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SOLUTION TO EXERCISES

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GSM ADVANCED SYSTEM TECHNIQUE

LIST OF SOLUTIONS
SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 1

CHANNEL CONCEPT, ANSWER

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 2

TRAFFIC CASES, GROUP EXERCISE, ANSWERS

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 3

PAGING GROUP, ANSWERS

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 4

TEMS

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 5

13

DECODING OF ABIS MESSAGE, SOLUTION

13

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 7

17

ABIS, PROTOCOL ANALYZER

17

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 8

19

A INTERFACE, PROTOCOL ANALYZER

19

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 9

23

NETWORK SERVICE PART (NSP), ANSWER

23

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 10

25

SCCP USER INFORMATION, ANSWER

25

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 1

Channel Concept, answer

1. 11 + CBCH

2. 9 + CBCH

3. FCCH, SCH, BCCH, PACH, RACH, AGCH, SACCH, SDCCH,


FACCH, CBCH

4. The packet transmitted on the air interface in a time slot and the
smallest quanta of information transmitted in GSM.

5. the guard period is longer than other bursts (68.25 bit times)
6.
A.

c0/TS 2

B.

c0/TS 0

C.

SACCH/T any TS any carrier except c0/TS 0 or TS 2


SACCH/C c0/TS 2

7. FACCH

8. for the MS to decode BSIC on a neighboring cell

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9.
one carrier? 6 TCHs
two carriers? 14 TCHs

10. RACH, AGCH, SDCCH, SACCH/C, FACCH, TCH, SACCH/T

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 2

Traffic Cases, Group Exercise, answers

Describe the signaling procedure for the following traffic cases:


A. International location updating
(Basic Security Features not available)
The MS sends Location Updating Request introducing itself
using IMSI or TMSI and LAI where it has previously done
Location Updating.
If TMSI is used the network asks for IMSI.
The serving MSC translates the IMSI to MGT and uses the
MGT to request the HLR in Great Britain for triplets.
Once the triplets are delivered and authentication performs
the serving MSC reports Update Location to HLR and
Location Updating Accept to the MS. The HLR also sends
Cancel Location to the old MSC (where the MS was
previously registered).

B. International mobile to mobile call


The serving MSC in Spain uses the MSISDN of the Swedish
subscriber to route the call to the GMSC of the Swedish
subscriber. The GMSC is located in Sweden. The GMSC
requests the Swedish HLR for routing information. The HLR
translates the MSISDN to IMSI and requests the serving MSC
(in Germany) for a MSRN. The serving MSC provides the
MSRN. The HLR forwards the MSRN to the GMSC which
uses the MSRN to route the call to the serving MSC in
Germany.

C. Mobile to mobile SMS


The SMS will be routed to a Service Center (free of choice) and
stored there until the destination MS is available. If the destination MS
is detached when the SMS arrives to the SC a flag in the VLR will be
set (Message Waiting Flag). The SMS will be delivered when the MS
becomes attached.

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D. International inter MSC handover


The procedure in the book for inter MSC handover is the one
that has to be used. It is required that the cells in the foreign
network are described in the neighbor list of the serving cell.

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 3

Paging Group, Answers

1. (05.02) 6.5.2 Determination of CCCH_GROUP and


PAGING_GROUP
PAGING_GROUP=(O..N-1) =
((IMSImod1000)mod(BS_CC_CHANS * N))modN
where N = paging blocks available on one CCCH = (No. of paging
blocks available in a 51 multiframe on one CCCH) *
BS_PA_MFRMS

2. N = paging blocks available on one CCCH = (No. of paging blocks


available in a 51 multiframe on one CCCH) * BS_PA_MFRMS =
9 * 5 = 45
PAGING_GROUP=(O..N-1) =
((IMSImod1000)mod(BS_CC_CHANS * N))modN =
((162)mod(1 * 45))mod45 = 27

3. All TSs and all frequencies except TS 0 on c0

4. TSs 0, 2, 4 and 6 on carrier c0

5. It uses only 19 bits describing the TDMA frame No.

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 4

TEMS
1. Random Reference = 25
2.
a) SDDCH/8 + SACCH/C8
b) TS = 1
c) Sub channel number = 3
3.
a) IMSI attach
b) TMSI (8d1cc09c)
c) LAI = 240 01 1f4c
4. Between LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST and LOCATION
UPDATING ACCEPT add:
UL: CLASSMARK CHANGE
DL: CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
UL: CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
DL: IDENTITY REQUEST
UL: IDENTITY RESPONSE
All these messages are sent on SDCCH
5. Not used in this example.
6. A5/1
7. LAI = 240 01 1f4c
8. Yes, IMSI attach is used when the MS is turned on in the same
Location Area as it was last time.

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9.
a) The MCC = 240 (Sweden) and the MNC = 01 (Telia), this can
be read in SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 3 and 4
b) LAI = 240 01 1f4c, which corresponds to the answer in question
7.
c) In SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 2 and 2ter the neighboring
frequencies are given:
GSM 900 frequencies: 16, 22, 23, 25, 28, 34, 40
GSM 1800 frequency: 600
10. CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
11. N(S) and N(R) are counters used for acknowledge mode on
LAPDm. They enable error correction by retransmission on
LAPDm.
12. This is a Mobile Terminated call. One part that shows this is the
PAGING RESPONSE message, which is only used for a Mobile
Terminated call.
13. CLASSMARK CHANGE is included in this case, because the MS
can handle extra functionality and informs the network by sending
this message.
AUTHENTICATION procedure is not included. The reason is that
the BTS and the MS are using the same ciphering key as last
time.
IDENTITY check is included. This procedure checks the IMEI. The
procedure is not compulsory.
14. TMSI = 1640f188
15. Unknown in this case, because the one who is calling is
connected to a company exchange, which does not transmit the
calling number (A-number)
16.
a) Frequency hopping = YES
b) 30 and 44
c) TS = 3
d) Training Sequence Code = 4
(Answers to questions 17-20 are connected to the first handover in the file.)
17. 600 and 602 (GSM 1800)
18. HANDOVER ACCESS

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19. Handover Reference = 97, this can be found in either HANDOVER


COMMAND or HANDOVER ACCESS.
20. Timing Advance = 1
21. 6
22. 0-6 will be correct, since it depends on what message you looked
at.
23. Roughly 2. (Exact value is 2 1/12 sec 2.083 sec.)
24. First in order to read BSIC, which the MS needs to be able to
include its measurement in a Measurement report. Secondly the
MS also gets information about the synchronization in the
neighboring cell. This information is needed if a handover occurs.

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 5

Decoding of Abis Message, Solution


02 01 04 B8 08 26 01 51 07 01 01 02 00 0B 00 03 06 35 00

According to Figure 7-20 we see that the first 32


bits (4 octets) contain address and control fields.
We call the leftmost bit b8 and the rightmost bit
b1.
bNo. 8765 4321

In the book we find:

02 = 0000 0010

b8-b3=0 give us SAPI=0


RSL message,
b2=1 C/R=1 meaning command
on DL
b1=0 means that this is not the
end of the address field

01 = 0000 0001

b8-b2=0 give TEI=0 which is the


hardware address of the TRX
b1=1 means end of the address
field

04 = 0000 0100

b8-b2 give N(S)=2 i.e. the


number of the sent sequence,
b1=0 is fixed

B8 = 1011 1000

b8-b2 give N(R)=92 meaning


sequence 92 is expected
b1=0 P/F=0 i.e. no
acknowledge is requested

After the address and the control fields in (08.58)


we find the message discriminator.

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08 = 0000 1000

9.1 Message Discriminator.


Dedicated Channel Management
messages. b1=T=0 nontransparent (meaning aimed for
BTS and for MS)

26 = 0010 0110

9.2 Message Type.


Encryption Command, 8.4.6

01 = 0000 0001

9.3 Element Identifier.


Channel Number
(08.58) 9.3.1, Channel Number,
SDCCH/8 + ACCH sub channel 2,
TS 1

51 = 0101 0001

07 = 0000 0111
01 = 0000 0001
01 = 0000 0001

02 = 0000 0010
00 = 0000 0000

0B = 0000 1011

9.3 Element identifier.


Encryption Information, 9.3.7
Length=1
Algorithm identifier, No
encryption shall be used
9.3 Element identifier.
Link identifier
9.3.2, main signaling channel,
FACCH or SDCCH, SAPI=0 RR,
MM or CM

03 = 0000 0011

9.3 Element identifier.


L3 information 9.3.11
Length indicator=3 (2 octets),
remaining 3 octets are aimed
for the MS

06 = 0000 0110

(04.08) 10.1 Overview

00 = 0000 0000

10.3 Skip Indicator: SI=0000

35 = 0011 0101

10.2 Protocol Discriminator:


RR management message
10.4 Message Type, Ciphering
Mode Command

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00 = 0000 0000

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10.5.2.9 Cipher Mode Settings:


b4-b2 corresponds to Algorithm
Identifier and b1 corresponds
to SC. Since b1 = 0, indicating
no ciphering, b4 - b2 are spare
bits.

(04.08)10.5.2.10 Cipher Response: b8


- b6 are spare bits and b5
corresponds to CR. CR = 0 indicates
that IMEISV shall not be included in
the response.

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 7

ABIS, Protocol Analyzer


1. Downlink (the header is blue)

2.
A. RSL, SAPI= 0
B. Command (double click on the C/R field)
C. TEI= 0
D. N(R)= 89, N(125)

3. Common channel management messages

4. Paging command

5. PCH

6. Paging group No. 3.

7. Close (access delay =1)

8. Channel activation

9.
A. SDCCH/8 + ACCH, sub-channel 5
B. TS = 2
C. No! (Single RF channel)
D. DTX is neither applied for uplink nor downlink
E. TA= 1

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10.
A. unknown message type
B. Immediate Assignment Command

11.
A. Establish Indication
B. IMSI
C. 2W
D. MCC = 262 (Germany), MNC = 02 (Mannesmann)

12. No! (Encryption command. There is an error in the final octet. SC


= 0 means no ciphering.)

13. IMEI request

14. Frame 31.463, message discriminator, T-bit => transparent

15. Assignment command, L3 information, channel description TS


= 4, ARFCN=29

16. The SDCCH is released.

17. The B-subscriber (frame 38.383, uplink and mobile terminated


call).

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 8

A INTERFACE, Protocol Analyzer


1. Abis, uplink (the header is blue)

2. Radio Resource connection establishment

3. TS= 2 (channel activation)

4. SDCCH/8 + ACCH

5. Location updating (from the established indication message in


frame 21.433)

6. A interface (header is magenta)

7. Uplink (header is magenta)

8. BSN= 21, FSN= 99

9. LI= 61 Message Signal Unit

10. SCCP

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11.
A. Connection Request (CR)
B. 196635

12. Connection Oriented

13. Called Party Address

14. Signaling Point Code, Sub System Number and Global Title. In
this case, DPC in the MTP routing label and SSN shall be used for
routing (double click on the routing indicator for help).

15.
A. BSSAP, non transparent BSSMAP
B. Complete layer 3 information
C. Location updating request

16.
A. A interface (header is red)
B. Downlink (header is red)
C. BSN= 99, FSN= 22
D. Connection Confirmed (CC). The logical connection in
Connection Oriented signaling is established
E. Destination local reference = 196635
Source local reference = 131248
No called or calling party address, only local references (CO
signaling)

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17.
A. A interface
B. downlink
C. BSN=99, FSN=23
D. Data Form 1 (DT 1)
E. Destination local reference = 196635 is the only SCCPaddress included

18.
A. Discriminator: Transparent DTAP
B. DLCI: FACCH/SDCCH, SAPI= 0

19. Location updating accept

20. Mobile Id.(IMSI) MCC = 262 (Germany), MNC = 02


(Mannesmann)

21. The connection on A interface is cleared. Location Updating


Accept is carried over Abis to MS. Some measurement result
messages are sent uplink on Abis before the Abis connection is
released.

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 9
Network Service Part (NSP), answer
BSC
SPC = 2-6058
1

MSC/VLR
SPC = 2-10368

VLR GT = 172 5100097


HLR GT = 172 5100096

VLR/HLR
SPC = 2-6049

Includes source LRN = 90048

2
CR

Address: DPC = 2-10368, SSN = BSSAP


UDT

3
CC

Address: SSN = VLR

Includes source LRN = 21009


Address: destination LRN = 90048

4
UDT

Includes calling GT = 172 5100097


Address: DPC = 2-10368, SSN = VLR

5
UDT

6
UDT

Address: SSN = HLR

Includes calling GT = 172 5100096


Address:DPC = 2-10368, SSN = VLR

7
DT1

Address: destination LRN = 90048

8
DT1

Address: destination LRN = 21009

9
UDT

Address: SSN = HLR

10
UDT

Address:DPC = 2-10368, SSN = VLR

11
UDT

Address: SSN = HLR

12
UDT

Address:DPC = 2-10368, SSN = VLR

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BSC
SPC = 2-6058

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MSC/VLR
SPC = 2-10368

VLR GT = 172 5100097


HLR GT = 172 5100096

VLR/HLR
SPC = 2-6049

13
UDT

Address:DPC = 2-10368, SSN = VLR

14
UDT

Address: SSN = HLR

15
UDT

16

17

UDT
DT1

Address: destination LRN = 90048

18
DT1

Address: destination LRN = 21009

19
DT1

Address: destination LRN = 90048

20
DT1

Address: destination LRN = 21009

21
DT1

Address: destination LRN = 90048

22
DT1

Address: destination LRN = 21009

23
RLSD

Address: destination LRN = 90048

24
RLC

Address: SSN = HLR

Address: destination LRN = 21009

Address:DPC = 2-10368, SSN = VLR

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SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 10
SCCP User information, answer
BSC

MSC/VLR

VLR/HLR

Initial MS Message, LU Request

2
Complete Layer 3 Information

TMSI = 000040DD

MAP

Send Parameters, Invoke 1

New VLR -> old VLR, get IMSI


for TMSI = 000040DD

3
4
No User field (empty SCCP msg)

MAP

Send Parameters, Result 1

Old VLR -> new VLR


IMSI = 262025100079741

Dialogue FA00144E

BSSMAP

MAP

Send Parameters, Invoke 1

New VLR -> HLR, get triplets for


IMSI = 262025100079741
6
MAP

7
DTAP

Send Parameters, Result 1

Dialogue FA001547

Triplets for IMSI = 262025100079741


Authentication Request

RAND = A66C.
8
Authentication Response

SRES = 5E03610C

9
MAP

Update Location, Invoke 1

For IMSI = 262025100079741


10
MAP

Insert subscriber Data, Invoke 4

Subscriber data, part 1


11
MAP

Result for invoke 4

Part 1 received
12
MAP

Insert Subscriber Data, Invoke 5

Subscriber data, part 2

Dialogue FFCCOOFF / FA001747

DTAP

SOLUTION TO EXERCISES
Uppgjord (ven faktaansvarig om annan) - Prepared (also subject responsible if other)

Nr - No.

Iwona Maksymowicz

038 15 - LZU

Dokansv/Godk - Doc respons/Approved

Kontr - Checked

KI/ERA/GD/UXC

BSC

26 (26)

123 333

Uen

Datum - Date

Rev

File

07/01/00

03815.doc

MSC/VLR

VLR/HLR

13
Insert Subscriber Data, Invoke 6

Subscriber data, part 3


14
MAP

Result for invoke 5

Part 2 received
15
MAP

Result for invoke 6

Part 3 received
16

17

MAP
BSSMAP

Update Location Result

Cipher Mode Command

Use A5/1 with Kc = BEB3014AE7D13000


or no encryption (A5/0)
18
BSSMAP

Cipher Mode Complete

A5/1 chosen for encryption


19
DTAP

Location Updating Accept

New TMSI = 61000003


20
DTAP

TMSI Reallocation Complete

21
BSSMAP

Clear Command

22
BSSMAP

Clear Complete

23
No SCCP User information
(empty SCCP messages)
24

Dialogue FFCCOOFF / FA001747

MAP