Marine Oil Spills TR 94-007 Phase 1: Oil Containment Boom at Sea Performance Test TR 94-008 Rheological Correlation Studies on Water-in-Oil Emulsions TR 94-010 Dispersed Oil and Dispersant Fate and Effects Research. California Program Results for 1993–94 TR 94-011 Toxicity Bioassays on Dispersed Oil in the North Sea: August 1994 Field Trials Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC) Research & Development Technical Reports are available from the Linda Hall Library. 1 TR 93-012 MSRC Workshop Report: Research on Worker Health & Safety TR 93-013 MSRC Workshop Report: Research on Bioremediation of Marine Oil Spills  This publication is a new entry in this catalog.lindahall.S.ihs. 1) TR 93-002. TR 91-001 Priority Topics for Research and Development in Oil Spill Response TR 92-001 An Analysis of Historical Oil Spills and Current Cleanup Requirements to Aid in Selecting New Technologies for Spill Cleanup Operations TR 92-002 Airborne Surveillance Technology Options for Improving Oil Spill Cleanup and Response TR 92-003 Tenyo Maru Oil Spill (Remote Sensing Data Analysis) TR 92-004 Oil Spill Detection Using Satellite-Based SAR TR 92-006 Incorporation of State of the Art Technologies to Oil Spill Modeling TR 93-001 Evaluation of Marine Post-Spill Sites for Long-Term Recovery Studies TR 93-002.2 ROPME Sea Oil Spill Nearshore Geochemical Processes Study (Vol. certification. To order.2 Interlaboratory Calibration Testing of Dispersant Effectiveness: Phase 2 TR 93-004 Oil Spill Detection: Documentation of Historical Remote Sensing Projects and Status TR 93-006 MSRC Oil Spill Response Vessel Recovered Oil Systems Tests TR 93-007 Occupational Health Implications of Crude Oil Exposure: Literature Review and Research Needs TR 93-009. fax: 816-926-8785.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. website: www.  This publication is related to an API licensing. 145 .com OIL SPILLS: MSRC REPORTS TR 93-014 MSRC Workshop Report: Research on the Ecological Effects of Dispersants and Dispersed Oil TR 93-018 Formation and Breaking of Water-in-Oil Emulsions: Workshop Proceedings TR 93-019 Mesocosm Test Facility Strawman Design TR 93-023 Seminar on Software for Oil Spill Response and Contingency Planning TR 93-024 Summary Report MSRC/IKU Flume Design Workshop TR 93-026 Demulsification by Use of Heat and Emulsion Breaker TR 93-027 Transfer of Crude Oil Weathering Technology TR 93-028 Evaluation of a Toxicity Test Method Used for Dispersant Screening in California TR 93-029 Technical Evaluation of the Coastal Oil Spill Simulation System Prototype TR 93-030 Determination of Oil and Emulsions Viscosity and Interfacial Tension TR 93-031 Recovered Oil and Oily Debris Handling to Facilitate Disposal TR 93-032 Weathering Properties and Chemical Dispersibility of Crude Oils Transported in U. or accreditation program.1 Aerial Dispersant Application: Assessment of Sampling Methods and Operational Altitudes. contact Document Services at 800-662-1545 or 816-363-4600.org. 2) (Hydrocarbon Chemistry Analytical Results for Year One) TR 93-002.

Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. certification. the U. can be loaded onto IBM or IBM-compatible  This publication is related to an API licensing. or 5. and the International Maritime Organization. control. Coast Guard. They address oil-spill prevention.S. . Phase 2 TR 94-013 The Science.00 Publ 4479 1989 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings Product Number: I44790 | Price: $57. the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association. Berman No.25 in. Environmental Protection Agency.S. and cleanup. 6 Cargo Oil TR 95-025 Oil Weathering Study of Arabian Light Crude Oil TR 95-026 Oil Weathering Study of Maya Crude Oil TR 95-027 Weathering Characterization of Heavy Fuels TR 95-029 Dispersant Effectiveness: Phase 3 TR 95-030 Standard Method for Viscosity Measurement of Water-in-Oil Emulsions TR 95-031 Toxicity Assessment of Oiled and Treated Sediments from and Experimental Bioremediation Site in Delaware Bay.2 Test Cleaning Effectiveness and Toxicity of Shoreline Cleaning Agents (SCAs): Data Report TR 95-021 New Brunswick Bird Deterrent Study TR 95-022 Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical Issues Related to Mesocsm Research in the Coastal Oil Spill Simulation System Facility TR 95-024 Oil Weathering Study of the Morris J.S. Technology and Effects of Controlled Burning of Oil Spills at Sea TR 94-015 Comparison of Physically and Chemically Dispersed Crude Oil Toxicity Under Continuous and Spiked Exposure Scenarios TR 94-018 Potential Use of the Microtox Assay as an Indicator of the Toxicity of Dispersed Oil TR 94-019 Aerial Dispersant Application: Field Testing Research Program (Alpine. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) TR 94-012 Demulsification by Use of Heat and Emulsion Breakers. More than 700 pages of proceedings. computer diskette. including hundreds of illustrations. Publ 4452 1987 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings Product Number: I44520 | Price: $57.5-in. BIENNIAL OIL SPILL CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS These conferences are sponsored by API.00 Publ 4575 Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Spill Conference Infobase The Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Spill Conference are available on 3. USA TR 95-033 Large Scale Testing of the Effect of Demulsifier Addition to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency TR 95-034 Evaluation of Oil Spill Cleanup Techniques in Coastal Environments TR 95-038 Key Factors that Control the Efficiency of Oil Spill Mechanical Recovery Methods 146  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. or accreditation program. behavior. the U. effects.1 Development of Protocols for Testing Cleaning Effectiveness and Toxicity of Shoreline Cleaning Agents (SCAs) in the Field TR 95-020. Texas) TR 95-001 Phase 2: At Sea Towing Tests of Fire Resistant Oil Containment Booms TR 95-002 Isolation and Identification of Compounds and Mixtures Which Promote and Stabilize Water-in-Oil Emulsions TR 95-003 Phase 3: Oil Containment Boom at Sea Performance Tests TR 95-004 Utility of Current Shoreline Cleaning Agent Tests in Field Testing TR 95-005 An Analysis of Historical Opportunities for Dispersant and In-Situ Burning Use in the Coastal Waters of the United States Except Alaska TR 95-007 Field Evaluation of Bioremediation in Fine Sediments TR 95-010 Laboratory Studies of the Properties of In-Situ Burn Residues TR 95-011 Formulation of New Fireproof Boom Designs TR 95-012 Dispersed Oil and Dispersant Fate and Effects Research: California Program Results for 1994−1995 TR 95-014 The Effects of Oil and Chemically Dispersed Oil in Tropical Ecosystems: 10 Years of Monitoring Experimental Sites TR 95-015 Reduction in the Toxicity of Crude Oil During Weathering on the Shore TR 95-017 Mesoscale In-Situ Burn Aeration Test TR 95-018 Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum TR 95-019 A Mental Models Approach to Preparing Summary Reports on Ecological Issues Related to Dispersant Use TR 95-020.00 Publ 4529 1991 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings Product Number: I45290 | Price: $57.

00 those environmental conditions under which burning should be considered as a response option for oil spilled in inland and upland habitats. This study was commissioned by API to identify  This publication is a new entry in this catalog.00  This publication is related to an API licensing. describes. Pages: 196 April 1997 | Product Number: I46520 | Price: $59. See also Publ 4608. It summarizes environmental effects from inland oil spills into fresh surface waters. During the 1997 conference.00 SEDIMENTS Publ 4607 User’s Guide and Technical Resource Document: Evaluation of Sediment Toxicity Tests for Biomonitoring Programs Serves as a comprehensive guide for the selection of sediment toxicity tests.00 Publ 4621 1995 Oil Spill Conference White Papers Three white papers—(1) “Implementing an Effective Response Management System. Pages: 160 December 1999 | Product Number: I46750 | Price: $142. fate. are listed in the reference manual that gives complete instructions for operating the infobase.00 Publ 4718 2005 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings CD-ROM Product Number: I47180A | Price: $308. and ecological constraints of a given spill situation. During the 1995 conference. the focus of this report is on the environmental fate and effects of in-situ burning. and biological endpoints. While some information on human health and safety is included.00 Hard Copy Product Number: I4701B | Price: $308. and ecological implications of crude oil and petroleum products in inland waters. The minimum requirements of 512 KB RAM. Site-specific concerns are identified to aid in test selection.00 Publ 4580 1993 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings Product Number: I45800 | Price: $59. and too few realities are understood. Pages: 198 March 1999 | Product Number: I46840 | Price: $117. These papers were prepared for the 1999 Oil Spill Conference to address issues of varying scientific and sociopolitical importance to the oil spill community. hard disk drive.00 Publ 4687 1999 International Oil Spill Conference Issue Papers Publ 46201 1995 Abstracts to Oil Spill Conference Proceedings Product Number: I46201 | Price: $59.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. each white paper was the topic of a special panel session. physical.00 Publ 4686 1999 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings Publ 4620 1995 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings 1999 | CD-ROM Product Number: I4686A | Price: $59. VGA monitor. This publication additionally includes a user’s guide for readers unfamiliar with sediment toxicity testing.00 Product Number: I46200 | Price: $59.” and (3) “Perspectives on Establishing and Maintaining Oil Pollution Capabilities”—were prepared for the 1995 Oil Spill Conference to address issues of varying scientific and sociopolitical importance to the oil spill community. Pages: 34 November 1994 | Product Number: I46080 | Price: $59. and DOS 3.00 Publ 4684 Compilation and Review of Data on the Environmental Effects of InSitu Burning of Inland and Upland Oil Spills Burning of spilled oil provides a relatively easy. Recommendations are offered to move toward a more systematic approach based on teamwork and guided by goals and performance criteria that have been accepted in advance by all stakeholders. or accreditation program. Descriptions are provided on test types. Pages: 106 January 1999 | Product Number: I46870 | Price: $59.00 Publ 4608 User’s Guide: Evaluation of Sediment Toxicity Tests for Biomonitoring Programs Provides an introduction to sediment toxicity testing and presents to those unfamiliar with such testing how the resource manual (Publ 4607) can be used. specific test methods. test species. certification.com personal computers. which elements have been most or least effective. Two issue papers: (1) “Myths and Realities of Oil Spill Planning and Response: The Challenges of a Large Spill”—This paper reviews the myths and realities of spill preparedness and response—where improvements have occurred. each issue paper was the topic of a special panel session. transportation. and for others dealing with protection of the environment from possible oil spill hazards. and disposal costs as well as reducing the time required for cleanup. Too many myths remain. It compares the types of tests available. and sediment preparations.0 or higher. sediment test systems.00 Hard Copy Product Number: I4686B | Price: $59. low-cost cleanup method by reducing removal. Pages: 199 Product Number: I46210 | Price: $59. for researchers.” (2) “The Use and Misuse of Science in Natural and Resource Damage Assessment. Brief summaries of sampling and data analysis issues are also presented. with and without oil. The document contains descriptions of habitat type.00 Publ 4710 2003 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings CD-ROM Product Number: I4701A | Price: $308. (2) “Judging Oil Spill Response Performance: The Challenge of Competing Perspectives”—This paper explores the roles of various participants and interested observers in a spill response and the criteria by which they judge it. January 1993 | Product Number: I45751 | Price: $65.ihs. and where future investment should concentrate.00 Publ 4652 1997 Oil Spill Conference Issue Papers Three issue papers—(1) “Putting Dispersants to Work: Overcoming Obstacles. Pages: 236 November 1994 | Product Number: I46070 | Price: $109. A tutorial and glossary are included. and compares the behavior.” and (3) “Differences in Risk Perception: How Clean is Clean?”— were prepared for the 1997 Oil Spill Conference to address issues of varying scientific and socio-political importance to the oil spill community.00 Publ 4651 1997 Oil Spill Conference Proceedings April 1997 | Product Number: I46510 | Price: $59.” (2) “International Responsibilities: Are We Our Brothers’ Keeper?. This research identifies. 147 . and selection of species for their strengths and weaknesses for a particular kind of habitat.00 Publ 4675 Fate and Environmental Effects of Oil Spills in Freshwater Environments Provides basic information necessary for the formulation of spill response strategies that are tailored to the specific chemical. It provides technical information for persons responsible for inland spill response and cleanup. This report presents a summary of the case histories and lessons learned from previous uses of burning in inland environments.

Definition. Therefore. and identifies changes in waste management practices over the past decade. Pages: 160 November 1996 | Product Number: I00053 | Price: $136. and oil and grease for petroleum hydrocarbons. All methods should be fully investigated for appropriateness and to determine its suitability to a particular situation. cadmium. The report describes the formulation and evaluation of a reference sediment. Pages: 80 March 2001 | Product Number: G00004 | For a free copy of this document. Evaluated the efficacy of five treatment methods. but may not be appropriate to organic soils. alone and in combination. This publication outlines various methods to test the permeability of soil and distinguishes between laboratory and field methods. in-situ chemical amendment remediation.aspx Overview of Exploration and Production Waste Volumes and Waste Management Practices in the United States Presents the results of a survey of the industry covering 1995 that describes current volumes of wastes generated from the production of oil and gas.00 Publ 4527 Evaluation of Limiting Constituents Suggested for Land Disposal of Exploration and Production Wastes Describes a study to develop salinity and petroleum hydrocarbon threshold guidance values that typically should not be exceeded for one-time land application of exploration and production wastes. If improperly handled. selenium. though it does not supply an exhaustive list of all available permeability methods. Pages: 56 January 1995 | Product Number: I46000 | Price: $59. Technical approaches for  This publication is related to an API licensing. Pages: 152 September 1995 | Product Number: I46320 | Price: $61. such as peat. copper. May 2000 DR 53 Characterization of Exploration and Production Associated Wastes Approximately 0. it examines the tolerances of common testing species to sediment characteristics. Pages: 200 December 1987 | Product Number: I44650 | Price: $70. The report also provides practical information on sample collection. The modeling suggests that associated wastes do not pose a threat to groundwater when managed in accordance with API guidance on landspreading. These methods are identified according to their applicability to particular soil types. roadspreading. and calculation of waste application rates. describes how those wastes are managed. lead. Environmental Protection Agency in 1993. and guidance for application of threshold values are provided. mercury molybdenum. The guidance values for arsenic.S. Pages: 60 April 1999 | Product Number: J35100 | Price: $90. or accreditation program. It provides forms for organizing assessment information and conducting sample collection and analysis. technical justification.00 Publ 4600 Metals Criteria for Land Management of Exploration and Production Wastes: Technical Support Document of API Recommended Guidance Values Provides scientifically defensible guidelines for land management of exploration and production wastes containing metals. produced water with sufficient salt concentrations can damage plants and soils.00 Publ 4618 Characteristics and Performance of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) in the Analysis of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils and Sludges Summarizes the results of a study to evaluate and improve SFE methods and instrumentation for analytical-scale extractions of petroleum hydrocarbons from soils and sludges. The study determines which types of samples and waste are best suited for analysis by SFE and optimal conditions for complete extraction. The methods presented in this report are applicable to fine-grained soils (silts and clays) and coarse-grained soils (sands and gravels). and burial.00 Publ 4663 Remediation of Salt-Affected Soils at Oil and Gas Production Facilities Water separated from oil and gas during production contains dissolved solids. and mechanical remediation. thermal treatment (drying).api.Health and Environmental Issues Phone Orders: +1 800 854 7179 (Toll-free: U. A decision tree and worksheets are provided to aid in the selection of a remedial option(s). chromium. Pages: 24 May 1995 | Product Number: I46180 | Price: $59.00 148  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. Pages: 66 August 1993 | Product Number: I45270 | Price: $61.00 Waste Research Guidelines for Commercial Exploration and Production Waste Management Facilities Provides guidelines for the design and operations of commercial E&P waste management facilities to allow operators to identify areas where their facility could have impacts on the surrounding community and environment.00 Publ 351 Overview of Soil Permeability Test Methods The determination of soil permeability is one of the most important items in assessing aboveground storage tank facilities’ secondary containment areas. evaluates copper sulfate as a reference toxicant by determining the relative sensitivities of freshwater testing organisms. Fate and transport modeling of the characterization data are also included.org/environment-health-and-safety/ environmental-performance/environmental-stewardship/ waste-management-facilities. and evaluates potential sublethal endpoints for sediment potency. and gives options for preventing/reducing those impacts. this manual was designed to assist the oil and gas environmental professional and field personnel to (1) assess sites with salt-affected soils. or federal requirements. analyses. certification. . Remediation options are divided into three primary groupings: natural remediation. A risk-based approach was used to develop guidance values for barium and boron. solvent extraction. The report includes numerous tables presenting the results from the survey. Measurable parameters that serve as indices for proper environmental management of salinity and petroleum hydrocarbons include: electrical conductivity. The guidelines are not meant to supersede any applicable local. and (3) conduct remedial activities. for listed petroleum refinery wastes: mechanical treatment (filtration). (2) evaluate remedial alternatives.1 % of the total volume of exploration and production wastes generated annually by the oil and gas industry is classified as associated waste. and zinc were adopted directly from sewage sludge regulations promulgated by the U. chemical fixation. if necessary. including salt. This report presents the analytical characterization of 120 samples representing 12 different associated waste categories. nickel. The use of all the methods resulted in wastes of substantially reduced hazard.S. as measured by total and leachable concentration of residues in the product solid. and Canada) Phone Orders: +1 303 397 7956 (Local and International) Publ 4632 Reducing Uncertainty in Laboratory Sediment Toxicity Tests Publ 4465 Evaluation of the Treatment Technologies for Listed Petroleum Refinery Wastes Evaluates some of the critical components of laboratory experiments that need to be considered to obtain accurate sediment toxicity assessments. sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage for salinity. and pyrolysis. or to materials such as construction and demolition debris. please visit www. state. It provides the technical support for recommended maximum concentrations of 12 metals.

or accreditation program.00 Publ 4758 Strategies for Addressing Salt Impacts of Produced Water Releases to Plants. certification.00 Publ 4733 Risk-Based Screening Levels for the Protection of Livestock Exposed to Petroleum Hydrocarbons The purpose of this study was to develop toxicity values and screening guidelines for evaluating risks to livestock from exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. A number of appendices provide supplementary information on various aspects of saltaffected soil remediation. and estimate risks of petroleum hydrocarbon exposures to livestock. unintentional releases can occur. and Groundwater The exploration and production industry uses great care during the handling and disposal of the produced water that is generated as part of oil and gas production. and water resources.  This publication is related to an API licensing. Depending on the chemical composition of the produced water and the nature of the local environment.00  This publication is a new entry in this catalog. vegetation. Provides a collection of simple rules of thumb.com applying each group of remedial options are discussed.Health and Environmental Issues Fax Orders: +1 303 397 2740 Online Orders: global. regulators and landowners to determine if assessment or remediation of produced water releases will provide a meaningful environmental benefit. and/or groundwater? • In the event of such an impact. Soil.ihs. models. However. plants. October 1997 | Product Number: I46630 | Price: $110.00 Publ 4734 Modeling Study of Produced Water Release Scenarios Provides a scientific basis for operators. what response actions are appropriate and effective? Pages: 29 1st Edition | September 2006 | Product Number: I47580 | Price: $70. Pages: 50 July 2004 | Product Number: I47330 | Price: $92. This report addresses how to determine whether livestock should be included in a risk evaluation. salts associated with such releases can impair soils. Pages: 124 January 2005 | Product Number: I47340 | Price: $123. and summary information from more detailed guidance manuals to help you address the following assessment and response issues: • Will a produced water release cause an unacceptable impact on soils. 149 . decision charts.