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Buildings as they are designed and used today, contribute to serious environmental
problems because of excessive conception of energy and other natural resources. The close
connection between energy use in buildings and environmental damage arises because energy
intensive- solutions sought to construct a building and meets it demands for heating, cooling,
ventilation and lighting cause severe depletion of invaluable environmental resources.
Buildings consume,
70% of the Electricity
39% of Private Energy
25% of all water supplies
39% of all raw materials
And as the same time;
Buildings generate,
35% of Solid Wastes
36% of CO2 emissions
46% of SO2 emissions
19% of NOx emissions
10% of fine particulate emissions


1. Global warming
2. Ozone layer deflection
3. Waste management
As part of climate change caused by human activity, global warming seems to be well underway.
Average temperatures have risen (0.5F) over the past 100 years and seem destined to rise 1F to
2F or more by 2050, without dramatic changes in current patterns of energy use and continued
global population and economic growth. A number of gases contribute to global warming,
including carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning (from homes, cars, buildings and industry) and
other gases also have global warming potential, including chemicals in common use such as
chlorinated hydrocarbons used in refrigerants, nitrous oxide (laughing gas), trichloroethane and
other halogenated compounds.

1.1 global warming


Although ozone is a toxic substance, it has the incredibly important task (for us, living)
of absorbing, high up from the surface of the earths crust, ultraviolet radiation, which is highly
hazardous for flora and fauna. For humans the main problem is the increased risk of skin tumors.
Current estimations show that the ozone layer is about 510 times thinner compared with the
first estimations of the ozone layer. The main agent behind these damages is CFC, but also
HCFC and tetra chloromethane. These substances, when they reach the stratosphere, provoke the
transformation of molecular ozone and cause the depletion of the ozone layer. It should be added
that it takes approximately 20 years for these substances to reach the stratosphere, which means
that even if we stop all CFC emissions now, the damages will still occur for many years.


Many countries have to face the problems of a lack of appropriate places for landfill sites,
soil and ground water pollution, olfactory pollution and explosion dangers in landfills, as well as
problems with waste transportation (fuel consumption, noise, air pollution). In landfills that are
not properly controlled, as we mentioned before, due to humidity the heavy metals can leak from
batteries into nature and permanently pollute ground water levels. Batteries and accumulators are
greatly responsible for the presence of mercury, cadmium, zinc and nickel in landfills. All this is
strictly correlated with producer strategies as well as with the behavior of consumers. In fact, a
consumer can also make choices according to packaging use (single or multiple) or according to
the characteristics of product engagement (Throw-away or durable goods). Consumer behavior
can also determine premature disposal, for example in the case of cultural obsolescence. In the
end, we can be (culpably) careless in searching for possibilities of secondary use, re-selling or
donating goods, or just because we try to avoid the small effort of waste selection.


Energy demand is the difference between the energy production and energy usage. In our
India energy demand is the major issue. Every countrys development is depends upon the
energy availability. Energy is sufficiently available it is foundation of countrys economy
development. When we making energy and building, it will affect the environment.

1.2 Indias energy balance

Demand and supply are a continuously evolving cycle Reduction in demands is

advocated and accepted worldwide as defined in concept of Sustainability

Our need is reduce the energy use and minimize the natural impacts and improve energy
efficiency and improve building efficiency. So good to go to green building


Minimize the demand on non-renewable resources
Maximize the utilization efficiency of these resources when in use
Maximize reuse and recycling of available resources, and Utilization of renewable resources.

1.3 green building

Green building one which minimize the energy use and maximize the renewable energy use
with out compromising human health and comfort. Five major areas is
Sustainable site planning.
Safeguarding water and water efficiency.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Conservation of materials and resources.
Indoor environmental quality.


Locate projects on sites away from wetlands, above the 100-year flood level, away from
prime agricultural land and away from endangered or threatened species habitat. Locate projects
on sites where there is already urban infrastructure to serve them. Locate projects on brown field
sites that have been remediated of contamination; these usually have infrastructure already in
place. Provide opportunities and building infrastructure for people to commute to work using
public transit and bicycles. Minimize parking to discourage excessive auto use. Provide lowemission vehicles and car-sharing arrangements to reduce gasoline use. Protect open space in site
development and restore open space on already impacted sites. Manage storm water to reduce
the rate and quantity of storm water runs, and use best practices to clean storm water before it
leaves the Site.

Manage landscaping and parking lots to reduce excessive areas of open

pavement that cause heating of the area around a building in summer, leading to more airconditioning use. Control interior and exterior light from leaving the site, helping to make skies
darker at night.


Control irrigation water use for landscaping, using as little as possible. Select native
landscaping which demands little or no added water. Look for alternative ways to reduce sewage
flows from the project, possibly even treating the wastewater onsite. Use water-conserving
fixtures inside the building, to reduce overall water demand.
Reduce the energy use (and environmental impact) of buildings 20% Or more below the
level of a standard building. Use onsite renewable energy to supply a portion of the buildings
electrical and gas (thermal energy) needs, using solar photovoltaic (PV)panels or solar water
heating. Commission the building by verifying the functional performance of all energy-using
systems after they are installed but before the building is occupied. Reduce the use of ozoneharming and global-warming chemicals in building refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.
Provide a means to troubleshoot the buildings energy use on a continuing basis by installing
measuring and monitoring devices. Supply 35%ormore of the buildings electrical supply with
purchased green power from on site installations, typically from wind farms.
Install permanent locations for recycling bins to encourage the practice in building
operations. Reuse existing buildings, including interior and exterior materials, to reduce the
energy use and environmental impacts associated with producing new building materials. Reduce
construction waste disposal by 50% or more to cut costs and reduce land fill . Use salvaged and
reclaimed building materials such as decorative brick and wood timbers that are still structurally
sound. Use recycled-content building materials that are made from down cycled materials such
as recycled concrete, dry wall, fly ash from coal fired plants and newspapers. Use materials that
are harvested and processed in the region, within 500 miles, to cut the transportation impacts
associated with bringing them from farther away. Use rapidly renewable materials that have a
ten-year regeneration time or less, such as bamboo, cork, linoleum, wheat board or strawboard

cabinetry. Purchase 50% or more of the wood products in the building from forests certified for
sustainable harvesting and good management practices.
Provide non-smoking buildings, or separate ventilation systems where smoking is
allowed (such as in high-rise housing). Monitor delivery of outside air ventilation so that it
responds to demand by using sensors for carbon dioxide levels to adjust air flow. Provide for
30% increased ventilation above code levels, or natural ventilation of indoor work areas, to
increase the amount of healthy air in the building. Conduct construction activities so that there is
clean air at the startup of systems and no dust or moisture in materials such as ductwork and
sheet rock. The idea is to get rid of new-building smell and its associated toxicity. Use lowemitting materials in the building to reduce sources of future contamination ,including off
gassing from paints and coatings, adhesives and sealants, carpets and backing and composite (or
engineered) wood or agric fiber products. Make sure that areas where chemicals are mixed or
used (such as in house printing plants or large copy rooms) are separately ventilated, and install
walk-off mats or grilles at building entrances to capture contaminants before they enter the
building. Provide for individual thermal comfort of building occupants, with respect to
temperature and humidity. Provide for occupant control of building lighting and ventilation
systems. Provide for adequate day lighting of interior work spaces, using both vision glazing
and overhead light sources such as skylights and roof monitors (vertical glazing). Provide for
views of the outdoors from at least 90% of all workspaces so that people can connect with the


IGBC is the regulatory authority in India that has set guidelines for green buildings. It aims to
usher a green building movement and facilitate India as one of the world leaders in green

I.4 Indian green building logo


The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-INDIA) Green Building

Rating System is a nationally and internationally accepted benchmark for the design,
construction and operation of high performance green buildings. It was setup in the year 1998 by
the US Green Building Association to look into the process of rating the system on an
internationally accepted Standard which is based on certain guidelines and also on credits.
LEED-INDIA rating system provides a roadmap for measuring and documenting success for
every building type and phase of a building lifecycle.


LEED-INDIA promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance

in the following five key areas,
Sustainable Site Development
Water Savings
Energy Efficiency
Material Selection
Indoor Environmental Air Quality


It is based on Points and Pre-requisites in each Category.
69 Points, 7 Pre-requisites in 6 Categories.

Sustainable Sites
Materials and Resources
Water Efficiency
Energy and Atmosphere
Innovation and Design
Indoor Environmental Quality



Points are earned when all the pre-requisites are met with.
Certified (26 32 Points)
Silver (33 38 Points)
Gold (39-51 Points)
Platinum (52 69 Points)


Passive systems provide thermal and visual comfort by using natural energy sources and
sinks e.g. solar radiation, outside air, sky, wet surfaces, vegetation, and thermal gains. Energy
flows in these systems are by natural means such as radiation, conduction, and convection with
minimal or no use of mechanical means. The solar systems vary from one climate to the other.
for example in a cold climate, an engineers aim would be to design a building in such a way that
solar gains are maximized, but in a hot climate, the engineers primary aim would be to reduce
solar gains, and maximize natural ventilation.[1]
Once the passive solar architectural concepts are applied to a design, the load on
conventional systems (HVAC AND LIGHTING) is reduced. Further energy convention is
possible by judicious design of the artificial lighting and HVAC system using energy- efficient
equipment, controls, and operation strategies.[1]
To meet a part of building load. The pressure on the earths nonrenewable resources can
be alleviated by judicious use of earths renewable resources. I.e. solar energy. Use of solar
energy for meeting electrical needs of a building can further reduce conception of conventional
form of energy.[1]


the designer should always aim for efficient structural design, reduced use of
transportation energy and high energy building material (glass, steel, etc.) and promote the use
of low energy materials. Architect can achieve energy efficiency in the building by studying the
macro and microclimate of the site, applying bioclimatic architectural principles to combat the


adverse conditions, and taking advantage of the desirable conditions. A few common design
elements that directly or indirectly affect thermal comfort conditions and there by the energy
consumption in a building and listed below,[3]
Ratio of built form to open spaces
Location of water bodies
Building envelope and fenestration

Landscaping is an important element in alternatively the microclimate of a place. proper
landscaping reduces direct sun from striking and heating up building surface. It prevents
reflected light carrying heat in to a building from the ground or other surfaces. Landscaping
creates different air flow patterns and can be used to direct or divert the wind advantageously by
causing a pressure difference.[3]
The volume of space inside a building that needs to be heated or cooled and its
relationship with the area of the envelope enclosing the volume affect the thermal performance
of the building. This parameter, known as the surface to volume ratio, is determined by the
building form.[3]
Water is a good modifier of microclimate. It takes up a large amount of heat in
evaporation and causes significant cooling especially in a hot and dry climate. In humid climates
water should be avoided as it adds to humidity.[16]


Building orientation is a significant design consideration, mainly with regard to solar
radiation and wind. in predominantly cold regions, building should be oriented to maximize solar
gain, the reverse is advisable for hot regions.[17]
The building envelope and its components are key determinants of the amount of heat
gain and loss and wind that enters inside. The primary elements affecting the performances of a
building envelope are
Materials and construction techniques
Fenestration and shading
Choice of building materials is important in reducing the energy content of buildings
strain on conventional energy can be reduced by use of low- energy materials, efficient structural
design and reduction in transportation energy.[15]
The choice of materials also helps to maximize indoor comfort use of materials and a component
with low embodied energy has been demonstrated in various buildings. The innovative materials
and constructions techniques to reduce embodied energy of the building and attain the desired
comfort conditions conductive to the warm and humid climate.[17]



Insulation is of great value when a building requires mechanical heating or cooling
insulation helps reduce the space conditioning loads. Location of insulation and its optimum
thickness are important. In hot climates, insulation is placed on the outer face (facing exterior) of
the wall so that thermal mass of the wall is weakly coupled with the external source and strongly
coupled with the interior.
Use of 40-mm thick expanded polystyrene insulation on walls and vermiculite concrete
insulation on the roof has brought down space. Conditioning loads of the retreat building by
about 15%.[2]
2.5.3 ROOF
The roof receives significant solar radiations and plays on important role in heat gain or
losses, day lighting and ventilation, depending on the climatic needs, proper roof treatment is
essential. In a hot region, the roof should have enough installing properties to minimize heat
A few roof protection methods are as follows
A cover of deciduous plants or creepers can be provided. Evaporations from leaf surfaces will
keep the rooms cool.
The entire roof surfaces can be converted with inverted earthen pots. It is an insulating cover of
still air over the roof.
A removable cover is an effective roof shading device. This can be mounted close to the roof in
the day and can be rolled up to permit radiative cooling at night. The upper surface of the canvas
should be painted white to minimize the radiation absorbed by the canvas and consequent
conductive heat gain through it.
Effective roof insulation can be provided by using vermiculite concrete. This has been used in
the retreat building and has reduced roof conduction by 60%.[16]


2.5.4 WALLS
Walls are a major part of the building envelope and receive large amounts of solar
radiation. The heat storage capacity and heat conduction property of walls are key to meeting
desired thermal comfort conditions. The wall thickness, material and finishes can be chosen
based on the heating and cooling needs of the building. Appropriate thermal insulation and air
cavities in walls reduce heat transmission in to the building, which is the primary aim in a hot
Air cavities with in walls or an attic space in the roof ceiling combination reduce the solar
heat gain factor, thereby reducing space conditioning loads. The performance improves if the
void is ventilated. Heat is transmitted through the air cavity by convection and radiation. A cavity
represents a resistance, which is not proportional to its thickness for a thickness > 20mm reduces
radiative heat transfer from roof to ceiling. The radi active component of heat transfer may be
reduced by using low emissivity or high reflective coating (e.g. aluminum foil) on either surface
facing the cavity with aluminum foil attached to the top of ceiling, the resistance for download
heat flow increases to about 0.7 m2 k/w compared to 0.21 m2k/w in the absence of the foil. [4]
Of all the elements in the building envelope, windows and other glazed areas are most
vulnerable to heat gain or losses. Proper location, sizing, and detailing of windows and shading
from an important part of bioclimatic design as they help to keep the sun and wind out of a
building or allow them when needed.
The location of openings for ventilation is determined by prevalent wind direction, openings at
higher levels naturally aid in venting out hot air. Size, shape, and orientation of openings
moderate air velocity and flow in the room. A small inlet and a large outlet increase the velocity
and distribution of air flow through room.[5]



The external finish of a surface determines the amount of heat absorbed or rejected by it.
For example, a smooth and light color surface reflects more light and heat in comparison to a
dart color surface. Lighter color surfaces have higher emissivity and should be ideally used for
warm climate.[5]
Advanced passive heating techniques are used by architects in building design to achieve
thermal comfort conditions in cold climate. Passive solar heating systems can be broadly
classified in to direct gain systems and indirect gain systems.[6]
Direct gain is the most common passive solar system. In this system, sun light enters
rooms through windows, warming the interior space. The glazing system is generally located on
the southern side to receive maximum sun light during winter ( in the northern hemisphere). The
glazing system is usually double glazed, with insulating curtains to reduce heat loss during
night. South facing glass admits solar energy in to the building, where it strikes thermal storage
materials such as floors or wall made of adobe, brick, concrete, stone, and water. The direct gain
system uses 60% - 75% of solar energy striking the windows. The interior thermal mass tempers
the intensity of heat at night, the thermal radiation heat in to the living space, thus warming the

I.1 direct gain



In an indirect gain system, thermal mass is located between the sun and the living space.
The thermal mass absorbs the sun light that strikes it and transfers it to the living space. The
indirect gain system uses 30%-45% of suns energy striking the glass adjoining the thermal mass.
A few commonly used indirect gain systems are[17]
Trombe wall
Water wall
Roof based air heating system
Sun spaces
Before the turn of the century, buildings were designed to take advantage of daily
temperature variations, convective breeze, shading, evaporative cooling and radiation cooling.
However, with a thoughtless imitation of the west, these concepts took a back seat and buildings
became energy guzzlers. Today, with high energy costs and growing environmental concerns,
many of these similar techniques are once again becoming attractive. Passive cooling system rely
on natural heat Sinks to remove heat from the building. They derive cooling directly from
evaporation, convection and radiation without using any intermediate electrical devices. All
passive cooling strategies rely on daily changes in temperature and relative humidity. The
applicability of each system depends on the climatic conditions.[11]
Outdoor breezes create air movement through the house interior by the push pull effect of
positive air pressure on the wind ward side and negative pressure (suction) on the leeward side.
Good natural ventilation requires locating openings in opposite pressure zones. Also, designers
often choose to enhance natural ventilation using fall spaces called stacks in buildings with
openings near the top of stacks, warm air can escape where as cooled air enters the building
from openings near the ground.[14]



In a wind tower, the hot air enters the tower through the openings in the tower, gets cooled
And thus becomes heavier and sinks down, the inlet and outlet of room induce cool air
movement in the presence of wind, air is cooled more effectively and flows faster down the
tower and in to the living area.[14]
Evaporative cooling lowers indoor air temperature by evaporating water. If is effective in hot
and dry climate where the atmospheric humidity is low. In evaporative cooling, the sensible heat
of air is used to evaporative water, there by cooling the air, which in turn, cools the living spare
of the building. Increase in contact between water and air increases the rate of evaporation.[1]
Evaporative cooling has been used for many centuries. In this system, wind catchers guide
outside air over water filled pots, inducing evaporation and causing a significant drops in
temperature before the air enters the interior such wind catches become primary elements of the
architectural form also. Passive down draft evaporative cooling is particularly effective in hot
and dry climates.[1]

I.2 Passive Downdraught Evaporative Cooling in Torrent Research Centre,




Day lighting has a major effect on the appearance of space and can have considerable
energy efficiency implications, if used property. Its variability and subtlety is pleasing to the
occupants in contrast to the relatively monotonous environment produced by artificial light. It
helps to create optimum working conditions by bringing out the natural contrast and color of
objects. The presence of natural light can being sense of well being and awareness of the wider
environment. Day lighting is important particularly in commercial and other non domestic
buildings that function during the day. Integration of day lighting with artificial lighting brings
about considerable savings in energy consumption.[15]
Thermal comfort is maintained when the heat generated by human metabolism is allowed
to dissipate, thus maintaining thermal equilibrium with the surroundings.[17]

2.3 Thermal comforts

There are six primary factors that directly affect thermal comfort that can be grouped in
two categories: personal factors - because they are characteristics of the occupants and environmental factors - which are conditions of the thermal environment. The former are
metabolic rate and clothing level, the latter are air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air
speed and humidity. Even if all these factors may vary with time, standards usually refer to a
steady state to study thermal comfort, just allowing limited temperature variations.



Lot of issues may arising, when we construct a building such as size, cost, material,
durability etc. But we should not neglect the importance of efficient energy usage in order
improve the overall energy efficiency of the building. It will reduce the energy demand and other
natural impacts due to building construction. It will further reduce the cooling load of the
Walls are a major part of the building envelope that receives large amount of solar
radiation. The heat storage capacity and heat conduction property of walls are key to meet the
desired thermal comfort conditions inside a building. The wall thickness, material and finishes
can be chosen based on the heating and cooling needs of the building. Appropriate thermal
insulation in the walls may reduce the heat transmission in to the building, which should be the
primary objective fir a green building in hot climate regions.
The objective of this work is to improve the energy efficiency of the building by
providing thermal insulation on the walls to reduce the cooling load of the building by doing
experimental work.


Clay hollow bricks are going to be the future construction material (fig.4.1)and(fig.4.2).
Clay hollow bricks are strong, solid material that blends itself well to high rise construction at
minimum dead loads. The reduced dead load results in substantial savings on steel and concrete.
Further savings are possible due to the light weight, which ensures faster transportation and ease
of handling at the site. The air in the perforations of clay hollow bricks ensures good thermal
insulation. Hence, it can maintain a pleasant temperature inside a building even during summer
which ensures lower energy consumption and cost savings.

4.1 Clay hollow bricks


4.2 dimensions of clay hollow bricks


Theoretically, clay hollow bricks have an unlimited life span, which in turn is the most
important factor in assessing the life-cycle impact of any building material. Clay hollow bricks
walls are resistant to extreme climate conditions. The perforations are not only made to increase
the thermal insulation, but also to reduce energy required to fire the bricks by more than 60%
when compared to a conventional solid clay brick. Clay hollow bricks are light weight bricks
with a void ratio of more than 60%. Clay is 100% natural and its recycling is not an issue.
Air in hollow perforations of the bricks act as an insulator, resulting in lower energy
consumption. Clays unique capillary structure also helps it to dry out faster than any other
building material, a property very important in tropical climates. Fast drying maintains good
thermal insulation properties and keeps you cool while slashing your houses energy
consumption. This is one of the reasons that seasoned architects in India always preferred clay
over any other construction material for walls. A simple test of this property is that when you
touch a high quality clay brick, it always feels comfortably cool.


Clay hollow bricks are fired in tunnel kilns between 900

and 1200


makes them withstand fire naturally. It also does not produce harmful vapors in the event of a
fire.Being composed of a natural material; clay hollow bricks are an assured way to lower the
relative humidity inside your home. The atmosphere of your home can be maintained at a
comfortable level because of its unique properties bestowing it with a longer life span and
comfortable living for generations to come.


Clay hollow bricks are good insulators
Clay hollow bricks are light weight
It reduces noise transmission
Clay hollow bricks do not burn
Low maintenance cost
It reduces the energy usage of the building
It improve the efficiency of the wall
Clay hollow bricks walls are with stand extreme climate conditions
Clay hollow bricks 100% natural, recycling not an issue


Two identical model rooms with the following dimensions are constructed (fig. 5.1) and
(fig 5.2)
Length 1 meter
Width - 1 meter
Height - 1.5 meter
One model room will be constructed by using ordinary clay brick, where as the Other
model room to be constructed by using clay hollow bricks. the temperature variations through
the walls from outside to inside will be continuously monitored and recorded with the help of
thermo couples and data logger attached with a computer and the results are used to compare the
impact of heat gain in two rooms.


5.1 construction of two model rooms without roof structure

5.2 constructions of two model rooms with roof structure

Data logger is defined as an electronic instrument that records measurements of all types
at set intervals over a period of time. Data logger can record a wide variety of energy and
environmental measurements including temperature, relative humidity, AC and DC current
voltages, differential pressure, light intensity, water levels, soil moisture, rain fall, wind speed
and direction, pulse signals and more.
Typically, data loggers are compact, battery - powered devices equipped with an internal micro
processor, data storage, and one or more sensors. Data loggers record all information and it can
be record accurately (fig. 5.3). The basic function is to automatically make record of readings of
the various instruments located at different channels. Data logger measures and records data very
quickly and accurately without any effort. Measurement errors are completely eliminated.


5.3 data logger


It can measure the output from almost all type of transducers and can lock the

values automatically.
It can detect output going beyond the limit specified.
It takes corrective actions.
To record are select reading on Varity of output devices, data loggers are used.
It can pars the data to a computer for further processing.
Data logger takes care of measurement rangers and speed



The thermocouple is a simple, widely used component for measuring temperature.

Thermocouple consists of two wires of dissimilar metals joined together at one end, called the
measurement (hot) junction. The other end, where the wires are not joined is connected to the
signal conditioning circuitry traces, typically made of copper. This junction between the
thermocouple metals and the copper traces is called the reference (cold) junction. The voltage
produced at the reference junction depends on the temperatures at both the measurement
junction. Since the thermocouple is a differential device rather than absolute temperature
measurement device, the reference junction temperature must be known as reference junction

6.1 thermocouple
Depending upon the wires used thermocouples is capable of measuring
temperature in range of -200

to + 2500 .

Thermocouples are rugged devices that are immune to shock and vibrations are
suitable for hazards environment.
Thermocouple responds rapidly temperature changes
Thermocouples are not prone to self heating and are intrinsically safe.



Sustainability is defined as design, construction, operation, and maintenance practices

that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generation to
meet their own needs. Producing affordable housing for the poor that is healthier, more resource
efficient and cheaper to own and operate.
A building that produces at least as much as it uses, when accounted annually is net zero
energy building which is the vision of green building. Finally reduce the energy use and protect
the environment without compromising human health and comfort and live lightly with
minimum foot prints.
To achieve this vision, efficient wall materials play a major role which role which is
investigated and analyzed for building construction.



The objective of this project to study various wall insulation materials and various energy
saving opportunities in the building. Wall contributes for a good percent of heat infiltration in to
the building when exposed to sun light. The aim of this project phase I work is to propose the
effect of the thermal insulation and study the various properties of the thermal insulating material
through extensive literature survey. On that note, extensive literature survey was done by myself
and also the experimental setup and the instruments required for the experimental analysis has
been procured.



[1] Mohammad Arif Kamal An

Overview of Passive Cooling Techniques in Buildings: Design

Concepts and Architectural Interventions Civil Engineering & Architecture Vol. 55, No. 1(2012)
[2] Dr. Mohammad S. Al-Homoud, Performance characteristics and practical applications of
common building thermal insulation materials ( Building and Environment 40 (2005) 353366)

[3] Ammar Bouchair, Steady state theoretical model of fired clay

hollow bricks for enhanced external wall thermal insulation( Building
and environment 43 (2008) 1603 1618)
[4] RobertDylewski, Janusz Adamczy Economic and environmental
benefits of thermal insulation of building external walls.(Building and
environment 46 (2011) 2615 2623)
[5] Ashok kumar, B.M. Suman, experimental evaluation of insulation
materials for walls and roofs and their impacton indoor thermal
comfort under composite climate. (building and environment 59
(2013) 635 643)
[6] N. Soares, J.J.Costa, A.R. Gaspar, P.Santos Review of passive PCM
latent heat thermal energy storage systems towards buildings energy
efficiency. (energy and building 59 (2013) 82 103)
[7] Fayaz Aldawi, Firoz Alam, Abhijit Date, Mohammed Alghamdi,
Fahad Aldhawi,

A new house wall system for residensial buildings

(energy and building 67( 2013) 403 418)


[8] Danielle E.M. Bond, William W. Clark, Mark Kimber Configuring wall
layers for improved insulation performance

(applied energy 112

(2013) 235 -245)

[9] Ilker Bekir Topcu, Burak Isikdag

Manufacture of high heat

conductivity resistant clay bricks containing perlite. (building and

environment 42 (2007) 3540 3546)
[9] O.T. Masoso, L.J. Grobler

A new and innovative look at anti

insulation behavior in building energy conception (energy and building

40 (2008) 1889 1894)
[10] G. Kanaga Raj, Ashwin Mahalingam

Design energy efficient

commcial buildings a system frame work. (energy and building

43(2011) 2329 2343)
[11] Jorge L.Alvarado, Wilsion Terrell J.R, Michal D. Johnson. Passive
cooling systems for cement based roofs. (building and environment
44 (2009) 1869 1875)








Simenetti, Energy efficient choice of brick faade in Kolkata, India

(procedia engineering 21 (2011) 737 744)

E.Hamzului Moghaddam, S. Amindeldar, A. Beshara Tizadeh,

(2011) New approach to natural ventilation in public buildings inspired

by iramians traditional wind catcher. (prcedia engineering 21 (2011)
42 52)


[15] Guo Lingun, Guo Yangun, (2011) Study on building materials and
indoor pollution(procedia engineering 21 (2011) 789 794)
[16] Lee Xia Sheng, Tamil Salvi mari, Ati Rose Mary Mohd Ariffin,
Haxreena Hussein,(2011) Integrated sustainable roof design (procera
engineering 21 (2011) 846 852)
[17] Pan Ferg, (2011) Brief discussion of green buildings (procedia
engineering 21(2011) 939 942)
[18] Pan Feng, Wu Xingkuan,(2011) sustainable development of high
rise building(procedia engineering 21(2011) 943-947)
[19] Energy efficient buildings in India Mili Majumdar
[20] Green building A to Z.- Jerry Yudelson.
[21] Smart breating walls for integrated ventilation, heat exchange,
energy efficiency & air filteration.- M.S.Imbabi, A. Peacock.