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# ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076

## SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor
R

## 2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

2.03 Type of the joint

40 mm

15

Welded

dia MS ROD

-m

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

## 3.03 Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

Neb

46

Nos

EARTHMAT DESIGN

PAGE 1 OF 5

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076
SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

B + Tm

ln

20

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

202
3.8

Qc

C
x

10^-3

20

j/C mm3

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

0.5

202 + 250
202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion

D1 with corresion

EARTHMAT DESIGN

Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50
>50 <75
>75 <100
>100

8.0
7.0
5.5
4.5
3.0
1.5

3 + D1

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

PAGE 2 OF 5

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076
SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

volts

tsc

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i

volts

Ls
s x IG x Km x Ki

volts

Lm

where,
1

Km

Kii

Kh

2x

ln

16 x hx d

## for grid with ground rods

ho =

h
ho
0.6
1

= Geometric factor

EARTHMAT DESIGN

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 81)

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 82)

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

=

1.265
=

na x n b x n c x n d

PAGE 3 OF 5

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076
SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

176+81

257

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

1
Km
=
x
2x

= Isc

Em

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

2883

1
2 x 0.6

1
D+h
+

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

1
D

1
2.8 + 0.6

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

1
2.8

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

x (1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

0.6
4 x 0.04

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 91)

Geometrical factor
1
1
Ks
=
x

2xh

(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

LR

2745+138

IG

22.17

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

2176.05

EARTHMAT DESIGN

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m
=

PAGE 4 OF 5

1451.29 volts

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076
SWITCHYARD GROUNDING AND EARTH MAT SIZING CALCULATION

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + L R

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

46

Nos.

EARTHMAT DESIGN

PAGE 5 OF 5

ABB-BHUSHAN

YC1H316636-076

EARTHMAT DESIGN

PAGE 6 OF 5

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)

REFERENCE
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04

## IS-3043-1987: Indian Standard Code of Practice for earthing

CBIP Manual on Substation - Publication 223
33/220kV Switchyard Earthmat Layout Drg. No.YC1H316636-067
IEEE 80 2000

INPUT DATA
1.00
SYSTEM DATA
1.01 System nominal voltage

Vs

33

Isc

31.5

0.6

## 1.02a Current division factor

1.02b Symmetrical system fault current x current division factor

Isc

18.9

tsc

tsc

L1 x B 1

88.0

3564

90

Hs

0.1

## From CBIP Manual on Earthing; Page No.7

1.08 Resistivity of the crushed rock layer

CR

3000

Ta

50

40 mm

15

Welded

2.00

## 2.01 Type of the Earthing conductor

2.02 Resistivity of the Earthing material

## 2.03 Type of the joint

2.04 Maximum allowable temperature for Welded joints

Tm

250

Tr

20

0.040000

0.6

2.8

## 3.00 EARTH BORE ELECTRODE DATA

3.01 Type of Earth bore electrode

Leb

Neb

46

## 4.00 SIZING OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR

4.01 Minimum Cross sectional area required
As per IS - 3043 ,the minimum cross sectional area of the earthing conductor to withstand the
Short circuit current is given by
As per IS - 3043; CLAUSE 12.2.2.1; Page no: 29
Isc

kx

tsc

where

Isc

Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

B + Tm

## S = Cross section area

k = Factor depending on the
earthing conductor,insulation
and other parts and temperatures
0.5

B + Ta

1
Qc*(B+20)

ln

20

0.5

B + Tm

tsc

B + Ta

Where,
From IS - 3043 ; Table 5; Page No:30
B

Qc

where

Qc

202
3.8

C
x

10^-3

j/C mm3

20

138

10^-6

mm

B

## Substituing the values in above equation 1, we get;

Selected earth conductor cross sectional area
S

18900

3^0.5

x
3.8 x 10^-3*(222)
138x10^-6

548

ln

202 + 250

0.5

202 + 50

mm2

## Selected earth conductor diameter

D1

((S *4)/P)^0.5

((548x4/3.14)^0.5

26.41

## 4.02 Corrosion Allowance

The calculated Size should be suitably increased as per table below to account for the loss
of material due to corrosion
Resitivity of Soil

Reduction in Thickness/Diameter

>0 <10
>10 <25
>25 <50

8.0
7.0
5.5

>50 <75
>75 <100
>100
D1 with corresion

3 + D1

4.5
3.0
1.5
=

3 + 26.41

29.41

mm

## Diameter of the rod chosen as per

specification

40

mm

4.03 Selected diameter of the rod is greater than the required. Hence Safe.
5.00 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIALS
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 50 Kg and 70 Kg can be
computed by the following equations
Etouch50

tsc

volts

## (1000+(6 x Cs x CR)) x 0.116

(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 29)
volts
tsc
The tolerable limits of touch and step potentials of a person weighing 70 Kg can be computed
by the following equations
(1000+(1.5 x Cs x CR)) x 0.157
(IEEE 80 2000; Clause 8.3; Equation 33)
Etouch70
=
volts
tsc
Estep50

Estep70

volts

tsc

Where,

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 7.4; Equation 27)

Cs =

0.09 (1 - (s/CR)

(2 x Hs) +0.09

0.09 x (1-(90/3000))
(2 x 0.1) + 0.09

0.699

Etouch50

1

480.88 volts

Estep50

1

1575.52 volts

Etouch70

1

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

## (1000+(6 x 0.699 x 3000)) x 0.157

1
6.00 ATTAINABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL
Attainable step and touch and step potential are given by
Estep70

Es

Em

s x I G x K s x K i
Ls
s x I G x K m x K i
Lm

volts

volts

where,
Km

1
2x

ln

D2
16 x hx d

Kii
(D + 2 x h)2
h
8
+
+
ln
Kh
8xDxd
4xd
x (2 x n -1)

Kii

Kh

ho =

h
ho

1 m

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 83)

0.6
1

= Geometric factor

1.265
na x n b x n c x n d

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 84)

Perimeter
Lp

L1*2+B1*2

Length of conductor
Lc

((L1/D)+1)*B1+((B1/D)+1)*L1

33*40.5+16*88

Lc

na

2745
2 x Lc

2 x 2745

Lp

Lp

257

176+81

257

257

21.362

nb

Lp

257
4 x 3564

4 x A

1.038

nc

nd

## (For square and rectangular grids)

1
1

21.362 x 1.038 x 1 x 1

## Factors for grid geometry

1
Km
=
x
2x

22.17
(2.8 + 2 x 0.6)^2
8 x 2.8 x 0.04

1
ln
1.265

3.92516

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

0.2071

= Lc
=

2.8^2
16 x 0.6 x 0.04

ln

Corrective factor
Ki = 0.644 + 0.148 x n
LM

= Isc

Em

LR

2745+138

IG

=
=

2883
18.9 x 1000 =

18900

## 90 x 18900 x 0.2071 x 3.92516

2883

Geometrical factor
1
Ks
=
x

479.6 volts

(1 - 0.5n-2 )

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 94)

Ks

=
=

2xh
1
2 x 0.6

1
2.8 + 0.6

(1 - 0.5n-2 )
1
2.8

(1 - (0.5)^22.17-2)

0.473

## Effective buried length

Ls = 0.75 x Lc + 0.85 x LR
Es

D+h

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 16.5.1; Equation 93)

0.75 x 2745 + 0.85 x 138
= 2176.05 m

2176.05

1451.29 volts

## 7.00 SAFETY CHECK

Touch potential in V

Attainable
479.62

480.88 volts

## Tolerable (for 70kg)

650.85 volts

1451.29

1575.52 volts

2132.38 volts

Step potential in V

The attainable touch potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
The attainable Step potential is well within the tolerable limit. Hence safe.
8.00 Grid resistance

Rg

s x

1
LT

1
(20 x Aem)

1 +

## (IEEE 80 2000; Clause 14.2; Equation 52)

1
1 + h x ((20/Aem)

## Total buried length of the conductor

LT

=
=

Lc + LR

90 x
0.7208

2745

1
2883

138

1
20 x 3564

2883

x 1 +

1
1 + 0.6 x ((20/3564))

## 8.01 The grid resistance is less than 1. Hence Safe.

9.00 CONCLUSION
Type of earthing conductor chosen for earthmat is

2.8

2745

## Number of Earth bore electrodes chosen

46

Nos.

kV
kA

kA
sec
sec
40.5

m2

-m
m

-m
C

dia MS ROD

-m

C
C
m
m
m

mm dia MS ROD
LR value

138

Nos

ection area
epending on the
conductor,insulation
er parts and temperatures

e 5; Page No:30

mm

ss/Diameter

mm
mm

480.88 volts

1575.52 volts

650.85 volts

2132.38 volts

8
x (2 x n -1)

0.6
4 x 0.04
8
x (2 x 22.17 -1)

Equation 93)