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# Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621 212.

AE 6501

AUC R2013

Flight Dynamics

## AUC R2013 | 2 Marks Questions and Answers

1. What is meant by steady, straight and level flight of an aircraft?
For steady flight, T = D; for straight flight, = 0; and for level flight L = W.

## 2. Define absolute and service ceiling.

The altitude where the maximum rate of climb is zero is the highest altitude
achievable in steady, level flight is called the absolute ceiling.
The altitude where the maximum rate of climb is 100 ft/min is called the
service ceiling.

## 3. Give the conditions for minimum drag.

1
= = 2
2
a. Low velocity of the aircraft.
b. High altitude.
c. Low coefficient of drag.
d. Small wetted surface area of the wing.

## Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621 212.

AUC R2013

4. What are the conditions required for minimum drag and minimum power required
for an airplane? Mention them in drag coefficients also.
The minimum drag occurs when lift to drag ratio is maximum.

=
/ /

= =
=

( / )

The minimum power required occurs when the airplane is flying such that
is a maximum value.

3/2
/

1
3/2

( / )

## 5. Define the Specific fuel consumption.

The specific fuel consumption c is defined as the weight of fuel burned per
unit power per unit time.

=

## 6. What is meant by Drag polar?

For every aerodynamic body, there is a relation between CD and CL that can
be expressed as an equation or plotted on a graph. Both the equation and the graph
are called the drag polar.

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## 7. Define the Range.

Range is the total distance (measured with respect to the ground) traversed
by an airplane on one load of fuel.
=

0
ln

## This equation is called the Breguet range equation.

8. Define the Endurance.
Endurance is the amount of time that an airplane can stay in the air on one
0

## Above equation is the general equation for the endurance of an airplane.

9. Give the condition for steepest climb angle and shallowest glide angle.
The climb angle or glide angle , is defined as the angle between the
instantaneous flight path direction and the horizontal.
For the steepest climb angle;
sin =

1
=

(/)

tan =

1
(/)

## 10. Give the limitations on turn.

The two performance characteristics of greatest importance in turning flight
are
i. The turn radius .
ii. The turn rate /. The turn rate is simply the local angular
velocity of the airplane along the curved flight path.
To obtain the smallest possible , we want
i. The highest possible load factor (i.e., the highest possible /).
ii. The lowest possible velocity.
To obtain the largest possible turn rate, we want
i. The highest possible load factor.
ii. The lowest possible velocity.
Gurunath K. AE 6501 Flight Dynamics | 3

AUC R2013

## 11. How load factor is related to Bank angle?

The necessary condition for a level turn is,
=

1
==

Where,

## 12. Explain the significance of load factor.

The two performance characteristics of greatest importance in turning flight
are
i. The turn radius .
ii. The turn rate .
These are highly depending on the load factor. So, the safe maneuverability
is ensured from the load factor.
13. What is 'degree of freedom' and how much required for an airplane?
The degree of freedom (DOF) of a mechanical system is the number of
independent parameters that define its configuration.
An aircraft maneuvering moves are in six ways that, including three
translational degrees of freedom (vertical, lateral, and longitudinal) and three
rotational degrees of freedom (pitch, roll, and yaw).

## 14. Distinguish between stability and controllability.

Stability is the tendency of an aircraft, to generate the aerodynamic moments
necessary to return it to its original equilibrium, when disturbed.

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## Controllability is the pilot input, to generate the aerodynamic moments

necessary to return it to its original equilibrium, when disturbed.
There are two modes of aircraft control: one moves the aircraft between
equilibrium states, the other takes the aircraft into a non-equilibrium (accelerating)
state. Control is directly opposed to stability.
15. Define the static stability.
A system is said to be statically stable when a small disturbance causes forces
and moments that tend to move the system towards its undisturbed position. If the
forces and moments tend to move the system away from the equilibrium position,
then the system is said to be statically unstable. In the case of a system having neutral
static stability, no forces or moments are created as a result of the disturbance.
When the airplane is disturbed, it is no longer in equilibrium and gains new
forces and moments. If restoring forces and moments are generated by the airplane
that tend initially to bring it back to its equilibrium straight and level condition, it is
static stability. Such aircrafts are called statically stable aircraft.
(Writing the second para is sufficient for 2 marks question)

## 16. Define static longitudinal stability.

The static longitudinal stability of an aircraft refers to the aircraft's stability
in the pitching plane - the plane which describes the position of the aircraft's nose in
relation to its tail and the horizon.

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## 17. What is the criterion for static longitudinal stability?

If an aircraft is longitudinally stable, a small increase in angle of attack will
cause the pitching moment on the aircraft to change so that the angle of attack
decreases. Similarly, a small decrease in angle of attack will cause the pitching
moment to change so that the angle of attack increases.
18. Define the dynamic stability.
A system is said to be dynamically stable if it eventually returns to the
original equilibrium position after being disturbed by a small disturbance.

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## 19. What is the purpose of control in an aircraft?

To maneuver an airplane, the pilot must control its movement around its
lateral, longitudinal, and vertical axes. This is accomplished by the use of the flight
controls - elevators, ailerons, and rudder - which can be deflected from their neutral
position into the flow of air as the airplane moves forward through the air.
20. What is the need for aerodynamic balancing?
Aerodynamic balancing is required to assist the pilot to move controls easily
in the absence of power-assisted controls. The most common forms of aerodynamic
balancing are inset hinges, horn balances, internal balances, and tab balances.

## 21. What are the advantages of sideslip?

a. Aerial photography.
b. Engine-out landing.
c. Slip to land in icing conditions.
d. Slips also play a role in aerobatics and aerial combat.
22. Distinguish between stick-fixed stability and stick-free stability.
Stick-fixed stability

Stick-free stability

## Stick-fixed stability determines the

amount of control and elevator
movement needed to change
airspeed (or CL, or ) from trim.

required force.

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## 23. Why an airplane does require vertical tail?

The vertical tail of an airplane is usually composed of two parts - a vertical
stabilizer and a rudder. To fix the control surface rudder an airplane requires the
vertical tail. The vertical stabilizer gives the plane stability in the yaw direction and
the rudder gives it the ability to rotate in the same direction.
24. Define adverse yaw.
Adverse yaw is the natural and undesirable tendency for an aircraft to yaw
in the opposite direction of a roll.

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## 25. Define neutral point.

Neutral Point (NP), which is the Aerodynamic Centre of the whole aircraft.
The major contributors are the main wing, stabilizer surfaces and fuselage.

## 26. Define static margin.

In aircraft analysis, static margin is defined as the distance between the center
of gravity and the neutral point of the aircraft, expressed as a percentage of the mean
aerodynamic chord (MAC) of the wing. The greater this distance and the narrower
the wing, the more stable the aircraft.

## 27. Define angle of yaw and angle of sideslip.

The angle between the direction of the relative wind and the plane of
symmetry of an airplane, being positive when the airplane turns to the right.

## Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621 212.

AUC R2013

The sideslip angle, also called angle of sideslip (AOS, AoS, ), is a term used
in fluid dynamics and aerodynamics and aviation. It relates to the rotation of the
aircraft centerline from the relative wind.

## 28. Define the motion Phugoid.

The phugoid mode of oscillation is a longitudinal oscillation of an airplane
attempting to return to an equilibrium trimmed flight condition after being disturbed.
It is a long period, slow oscillation of the airplane's flight path.

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## 29. Explain the snaking mode.

A control mode in which the pursuing aircraft flies a programmed weaving
flight path to allow time to accomplish identification functions.
30. What is porpoising oscillation?
The longitudinal instability can cause self-induced heave and pitch
oscillations called the porpoising oscillation.

## 31. What is Frise Type Ailerons?

The design of the aileron surface itself has also been improved by the "Frise
type" aileron. With this type of aileron, when pressure on the control stick or wheel
is applied to one side, raising one of the ailerons, the leading edge of that aileron
projects down into the airflow and creates drag. This helps equalize the drag created
by the lowered aileron on the opposite wing and thus reduces adverse yaw.

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## 32. What is meant by dihedral effect?

Dihedral is often used as a means to improve lateral stability. Figure (a)
shows a head-on view of an airplane that has dihedral where the wings are turned up
at some dihedral angle to the horizontal. Now, assume that a disturbance causes one
wing to drop relative to the other as shown in figure (b). The lift vector rotates and
there is a component of the weight acting inward which causes the airplane to move
sideways in this direction. The airplane is said to sideslip and the relative free-stream
direction is now in a direction toward which the airplane is side slipping. If the
airplane is laterally stable, moments arise that tend to reduce the bank angle.
From geometric considerations, when wings have dihedral, the wing closer
to the sideslip (that is, toward the free- stream velocity), hence the lower wing, will
experience a greater angle of attack than the raised wing and hence greater lift. There
results a net force and moment tending to reduce the bank angle as shown in figure
(c) and bring the aircraft to straight and level flight. This is called the dihedral effect.
(Writing the second para is sufficient for 2 marks question)