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12-4. General Curvilinear Motion


Application:

The path of motion of each plane in this


formation can be tracked with radar and their
x, y, and z coordinates (relative to a point on
earth) recorded as a function of time.
Problems:
How can we determine the velocity or acceleration of each plane at any instant?
Should they be the same for each aircraft?
Curvilinear motion occurs when the particle
Fig.12-6

moves along a curved path


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9 Position
The position of the particle, measured from a fixed point O, is designated
by the position vector r = r(t).

Fig.12-7

9 Displacement
Suppose during a small time interval t, the particle moves a distance
s along the curve to a new position P, defined by r = r + r. The
displacement r represents the change in the particles position.
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9 Velocity: represents the rate of change in the position of a particle.


The average velocity of the particle during
the time increment t is

vavg = r/t
The instantaneous velocity is the timederivative of position

v = dr/dt
The velocity vector, v, is always tangent to
the path of motion.

Fig.12-7(c)

The magnitude of v is called the speed. Since the arc length s approaches
the magnitude of r as t0, the speed can be obtained by differentiating
ds
the path function

v=

dt

(12-6)

DepartmentNote
of Mechanical
andisAutomation
Engineering
that this
not a vector!

Chinese University of Hong Kong

9 Acceleration: rate of change in the velocity of a particle.


If a particles velocity changes from v to v over
a time increment t, the average acceleration
during that increment is:
aavg = v/t = (v - v)/t

The instantaneous acceleration is the timederivative of velocity:


a = dv/dt = d2r/dt2

(12-7)

A plot of the locus of points defined by the arrowhead of the velocity


vector is called a hodograph. The acceleration vector is tangent to the
hodograph, but not, in general, tangent to the path function.

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12-5. Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

9 Position:
The position of the particle can be defined at any instant by the position
vector

(12-8)

r = xi + yj + zk
The magnitude of r is always positive and defined as

r = x2 + y2 + z 2
Here, the x, y, z components may all be functions
of time, i.e.,
x = x(t), y = y(t), and z = z(t).
The direction of r is specified by the components
of the unit vector ur = r/r

Fig.12-8(a)

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9 Velocity: Time derivative of the position vector

dr
v=
= vx i + v y j + vz k
dt
where
v x = x& v y = y& v z = z&

(12-9)
(12-10)

The velocity has a magnitude defined as the


positive value of

v = v x2 + v y2 + v z2
and a direction that is specified by the
components of the unit vector uv=v/v
and is always tangent to the path.
Fig.12-8(b)

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9 Acceleration: time derivative of the velocity vector (second


derivative of the position vector)

dv
= axi + a y j + azk
(12-11)
dt
a x = v&x = &x&
(12-12)
a y = v& y = &y&

a=
where

a z = v&z = &z&
The acceleration has a magnitude defined
as the positive value of

Fig.12-8(c)

a = a x2 + a y2 + a z2

The acceleration has a direction specified by the components of the unit


vector ua = a/a.
Since a represents the time rate of change in velocity, a will not be
tangent to the path (Fig.12-8(c)).
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Example 3 The motion of two particles (A and B) is described by the


position vectors

rA = [3ti + 9t(2 t)j] m


rB = [3(t2 2t+2)i + 3(t 2)j] m
Solution:

Find: The point at which the particles collide and their speeds
just before the collision.

1).The particles will collide when their position vectors are equal, or rA = rB

so xA=xB and yA=yB .


x-components: 3t = 3(t2 2t + 2)
Simplifying: t2 3t + 2 = 0
Solving: t ={3 [32 4(1)(2)]0.5}/2(1) t = 2 or 1 s
y-components: 9t(2-t) =3(t2)
Simplifying: 3t25t2 = 0
Solving:
t ={5[52 4(3)(2)]0.5}/2(3) t = 2 or 1/3 s
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So, the particles collide when t = 2 s. Substituting this value into rA


or rB yields

xA = xB = 6 m

and yA = yB = 0

2). Their speeds can be determined by differentiating the position vectors.


That is, differentiating rA and rB to get the velocity vectors, and then obtain
the speeds which are the magnitudes of the corresponding velocity vectors.

.
.
vA = drA/dt = .xA i + yA j = [3i +(18 18t)j] m/s
At t = 2s: vA = [3i 18j] m/s
vB = drB/dt = x Bi + yBj = [(6t 6)i + 3j] m/s
At t = 2s: vB = [6i + 3j] m/s
Speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector,
vA = (32 + 182)0.5 = 18.2 m/s; vB = (62 + 32)0.5 = 6.71 m/s
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Exercise:
1. The path of a particle is defined by y = 0.5x2. If the component of its
velocity along the x-axis at x = 2 m is vx = 1 m/s, its velocity component
along the y-axis at this position is
A) 0.25 m/s B) 0.5 m/s

C) 1 m/s D) 2 m/s

2. If a particle has moved from A to B along the circular path in 4s,


what is the average velocity of the particle ?
y
A) 2.5 i m/s
R=5m
x
B) 2.5 i +1.25j m/s
C) 1.25 i m/s
A
B
D) 1.25 j m/s
3. The position of a particle is given as r = (4t2 i 8t j) m. Determine
the particles acceleration.
A) (4 i +8 j ) m/s2
C) (8 i) m/s2

B) (8 i -16 j ) m/s2
D) (8 j ) m/s2

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12-7. Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential Components


Application:

Motorists traveling along a clover-leaf


interchange experience a normal acceleration due to the change in direction
of the velocity.
Problem: If the cars speed is increasing
at a known rate as it travels along a curve,
how can we determine the magnitude and
direction of its total acceleration?
Fig.12-9

Objective:
Be able to determine the normal and tangential components of
velocity and acceleration of a particle traveling along a curved path.

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Normal and Tangential Components


When a particle moves along a curved path, it is sometimes convenient
to describe its motion using coordinates other than Cartesian. When the
path of motion is known, normal (n) and tangential (t) coordinates are
often used.
In the n-t coordinate system, the
origin is located on the particle
(the origin moves with the
particle).
9The t-axis is tangent to the path (curve)
at the instant considered, positive in the
direction of the particles motion.
9The n-axis is perpendicular to the t-axis
with the positive direction toward the center of curvature O.
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The positive n and t directions are defined


by the unit vectors un and ut, respectively.
The center of curvature, O, always lies
on the concave side of the curve.
The position of the particle at any instant is
defined by the distance, s, along the curve
from a fixed reference point.
The radius of curvature, , is defined as
the perpendicular distance from the curve
to the center of curvature at that point.

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Velocity in the n-t Coordinate System


The velocity vector is always tangent to
the path of motion (t-direction).
The magnitude is determined by taking the
time derivative of the path function, s(t).

where

v = vut
.
v = s = ds/dt

(12-13)
(12-14)

Here v defines the magnitude of the velocity (speed) and ut defines


the direction of the velocity vector.

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Acceleration in the n-t Coordinate System


Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity:

.
.
a = dv/dt = d(vut)/dt = vut + vut
.

Here v represents the change in the


.
magnitude of velocity and ut
represents the rate of change in the
direction of ut.

(12-15)

After mathematical manipulation, the


acceleration vector can be expressed
as:

.
a = vut + (v2/)un = atut + anun

(12-16)

Fig.12-10(e)

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There are two components to the acceleration


vector:

a = at ut + an un
The tangential component is tangent to the
curve and in the direction of increasing or
decreasing velocity.

.
at = v

or

at ds =v dv

(12-17)

The normal or centripetal component is always directed toward


the center of curvature of the curve

an = v2/

(12-18)

The magnitude of the acceleration vector is

a =

a t2 + a n2

(12-19)

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Two Special Cases of Motion


To summarize these concepts, consider the following special cases of motion

1) If the particle moves along a straight line, then

=> an = v2/ = 0 =>

.
a = at = v

The tangential component represents the time rate of change in the


magnitude of the velocity.
2) The particle moves along a curve at constant speed, then

.
at = v = 0 => a = an = v2/
The normal component represents
the time rate of change in the
direction of the velocity.

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Three-Dimensional Motion
If a particle moves along a space curve,
the n and t axes are defined as before. At
any point, the t-axis is tangent to the path
and the n-axis points toward the center of
curvature. The plane containing the n and
t axes is called the osculating plane.
A third axis can be defined, called the
Fig.12-11
binomial axis, b. The binomial unit vector,
ub, is directed perpendicular to the osculating plane, and its sense is
defined by the cross product

ub = ut un
There is no motion, thus no velocity or acceleration, in the binomial
direction.
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Example 4 Given: Starting from rest, a motorboat travels around a


circular path of r = 50 m at a speed that increases with time,

v = (0.2 t2) m/s.


Find: The magnitudes of the boats velocity and acceleration at
the instant t = 3s.
Solution:

The boat starts from rest (v=0 when t=0).


1) Calculate the velocity at t=3s using v(t).
The velocity vector is v = v ut , where the
magnitude is given by v = (0.2t2) m/s.
At t=3s:
v = 0.2t2 = 0.2(3)2 = 1.8 m/s
Fig.12-12

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2). Calculate the tangential and normal components of acceleration and


then the magnitude of the acceleration vector.

The acceleration vector is a = atut + anun = vut + (v2/)un

.
Tangential component: at = v = d(0.2t2)/dt = 0.4t m/s2
At t=3s: at = 0.4t = 0.4(3) = 1.2 m/s2
Normal component: an = v2/ = (0.2t2)2/() m/s2

At t=3s: an = [(0.2)(32)]2/(50) = 0.0648 m/s2


The magnitude of the acceleration is

a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5 = [(1.2)2 + (0.0648)2]0.5 = 1.20 m/s2

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Exercise:
1. The normal component of acceleration represents
A)
B)
C)
D)

the time rate of change in the magnitude of the velocity.


the time rate of change in the direction of the velocity.
magnitude of the velocity.
direction of the total acceleration.

2. A particle traveling in a circular path of radius 300 m has an


instantaneous velocity of 30 m/s and its velocity is increasing at a
constant rate of 4 m/s2. What is the magnitude of its total
acceleration at this instant?
A) 3 m/s2 B) 4 m/s2 C) 5 m/s2 D) -5 m/s2
3. If a particle moving in a circular path of radius 5 m has a velocity
function v = 4t2 m/s, what is the magnitude of its total acceleration
at t = 1 s?
A) 8 m/s B) 8.6 m/s C) 3.2 m/s

D) 11.2 m/s

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12-8. Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components


Application:

The boy slides down the slide at a


constant speed of 2 m/s.
Problem: How fast is his elevation
from the ground changing (i.e.,
.
what is z )?
In general, the cylindrical coordinate
system is used in cases where the
particle moves along a 3-D curve.

Fig.12-13

Objective:
To determine velocity and acceleration
components using cylindrical coordinates.

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Special case:

Fig.12-14

9 A polar coordinate system is a 2-D representation of the cylindrical


coordinate system.
9 When the particle moves in a plane (2-D), and the radial distance, r,
is not constant, the polar coordinate system can be used to express
the path of motion of the particle.
If motion is restricted to the plane, polar coordinates r
and are used
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Polar Coordinates: Position


Specify the location of P using both
the radial coordinate r, which extends
outward from the fixed origin O to the
particle and a traverse coordinate ,
which is the counterclockwise angle
between a fixed reference line and the
r axis;
Angle usually measured in degrees or radians, where 1 rad = 180
Positive directions of the r and coordinates are defined by the unit
vectors ur and u
ur extends from P along increasing r, when is held fixed
u extends from P in the direction that occurs when r is held fixed and
is increased
Note these directions are perpendicular to each other
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9 Position
We can express the location of P in polar coordinates as
r = r ur

(12-20)

Note that the radial direction, r, extends outward from the fixed origin,
O, and the transverse coordinate, , is measured counter-clockwise
(CCW) from the horizontal.

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9 Velocity

The instantaneous velocity is defined as:

v = r& = r&u r + ru& r


Using the chain rule:
dur/dt = (dur/d)(d/dt)

We can prove that dur/d = u so dur/dt = u

Therefore: v = r ur + r u
Thus, the velocity vector has two
components: r& , called the radial
component, and r& , called the
transverse component. The speed of
the particle at any given instant is the
sum of the squares of both components
.
.2
or
(12-22)
2

v = (r) + ( r)

(12-21)

Fig.12-15(c)

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9 Acceleration

The instantaneous acceleration is defined as:

a = dv/dt = (d/dt)( rur + r u)


After manipulation, the acceleration can be
expressed as

.
..
..
..
2
a = (r r )ur + (r + 2r)u (12-23)
.. . 2
The term (r r ) is the radial acceleration or ar.
..
. .
The term (r + 2r) is the transverse acceleration
or a
The magnitude of acceleration is

a=

(&r& r ) + (r&& + 2r&&)2


2
2
&

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(12-24)
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Cylindrical Coordinates
If the particle P moves along a space
curve, its position can be written as

rP = rur + zuz
Taking time derivatives and using the
chain rule:
Velocity:

v = r&u r + r& u + z&u z


Fig.12-16

Acceleration:

a = (&r& r& 2 )u r + (r&& + 2r&&)u + &z&u z

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Example 5 The rob OA is rotating in the horizontal plane such that = t3


rad. At the same time, the collar B is sliding outwards along OA
so that r = (100t2)mm. If in both cases, t is in seconds, determine the velocity and acceleration of the collar when t = 1s.
Solution:

Coordinate System.
Since time-parametric equations of the
particle is given, it is not necessary to
relate r to .
Velocity and Acceleration.
r = 100t 2
r& = 200t
&r& = 200

t =1s

t =1s
t =1s

= 100mm = t 3

t =1s

= 200mm / s & = 3t 2
= 200mm / s 2 && = 6t

= 1rad = 5.73
t =1s
t =1s

= 2rad / s

Fig.12-17

= 6rad / s 2

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v = r&u r + r&u = {200u r + 300u } mm/s


The magnitude of v is
v = 200 2 + 300 2 = 361mm/s
300
o
= tan 1
= 56.3
200
a = (&r& r& 2 )u r + (r&& + 2r&&)u = {700u r + 1800u } mm/s 2

The magnitude of a is
a = 700 2 + 1800 2 = 1930 mm/s 2
1800
o
= tan 1
= 68.7
700

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Example 6 Given: r = 5 cos(2) m, = 3t2 (rad/s), o = 0


Find: Velocity and acceleration at = 30.
Solution:

Apply chain rule to determine


evaluate at = 30.

t0 =0

r& and &r& and

t
&
dt = 3t 2 dt = t 3
0

At = 30o , = = t 3 Therefore: t=0.806 s.


6
& = 3t 2 = 3(0.806) 2 = 1.95 rad/s

&& = 6t = 6(0.806) = 4.836 rad/s 2

Fig.12-18

r = 5 cos(2 ) = 5 cos(60 o ) = 2.5 m

r& = 10 sin( 2 )& = 10 sin(60o )(1.95) = 16.88 m/s


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&r& = 20 cos(2 )& 2 10 sin( 2 )&&


= 20 cos(60 o )(1.95) 2 10 sin(60 o )(4.836) = 80 m/s 2
Substitute in the equation for velocity

v = r&u r + r&u = 16.88u r + 2.5(1.95)u

v = (16.88) 2 + (4.87) 2 = 17.57 m/s


Substitute in the equation for acceleration:

a = (&r& r& 2 )u r + (r&& + 2r&&)u


= [80 2.5(1.95) 2 ]u r + [2.5(4.836) + 2(16.88)(1.95)]u
= 89.5u r 53.7u m/s 2
a = (89.5) 2 + (53.7) 2 = 104.4 m/s 2
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Exercise:
1. In a polar coordinate system, the velocity vector can be written as
v = vr u r + v u = r&u r + r&u . The term & is called
A) transverse velocity.
C) angular velocity.

B) radial velocity.
D) angular acceleration.

2. The speed of a particle in a cylindrical coordinate system is


A)

r&

B) r&

C)

(r&) 2 + (r&) 2 D)

(r&) 2 + (r&) 2 + ( z& ) 2

3. If r& is zero for a particle, the particle is


A) not moving.
C) moving on a straight line.

B) moving in a circular path.


D) moving with constant velocity.

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4. If a particle moves in a circular path with constant velocity, its radial


acceleration is
A) zero.

B)

&r&

C) r& 2 . D) 2r&&

5. The radial component of velocity of a particle moving in a


circular path is always
A) zero.
B) constant.
C) greater than its transverse component.
D) less than its transverse component.
6. The radial component of acceleration of a particle moving in a circular
path is always
A) negative.
B) directed toward the center of the path.
C) perpendicular to the transverse component of acceleration.
D) All of the above.
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12-9. Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles


Application:

Rope and pulley arrangements are often


used to assist in lifting heavy objects.
The total lifting force required from the
truck depends on the acceleration of the
cabinet.
Problem: How can we determine the
acceleration and velocity of the
cabinet if the acceleration of the truck
is known?

Fig.12-19

Objective:
To relate the positions, velocities, and accelerations
of particles undergoing dependent motion.

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Dependent Motion
In many kinematics problems, the motion of one object will depend on the
motion of another object.
The blocks in this figure are connected
by an inextensible cord wrapped around
a pulley. If block A moves downward
along the inclined plane, block B will
move up the other incline.
Fig.12-20

The motion of each block can be related mathematically by defining


position coordinates, sA and sB. Each coordinate axis is defined from a
fixed point or datum line, measured positive along each plane in the
direction of motion of each block.
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9 In this example, position coordinates


sA and sB can be defined from fixed
datum lines extending from the center
of the pulley along each incline to
blocks A and B.

9 If the cord has a fixed length, the position


coordinates sA and sB are related mathematically by the equation

sA + lCD + sB = lT
where lT is the total cord length and lCD is the length of cord passing
over arc CD on the pulley.

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9 The velocities of blocks A and B can be related by differentiating the


position equation. Note that lCD and lT remain constant, so
dlCD/dt = dlT/dt = 0

dsA/dt + dsB/dt = 0 =>

vB = -vA

9 The negative sign indicates that as A moves down the incline (positive
sA direction), B moves up the incline (negative sB direction).
9 Accelerations can be found by differentiating the velocity expression.
[Prove to yourself that aB = -aA] .

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Example

Position coordinates (sA and sB) are defined


from fixed datum lines, measured along the
direction of motion of each block.
Note that sB is only defined to the center of
the pulley above block B, since this block
moves with the pulley. Also, h is a constant.
The red colored segments of the cord
remain constant in length during motion of
the blocks.
The position coordinates are related by the
equation

2sB + h + sA = l
where l is the total cord length minus the lengths
of the red segments.

Fig.12-21

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Since l and h remain constant during the motion, the velocities and accelerations can be related by two successive time derivatives:

2vB = -vA

and

2aB = -aA

When block B moves downward (+sB), block A moves to the left (-sA).
Remember to be consistent with the sign convention!

This example can also be worked by defining the position coordinate for
B (sB) from the bottom pulley instead of the top pulley.
The position, velocity, and acceleration relations then become

2(h sB) + h + sA = l
and

2vB = vA

2aB = aA

[Prove to yourself that the results are the same, even if the sign conventions
are different than the previous formulation.]
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Example 7 In the figure on the left, the cord at A is pulled down with a
speed of 8 m/s. Find the speed of block B.
Solution:

1) Define the position coordinates from a fixed


datum line

DATUM

sA

sC

sB

Fig.12-22

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2). Define l1 as the length of the first cord, minus any segments of constant
length. Define l2 in a similar manner for the second cord:
Cord 1: 2sA + 2sC = l1
Cord 2: sB + (sB sC) = l2
3) Eliminating sC between the two equations, we get
2sA + 4sB = l1 + 2l2
4) Relate velocities by differentiating this expression. Note that l1 and l2
are constant lengths.
2vA + 4vB = 0

=>

vB = - 0.5vA = - 0.5(8) = - 4 m/s

The velocity of block B is 4 m/s up (negative sB direction).


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Exercise:
1. Two blocks are interconnected by a cable.
Which of the following is correct?
A) vA= - vB
C) (vy)A= - (vy)B

B) (vx)A= - (vx)B
D) All of the above.

2. Determine the speed of block B when block


A is moving down at 6 m/s while block C is
moving down at 18 m/s .
A) 24 m/s
C) 12 m/s

B) 3 m/s
D) 9 m/s

3. Determine the velocity vector of block A


when block B is moving downward with
a speed of 10 m/s.
A) (8i + 6j) m/s
C) (-8i - 6j) m/s

vA=6 m/s

vC=18 m/s

B) (4i + 3j) m/s


D) (3i + 4j) m/s

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vB=10 m/s

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12-10. Relative Motion Analysis of Two Particles Using


Translating Axes
Example:

When you try to hit a moving object, the


position, velocity, and acceleration of the
object must be known. Here, the boy on
the ground is at d = 10ft when the girl in
the window throws the ball to him.
Problem: If the boy on the ground is
running at a constant speed of 4 ft/s,
how fast should the ball be thrown?

Fig.12-24

Objectives:
a). To understand translating frames of reference.
b). To use translating frames of reference to analyze
Department relative
of Mechanical
and Automation Engineering
motion.
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9 Relative Position
Consider particles A and B, which move along the arbitrary paths aa and
bb, respectively,
The absolute position of two particles
A and B with respect to the fixed x, y,
z reference frame are given by rA and
rB. The position of B relative to A is
represented by

rB/A = rB rA

(12-25)

where rB/A is the relative-position


vector which describes the relative
position of B with respect to A

rB = (10i + 2j) m and


then rB/A = (6i 3j) m.

Example, if

Fig.12-25

rA = (4i + 5j) m,

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Chinese University of Hong Kong

9 Relative Velocity
To determine the relative velocity of B with
respect to A, the time derivative of the relative
position equation is taken.
vB/A = vB vA or vB = vA + vB/A (12-26)
where vB and vA -- absolute velocities, since they are
observed from the fixed frame. vB/A is the relative
velocity of B w.r.t to A, because it is observed from
the translating frame.
Negative
Note:
vB/A = -vA/B

Fig.12-26

9 Relative Acceleration
The time derivative of the relative velocity
equation yields a similar vector relationship
between the absolute and relative accelerations of particles A and B
Fig.12-27
aB/A = aB aA or aB = aA + aB/A (12-27)
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Example 8
At the instant, car A and B are traveling with the speed of 18 m/s and 12 m/s
respectively. Also at this instant, A has a decrease in speed of 2 m/s2, and B
has an increase in speed of 3 m/s2. Determine the velocity and acceleration
of B with respect to A.
Solution:

1). Velocity.
The fixed x, y axes are established at a point
on the ground and the translating x, y axes
are attached to car A. Using Cartesian vector
analysis,

vB = v A + vB/ A

12 j = 18 cos 60o i 18 sin 60o j + v B / A


v B / A = {9i + 3.588 j} m / s

Fig.12-28
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Thus,

vB / A = 9 2 + 3.5882 = 9.69 m / s

Its direction is

(vB / A )y
tan =
(vB / A )x

3.588
, = 21.7 o
9

2). Acceleration.
The magnitude of the normal component is

(aB )n =

Applying the equation for relative acceleration yields

vB2

= 1.440 m / s 2

aB = a A + aB/ A

( 1.440i 3j) = (2 cos 60o i + 2 sin 60o j) + a B / A


a B / A = { 2.440i 4.732 j} m / s 2
Magnitude and direction are

aB / A = 5.32 m / s 2 , = 62.7 o
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Exercise:
1. The velocity of B relative to A is defined as
A) vB vA . B) vA vB . C) vB + vA . D) vA + vB .
2. Since vector addition forms a triangle, there can be at most _________
unknowns (either magnitudes and/or directions of the vectors) to solve
the problem.
m
A) one
B) two C) three
D) four
vB = 4 s
3. Two particles, A and B, are moving in the
directions shown. What should be the angle
so that vB/A is minimum?
A) 0 B) 180

C) 90

D) 270

vA = 3 ms

4. Determine the velocity of plane A with respect to plane B.


A) (400i+520j) km/hr
B) (1220i-300j) km/hr
30
C) (-181i-300j) km/hr

D) (-1220i+300j) km/hr

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