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ENGINE PROCESS ANALYSIS

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Unit 3
Title:

Engine
analysis (part 2)

process

General objective:
To understand the structure of dual-combustion cycle and mean
effective pressure.

Specific objectives:
At the end of this unit you should be able to:
1.

draw the p-v diagram of dual-combustion cycle.

2.

explain the dual-combustion cycle.

3.

explain the mean effective pressure

4.

draw the p-v diagram of mean effective pressure

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Input 3
This section introduces the subject matter that you
are going to learn.
3.0

Introduction
In this unit, we will introduce the meaning of dual combustion cycle, heat
supplied at constant volume and at constant pressure.

3.1 The Dual Combustion Cycle


Modern oil engines known also as diesel engine, use solid injection of the
fuel. The ideal cycle which is used as a basis for comparison is called the dual
combustion cycle or the mixed cycle, and is shown on a p-v diagram in Figure.
3.1 In this cycle, heat is supplied in two parts; the first part at constant volume
and the second in constant pressure. Hence the name dual combustion.
P

P3=p4

p.v conts
2
5
1
V2=V3

V1=V5

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Figure 3.1 : p-v diagram


3.2

The dual combustion cycle process.


1.

Process 1 to 2 is isentropic compression.

2.

Process 2 to 3 is reversible constant volume heating.

3.

Process 3 to 4 is reversible constant pressure heating.

4.

Process 4 to 5 is isentropic expansion.

5.

Process 5 to 1 is reversible constant volume cooling.


In order to fix the thermal efficiency completely three factors are

necessary. There are the ratio of compression, rv = v1/ v2 ; the ratio of pressure, rp
= p3/p2 and the ratio of volume and cut, rc = v4/v3 .
Then it can be shown that 1

1
rv

rp rc 1

rp 1 rp rc 1

The efficiency of dual combustion cycle depends not only on the


compression ratio but also on the relative amount of heat supplied at constant
volume and at constant pressure. The best method of calculating thermal
efficiency is to evaluate each temperature throughout the cycle and then use this
equation, 1 Q2 / Q1 . The heat supplied, Q1, is calculated using the equation,
Q1 c v T3 T2 c p T4 T3

The heat rejected, Q2 , is calculated by Q2 cv T5 T1

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Example 1.0
An oil engine takes in air at 1.01 bar, 20 0C and the maximum cycle
pressure is 69 bar. The compression ratio is 18/1. Draw the p-v diagram and
calculate the air standard thermal efficiency based on the dual combustion cycle.
Assume that the heat added at constant volume is equal to the heat added at
constant pressure.
The cycle is shown on p-v diagram in Figure. 3.1 using the Otto cycle equation,

T2 V1

T1 V2

180.4 = 3.18

T2 = 3.18 x T1
T2 = 3.18 x 293 = 931 K.
(Where T1 = 20 + 273 = 293 K)
Based on Figure 3.1, from 2-3, the process is at constant volume, hence
P3 T3

P2 T2

(since

i.e.

T3 =

P3V3
PV
2 2 and V3 =V2 )
T3
T2

P3
69 391
T2
P2
P2

To find P2 using the Otto cycle equation


i.e.
i.e.

P2 V1

P1 V2

181.4 57.2

p2 = 57.2 x 1.01 = 57.8 bar.

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Then substituting,
T3 =

69 931
1112 K
57.8

Now the heat added at constant volume is equal to the heat added at constant
pressure in this example, therefore,
cv(T3 T2 ) = cp (T4 T3 )
i.e.

0.718(1112 931) = 1.005 (T4 1112)


:- T4 =

i.e.

0.718 181
1112
1.005

T4 =1241.4 K
Based on Figure 3.1,find T5, it is necessary to know the value of the

volume ratio, V5/V4. At constant pressure from 3 to 4,


V4 T4 1241.4

1.116
V3 T3
1112

Therefore
V5 V1 V1 V3
1

18
16.14
V4 V4 V2 V4
1.116

Then, using the Otto cycle equation method,


T4 V5

T5 V4

i.e.

16.140.4 3.04

T5 =

1241.4
408 K
3.04

Now the heat supplied, Q1 = cv (T3 T2) + cp (T4 T3 ) or Q1 = 2cv (T3 T2 )

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(since in this example the heat added at constant volume is equal to the heat
added at the constant pressure).

:.

Q1 = 2 x 0.718 x (1112 931) = 260 kJ/kg.

The heat rejected, Q2, is given by


Q2 = cv (T5 T1 ) = 0.718(408 293) = 82.6 kJ/kg.
Then from the equation

Q2
82.6
1
1 0.318 0.682 or 68.2 %.
Q1
260

It should be mentioned here that the modern high-speed oil engine operates on
a cycle for which the Otto cycle is a better basis of comparison. Also, since the
Otto cycle calculation for thermal efficiency is much simpler than that of the dual
combustion cycle, then this is another reason for using the Otto cycle as a
standard of comparison.

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Activity 3A
This section tests your understanding of the
subject matter. You have to complete this section
by following the instructions carefully.
3.1

Define dual combustion cycle

3.2

Draw and label dual combustion cycle on a P-v diagram.

3.3

Explain the process for each point on the p-v diagram in question 3.2.

3.4

In a dual combustion cycle, the maximum pressure is 64 bar. Calculate the


thermal efficiency when the pressure and temperature at the start of the
compression are 1.01 bar and 18 0 C respectively. The compression ratio is 17/1.

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Input
This section introduces the subject matter that you
are going to learn.
3.5

The mean effective pressure


In order to compare reciprocating engines, a mean effective pressure
method is used. The mean effective pressure is defined as the height of
rectangle having the same length and area as the cycle plotted on a p-v
diagram. This is illustrated in an Otto cycle in Figure 3.2. The rectangle ABCDA
is the same length as the cycle 12341, and area ABCDA is equal to area 12341.
Then the mean effective pressure, Pm is the height AB of the rectangle, The work
done per kg air can therefore be written as W = area ABCDA = Pm (V1 V2 )

P
3

2
4
B

1
C

Pm
A

Figure 3.2 : P-V diagram and Pm

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The term (V1-V2) is proportional to the swept volume of the cylinder, hence it can
be seen from equation before that the mean effective pressure gives a measure
of work output per swept volume. It can therefore be used to compare similar
engines of difference sizes.
The mean effective pressure discussed in this section is for the air standard
cycle.
Example 2.0
Calculate the mean effective pressure for the cycle in example 1.0
the heat supplied, Q1 , and the thermal efficiency were found to be 260
kj/kg and 68.2% respectively. From the equation,

W
Q1

W = Q1 0.682 260 177kJ / kg.


Now from the definition of mean effective pressure, we have
W = Pm (V1 V2)
Using equation pv =RT and rv = V1/V2 =18, then

V
17
17 RT1 17 287 293

V1 V2 V1 1 V1

18
18
18 p1
18 1.01 105

V1 V2 = 0.768 m3/kg.

i.e.

Then substituting,
W = Pm x 0.768 or Pm = W/0.768 kJ/m3
i.e.

Pm =

177 103
2.25 bar
0.768 105

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Activity 3B
This section tests your understanding of the
subject matter. You have to complete this section
by following the instructions carefully.
3.5

Define the meaning of mean effective pressure

3.6

Draw and label the mean effective pressure cycle on P-v diagram.

3.7

The pressure and temperature of air standard dual combustion cycle are given
below,
1.
2.

T1 = 290 K
T2 = 871.1K

3.

T3 = 1087.5 K

4.

T4 = 1236.3 K

5.
6.

T5 = 429.3 K
P1 = 1.01 bar

and ratio of compression is 16:1. Calculate the thermal efficiency and the mean
effective pressure .

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Self
Assessment

Self-assessment evaluates your understanding of


each unit.
Question 3-1
In a dual combustion cycle the maximum pressure is 54 bar. Calculate the
thermal efficiency when the pressure and temperature is at the start

of

compression 1.01 bar and 17 0 C respectively. The ratio of compression is 16/1.


Question 3-2
Refer to equation 3.4,(page 9) calculate the mean effective pressure .

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