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Problem 1.

Problem 6.1 (a) of Text

Problem 2.

Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to determine the number of roots in the left-half plane, right-half

plane, and on the imaginary axis for the characteristic polynomial

a5 + 5~4 + 16a + 80

Problem 3.

Consider the closed-loop system shown in the figure below:

(a) Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to determine the range of values of K for which the system

will be stable.

(b) Find the values of K for which some closed-loop poles will lie on the imaginary axis. For each

of these values, find the pole locations on the imaginary axis.

Problem 4.

Problem 7.1 of Text

Problem 5.

Problem 7.2 of Text

220

Chapter6

Stabi[ityAna[ysis

Numerical integration and digital simulations were introduced in Section 3.6. Digital

computer analysis and design software was discussed in Section 3.7. The MATLAB simulation

program SIMULINK was demonstrated in some examples.

SIMULINK automatically chooses the numerical increment for numerical integration;

however, numerical problems can still occur with an integration increment that is too large.

Inaccurate simulations can also occur if an error is made in entering the system model into the

computer. One procedure for verifying the system model in a simulation is to employ the

RouthHurwitz criterion to determine both the gain that results in a marginally stable system

and the frequency of oscillation of this marginally stable system as in Example 6.8. If a simula

tion of the marginally stable system does not result in a steady-state sinusoidal response at the

correct frequency, the simulation is not accurate. The general problem of verifying system

simulations is considered further in Chapter 9.

An introduction to analog-computer simulation was also given in Chapter 3. Before the

general availability of fast digital computers, analog-computer simulation was the principal

method of simulation. This method has declined in importance over the past few years; however,

it is still useful in certain situations, as discussed in Chapter 3.

In summary, simulation is probably the most common method of determining the stability

of systems, other than actually operating the physical systems. This procedure is absolutely

necessary for physical systems, such as those used in aerospace applications, that cannot be

operated safely in an unstable condition.

6.4

SUMMARY

This chapter was concerned with the very important concept of system stability. For a linear

time-invariant system, the bounded-input, bounded-output (BIB 0) definition of stability was

defined. The RouthHurwitz criterion was then given as a procedure for testing the BIBO

stability of a linear time-invariant system whose characteristic equation is a polynomial in the

Laplace variable One type of llnear time-invariant system does not satisfy the polynomial

requirementa system with ideal time delay. The stability analysis of this type of system is

presented in Chapter 8.

Physical systems are generally not linear time-invariant systems. We must consider the non

linearities of a physical system if we want to develop more accurate models. It is usually necessary

to employ simulations of a system to determine accurately system characteristics, including

stability. Hence, a brief introduction to stability by simulation concluded this chapter. Simulation

of nonlinear systems is covered in Chapter 15.

PROBLEMS

Section 6.1

6.1.

Problems

(a) Use the RouthHurwitz criterion to determine the number of roots in the left half-plane, in the

right half-plane, and on the imaginary axis for the given characteristic equations.

~ ~4 +

+ 5? + 2s + 4 = 0

+ 5g2 + Ss + 25 /

iii. s3 + 5? + 3s + 25

iv. s4 +

+ 5? + Sr + 2 = 0

Problems

221

v.

+ s3 + s + 0.5 = 0

vi. ~4 + 2s~ + 3~2 + 2s + 5 = 0

vii. s~ + 2? + 5? + 4~2 6s

0

viii. s4 + 2? + 1 = 0

(b) Verify all results using MATLAB to find the root locations.

What conclusions can you reach concerning the root locations of the following polynomials without

applying the RouthHurwitz criterion or solving for the roots?

(a) s4 + s3 + s + 2

(b) ~4 + ~2 + 1

(c) ~4 1

(d) _~2 3s 2

(e) ? 252 3s 1

(f) ~3 + 2? + 3s + 1

(g) ~3 + 252 + 3s 1

(a) Apply the RouthHurwitz criterion to each of the polynomials of Problem 6.2 to verify your

conclusions.

(b) Verify all results using MATLAB to find the root locations.

Find the range of the parameter a for which all roots of the characteristic equation have negative

real parts.

,

(a)s 3 +r+s+a=0

(b) ~3 + ~2 + as + 1 = 0

(c) ~3 + a? + s + 1 = 0

(d) as3 + ~2 + ~ + ~ =

Consider the system shown in Figure P6.5.

6.2.

6.3.

6.4.

6.5.

FIGURE P6.5

6.6.

(b) Determine the value of the gain K that will cause the system to be marginally stable.

(c) Use the results of (b) to determine the frequency of oscillation of the system output when the

system is a condition of marginal stability.

The Routh array has the form

Ix ~

s3lxx

Ix 0

sIx

Show that the values of the elements circled (the final elements in the rows designated by even

powers of s) are always equal.

Problems

289

4.~ C. L. Phillips and R. D. Harbor-Feedback Control Systems, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice

Hall, 1996.

5. 3.Van de Vegte. Feedback Control Systeins~ 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.

6. W. 3. Palm. Control System Engineering New York: Wiley, 1986.

PROBLEMS

Section 7.1

Problems

*7.1. For the system with the open-loop function determine if the following points are on the root locus.

KG(s)

(a) s

(b) s

(c) s

(d) s

7.2.

8(3 + 1)(s +

2)

,0

K ~

1.5

0.5(unstable)

j1

1 + j1

(e) Use the roots statement of MATLAB to verify all results.

Given the system with the open-loop function

=

KG(s)

Determine if values of K

(a) s = 1.0

(b) s = 0.5

(c) s

jV~

(d) s

>

K(s + 1)

+

2)

,0Koo

0 can be chosen such that the closed-loop transfer function has a pole at:

+ j1

7.3.

The root-locus diagram for a linear feedback control system is shown in Figure P7.3.

~0

x

Co

C

C,

CU

-2

5

Real Axis

FIGURE P7.3

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