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2.1 Physiography/Geomorphological Regional

According to Van Bemmelen (1949), physiographic of Western Java is divided
into five sections based on morphological characteristics and tectonic (Figure
2.1), such as:
a. Plain of Batavia Jakarta
This area has a flat morphology, mostly occupied by alluvial deposits and
young volcanic lava. This zone extends from the western tip of Java island to the
East following the northern coast of West Java to Cirebon town.
b. Bogor Zone
Bogor zone is located in the south zone of the coastal plain Jakarta which
stretches from west to east Rangkasbitung, Bogor, Subang, Sumedang,
Purwakarta and the end of the Bumiayu in Central Java with an approximately
length of 40 km.
c. Bandung Zone
Bandung zone is located in the south zone of Bogor, but the boundary between
the two is not very clear on the field, because it has closed with young volcano
deposits. Bandung zone also can known as central depression zone which formed
by the depression between the mountains. Mountains which depression limit are
generally in the form of altitude composed of Tertiary age rocks. This structural
zone is the culmination of Western Java anticline that collapsed after the
elevation. Meanwhile this low plain deposited by young volcano. From this
investigation, based on geological history Bandung zone cannot be separated by
Bogor zone.
d. Southern Mountains
Southern Mountains range from the Ratu Port until Nusa Kambangan, Cilacap.
Apart of southern mountains it can be divided into three section, such as Jampang,
Pangalengan and Karangnunggal. Boundary of Southern Mountains zone with
Bandung zone can been seen obviously at Cimandiri river valley. The boundary
which mentioned above forming undulating hills in the Cimandiri river valley,


directly bordering the highlands of the southern mountains with a height

difference about 200m.
e. Bayah Mountains

Figure 2.1 shows division of physiography Western Jawa according to Van

Bemmelen (1949) in The Geology of Indonesia book. The research area
located into Bandung zone.

Based on the division above, the study area is located into Bandung zone. This
zone is located between Bogor zone and Southern Mountain zone.
This zones width is wider with the previous zone that is more than 40km, starts
from the western Sukabumi through Cianjur, Bandung, Garut, Tasikmalaya and
end up at Segara Anakan. This Bandung zone also is a depression in between the
mountains. In Bandung zone there are some tertiary-old sediments that occur
among young volcano. One of the main importance is Walat Mountain at
Sukabumi and Rajamandala Hills at Padlalarang.


2.2 Regional Stratigraphic

Martodjojo (1984) divides Western Jawa into three mandala sedimentation
based on kinds of sediment constituent (Figure2.2) which is:
a) Mandala Paparan continent in north
Mandala Paparan continent located almost same as physiography of Plain of
Batavia (Jakarta) zone in Western Java. Its characterized by the deposition of
Paparan, generally composed of limestone, clay and quartz sand and the
environment is shallow sea. Transgressions pattern and regressions are generally
clearly visible in this mandala Moreover the structural geology simple, generally
the effect of the rotation of bedrock. Sediment thickness in this area can reach
5000 m. The boundary of Southern Mandala Paparan is approximately equal to
the spreading outcrop of Parigi Formation from Cibinong-Purwakarta which
parallel with northern coast. Northern part being off the northern coast of Java.
b) Mandala Banten in west
This mandala is actually not so obvious, at least given the known data
c) Mandala Bogor Basin in the south and east
Mandala sedimentation covers several physiographic zones Van Bemmelen
(1949) which is Bogor zone, Bandung zone and Southern Mountains zone. In the
other hand, this mandala sedimentation characterized by the sediment gravity
flow, which mostly in the form of fragments of igneous rocks and sedimentary
rocks such as andesite, basalt, tuff and limestone. The overall thickness is
certainly difficult to determine, but is estimated at more than 7000m.

Figure 2.2 shows Mandala sedimentation of Western Java (Mortodjojo,1984)


Figure 2.3 general stratigraphy of the Bogor Basin Evolution from Martodjojo

Based on the general stratigraphic column of Bogor Basin by Martodjojo, the

research area has stratigraphy arrangement from older to younger as follows:
a) Rajamandala Formation
This formation characterized by limestone. There are different kinds of
limestone forming in this formation, it turns out laterally changed. According to
Sudrajat (1973) in Martodjojo (1984) the arrangement of limestone from
Rajamandala Formations can be divided into 13 units, such as massive grey
limestone, fragmental limestone, white limestone, white massive limestone,
bioclastic limestone, dirty white massive limestone, thick clastic limestone,
massive limestone, huge foraminifera massive limestone and skeletal limestone.
Therefor content of huge bentonic foraminifera and small as well as planktonic
b) Citarum Formation
Citarum formation composed of silt stone interlude generally greenish gray
while sand interlude grayish green. A thin layer of sand which generally has a fine
grain, while the thick inserts are generally more rugged, sometimes up to breccia
fragments of clay. Sedimentary structures are found small maze of cross
laminates, which indicates the wavy direction.


While according to the regional geological map sheet of Cianjur by Sudjatmiko

(1972, stratigraphic arrangement of research areas from old to young is as
a) Rajamandala Formation (Oml and Omc)
Rajamandala Formation Limestone members (Oml) 0-650m)
Solid limestone and layered limestone, were mostly light-colored with large
abundant foraminifera.

Rajamandala Formation members of Claystone, Quartz sandstone (Omc)


Clay grayish to black colour, Globigerina, quartz sandstone and quartz

conglomerate. Containing sheets of mica, coal pathways and amber.

b) Citarum Formation (Mts and Mtb)

Members of Sandstone and Siltstone(1200m)(Mts)
Perfect layered sandstone rocks alternate with silt, clay stone, greywacke and
breccia. Shows the typical characteristics of the turbidite. Tiered layering of
sedimentary structures such as convolute lamination, current ripple lamination and
worms tracks etc are abundant displayed.

Members of Sandstone and Breccia (800m) (Mtb)

Polimic breccia components are basalt, andesite and limestone, conglomerates,

sandstone and silt. Hornblende crystals found in many places.

c) Older Volcanic Products(0-150m) (Qob)

Volcanic breccias, breccia flow, lava deposits and lava showing sheet and
columnar jointing. The composition in between andesite and basalt.

d) Pb
Tufferous Breccia, lava, sandstone, conglomerate(0-350m)
Andesite and basaltic breccia, lava, tuffaceous sandstone and conglomerate. It
will form ridges with irregular, isolated peaks some of them very steep. North of
Rajamandala, consist of amygoidal basalt from flow breccia, volcanic breccia and


hard bedded tuffaceous sandstone with plant remains and molluses. Furthermore
there are some places of volcanic breccia with abundant hornblende.

Regional stratigraphic sequence can be seen through the column stratigraphy

and geological cross-section based on regional geological maps, Cianjur sheet
(Sudjatmiko,1972), (Figure 2.4)

Figure 2.4 stratigraphy study area according to the regional geological map
Cianjur sheets (Sudjatmiko, 1972)


Figure 2.5 shows stratigraphic cross section of study area according to the
regional geological map of Cianjur sheets (Sudjatmiko, 1972)

2.3 Regional Geological Structure

Tectonically island of Java is believed is a product of the interaction of two
Indoaustralia plate and the Eurasian plate due to the interaction of these two
pathways to form the subduction in Southern Java, Front Arc Basin, Magmatic
Path of Java Island, Behind Arc Basin. The system is expected to function since
the early Miocene age Martodjojo (1984). Before the system works in Java Island,
sedimentation basin was developed which is controlled by the force of tectonic
According to Martodjojo (1984), tectonic position of Bogor Basin of the
tertiary era until the quarter continues to change. Bogor Basin in the middle
Eocene-Oligocene is a front magmatic arc path. But in the Miocene Pliocene, it
turns into a basin behind the arc basin.
According to Katili (1975) dan Asikin (1992) in Julian (2010), as a result of the
interaction of convergence on the island of Java, it formed subduction path that is
growing increasingly younger towards south-west, south and to the north. This
subduction path starting from the south west Java (Ciletuh), Serayu mountains
(Central Java) and sea eastern Java to Kalimantan southeast with track
magamatik occupy the north coast of Java on Cretaceous Paleocene age. At the
tertiary era, the ridge subduction was formed below the sea level and located on
the southern island of Java. This ridge formation shows that the subduction
movement on the path towards the south from end of Cretaceous era until oligoMiocene. At the neogene age until the quarter, the java magmatic path moves back
to the north, with subduction path relatively which is not moving. This shows the
indication of subduction relatively slighter in the Neogene era if compare to those
days of Paleogene (Satyana dan Purwaningsih, 2003 in Julian 2010).
Julian(2010) explained that the pattern structure according Pulungguno and
Martodjojo (1994), Java island can be divided into three lineament structural
pattern (Figure2.6) which is :


Meratus direction heading to northeast-southwest, represented by fault

Cimandiri in Western Java, which can be followed by the northeast to the
boundary of Zaitun Basin and Billiton Basin.
a) Sundanese pattern heading north-south, represented by faults that bound
the Asri Basin, Sunda Basin and Arjuna Basin.
b) Java pattern heading east-west, is represented by a reverse fault as baribis,
as well as a reverse fault in Bogor Zone on physiographic Van Bemmelen

Figure 2.6 shows lineament structural pattern of Java Island (Martodjojo and
Pulunggono, 1994)
According to Koeseomadinata (1985) Western Java has a complex tectonic
structure and does not have the general direction of tectonic, such as in Sumatra.
In the eastern part of Java west, structural pattern trending northwest- southeast,
at the western part in the offerings heading southwest whereas the low lying areas
in Jakarta heading north-south. In the central part of western Java after west of
Bandung, the structural pattern heading WSW-ENE. This can be seen on the
Rajamandala ridge constantly to Sukabumi and until Cimandiri valley in Ratu
Port. This complicated tectonic order to reflect the structure of the bedrock that
may be composed of blocks that have fault and each move.