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MAE 4342

December 7, 2016

Team Members:

Nicolas Long

Raza Shah

Michelle Tadlock

Introduction

Gears are mechanical components that essentially increase or decrease the output

rotational speed with respect to input speed. However, when the reduced speed become much

less than the input speed, it is not reasonable to have a simple combination of a pair of pinion and

gear because that would make the gear very large in size which is not realistic. In such situations,

we use different stages of gear reduction such that the gear sizes are kept within reasonable

dimensions. In this project and input speed of 1800 rpm at 15 HP is to be reduced to an output

linear velocity of the 30 ft. /min such that it can carry loads up to 7.5 tons at that constant speed.

Thus, a 3 stage gear box is to be designed to accomplish this task. All the gears and pinions, the

shaft carrying stage 1 reduction gear as well as the stage 2 reduction pinion, and they keys for

that shaft as well as for the output shaft is designed in this project that would successfully

accomplish the required task with no part failure for the expected life cycle.

Engineering Requirements

Performance Requirements

Load: 7.5 tons

Maximum Speed: 30 ft/min

Drive a drum with D=10.625

Motor Specifications

15 HP at 1800 rpm

Gears

3-stage gear reduction

Minimum ratio: 3:1; Maximum ratio: 10:1

Pressure Angle: =25

Shafts

Shaft 1: OD=1.875 in

Shaft 3: OD=3.00 in

Shaft 4: OD= 4.00 in

Additional Requirements

Life: 10 years at an average use of 5 hour/day, 200 day/year

Reliability: 90%

Safety Factors: 1.2-surface; 1.5-bending

Key fails before shaft

Materials

1st stage pinion: AISI 4140 Heat Treated to 325-365 BHN

1st stage gear: AISI 4140 Heat Treated to 325-365 BHN

2nd stage pinion: AISI 4140 Heat Treated to 370-410 BHN

2nd stage gear: AISI 4140 Heat Treated to 325-365 BHN

3rd stage pinion: AISI 4140 Heat Treated to 370-410 BHN

3rd stage gear: AISI 4140 Heat Treated to 325-365 BHN

Material Properties of Heat Treated AISI 4140

2

Design Approach

Output Requirements

The requirements of the output shaft were found using the load requirements, speed, and size of

the drum.

Output Torque:

Output Speed:

Motor Input

Motor Torque:

Gear Design

Excel spreadsheets were created to solve for the values needed for the gears to meet the

design requirements.

General Parameters:

Diametral Pitch:

Number of Gear Teeth:

Gear Diameter:

Number of Pinion Teeth:

Diameter of Pinion

Gear ratio:

Output Torque:

Output Speed:

Gear Quality: Qv

Face width:

(Table 12-7)

Transmitted Load:

Pitch Line Velocity:

Assumptions:

Application factor (assuming uniform load):

Surface factor:

Surface Hardness Factor:

Temperature Factors:

Bending Stress Parameters:

Geometry factor for Pinion:

(Table 12-9)

Geometry factor for Gear:

(Table 12-9)

3

(Table 12-16)

Velocity Factor:

Bending Stress:

Uncorrected Bending Fatigue Strength:

Number of Cycles

Bending Strength Life Factor

Reliability Factor:

(Table 12-19)

Bending Fatigue Strength:

Bending Safety Factor:

Surface Fatigue Parameters:

Elastic Coefficient

Curvature of radii for gear:

Surface geometry factor:

Surface Stress:

Uncorrected Surface Fatigue Strength:

Surface Life Factor:

Surface Fatigue Strength:

Surface Safety Factor:

Shaft #2

The loads on shaft #2 was found using the transmitted load and pressure angle from the

above analysis. Reaction forces were found on the supports and singularity equations were used

to find the maximum bending moment applied to the shaft. That moment was used to design the

shaft to withstand failure due to bending.

Assumptions:

(Figure 10-16)

Notch radius:

Shaft Design Parameters

Load from gear:

4

Moment Singularity Equation:

Uncorrected Endurance Fatigue Strength:

Size Correction Factor:

Load Factor:

Reliability Factor:

Fatigue Endurance Strength:

Fatigue Factors:

Shaft Keys

Given/Known:

Shaft diameter, d = 2 inch

An assumption made is the key share the same material as shaft,

Sut = 181000 psi and Sy = 165000 psi

Assume a safety factor, Nf = 15 (less than that of the shaft to make the key as a weak link)

From Table 10-2, for 1.75 inch < d <= 2.25 inch,

Key width (W) = 0.5 inch

Key height (H) = 0.5 inch

For shaft 2, Tmax = 5062 lb-in and Tmin = 0 lb-in

Ashear = W L

Alternating shear stress,

Similarly,

Solving for L,

Also,

Cload = 1

A_95 = WL

Also,

Where,

Then,

Also,

A = 2.7 and b = -0.265

Substituting, Csurf = 0.78

Ctemp = 1 (assume room temperature)

Creliab = 0.897 (90% reliability)

Now,

Substitute L = 1.9in, we get Lactual = 1.908in

This result is close enough to the previous value of s so no more iterations required.

The safety factor obtained is greater than our chosen criteria of Nf = 15, so it is safe against

bearing failure.

Design summary for key on shaft 2:

Width (W) = 0.5 inch

Height (H) = 0.5 inch

Length (L) = 1.9 inch

Results

Gears

Stage 1 Pinion

Number of Teeth Np 14

Diametral Pitch

Pd 10

Outer Diameter

Face Width

Bending

Geometry Factor

Bending Safety

Fatctor

Surface Safety

Factor

Stage 1 Output

Torque

Rotational Speed

dp

F

J

1.4

1.75

0.35

in

in

Nb 1.85013

Nc 1.438712

Outer Diameter

Face Width

Bending Geometry

Factor

Bending Safety

Fatctor

Surface Safety

Factor

dg

F

J

13.5

1.75

0.51

Nb

2.806876

Nc

15.3976

in-1

in

in

T2 5062.5

lb-in

2 186.6667 rpm

Stage 2 Pinion

Number of Teeth Np 17

Diametral Pitch

Pd 5

Outer Diameter

dp 3.4

Face Width

F

3

Bending Safety

Nb 1.923431

Fatctor

Surface Safety

Nc 1.862033

Factor

Stage 2 Ouput

Torque

T3 28588.24

Rotational Speed 3 33.05556

Stage 3 Pinion

Number of Teeth Np 17

Diametral Pitch

Pd 3

Outer Diameter

Face Width

Bending Safety

Fatctor

Surface Safety

Factor

in-1

Stage 1 Gear

Number of Teeth

Ng 135

Diametral Pitch

Pd 10

in-1

in

in

Outer Diameter

Face Width

Bending Safety

Fatctor

Surface Safety

Factor

dg

F

Nb

19.2

3

2.747462

Nc

13.00132

in-1

in

in

lb-in

rpm

in-1

dp 5.666667 in

F

5

in

Nb 1.722317

Nc 1.60231

Stage 2 Gear

Number of Teeth

Ng 96

Diametral Pitch

Pd 5

Stage 3 Gear

Number of Teeth

Ng 51

Diametral Pitch

Pd 3

Outer Diameter

Face Width

Bending Safety

Fatctor

Surface Safety

Factor

dg

F

Nb

17

5

2.172302

Nc

5.056097

in-1

in

in

Stage 3 Output

Torque

T4 85764.71 lb-in

Rotational Speed 4 10.80124 rpm

Maximum Lifting Load

Lifting Speed

8.072 tons

30.0 ft/min

Shaft #2

Excel was used to iterate calculations to find an appropriate diameter size for shaft #2.

The shaft was over designed for with a safety factor of 15.

d

Nf

Shaft #2

2 inches

15.5

Shaft Keys

Given/Known:

Shaft diameter, d = 5in

Assuming the key to be same material as shaft,

Sut = 181000 psi and Sy = 165000 psi

Assume a safety factor, Nf = 9 (less than that of shaft to make the key as weak link)

From Table 10-2, for 3.75 inch < d <= 4.5 inch,

Key width (W) = 0.875 inch

Key height (H) = 0.875 inch

For shaft 4, Tmax = 85764 lb-in and Tmin = 0 lb-in

Ashear = W L

Alternating shear stress,

Similarly,

Solving for L,

Also,

Cload = 1

A95 = WL

Also,

Where,

10

Then,

Also,

A = 2.7 and b = -0.265

Substituting, Csurf = 0.78

Ctemp = 1 (assume room temperature)

Creliab = 0.897 (90% reliability)

Now,

After much iterations L=5.96in.

This result is close enough to the previous value so no more iterations required.

Now checking for bearing failure,

The safety factor obtained is greater than our chosen criteria of Nf = 2, so it is safe against

bearing failure.

11

Width (W) = 1.0 inch

Height (H) = 0.75 inch

Length (L) = 5.96 inch

12

Drawings

13

14

15

Conclusion

The proposed gear box was successfully designed with respect to the desired factor of

safety, and thus the gear box assembly to be manufactured should not fail under the circumstance

of the given load and speed requirements. One thing to notice however, is that some of the gears

came out to be a little larger than the given dimensions of the gear box housing. Obviously, the

gears would not fit in the housing such that either the housing size has to be increased a little bit

or the gears size will have to be reduced. We assume that if the gear ratio had been chosen more

wisely at the beginning of the design, the size of the gears would have been within the required

limit. The 3rd stage reduction gear ratio was quite large. So, if the gear ratio chosen had been

distributed more evenly, the sizes of the gears would have been more within the limits. A design

iteration would thus had to be performed as with most design cases, however due to time

limitations it was not performed but the procedure to follow would have been the same as what

has been done in the analysis of this project.

16

Appendix

17

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