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Element IB2: Hazardous Substances and Other Chemicals Assessment of Risk

Element IB2:

Hazardous Substances
and Other Chemicals
Assessment of Risk

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Contents
Assessing Risk

5
5
9
11
12
13
19
19

Prevention or Reduction of Exposure to Asbestos


Control Programme

Asbestos

20
21
21

References

24

Factors to Consider when Assessing Risks from Chemical Agents


Assessment
Effectiveness of Existing Control Measures
Principles of Good Practice
Key Controls
Action Programme
Review

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Assessing Risk
Factors to Consider when Assessing
Risks from Chemical Agents
In Element B1, the different types of hazards presented by various chemical agents were
considered. The hazard is only one aspect of the risk, the likelihood of the hazard
being realised and the consequence for individuals exposed is dependent upon a number
of factors which should be taken into account during the assessment and include:

The hazardous properties of the substance, including health effects;

Level of exposure;

Numbers of people exposed;

Type and duration of exposure;

Frequency of exposure;

The effect of mixtures;

Particular activities where exposure is likely to be unusually high e.g. maintenance and
accidental release;

Thresholds of exposure;

Effectiveness of existing control measures;

Results from relevant health surveillance and exposure monitoring;

Individual susceptibilities (eg atopic persons, women of child bearing capacity, age,
sensitisation); and

Level of duty (legal standards).

Hazardous Properties
The substances being used in the workplace may have been classified under the GHS in which
case the hazardous properties of the substance and the health effects should be known
to the employer. The substances inherent toxicity is a key factor to consider in the assessment
of health risks as is the amount of substance used, a few grams of material will be much less
hazardous than bulk quantities of chemicals.
This toxicity data can be established from the material safety data sheets (MSDS) provided with
the substances. Whilst toxicity data is readily available from the various sources, e.g. suppliers
and manufacturers, the onus of assessing the risk to employees using the substance remains
with the employer.

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Level of Exposure
The level of exposure of workers using the substance may be affected by numerous aspects of
the substance and the activity. Specifically the amount or quantity of the substance used within
the activity or process or its concentration, will affect the level of exposure of individuals. Where
a chemical or substance being used has high levels of volatility then it is more likely to get into
the atmosphere and specifically the breathing zone of the individual and therefore affect the
level of exposure experienced by the worker. Where the substance in question is particulate
by nature then fine particles may become airborne and expose the worker to the substance
through the respiratory route.
Other routes of entry should be considered by the assessor as these may also contribute to
the level of exposure. Where exposure estimates are based solely on airborne criteria then
other routes of entry may increase the actual level of exposure, e.g. skin contact, ingestion and
injection.

Numbers of People Exposed


The more people that are exposed to the hazardous substance the greater the risk of someone
being harmed and consequently the greater the imperative to ensure collective measures are
given priority over individual measures.

Type and Duration of Exposure


The time period over which the person has been exposed is also significant since a number
of substances have an immediate or acute effect and others may have a cumulative effect
resulting in chronic ill-health, e.g. following long-term exposure.
The dose of toxic material is a combination of the concentration to which people are exposed
and the length of time for which they are exposed for. Thus reducing exposure time has a direct
benefit in terms of reducing exposure. A work pattern that includes job rotation or enforced
changes in work activity is one way of achieving this.

Frequency of Exposure
Repeated exposure, even at low levels may lead to cumulative effects if the substance is
deposited in the body, e.g. effects of chronic lead poisoning

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The Effect of Mixtures


Where more than one chemical is used, the way in which substances can interact can be
significant. This could be either:

Independent, the chemicals act in totally different ways and can therefore be considered
separately, e.g. oil and water;

Additive, the chemicals have similar effects on the body, therefore their effects can be
added together, e.g. two similar solvents such as toluene and xylene; or

Synergistic, in which the chemicals have a combined effect which is more dangerous than
the sum of the individual effects (e.g. drinking alcohol while on certain medication, working
with asbestos and smoking, using bleach and toilet cleaner in the same toilet bowl). This
is clearly the most dangerous of the three scenarios and often the most difficult to predict.
Safety data sheets can give some information on incompatible materials.

High Exposure Activities


Non routine activities such as maintenance or breakdowns may cause the usual anticipated
control measures to be by-passed or non-existent. In such circumstances the level of exposure
may be more than would normally be the case. The assessment should consider these
circumstances and where appropriate specific assessments should be completed on a job by
job basis.

How the Work is Undertaken


The amount of physical effort involved in carrying out the work is likely to affect the individuals
susceptibility to substances in the working environment. As the bodys work rate increases so
breathing becomes deeper, increasing the likelihood of inhaling substances or particles deep
into the lungs. The pores on the skin open in an effort to maintain the bodys temperature
through evaporative cooling. This may increase the likelihood of dermatitic conditions through
skin contact.
The work methods which are used or likely to be used need to be carefully evaluated.
Foreseeable short-cuts and errors, which could lead to exposure, should be considered as well
as levels of supervision necessary to ensure that individuals comply with the systems of work
put in place.

Emergencies
It is important to consider foreseeable emergency scenarios, e.g. a large container of hazardous
chemical splitting and spilling its contents causing widespread uncontrolled exposure to the
substance.

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Environmental Conditions
The risk outdoors can be much less since the contaminant is more likely to be dispersed.
Variations in temperature, relative humidity and airflow can also have a significant influence
on the concentration and exposures to substances, e.g. higher concentrations of vapour from
volatile liquids are more likely at elevated temperatures where there is little or no air movement.

Thresholds of Exposure
The long and short term exposure limits for exposure to airborne hazardous substances should
be established from such sources as Chapter 5 of the ILO Code of Practice Safety in the
Use of Chemicals at Work (ILO, 1993). Where this is not practicable, employers should obtain
information provided by other bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC), the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the European Communities
and other international and national institutions.

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Assessment
The ILO Code of Practice: Ambient Factors in the Workplace (ILO; 2001) recommends a three
stage assessment process:

First Stage
As the first stage of the assessment, the employer should obtain information on:

Hazardous substances that are present or likely to occur, along with other hazardous
ambient factors;

Activities that take place; and

Any hazardous substances or processes that may easily be eliminated.

Consideration should be given to obtaining information of the:

Intrinsic hazards of the raw materials, products and by products according to the physical
states (e.g. solid, liquid, gas) in which they occur or are produced;

Ambient conditions (e.g. barometric pressure, temperature, etc.) under which the
hazardous substances are used or produced; and

Impact of either the change in phase of the hazardous substances (e.g. solid to liquid
phase) or fluctuations in the ambient conditions on the health of workers exposed, the
public and the environment.

In the case of chemicals, the employer should obtain information from suppliers in accordance
with the provisions of Chapter 5 of the ILO Code of Practice; Safety in the use of chemicals at
work (ILO, 1993). Where this is not practicable employers should obtain information provided by
other bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the International
Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the European Communities and other international
and national institutions.
When obtaining information for assessment, employers should take account of specific work
situations where workers are likely to be exposed, for example, to:

Hazardous fumes as by-products (e.g. welding);

Hazardous substances and/or oxygen deficiency in confined spaces;

Prolonged periods (such as during overtime) with the risk of accumulation of higher doses;

Higher concentrations due to fluctuations in ambient conditions (e.g. hot environments


where vapour pressures of hazardous substances may be elevated);

Absorption through multiple routes (inhalation, ingestion, absorption through the skin);

Hazardous substances that may be present even in concentrations below exposure limits
while performing arduous tasks.

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Second Stage
At the second stage of the assessment, the employer should use the information obtained
to assess the risk to health resulting from exposure, especially from the effects of chemical
mixtures, and should also take account of:

Routes of entry (skin, inhalation, ingestion);

The risk of penetration through damaged skin or seepage through personal protective
equipment;

The risk of ingestion (due to personal hygiene levels and cultural variations);

Levels of airborne concentrations of hazardous substances;

The rate at which work is performed (e.g. arduous tasks);

The length of exposure (e.g. higher exposures resulting from prolonged overtime); and

The influence of other ambient factors (e.g. heat) in enhancing the risk of exposure.

Third Stage
During the third stage of the assessment, the need for a programme for the measurement of
airborne contaminants should be determined. It may also be preceded by simple qualitative
tests such as the use of smoke tubes to determine ventilation characteristics, and the use of
dust lamps for dust emissions. Such a programme is required to:

Determine the extent of exposure of workers; and/or

Check the effectiveness of engineering control measures.

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Effectiveness of Existing Control


Measures
Having identified all the potential risk factors an assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness
of control measures should now be undertaken. Controls may be deemed to be adequate and
therefore the activity may not require further control measures. Conversely the existing measure
may need to be updated or enhanced in the light of the assessment or assessment review.

Results from Relevant Health Surveillance and


Exposure Monitoring
Health surveillance may be required when work with certain substances is carried out. Health
data may indicate the effects on health of the particular substance or compliance with biological
monitoring guidance values (BMGVs) which may indicate the take up of substances rather than
health effects. Other exposure monitoring data may be used to evaluate the risks associated
with exposure to substances. Such data may be gathered from environmental monitoring or
personal monitoring activities.

Individual Factors
Individual factors may have a significant impact on the variability of response to exposure to
substances and includes factors such as:

Age, the significance of young people in the workplace and the associated risk control
measures that are required to protect them in the workplace;

Gender, where there are specific risks to the reproduction systems;

The potential for effects on new and expectant working mothers where there are any
additional risks will need to be addressed to both the mother and child;

The possible effects of mutagens and teratogens on women of child bearing age, not just
new and expectant mothers;

Genetic make-up, including ethnicity and inherited characteristics;

General health, nutritional state and the condition of the immune system; where the
existence of an existing medical condition may cause immunosuppression, i.e. reduction
in the defensive capabilities of the body;

Atopic individuals who have a particular tendency to allergic reactions and a history of
asthma and / or eczema. Such individuals are more likely to be affected by high molecular
weight protein antigens such as flour, grain, rodent urine, mite faeces, etc.; and

Pre-existing medical conditions, which could be made worse by exposure to chemicals.

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Principles of Good Practice


The principles of good practice for the control of exposure to substances hazardous to health
are set out in the ILO Code of Practice; Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work these are:

Elimination;

Substitution; and

Control

Elimination
The most effective way of controlling the risk from a hazardous substance is not to use it at
all. In most industrial processes this is not realistic, particularly in manufacturing. There may
be some situations however, where a task could be undertaken by means other than use of
chemicals. For example, physical means could be used to clear blocked drains rather than
using highly acidic drain cleaning chemicals.

Substitution
Often a chemical with similar properties is significantly less hazardous. For example, benzene is
a carcinogen with a ILO Workplace Exposure Limit of 1 ppm, Toluene is a similar solvent, but
not considered carcinogenic, with a Workplace Exposure Limit of 50 ppm. Increasingly, water
based paints are used instead of solvent based materials this is an example of environmental
imperatives being in line with health and safety priorities.
When considering substitution, it is important to ensure that the replacement material really
does present a lower risk overall. For example, a material may have a lower acute toxicity, but
be more irritating to the skin and eyes. A consideration of all the risk factors associated with the
way in which a material is used within a process will need to be made.

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Control
Control measures to provide protection for workers could be any combination of the following:
a.

Good design and installation practice:


(i) totally enclosed process and handling systems;
(ii) segregation of the hazardous process from the operators or from other processes;
(iii) plants processes or work systems which minimise generation of, or suppress or
contain, hazardous dust, fumes, etc., and which limit the area of contamination in the
event of spills and leaks;
(iv) partial enclosure, with local exhaust ventilation;
(v) local exhaust ventilation;
(vi) sufficient general ventilation;

b.

Work systems and practices:


(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

c.

reduction of the numbers of workers exposed and exclusion of non-essential access;


reduction in the period of exposure of workers;
regular cleaning of contaminated walls, surfaces, etc.;
use and proper maintenance of engineering control measures;
provision of means for safe storage and disposal of chemicals hazardous to health;

Personal protection:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

where the above measures do not suffice, suitable personal protective equipment
should be provided until such time as the risk is eliminated or minimised to a level
that would not pose a threat to health;
prohibition of eating, chewing, drinking and smoking in contaminated areas;
provision of adequate facilities for washing, changing and storage of clothing,
including arrangements for laundering contaminated clothing;
use of signs and notices;
adequate arrangements in the event of an emergency.

Key Controls
Further information as to the key controls are detailed below:

Totally Enclosed Process and Handling Systems;

Partial Enclosure, With Local Exhaust Ventilation;

Local Exhaust Ventilation;

General Ventilation;

Administration Controls;

Information, Instruction and Training; and

Change of Work Methods

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Totally Enclosed Process and Handling Systems


This is the most effective of the engineering controls, but is likely to be expensive to achieve
and will lead to clear difficulties with respect to handling materials. However, where particularly
hazardous materials are used (e.g. carcinogens) there is a greater imperative to totally enclose
a process. Examples of full enclosure are:

Fully contained reactor vessel and pipework;

Glove box;

Robotised spray paint booth;

Enclosed powder coating process; and

Various processes involving filling and emptying of containers can be undertaken under
enclosed conditions if required.

These plant or processes or systems of work minimise generation of, or suppress or contain,
the hazardous dust, fume, micro-organism, etc., and limit the area of contamination in the event
of spills or leaks.
Figure 1: Gloveboxes

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Partial Enclosure, with Local Exhaust


Ventilation
Exhaust ventilation or extraction is the key to most engineering controls for hazardous materials.
The greater the process can be enclosed, the more effective the control will be.
Examples of partially enclosed systems include:

Fume cupboards;

Spray booths;

Ventilated work benches / cabinets; and

A range of partially enclosed processes.

Figure 2: Partial Enclosure with LEV

Partial enclosure with LEV

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Local Exhaust Ventilation


Where the process cannot be enclosed, ventilation can still be an important control measure. In
particular, Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) ensures that the contaminant is reduced, as much
as possible, at source, i.e. before it gets the opportunity to disperse into the wider environment
where it may be inhaled by operators.
Examples of Local Exhaust Ventilation include:

Flexible hoses and captor hoods which can be positioned to the source of the release, e.g.
Welding fume extractors;

Extraction equipment associated with grinding wheels, etc. For these it is important that,
as far as possible, the hood is in a position to collect the dust, within the direction of its
movement;

Lip extraction as used for solvent baths, etc; and

Soldering extractors, including the tool-tip extraction systems.

General Ventilation
For relatively low risk situations involving small quantities of material or relatively low hazard
substances, it may be sufficient to provide good general (dilution) ventilation within the
workplace. This can either be natural involving windows and other openings, or more usually in
a workplace forced extraction.

Administration Controls
The technical measures outlined above are sometimes referred to as engineering controls.
Control measures are not however restricted to such technical fixes, it is important to remember
that there are a number of softer measures which can also be effective in reducing exposure
to hazardous materials. Such measures include:

Reduction of numbers of employees exposed and exclusion of non-essential access;

Reduction in the duration and / or frequency of exposure for employees. Job rotation can
ensure that no group of employees in particular are subject to excessive exposure;

Regular clearing of contamination from, or disinfecting of, walls, surfaces, etc.;

Provision of means of safe storage and disposal of substances hazardous to health;

Prohibition of eating, drinking, smoking etc in contaminated areas; and

Provision of adequate facilities for washing, changing and storage of clothing, including
arrangements for laundering contaminated clothing.

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Information, Instruction and Training


Employers should provide suitable and sufficient information, instruction and training to
employees who undertake work which involves exposure to substances hazardous to health.
The information, instruction and training should include:

Details of the substances hazardous to health to which the employee is liable to be


exposed including:

The names of those substances and the risk which they present to health;

Any relevant workplace exposure limit;

Access to any relevant safety data sheet, and other legislative provisions which
concern the hazardous properties of those substances;

The significant findings of the risk assessment;

The appropriate precautions and actions to be taken by the employee in order to safeguard
himself and other employees at the workplace;

The results of any monitoring of exposure;

The collective results of any health surveillance undertaken in a format which prevent
those results from being identified as relating to a particular person; and

Written instructions and, if appropriate the display of notices, which outline the procedures
for handling.

Change of Work Methods


Changing the means of application of a hazardous substance, e.g. painting by hand with a brush,
rather than paint spraying, will significantly reduce the generation of airborne contaminants.

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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


The use of personal protective equipment should not be regarded as an alternative to engineering
or other suitable control measures but should be provided and maintained where such control
measures cannot ensure adequate protection.
Effective action should continue to be taken by the employer to ensure that control measures
are developed and applied in order to eliminate or minimise the risk to a level at which personal
protection may not be required.
Personal protective equipment includes respiratory protective equipment, protective clothing
and footwear, equipment to protect the face, eyes and hands, and equipment to prevent an
accumulation of static electricity, e.g. anti-static footwear.
Personal protective equipment should afford adequate protection against the risk from those
hazardous chemicals to which the wearer is exposed, throughout the period during which such
equipment is necessary, having regard to the type of work.
Items of personal protective equipment provided should comply with national law or be in
accordance with criteria approved or recognised by the competent authority and based on
national or international standards.
The equipment provided should be suitable for its purpose and there should be a sufficient
supply, readily available in the workplace for workers who require it.
Workers required to wear protective equipment should be fully instructed in its use.
Workers should use the equipment provided when they are exposed to the risk as they were
shown in their training.
Employers should provide supervision to ensure that the equipment is properly used.
All personal protective equipment that is necessary for safety in the use of chemicals should be
provided and maintained by the employer without cost to the worker.

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Action Programme
On completion of the assessment programme an action programme should be developed to
reduce the risk to an acceptable level. This action plan should determine priorities and set
measurable timescales for implementation.

Review
The assessment should be reviewed whenever there has been a significant change in the work
to which it relates or when there is reason to suspect that it is no longer valid. The review should
be incorporated in a system of management accountability which ensures that control action
shown to be necessary by the initial assessment is in fact taken.
Reasons indicating that an assessment might no longer be valid include:

Complaints by workers of adverse health effects and detection of health impairment;

An accident, dangerous occurrence or incident leading to exposure to hazardous ambient


factors or risks which is different from that quantified in the initial assessment;

Subsequent measurement of exposure levels;

Availability of updated information on the hazards or risks of hazardous ambient factors;


and

Plant modification, including engineering control measures, changes in the process or


methods of work and in the volume or rate of production which lead to a change in the
hazardous ambient factors present.

The review should reconsider all parts of the initial assessment, and in particular whether it is
now:

Practicable to eliminate any hazardous ambient factors; or

Possible to control at source and minimize hazards or risks which had previously required
personal protective equipment.

The review should consider the results of the programme for monitoring of exposure levels and
whether:

Exposure levels previously considered to be acceptable should now be regarded as too


high in the light of available and updated information on the hazards and risks of hazardous
ambient factors;

Any control action needs to be taken; and

The frequency and type of monitoring is still appropriate.

The results of the review should be recorded and madeavailable in the same way s the initia
assesmet

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Asbestos
Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral. Asbestos became increasingly popular among
manufacturers and builders in the late 19th century because of its sound absorption, average
tensile strength, its resistance to fire, heat, electrical and chemical damage, and affordability.
It was used in such applications as electrical insulation for hotplate wiring and in building
insulation. When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibres are often mixed
with cement (resulting in fibre cement) or woven into fabric or mats.
There are three main types of asbestos: Crocidolite (blue asbestos), Amosite (brown asbestos)
and Chrysotile (white asbestos). Asbestos products change colour depending on the way they
have been manufactured or treated
The ILO Code of Practice; Safety in the Use of Asbestos: (ILO 1984) sets out the requirements
that:
in the light of national conditions and practice, the competent authority should, in consultation
with the most representative organisations of employers and workers, issue or approve and
periodically update regulations or other suitable provisions for the protection of workers health
against hazards due to occupational exposure to asbestos dust.
Each country should therefore introduce national laws to govern and control the use of asbestos.
The employer is responsible for the control and prevention of exposure to airborne asbestos
in the working environment. The employer should therefore equip and maintain buildings,
installations, machines and workplaces and organise work in such a way that the working
environment is contaminated as little as possible and that the exposure of workers is limited as
far as is reasonably practicable and is at least within the asbestos exposure limits.
The employer should notify the competent authority of those working operations and workplaces
where asbestos or materials containing asbestos are present according to the terms of any
authorisation procedures.
When buildings and installations are being designed and when any technical change occurs
which may affect the content of asbestos dust in the air at the workplace, the employer should
stipulate and take appropriate measures to prevent, as far as is reasonably practicable, the
presence of asbestos dust in the working environment.

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Prevention or Reduction of Exposure to


Asbestos
Employers must prevent the exposure of employees to asbestos, so far as is reasonably
practicable. It may be that the work which disturbs the asbestos or asbestos containing material
(ACM) could be done via another method, e.g. removal of a whole door instead of the asbestos
insulation board panel attached to it. Employers must ensure that the numbers of employees
exposed to asbestos is kept as low as reasonably practicable. All unnecessary personnel
should be excluded from the working areas.
Where it is not reasonably practicable to prevent exposure to asbestos the employer must
follow prioritised measures in:

The design and use of appropriate work processes, systems and engineering controls and
the provision and use of work equipment and materials in order to avoid or minimise the
release of asbestos fibres, e.g. using water to dampen materials (damping down) before
their removal and avoid the use of abrasive power tools; and

Controlling exposure at source, including adequate ventilation systems and appropriate


organisational measures, e.g. carrying out work within an enclosure that is under negative
pressure connected to appropriate hygiene facilities by an airlock system.

Control Programme
In accordance with the ILO Code of Practise each employer, after consultation with workers
representatives and in accordance with local/national legal requirements, should establish and
implement a general control programme to reduce the exposure of workers to asbestos dust.
Where appropriate, the programme should take due account of the specific features based on
the evaluation of each workplace and should include in written form at least the following:
a.

a description of each operation in which airborne asbestos is emitted, the processes


and machinery used, the materials handled, the control devices, the number of exposed
workers, the job responsibilities of each worker, the operating procedures and the
maintenance practices;

b.

a description of the specific means for controlling exposure to asbestos dust;

c.

engineering plans, safety data sheets, study reports or other relevant technical information;

d.

air monitoring data on the efficiency of control measures;

e.

a description of the work practices or administrative controls needed; and

f.

a detailed schedule for implementation of the control programme.

Upon request, the written programme should be made available at the workplace to the labour
inspector and the workers representatives.

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Enclosure
To prevent or reduce the spread of asbestos, employers should where reasonably practicable,
make sure the work area is completely enclosed to contain any asbestos debris and airborne
asbestos fibres, either by erecting a purpose-made enclosure or by sealing the whole or part of
the area where the work is to be carried out. Before the work is started within the enclosure, its
integrity should be checked by smoke testing. The filtered air extraction equipment should also
be tested to ensure that it is achieving the required negative pressure.
If it is not reasonably practicable to enclose the work area then the area should be marked by
suitable warning notices and by physical barriers. The employer should assess the risks to
workers nearby and, if necessary, the work should be done when other workers or members
of the public will not be in the vicinity. Where it is not reasonably practicable to build a full
enclosure, the stripping techniques used must minimise the possibility of fibres being released,
e.g. by using damp methods etc.

RPE
In addition to these measures the employer should provide suitable respiratory protective
equipment (RPE) that will reduce the concentration of asbestos in the air inhaled to a level
that is not only below the relevant control limit but is deemed to be as low as is reasonably
practicable. The RPE should be matched to the job, the environment, the anticipated maximum
exposure and the wearer. It should fit properly, taking into account such issues as facial hair and
spectacles. RPE is an important part of the control regime but it must not be the sole measure
used to reduce exposure but should supplement other measures.
Contaminated PPE should be removed within the enclosure and disposed of along with other
asbestos waste materials in accordance with local/national requirements.

Emergencies
Procedures should be in place to deal with foreseeable emergencies such as accidents,
incidents or other emergency which could put people at risk because of the presence of
asbestos. Information should be made available to the emergency services so that when
they are attending an incident they can properly protect themselves against the risks from the
asbestos.

Waste
Waste should be placed in suitable, labelled containers as it is produced. Containers should
be sealed and the outside cleaned before removal from the enclosure or work area. They
should be taken to a suitable and clearly identified secure storage area if they are not being
disposed of at once.
Containers should prevent any of the contents escaping during normal handling. For most
waste, double plastic sacks are suitable. Large pieces of rigid material should not be broken
or cut up if it is avoidable prior to disposal. They should be double-wrapped intact in plastic
sheeting or other suitable material and placed in a sealed, labelled container such as a lockable
skip. Bags containing asbestos waste should be transported to a licensed disposal site in a
suitable vehicle in accordance with local/national requirements.

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Information, Instruction and Training


Adequate information, instruction and training should be given to all employees who are, or
who are liable to be, exposed to asbestos, or who supervise such employees, so that they are
aware of:

The findings of the risk assessment;

The properties of asbestos and its effects on health, including its interaction with smoking;

The types of products or materials likely to contain asbestos;

The operations which could result in asbestos exposure and the importance of preventive
controls to minimise exposure;

Safe work practices, control measures, and protective equipment;

The purpose, choice, limitations, proper use and maintenance of respiratory protective
equipment;

Emergency procedures;

Hygiene requirements;

Decontamination procedures;

Waste handling procedures;

Medical examination requirements; and

The control limit and the need for air monitoring.

All information, instruction and training given should include an appropriate level of detail and
be suitable to the job. The objectives of the information etc should be clear to the recipients and
if appropriate, the understanding of the information should be checked.

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Element IB2: Hazardous Substances and Other Chemicals Assessment of Risk

References
International Labour Office: Code of Practice; Safety in the Use of Asbestos: (ILO, 1984)
International Labour Office: Code of Practice; Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work (ILO,
1993)
International Labour Office: Ambient Factors in the Workplace: (ILO, 2001)

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