You are on page 1of 186

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor
R

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material


2.03 Type of the joint

40 mm

15

Welded

dia MS ROD

-m

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

Nos

EARTHMAT DESIGN

PAGE 1 OF 5

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076
SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

B + Tm

ln

20

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

202
3.8

Qc

C
x

10^-3

20

j/C mm3

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

0.5

202 + 250
202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion

D1 with corresion

EARTHMAT DESIGN

Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50
>50 <75
>75 <100
>100

8.0
7.0
5.5
4.5
3.0
1.5

3 + D1

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

PAGE 2 OF 5

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076
SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

volts

tsc

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i

volts

Ls
s x IG x Km x Ki

volts

Lm

where,
1

Km

Kii

Kh

2x

ln

16 x hx d

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho
0.6
1

= Geometric factor

EARTHMAT DESIGN

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)


=

1.265
=

na x n b x n c x n d

PAGE 3 OF 5

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076
SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

176+81

257

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

= Isc

Em

=
=

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

1
2 x 0.6

1
D+h
+

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

1
D

1
2.8 + 0.6

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

1
2.8

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

x (1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

0.6
4 x 0.04

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

Geometrical factor
1
1
Ks
=
x

2xh

(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

LR

2745+138

IG

22.17

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

EARTHMAT DESIGN

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m
=

PAGE 4 OF 5

1451.29 volts

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076
SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + L R

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

EARTHMAT DESIGN

PAGE 5 OF 5

40mm dia MS ROD

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

EARTHMAT DESIGN

PAGE 6 OF 5

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)

SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION


REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing


CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

1.02 symmetrical system fault current

Isc

31.5

0.6

1.02a Current division factor


1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

1.03a Duration of fault current for conductor sizing

tsc

1.03b Duration of fault current for touch, step potential design

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

1.05 Area of Switchyard

3564

1.06 Resistivity of the soil

90

1.07 Thickness of the crushed rock layer

Hs

0.1

From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7


1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

1.09 Design Ambient temperature

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

1.04 Length and breadth of Switchyard

2.00

EARTHING CONDUCTOR DATA

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor


2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint


2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

2.05 Reference temperature of material constant

Tr

20

2.06 Equivalent diameter of earthing conductor

0.040000

2.07 Depth of burial of the conductor

0.6

2.08 Selected Grid Spacing

2.8

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA


3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

### mm dia MS ROD

3.02 Length of each earth bore electrode

Leb

3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR


4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

S = Cross section area


k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

= Volumetric heat capacity of conductor

20 = Electrical resitivity of conductor material


B

Reciprocal of Temperature coefficent

Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;


Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

Selected earth conductor diameter


D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

4.02 Corrosion Allowance


The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

Diameter of the rod chosen as per


specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


tsc

volts

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116


(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

(1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157

volts

tsc

Where,

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

480.88 volts

Estep50

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.116


1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

(1000+(1.5 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

(1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157


1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.2; Equation 92)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 80)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)


Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

for grid with ground rods


ho =

h
ho

1 m

(grid reference depth)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 86)


nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 87)


nc

nd

(For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

Factors for grid geometry


1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

for rectangular grid

= Isc

Em

0.644 + 0.148 x 22.17

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516


2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

Effective buried length


Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)


0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

90 x 18900 x 0.473 x 3.92516


2176.05

1451.29 volts

7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

Tolerable (for 50kg)


480.88 volts

Tolerable (for 70kg)


650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)


1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

Total buried length of the conductor


LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.


9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

40mm dia MS ROD

Selected Grid spacing for the earthmat

2.8

Total length of earthing conductor required for main mat

2745

Type of Earth bore electrode

40mm dia MS Rod

Length of each earth bore electrode

Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

; Clause 8.3; Equation 32)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)

; Clause 8.3; Equation 30)

; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 85)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 86)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 87)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 88)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

ause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Equation 93)

ause 14.2; Equation 52)