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You are on page 1of 12

J3182 / UNIT3 / 1

Unit 3

Title:

Engine

analysis (part 2)

process

General objective:

To understand the structure of dual-combustion cycle and mean

effective pressure.

Specific objectives:

At the end of this unit you should be able to:

1.

2.

3.

4.

J3182 / UNIT3 / 2

Input 3

This section introduces the subject matter that you

are going to learn.

3.0

Introduction

In this unit, we will introduce the meaning of dual combustion cycle, heat

supplied at constant volume and at constant pressure.

Modern oil engines known also as diesel engine, use solid injection of the

fuel. The ideal cycle which is used as a basis for comparison is called the dual

combustion cycle or the mixed cycle, and is shown on a p-v diagram in Figure.

3.1 In this cycle, heat is supplied in two parts; the first part at constant volume

and the second in constant pressure. Hence the name dual combustion.

P

P3=p4

p.v conts

2

5

1

V2=V3

V1=V5

J3182 / UNIT3 / 3

3.2

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

In order to fix the thermal efficiency completely three factors are

necessary. There are the ratio of compression, rv = v1/ v2 ; the ratio of pressure, rp

= p3/p2 and the ratio of volume and cut, rc = v4/v3 .

Then it can be shown that 1

1

rv

rp rc 1

rp 1 rp rc 1

compression ratio but also on the relative amount of heat supplied at constant

volume and at constant pressure. The best method of calculating thermal

efficiency is to evaluate each temperature throughout the cycle and then use this

equation, 1 Q2 / Q1 . The heat supplied, Q1, is calculated using the equation,

Q1 c v T3 T2 c p T4 T3

J3182 / UNIT3 / 4

Example 1.0

An oil engine takes in air at 1.01 bar, 20 0C and the maximum cycle

pressure is 69 bar. The compression ratio is 18/1. Draw the p-v diagram and

calculate the air standard thermal efficiency based on the dual combustion cycle.

Assume that the heat added at constant volume is equal to the heat added at

constant pressure.

The cycle is shown on p-v diagram in Figure. 3.1 using the Otto cycle equation,

T2 V1

T1 V2

180.4 = 3.18

T2 = 3.18 x T1

T2 = 3.18 x 293 = 931 K.

(Where T1 = 20 + 273 = 293 K)

Based on Figure 3.1, from 2-3, the process is at constant volume, hence

P3 T3

P2 T2

(since

i.e.

T3 =

P3V3

PV

2 2 and V3 =V2 )

T3

T2

P3

69 391

T2

P2

P2

i.e.

i.e.

P2 V1

P1 V2

181.4 57.2

J3182 / UNIT3 / 5

Then substituting,

T3 =

69 931

1112 K

57.8

Now the heat added at constant volume is equal to the heat added at constant

pressure in this example, therefore,

cv(T3 T2 ) = cp (T4 T3 )

i.e.

:- T4 =

i.e.

0.718 181

1112

1.005

T4 =1241.4 K

Based on Figure 3.1,find T5, it is necessary to know the value of the

V4 T4 1241.4

1.116

V3 T3

1112

Therefore

V5 V1 V1 V3

1

18

16.14

V4 V4 V2 V4

1.116

T4 V5

T5 V4

i.e.

16.140.4 3.04

T5 =

1241.4

408 K

3.04

J3182 / UNIT3 / 6

(since in this example the heat added at constant volume is equal to the heat

added at the constant pressure).

:.

Q2 = cv (T5 T1 ) = 0.718(408 293) = 82.6 kJ/kg.

Then from the equation

Q2

82.6

1

1 0.318 0.682 or 68.2 %.

Q1

260

It should be mentioned here that the modern high-speed oil engine operates on

a cycle for which the Otto cycle is a better basis of comparison. Also, since the

Otto cycle calculation for thermal efficiency is much simpler than that of the dual

combustion cycle, then this is another reason for using the Otto cycle as a

standard of comparison.

J3182 / UNIT3 / 7

Activity 3A

This section tests your understanding of the

subject matter. You have to complete this section

by following the instructions carefully.

3.1

3.2

3.3

Explain the process for each point on the p-v diagram in question 3.2.

3.4

thermal efficiency when the pressure and temperature at the start of the

compression are 1.01 bar and 18 0 C respectively. The compression ratio is 17/1.

J3182 / UNIT3 / 8

Input

This section introduces the subject matter that you

are going to learn.

3.5

In order to compare reciprocating engines, a mean effective pressure

method is used. The mean effective pressure is defined as the height of

rectangle having the same length and area as the cycle plotted on a p-v

diagram. This is illustrated in an Otto cycle in Figure 3.2. The rectangle ABCDA

is the same length as the cycle 12341, and area ABCDA is equal to area 12341.

Then the mean effective pressure, Pm is the height AB of the rectangle, The work

done per kg air can therefore be written as W = area ABCDA = Pm (V1 V2 )

P

3

2

4

B

1

C

Pm

A

J3182 / UNIT3 / 9

The term (V1-V2) is proportional to the swept volume of the cylinder, hence it can

be seen from equation before that the mean effective pressure gives a measure

of work output per swept volume. It can therefore be used to compare similar

engines of difference sizes.

The mean effective pressure discussed in this section is for the air standard

cycle.

Example 2.0

Calculate the mean effective pressure for the cycle in example 1.0

the heat supplied, Q1 , and the thermal efficiency were found to be 260

kj/kg and 68.2% respectively. From the equation,

W

Q1

Now from the definition of mean effective pressure, we have

W = Pm (V1 V2)

Using equation pv =RT and rv = V1/V2 =18, then

V

17

17 RT1 17 287 293

V1 V2 V1 1 V1

18

18

18 p1

18 1.01 105

V1 V2 = 0.768 m3/kg.

i.e.

Then substituting,

W = Pm x 0.768 or Pm = W/0.768 kJ/m3

i.e.

Pm =

177 103

2.25 bar

0.768 105

J3182 / UNIT3 / 10

Activity 3B

This section tests your understanding of the

subject matter. You have to complete this section

by following the instructions carefully.

3.5

3.6

Draw and label the mean effective pressure cycle on P-v diagram.

3.7

The pressure and temperature of air standard dual combustion cycle are given

below,

1.

2.

T1 = 290 K

T2 = 871.1K

3.

T3 = 1087.5 K

4.

T4 = 1236.3 K

5.

6.

T5 = 429.3 K

P1 = 1.01 bar

and ratio of compression is 16:1. Calculate the thermal efficiency and the mean

effective pressure .

J3182 / UNIT3 / 11

Self

Assessment

each unit.

Question 3-1

In a dual combustion cycle the maximum pressure is 54 bar. Calculate the

thermal efficiency when the pressure and temperature is at the start

of

Question 3-2

Refer to equation 3.4,(page 9) calculate the mean effective pressure .

J3182 / UNIT3 / 12

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