You are on page 1of 62

Table of Contents

Declaration.................................................................................................................. iv
Supervisors Certificate................................................................................................... v
Acknowledgments......................................................................................................... vi
List of figures.............................................................................................................. viii
List of tables................................................................................................................. ix
Abstract........................................................................................................................ x
1.

2.

CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION...................................................1


1.1

Countries with highest deaths from car crashes.....................................................2

1.2

Problem statement............................................................................................ 3

1.3

Research questions........................................................................................... 4

1.4

Research objectives.......................................................................................... 5

1.5

Significance of the study.................................................................................... 5

1.6

Limitation of the study........................................................................................ 5

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW..........................................................................7


2.1

Introduction...................................................................................................... 7

2.2

Theoretical framework....................................................................................... 7

2.3

Impacts of road accidents to the economy............................................................8

2.4

Causes of road accidents.................................................................................12

2.4.1

The Road engineering...............................................................................12

2.4.2

The vehicle mechanical and engineering......................................................12

2.4.3

Road users behaviors (human factors)........................................................13

2.4.4

Cell phone use......................................................................................... 14

2.4.5

Speeding................................................................................................. 14

2.4.6

Alcohol and Drugs..................................................................................... 14

2.5

3.

Measures to prevent road accidents...................................................................15

2.5.1

Sobriety checkpoints................................................................................. 15

2.5.2

Curbing menace of tankers and articulated vehicles.......................................16

2.5.3

Training and retraining/public enlightenment.................................................16

2.5.4

Developing and utilizing of intermodal transport.............................................17

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.............................................................19


3.1

Introduction.................................................................................................... 19
1

4.

3.2

Research design............................................................................................. 19

3.3

Research methods.......................................................................................... 20

3.4

Population...................................................................................................... 21

3.5

Sampling techniques....................................................................................... 22

3.6

Research instruments...................................................................................... 22

3.7

Ethical considerations...................................................................................... 24

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS PRESENTATION.................................25


4.1

Gender of respondents.................................................................................... 25

4.2

Respondents age group..................................................................................26

4.3

Age group mostly involved in accidents..............................................................27

4.4

Time most accidents happen............................................................................28

4.5

A region in which most accidents occur..............................................................28

4.6

Main causes of accidents................................................................................. 29

4.6.1

Speeding................................................................................................. 29

4.6.2

Overtaking............................................................................................... 29

4.6.3

Drunk and driving...................................................................................... 29

4.6.4

Fatigue.................................................................................................... 30

4.6.5

Use of mobile phone................................................................................. 30

4.7

Impacts of road accidents to the economy (socioeconomic costs)..........................30

4.7.1

The financial cost to the national budget.......................................................30

4.7.2

Poverty and physical disability....................................................................30

4.7.3

Road maintenance cost............................................................................. 31

4.7.4

Loss of production..................................................................................... 31

4.8

Measures to prevent road accidents...................................................................31

4.9

Secondary Data Analysis..................................................................................33

4.9.1

Crashes, Injuries and Fatalities, 2014 and 2015............................................33

4.9.2

Crashes reported at MVA Fund...................................................................34

4.9.3

Types of vehicles involved in crashes...........................................................34

4.9.4

Triage information..................................................................................... 35

4.9.5

Fatalities by road users category................................................................36

4.9.6

Claims by benefit type...............................................................................37

4.9.7

Lodged and expected funeral claims............................................................37

4.9.8

Claims payment........................................................................................ 38
2

4.9.9

Loss of support claims...............................................................................39

4.9.10

Overload Control Statistics for Financial Year 2013/2014................................39

4.10

Observation data analysis................................................................................41

4.10.1
4.10.2
4.11
5.

Traffic Law enforcement operation September 2015.......................................41


Traffic Law enforcement operation October 2015..............................................42

Summary of findings........................................................................................ 44

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS...........................................46


5.1

Conclusion..................................................................................................... 46

5.2

Recommendations.......................................................................................... 47

References................................................................................................................. 49

Declaration
I am herewith declaring that the work confined in this research paper for the purpose of
obtaining my Bachelor of Logistics Honours is my own original work and that I have not
used any other sources than those enumerated and cited in the references.

Signature: .

Date:

Supervisors Certificate
I, the research supervisor, hereby to certify that the research and writing of this research
paper was accepted under my management.
No portion of this research paper may be duplicated, stored in any retrieve system, or
spread in any form, or by means of, for example, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, without earlier on paper approval or lawful by author, or that of
the Namibia University of Science and Technology.

Signature: .

Date:

Acknowledgments
First and foremost, I would like to thank the Almighty God for giving me the strength and
courage to deliver this research project.
I would also like to express and extend my grateful gratitude and many thanks full
appreciation to my supervisor Mr. Oscar Kaveru for his guidance and support I am very
proud of you Mr. Oscar. I would not have been here if it was not for you today, it is
because of your tireless time, efforts and sweat over my upbringing, you are
unforgettable in my academic career and entire life. You are my best mentor.
Furthermore, obviously I would like to appreciate and extend many thanks to the entire
academic staffs from the Department of Marketing and Logistics of the Polytechnic of
Namibia for grooming and bringing me up to this level of academic achievement since
2012, I appreciate your academic wisdom of transferring skills and knowledge, you
inspired me to work very hard with endless struggle and commitment to academic work,
Im your own academic end product and I speaks through your inspiring voices.
I am also grateful for the support I received from my family, in which it has contributed
directly as well as indirectly to the completion of this study, more especially my mom
Mrs. Hilaria Katila, Im very proud of you mom you are a hard worker, all your hardship
struggle to bring me up, your tireless and endless time to fight for my education from
primary school, to secondary and until my first years to Polytechnic is all your efforts
and you taught me morals and discipline, your vision, guidance and charismatic
leadership to raise me independently with no fear.
6

Lastly, I would like to thank my lovely girlfriend Ms. Kornelius Paulina for the
unconditional love, invariable encouragement and support she gave me. Your
contribution to this study is highly appreciated. You are my young mentor.

List of figures
Figure 1 Respondents gender.........................................................................................25
Figure 2 the age group of respondents...........................................................................26
Figure 3 Age group mostly involved in road crashes......................................................27
Figure 4 Time of the day accidents occurs......................................................................28
Figure 5 Types of vehicles involved in crashes (Aug 2015)............................................35
Figure 6 Fatalities by road users category (Aug 2015)...................................................36
Figure 7 Lodged and expected funeral claims................................................................38

List of tables
Table 1 Countries with highest deaths from car crashes per 100 000 population ---------2
Table 2 Crashes, injuries and fatalities per month----------------------------------------------- 33
Table 3 Crashes reported at MVA fund--------------------------------------------------------------34
Table 4 August 2015 triage information----------------------------------------------------------- 36
Table 5 Types of claims from January to August 2015---------------------------------------- 37
Table 6 Claims payment Vs budgeted amount-------------------------------------------------- 38
Table 7 Loss of support claims for 2015--------------------------------------------------------- 39
Table 8 Overload control statistics----------------------------------------------------------------- 40
Table 9 Traffic law enforcement for September 2015------------------------------------------ 42
Table 10 Traffic law enforcement for October 2015--------------------------------------------- 44

Abstract
Transport systems are essential as they simplify the movement of goods from one place
to another, which improves overall efficiency. Besides that, road accidents place a
heavy burden on global and national economies and household finances. Many families
are driven into poverty by the loss of breadwinners and the added burden of having to
care for members who become disabled as a result of injuries sustained in road traffic
accidents. Meanwhile, the government (Ministry of Work and Transport) and the
stakeholders spend a lot financial resources on road accidents every year. Therefore,
this paper has set analyses of the impacts of road accidents to the economy of Namibia.
The problem recognized is that road traffic accidents continue to rise in Namibia, rising
with different kind of costs involved and at the same the country is losing the economic
active people that could have contributed to the economic development of our country.
The study has made use of secondary data from sources such as reports from Motor
Vehicle Accident fund and Roads Authority. Questionnaires were administered to gather
data from the stakeholders such as; National Road Safety Council, Roads Authority as
well as Private Sector Road Safety Forum. Meanwhile, the research has also taken time
to collect data through observation. Those data collection methods were used to
analyze the impacts of road accidents to the economy of Namibia and at the same time
to identify the main causes of road crashes and the measure that can be taken to
prevent road crashes. It was identified that the costs involved in crashes are still on the
rise every year. It was also revealed that the economic active people, the future
generation of Namibia is mostly involved in road crashes. The study has shown that
most of the road accidents that are occurring are linked speeding as well as overtaking
10

when it is not clear to do so. Furthermore, the study has suggested that the introduction
of road safety education from primary level will help to prevent the road crashes in the
future. Finally, it is recommended that the policies for road transportation should be
appraised for the purpose of decreasing road traffic accidents and the economic costs
of such accidents as well as for the purpose of attaining other given recommendations.

11

1. CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION


Road transport is a vital mode of transportation for the majority of our people, which
makes also road transport as a critical element that support and directly contribute to
the economic growth of every country. An increase in Gross National Product (GDP) is
accompanied by a greater movement of people and goods, and greater investment in
both vehicles and transport infrastructure. The road transport sector encompasses the
commercial use of many different vehicles practicing logistical activities, including
Lorries, light vans, taxis, buses, private cars being driven for work purposes, company
cars, construction and agricultural machinery, emergency service vehicles, motorcycle
and bicycles (Christie, Drupsteen, Van Kampen, Kuijt-Evers, Schmitz-Felten, & Verjans,
2010). According to Stakeholder Report, (2014) the biggest portion of the vehicle (68%)
was used for private purposes, such as family transportation, while 13% belong to
companies. Furthermore, 11 % of the vehicle fall under the public transportation
category. However, the growth of vehicles causes road accidents that has negative
consequences for the economic growth of many countries and this means that road
accidents have become a major concern in this world we are living in. In addition, the
consequences of road traffic crashes continue to be a drain on the financial resources
of nations in terms of damage to infrastructures, vehicles, administration costs, medical
costs, and most of all, the unquantifiable loss of life (National Road Safety Council,
2007).
In Namibia, road accidents are definitely significant issue that needs serious attention.
The majority of media in Namibia is featured by articles on road accidents every single
1

week. Family members travelling to different destinations, either to work or setting out
on a long trip, children playing in the streets and walking to school, expected to come
back home safely, never return home (Nangombe, 2012). They become victims of road
traffic accidents and those who survive the fatal accidents spend weeks, months and
even years in hospitals in pains and life will never be the same to them anymore as it
used to be. Although Namibias road network is regarded as one of the best on the
African continent, road traffic accidents are the third biggest cause of death in Namibia,
ranking after HIV/AIDS and Malaria (Siukuta, 2014). According to (MVA, 2015), each
year over 600 people are killed and more than 5000 people are injured on our Namibian
roads and on average, one person is killed on Namibian roads and about 16 suffer
serious injury on average, daily.
1.1

Countries with highest deaths from car crashes

It is crystal clear in the table below that Namibia is the topping country with the highest
deaths as a result of road traffic crashes per 100 000 population in the whole universe.
1. Namibia
2. Thailand
3. Iran
4. Sudan
5. Swaziland
6. Venezuela
7. Congo
8. Malawi
9. Dominican Republic
10. Iraq
Source: Walden University
Table 1 Countries with highest deaths from car crashes per 100 000 population

Economically, the Motor Vehicle Accident fund spent close to N$ 200 million on medical
expenses annually, excluding other expenses (Radiowave, 2014). Although Namibia
road infrastructure is regarded as the best in the continent, Roads Authority still spends
approximately between N$600 million and N$800 million annually on maintaining the
road network to ensure road safety of the road users in order to slow down the number
of road accidents. Moreover, the government and other stakeholders have been also
spending lot money on road accidents as well as wasting many resources on
campaigns aiming to slow down the number of road accidents in the country. Ultimately,
according to Tjombonde, (2015), young people continue to perish on Namibian roads
every day. Road traffic injuries have become one of the causes of fatalities among
young people aged up to 35. People at this age group are consistently the hardest hit
victims of road crashes fatalities and injuries, depositing a worriesome strain on the
national economy and causing pain and misery to family members who are left to grasp
with the sudden loss of their beloved ones (Tjombonde, 2015). She further said Namibia
can no longer afford to lose its productive citizens in this quite preventable manner
since the young people involved in the accidents they were in the prime of their lives
and poised to become leaders and economic drivers of the country.
1.2

Problem statement

Namibia is a country with a small population of about 2.1million, but ranked number one
in road accidents by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in the world in 2014. The
road accidents have placed a heavy burden on global and national economies and
household finances. The costs of fatalities and injuries due to road accidents have a
terrible impact on social well-being and socioeconomic development of Namibia. Many
5

families are driven into poverty by the loss of breadwinners and the added burden of
having to care for members who become disabled as a result of injuries sustained in
road traffic accidents (Simataa, 2009). The government of Namibia and its stakeholders
such as the National Road Safety Council, Roads Authority, Namibian Police, the Motor
Vehicle Accident fund as well as the newly established Private Sector Road Safety
Forum spend lot of financial resources every single year ensuring road safety to prevent
road accidents. Moreover, many resources are wasted on campaigns, law enforcement
as well as on public education intended to reduce the number of road accidents
occurring in Namibia but such campaigns are not effective. The Motor Vehicle Accident
Fund (MVA) it is an organization, which is responsible for compensating affected people
as the result of accidents and it is an organization that spends a lot almost every day on
road accidents. The MVA fund spends millions every year paying for the funeral
services, medical expenses, and loss of support to the victims of road accidents as well
as more money being spent on campaigns. Therefore, this study will evaluate and
identify the economic cost associated with road accidents.
1.3

Research questions

In order for one to have a clear understanding and a picture of research problems
surrounding the study, this research takes into consideration of the following questions.
The research questions were critically formulated in order to yield the required
information of this study, therefore, the research questions of this study are as follows;
1. What impact does the road accidents have on the economy of Namibia?
2. What are the causes of road accidents?
3. What measures and solutions can be taken to reduce the number of road
accidents?
7

1.4

Research objectives

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of road accidents on the
economy of Namibia. The study also seeks to discover the main causes of the
increasing road traffic accidents. Lastly, the study will identify and formulate viable
solutions and recommendations that will assist the government and the stakeholders to
reduce the number of road accidents occurring in Namibia.
1.5

Significance of the study

The study will be of importance to Namibia as well as to other countries to critically


evaluate and determine the economic impacts of road accidents to the economic
development, so that they will try to slow down the number of road accidents. As such,
this study will be highly regarded as significant in terms of road safety as well as on the
economic growth of the country. The study will also be useful to fellow academics and
the general public in terms of contributing to literature research and knowledge needed
in the area of economic implication of road accidents.
1.6

Limitation of the study

In the process of this study, various challenges and obstacles were encountered. Due to
time constraint, limited financial resources, geographically disperse of some
organizations as well as some academic aspects, the study was only limited to the City
of Windhoek which means it will only be conducted within . During term time, there was
no enough time to travel and collect data from other branches of the organizations
involved in the study thus the study is limited to the City of Windhoek. There are various
stakeholders involved in ensuring road safety, but only some stakeholders such as;
National Road Safety Council, Roads Authority, Private Sector Road Safety Forum as
9

well as Motor Vehicle Accident funds were part of this study, this is due to the limited
time. Though the Ministry of Transport is responsible with providing the financial
resources to the stakeholders, it was not part of this study. Due to limited financial
resources; the study could not be conducted in some other towns. There are various
costs involved in travel to some other areas. Moreover, as an academic, there are some
other academic works that need to be fulfilled, thus time needs to be shared equally
among all academic works.

2. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1

Introduction

The concerns of road accidents are based on the impact accidents have on the
economy and the trauma that they cause to individuals as well as family members.
Different economists and specialists have different views on the economic costs of road
accidents as well as on the causes of accidents and the measures to be taken to
11

prevent accidents. They have different opinions on the impacts of road accidents to the
economy of a certain country. Thus, this chapter will focus on reviewing different
academic paper that is related to the impacts of road accidents to the economics as well
as the papers has looked at the causes of road accidents and the measures that can be
taken to reduce the number of road accidents.
2.2

Theoretical framework

There are several theories on the causes of accidents. Each of the theoretical
exposition has some explanatory and predictive value (Cleveland State University,
2009). One the theory is the Domino theory developed by H.W Heinrich, a safety
engineer and pioneer in the field of Industrial accident safety.
The Heinrich Domino theory is a combination of three factors that are linked to road
accidents. Firstly, Social Environment and Ancestry, in this factor Heinrich explain that
undesirable personality traits, such as stubbornness, greed, and recklessness can be
passed along through inheritance or develop from a person's social environment
(Disaster Management Institute, 2015). The second factor is a Fault of Person. In this
factor it can be explained that inborn or obtained character flaws such as bad temper,
selfishness, ignorance, and recklessness contribute to road accident causation. The last
factor is the Unsafe Act and/or Unsafe Condition, which is the direct cause of accidents
and easiest causation factor in Heinrich theory (Disaster Management Institute, 2015).
According to Engombe (2012) assumed that the opportunity cost of having the
economically active people dying in accidents is thus a loss of annual income to
individuals that have died, the loss of breadwinners in the family, children are left

13

orphans which impose another cost to the government, and less income tax received
hence low investment in national infrastructure by the Government.
2.3
In

Impacts of road accidents to the economy


reflecting the impacts of road accidents to the economy of Namibia, Engombe

(2012), a student at the University of Namibia, undertaking a Bachelor of Economics,


conducted a study that was based on the economic costs of road accidents in Namibia.
Engombe made use of secondary data sources such as reports, journals as well as
publications on the internet. Furthermore, additional data were obtained from
stakeholders involved in road maintenance and related activities.
Referring to Engombe (2012) the age group of 22-55 is the most affected by road
accidents and this age group consists of individuals who are economically active. She
assumed that every road accident happening there is an engineer, human resources
officers, a nurse, an accountant as well as a teacher. Those individuals could have
contributed to the economic growth of the country. More schools in a country mean that
more people have access to education and if people are given quality education they
are qualified and skilled to work and make a meaningful contribution towards the
economy of the country (Engombe, 2012).
Nangombe (2012), an academic from the University of Namibia, who was enrolled in a
Bachelor of Science Honours Degree in Statistics, conducted a study that was based on
the analysis of road traffic fatalities in Namibia. Nangombe assumed that Family
members travelling to different destinations, either to work or setting out on a long trip,
children playing in the streets and walking to school, expected to come back home

15

safely, never return home. Her study has also discovered that the cost of road accidents
globally is in excess of U$500 billion, of which U$60 million is contributed by developing
countries, Namibia included. Nangombes study linked road accidents to the weather
condition and road conditions. Ultimately, she has also discovered that road accidents
are to a great extend preventable since many countermeasures have been proven to be
effective.
According to Ali (2004), from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, conducted a study
on the economic cost of road accidents in Bangladesh. Ali study has discovered that the
elements taken into consideration to calculate the costs include property damage,
administration, and lost output, medical and human. The study has also revealed that
poor families are more likely than those better off to lose their head of household and
thus suffer immediate economic effects as a result of road accidents. His study has also
assumed that the loss of earnings, together with medical bills, funeral costs as well as
legal bills can have a ruinous effect on a familys finances. Among poor people, 32% of
the road fatalities surveyed in the Bangladesh study occurred to a head of household or
that heads spouse, compared to 21% among those not defined as poor and over 70%
of households reported that their household income, food consumption and food
production has decreased after a certain road accident death (Ali, 2004).
Referring to Tu-anh (2013), a lecturer at Hasselt University of Belgium, in the faculty of
transport, is majoring in traffic safety. She conducted a study on the economic impacts
of road traffic accidents and the study discovered that the economic impact is really felt
when a loss of future productivity and contributions of highly talented and educated
people whose talent, knowledge and experience are required by the country for
17

economic development. Furthermore, tourism attraction which is the highest contributor


to the economic development can never be realized if road crashes continue to scare
away the international tourists (Tu-anh, 2013). As a researcher, I am also supporting her
findings since when a certain country gain a bad reputation for dangerous and
unpredictable roadways, other countries will caution their citizens, scholars as well as
the investors against roadways travel in a certain country, which will discourage people
from visiting a country with a bad reputation of road accidents.
Referring to Barrett Law, (2015), an organization that has representing clients in
Mississippi and Southeast since 1936, conducted a study on the economic impacts of
car accidents in Mississippi. The study has revealed that injuries incurred as the result
of a car accident can be devastating in both personal and financial terms. The study
said in terms of financial, families mourning the loss of loved ones, who were financial
providers as heads of households or caregivers to children or elderly family members,
face big financial concerns. The costs of medical care and lost income for families
impacted by the highway death of a loved one in Mississippi was $881-million,
compared with $41-billion nationwide (Barrett Law, 2015).
The study has also discovered primary areas of financial loss in the aftermath of a car
accident. Those primary areas are as follows;
Lost income
In this area, it was said that the economic impact of a car accident on your household
income can be devastating. Past and future wages forfeited as the result of death or
injury can be compensated through a damages claim.
19

Medical bills
The research has found that in some cases, injuries suffered in a car accident are so
severe that lifelong medical care is required. Past and future medical bills care, and
treatment necessitated due to an injury accident may be recovered through a damages
claim.
Physical suffering
Anyone who has been injured in a car accident can tell you that pain and suffering are
real. The study sees it that way as well. Pain and suffering are compensable damages
claims.
Property damage
Damages to your vehicle or other property (such as a bridge or signage belonging to a
third party) are compensable. This means that damage to property and infrastructures
can cost you and the government financial resources that could have been invested into
something that can contribute to the economic growth of the country.
2.4

Causes of road accidents

According to Norman (2010), a chief medical officer in the World Health Organization at
London Transport Executive, conducted a study that was based on the causative factors
of road accidents. Therefore, Norman study discovered various factors associated with
road accidents. He said that there is usually more than one cause of any single road
traffic accident, and causation may lie in three factors; road, vehicle as well road user.

21

2.4.1 The Road engineering


There is a strong association between road traffic accident rates and the design,
construction and surfacing (Norman, 2010). He further said the design of roads to
provide the best traffic flow has led to the development of the new science of traffic
engineering. In my opinion, a well-designed road promotes safety and reduces accident
frequency.
2.4.2 The vehicle mechanical and engineering
The proportion of accidents in which a mechanical defect or failure of a vehicle makes a
gross and obvious causative contribution is small (Norman, 2010). Norman gave an
example, in the United Kingdom in 1958, in which he said only 7481 (2.5%) out of
299767 casualties in road accidents that were considered by the police at the scene of
the accidents to be due to these causes; brakes, tires as well as the steering had the
most frequent defects. He further said that there is a reason to believe that vehicular
defects are a factor in and contribute to greater proportion of road accidents than this.
Defects are such important safety factors as brakes, lights, tires and steering are
evidently common (Norman, 2010). Norman study has highlighted that defects are very
bad, they add to a drivers difficulty in a pre-accidents situation. In addition, although it is
not possible to measure precisely the contribution of vehicle defects to road accidents,
they probably play a considerable part in the pattern of causation of many accidents.

23

2.4.3 Road users behaviors (human factors)


The road user carries much of the responsibility for traffic accidents; the vehicle drivers
for the safety of others as well as for themselves and the pedestrians mainly for their
own safety (Norman, 2010). Norman said Road safety behavior and attitudes plays a
pivotal in increasing or decreasing car crashes and associated injuries and deaths. The
study has also shown that there are differences in road user safety attitudes and
behaviors among different segments of the population. For example, females and older
road users generally tend to have safer road user behaviors than males and younger
road users. People tend to believe that they are safer road users than others,
underestimating the likelihood of being involved in a dangerous road user incident and
overestimating their road user skills and abilities (Norman, 2010). In addition, as a
researcher, I believe that social norms play a critical role in road user behavior and
views on the behavior of others toward road safety and risks can influence ones own
behavior.
According to a research conducted by MVA Fund (2014) in collaboration with the
University of Botswana on Road User Behaviour has revealed several causes of road
accidents. The study was piloted within different towns within the MVA fund offices
geographic coverage in Botswana. The causes of road accidents that were discovered
are such as;
2.4.4 Cell phone use
The study has revealed that the distraction caused by cell phones can lead to shorter
reaction time, times, difficulty staying within lanes, and shorter following distances. The
25

study has also shown that drivers using a cell phone are more than four times more
likely to get into a crash compared to drivers not using cell phones.
2.4.5 Speeding
In general, the majority of respondents in the Road User behavior study indicated that
they adhere to the speed limit in built up areas (MVA Fund, 2014). The research has
revealed that gender and age seemed to influence, speeding behaviour, with younger
males reported to have the greatest likelihood of speeding on roads through built up
areas and highways. A larger percentage of males compared to females reported that
speed limits were set too low for each type of road (MVA Fund, 2014).
2.4.6 Alcohol and Drugs
Alcohol can impair judgement and increase the chance of a crash; even at low blood
alcohol content (BAC) levels (MVA Fund, 2014). However the study added, saying that
the risk of involvement in a road traffic crash grows with increasing BAC and drinking
drivers are known to have a significantly higher risk of being in a road traffic crash than
drivers who have not consumed alcohol. As a researcher I think measuring BAC in an
important key to link the relationship between alcohol and road traffic crashes. The
study has also discovered that the percentage of males that reported driving after
drinking alcohol was higher compared to females and also younger drivers are more
likely to be involved in alcohol impaired driving. Moreover, the study said, males and
younger drivers are an important group to target for prevention of alcohol impaired
driving.

27

2.5

Measures to prevent road accidents

Agbonkhese, Yisa, Agbonkhese, Ankanbi, Aka, & Mondigha, (2013) from the Ambrose
Alli University, Ekpoma in Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute, National
Laboratory Complex carried out a study on Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: Causes
and Preventive Measures. The study assumed that guarding against the causes of road
traffic accident is a collective affair as it affects everyone directly or indirectly, thus it has
suggested preventive measures that if they are well adapted and practiced, they will go
a long way towards reducing and decreasing road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The
measures that were suggested by the study are as follows;
2.5.1 Sobriety checkpoints
Even when and if the sales and consumption of alcoholic beverages are eliminated from
our motor parks, drivers who are addicted to drink driving will still find a way of
consuming alcoholic beverages before embarking on driving exercises (Agbonkhese et
al, (2013). They further revealed that a very effective solution to checking this group of
hardened drivers is to enact and establish Body Alcoholic contents, BACs laws and
constituting sobriety checkpoints to enforce this law.
2.5.2 Curbing menace of tankers and articulated vehicles
According to Agbonkhese et al, (2013) Efforts must be made to curb the menace of
tankers and articulated vehicles on our roads. They also highlighted that the carnage
and indiscriminate parking of the tankers and articulated vehicles on the roads has to be
stopped and public parks should be provided for the tankers and articulated vehicles

29

rather than using the highways as parks, thus resulting to serious traffic flow
obstructions and danger to other road users thus resulting in traffic accidents as it has
been in past cases. Moreover, their study said the tankers and articulated vehicles
should ensure that they have adequate lightings and reflectors at their rear, so as to
alert oncoming vehicle of their presence on the road.
2.5.3 Training and retraining/public enlightenment
The road traffic system itself is dynamic in nature, hence training and retraining of
drivers constitute a formidable means of effectively dealing with the issue of road traffic
accident reduction Agbonkhese et al, (2013). They noted that is in Nigeria today, major
road

traffic

accident

scenes

have

been

noticed

to

involve

commercial

transporter/vehicles which are almost the same in the land of the brave. So their study
suggested that to this end, there is an urgent need for public transport operators to
ensure that their drivers are trained and retrained in collaboration with the Federal Road
Safety Commission (FRSC). As such, they further stressed that public enlightenments
should be intensified by the various agencies that work together towards ensuring safer
roads and thus the road users as well as elementary training or education should start
through a childs formal education so that from the formation stage of ones life, one is
already aware and exposed to the causes of road traffic accidents.
2.5.4 Developing and utilizing of intermodal transport
Nigeria's transport system solely depends on road transport in conveying goods and
people from one end to another Agbonkhese et al, (2013). As a researcher, I have also
noticed that road transport is the mode of transport that is mostly used in Namibia to
31

convey goods and passengers. This is responsible for very high volume of traffic on the
road transport system and also a drastic reduction in the service life of roads before
failures start with sets in Agbonkhese et al, (2013). Their study has also emphasis that
the failed road pavement and high volume of road traffic will mean more travel time and
more stress, which is likely to result in road traffic accidents. However, their study
suggested that to reduce the number of road accidents, the Nigerian government needs
to urgently develop and utilize other means of land transportation systems like railways
and also do same in that of water transportation. It was also revealed that the resultant
effect of developing and utilizing other means of land transportation is that it will
drastically reduce the volume of road traffic, increase the service lifespan of roads and
subsequently reduce the occurrence of road traffic accidents.
Iipinge (2013) an academic from the University of Namibia, in the faculty of education
conducted a study assessing the effectiveness of road safety programs in Namibia. He
conducted a study among school learners in Windhoek. His findings were based on the
following theme categories.
The first theme is Road campaign and programs in which school learners stressed that
the public should be informed mostly through road shows because people tend to be
more careful after seeing the shows. Learners were also of the opinion that radios
should mostly be used for the campaigns because most people have time to listen to
the radio and it reaches a lot of people, including those who cannot read and or write, or
understand other languages, such as English (Iipinge, 2013). In addition, he further said
other media to be used should include fun shows, public meetings and community
meetings to be carried out by village headmen, newspapers, television, posters and
33

billboards erected in towns or public places to ensure that as many people as possible
are reached with road safety messages.
The second theme focused on the Road safety messages on which the majority of
learners felt that road safety messages should be made more simple and
understandable and few learners felt that the messages were not convincing enough.
Few learners also felt that the messages were not translated into different languages for
some people, such as older people, who were not English literate. As a researcher, I am
also in line with the few learners that felt that the messages are not convincing enough.
Finally, Communication of road safety messages was discovered in his study. The
school learners suggested that road safety messages should be conveyed in music and
fun games for young people. Also, the messages should be provided while people are in
queues at hospitals or at any other public places, such as old peoples pension pay
points, during trade fairs and through the use of social networks, such as Facebook.

3. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3.1

Introduction

There are many different methodologies that can be used in various types of research.
Thus, this chapter will describe the methodology and the design that will be used in this
research as well as including the sampling population and the sampling techniques. The
measurements which include validity and reliability of the instruments to be used and
how the data will be analyzed will also be part of this chapter. Moreover, this unit will

35

also focus on the ethical consideration that a researcher has to consider before
embarking on the study.
3.2

Research design

Research design is useful because it helps to guide the methods decisions that
researchers will take during their studies and set the logic interpretations at the end of
the study. Therefore, this study will apply an evaluation research approach in which it
will identify the impacts that the road accidents have on the economic development of
Namibia together with the causes of the road accidents as well as the measure that can
be taken to slow down the increasing number of road accidents. The study will also
make use of the Secondary Data Analysis (SDA) so that the researcher can spend most
of the time analyzing the data instead of getting the data ready for analysis. The
evaluation research approach will help to determine the economic cost of road
accidents in Namibia so that measures can be taken to reduce the number of accidents
that has a huge impact to the economic development of the country while the
Secondary Data Analysis will allow the researcher to analyze the quantitative data. The
researcher has chosen these approaches since at the end of this study; one would like
to know the estimated cost that the government and the stakeholders spend on road
accidents matters and on ensuring road safety to prevent the accidents as well as the
negative impacts that are results of road accidents.
3.3

Research methods

Because of the wide range of responses that were expected, a mixture of qualitative
and quantitative methodology (mixed methodology) was used to assemble and analyze
37

the data. Quantitative involve statistical data as well as publications that were obtained
from the stakeholders (NRSC, PSRSF, MVA fund as well as RA). Since estimating road
accident costs tend to be a complex subject, the study also made use of secondary data
such as the publications on the internet, reports, as well as journals, therefore, they
were used to estimate and evaluate the economic cost associated with road traffic
accidents to the Namibian economy. The statistical data were used to evaluate the cost
that the above mentioned stakeholders spend on road accidents and on ensuring road
safety. In the process, the concept of opportunity cost was introduced to determine the
economic cost of road accidents of losing the economically active people. Quantitative
methods it is important because it collect and converting data into numerical form so
that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn (Harwell, 2012). The
qualitative method was also used to evaluate the impacts of road accidents to the
economy of Namibia based on the views of the respondents. This method was used
since the researcher got more different views on the economic impacts of road
accidents. The method is also suitable for data such as the causes of road accidents as
well as for measures to slow down the increasing number of road accidents.

39

3.4

Population

The population of this study is the officials from the stakeholders that spend a lot of
money in ensuring road safety for the road user. Given the importance of road transport
to the economy of Namibia, key stakeholders such as; the National Road Safety
Council, Private Sector Road Safety Forum, Motor Vehicle Accident fund as well as
Roads Authority will be considered on giving their views on the economic cost of road
accidents in Namibia, the main causes of road accidents in the land of the brave as well
as the measures to be taken to slow down the increasing number of road accidents.
Due to a little population of the National Road Safety Council as well as for Private
Sector Road Safety Forum, all employees were considered in taking part in the study.
On Roads Authority, only the division of Road Traffic, Transport Inspectorate (RTTI)
which is more in authority on safeguarding the road users, but within this division only
the transport inspectors that are responsible for enforcing the law of road safety were
considered to give their contribution on the matter of this study. Due to the above
mentioned limitations, only the inspectors that are based at the Windhoek Brakwater
weighing station contributed to this study. There was no study conducted at the Motor
Vehicle Accident fund, only the latest secondary data that were gathered for analysis
and to estimate the economic cost associated with road traffic accidents to the
Namibian economy.
3.5

Sampling techniques

This study made use of probability sampling techniques. In this sampling technique, the
simple random sampling method was used. According to Westfall (2009), the simple
41

random sampling method involves randomly selecting individual units from a sampling
frame while giving all units an equal chance of being selected. Therefore, in this study,
the population size of the employees of the organizations involved was identified so that
the sample size can be determined. The National Road Safety Council consists of 12
employees, including the managements. So, all of them (employees and the
management) were given the research instrument nevertheless not all of them
managed to return them back. Whereas, Roads Authority has 15 Transport Inspectors
(law enforcers) within Brakwater weighing station, so, out of 15 inspectors, 10 were
selected randomly to participate in the study. Private Sector Road Safety Forum
consists of 5 employees whereby all of them were given questionnaires, but 3 of them
failed to return them back.
3.6

Research instruments

Depending on the nature of the information to be gathered, different instruments are


used to conduct certain studies. A well-designed data collection instrument will result in
high quality, accurate, up-to-date and relevant data and save time on data entry. The
tools of data collection translate the research objectives into specific questions, or
items, the responses to which will provide the data required to achieve the research
objectives.
Therefore, for the purpose of this study, a questionnaire and observation were the
suitable tools for collecting data. According to Abawi, (2013) a questionnaire is a data
collection instrument consists of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose
of gathering information from respondents. He also defines observation as a process of

43

recording the behavior patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning
or communicating with them. The questionnaire was a semi structured, with a
combination of open ended and close ended questions. The open ended and closed
ended questions were used for the reason being that the study mainly focused on
variables which cannot be directly observed such as views, opinions, perception and
feeling of the respondents. Such information could only be best collected through
questionnaires. The respondents were given close to 3 to 5 days to complete their
questionnaire. Some of the questionnaires were self-administered since the respondent
had some other commitment to take care of. Before the questionnaires were
disseminated, a pre-study was conducted to ensure that the questions within the
questionnaire are not sensitive as well as to make sure that they are understandable. A
few adjustments were done after the pre-study.
The researcher has also taken time to observe and identify some causes of road traffic
accidents as well as how road users are behaving. The researcher used his own
personal capacity, together with the transport inspectors of the Roads Authority to do
patrols and operations for 30 to 60 minutes. This was undertaken on the B1 Brakwater
road. The research has also observed how measures to slow down road accidents are
being carried out. This was done in collaboration with the National Road Safety Council
and Private Sector Road Safety Forum. This method of collecting data is suitable for all
the data being collected since are primary data.

45

3.7

Ethical considerations

In general, ethics are norms or standards of behavior that guide moral choices about
our behavior and our relationship with others. Ethical considerations provide guidelines
and monitor the researcher to ensure a high ethical standard (Coetzee, 2011).
Therefore, the goal of ethics in research is to ensure that no one is harmed or suffers
adverse consequences from research activities. This objective is usually achieved.
However, unethical activities are general and include violating non-disclosure
agreements, breaking respondent confidentiality, misrepresenting results, deceiving
people, avoiding legal liability and more (Coetzee, 2011).
In undertaking this research study, the research upholder the principle of
professionalism and respect for human dignity. Thus, before embarking on this study,
Institutional approval to undertake this research study was requested from the
stakeholders that participated researcher has introduced him to the respondent as well
as he gave the reasons for conducting the research. This was done to respect the
protection of identity, and the principle of confidentiality, privacy of all participants in the
study.

4. CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS PRESENTATION


According to (Kawulich, 2004) indicated that three things occur during data analysis;
data are organized, data are reduced through summarization and categorization, and
patterns and themes in the data are identified and linked. There are several methods
47

and softwares of analyzing data, softwares such as; Microsoft Excel, SPSS and
ATLAS. Ti. This study will make use of Microsoft Excel as software for analyzing data.
Microsoft Excel is a software program produced by Microsoft Corp, it allows users to
organize, format and calculate data with formulas using a spreadsheet system
(Technopedia, 2010). Microsoft Excel is capable of handling large amounts of data and
can perform all of the analyses covered in the text and much more, therefore all the
data that will be collected will be grouped accordingly for easy and better analysis.
Excel software can also enable the researcher to analyze data more easily than using
any other complicated program. The learning curve for Excel is very short, so it's easy
to use Excel and be productive right away (Chung, 2015).
4.1

Gender of respondents

44%

Female
56%

Male

Figure 1 Respondents gender


Figure 1 shows the gender of the respondents that participated in the study. The
females dominated in the study in which they account 56%, while the remaining 44%
were males.

49

Number of respondents

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Age group

4.2

Respondents age

group
Figure 2 the age group of respondents
The figure above illustrates the age group of the participants. The age group of 20-25
years conquered the study followed by the age group of 30-35, 25-30, 35-40 and over
40 years.
4.3

Age group mostly involved in accidents

12
10
8
6
Number of respondents

4
2
0

Age group

Figure 3 Age group mostly involved in road crashes


51

Figure 3 shows the age group mostly involved in accidents. 62.5% of the respondents
believe that the age group of 25-35 years is mostly involved in accidents and this age
group consist the economically active people. The age group of 15-25 consists of
18.75% of the respondents' views. While 12.5% of the participants are from 35-45 age
group and 10% are in the age group of 45-55.
4.4

Time most accidents happen

Evening

Afternoon

Morning
0

Figure 4 Time of the day accidents occurs


This figure shows the time of the day most road accidents happen. Therefore, half of the
respondents which are 50% believe that most accidents occur during the evening hours.
Meanwhile, 37.5% of the respondents say that most accidents occur after noon time
and the remaining 12.5% of the participants believe accidents occur morning time.
4.5

A region in which most accidents occur

The respondents were asked the region where most road accidents took place and why.
Therefore, 62.5% of the respondents believe that most accidents take place in the
Khomas region since there is a high population of people and vehicle. This region has
53

also a fast developing pace in terms of traffics on the road. Meanwhile, 25% of the
respondents accounts for Otjozondjupa because the distance between towns is too long
and it is somehow encouraging the drivers to speed and drive in an inconsiderate and
negligent manner because of frustration of driving a long distance for many hours.
12.5% of the participants believe that in Erongo region is where most accidents happen
and this is due to the environmental factor such as the weather change. The coastal
towns are mostly affected by the weather, when there dew, drivers could not see clearly,
so they will end up driving facing the oncoming vehicle which can lead to head on
collision
4.6

Main causes of accidents

4.6.1 Speeding
Speeding is one the factor that most of the participants highlighted as the major cause
of road traffic accidents. Drivers do not stick to the legal speed limit. The participants
believe that drivers drive beyond the legal speed limit since they want to reach their
destinations early, in which they will end up losing control of their vehicles.
4.6.2 Overtaking
It was also indicated that overtaking also contributes to accidents, especially at blind
spots. Drivers tend to overtake when it is not safe to do so. Therefore, they end up not
seeing the oncoming vehicle and this will result in head on collisions.
4.6.3 Drunk and driving
The respondents believe that alcohol sales and consumption is not regulated properly in
Namibia. Alcohols are sold everywhere 24hours and alcohol counts for 70% of road
55

crashes. A drunk driver is characterized by violent and dangerous driving behavior.


Those types of drivers pose serious road safety risks to other road users who are
unaware of the intoxicated driver approaching.
4.6.4 Fatigue
Most of the drivers tend to drive continuously even when they are exhausted. The
distance between towns is the reason why drivers get tired when driving. Driving for
more than two hours can really make someone tired resulting in sleeping while driving
which is very dangerous.
4.6.5 Use of mobile phone
Using cell phones while driving may seem harmless to the driver, but it can be fatal as
the drivers attention may divert to the dialogue on the phone. Using cell phones while
driving limits the driver hands, this may lead to the driver losing control of the vehicle.
4.7

Impacts of road accidents to the economy (socioeconomic costs)

The participants had different views on the impacts that road accidents has on the
economy of Namibia. Their views are as follows;
4.7.1 The financial cost to the national budget
Rising fund allocation from the national budget toward MVA fund and as a result of
social, medical benefits claimed by victims is to be paid by taxpayers. Meanwhile, large
amount of financial resources is being used for medical expenses, compensation of
victims as well as their dependents.

57

4.7.2 Poverty and physical disability


Families with low income and manifestation of poverty in cases were a bread winner
loss his or her life as a result of road crashes, families are driven into extreme poverty.
There are an increasing number of people living with physical disabilities as a result of
road crashes that are often leads to social burden to families to take care of the victims.
4.7.3 Road maintenance cost
Maintenance of damaged road infrastructure and other facilities caused by road
accidents, it is a cost to Roads Authority.
4.7.4 Loss of production
Highly trained, skilled and knowledgeable citizen and community members continue to
perish on our national road, negatively affecting the economy. Hence, the most
productive segment of the economy class in terms of labor production of the economy
reduces production outputs since the youth is regarded as the most labor active
segment and they are mostly losing their lives in road accidents.
There is also a possibility of re-training or hiring costs if a company has to replace the
person involved in the accidents. All those costs are not planned; therefore, the financial
resources could have been re-invested to grow the economy.
The opportunity cost of having economically active people dying in accidents on our
road is very high. Childrens are left orphans which impose another cost to the
government, and less income tax will be received. Hence, there will be lower investment
in national infrastructure by the government. Furthermore, tourism sector in Namibia is
the fast growing sector because of natural attraction Namibia has but the tourists are
59

discouraged by road accidents to visit our beautiful country due the bad reputation it has
for accidents.
4.8

Measures to prevent road accidents

A wide range of measures was suggested by the respondents and they are as follows;
The participants of this study suggested that the citizens should be encouraged to
switch from high risk to low risk mode of transport such as the use of a train when
travelling long distance with Namibia. Introduction of rewards giving project and
incentives to good drivers will as well promote good driving; other road users will be
motivated indirectly by those who benefited from the project.
The respondents have also suggested the introduction of road safety education in the
primary school curriculum. The knowledge gained at this level will make our future road
users more aware of road safety as this is scare in our current road users. Road safety
subject can also be introduced at the secondary level in school. Introduction of
defensive driving training to make sure drivers can drive defensively to avoid accidents.
Therefore, before one obtain a driving license, he or should must go through the
defensive driving training.
It was also suggested to introduce the 24hours visible traffic law enforcement patrol.
This should be targeting all the road users since they have a tendency of violating the
rules night time. Meanwhile, the truck drivers tend to overload during the night since
they know that the transport inspectors at Weighbridges do not operate 24hours.
Moreover, the road users (drivers) that are caught so often violating the traffic rules;
their license should be suspended for a longer period up to a maximum of 5 years.
61

Lastly, road engineering can also play a big role in ensuring road safety in which the
road can be expanded, designed and constructed with grade lanes and exclusive lanes
to create a modal split of traffic.
4.9

Secondary Data Analysis

4.9.1 Crashes, Injuries and Fatalities, 2014 and 2015


Table 1 shows the monthly crash statistics for the previous year as well as for the year
2015. The table illustrates that in comparison to July 2015, crashes and fatalities
increased by 7% and 46%, respectively, while injuries decreased by 14%. Statistics for
the year 2015 indicates that on average, a total of 328 crashes, 579 injuries and 56
fatalities are recorded, monthly. It is also indicated in the table that the number of
crashes and injuries has increased drastically in 2015 compared to 2014 while the
number of fatalities has dropped. Out of the crashes that occur, the numbers of injuries
were more than for fatalities in both years.

Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug

Crashes, injuries and fatalities per month


2015
Crashes Injuries Fatalitie
Months Crashes
s
248
463
63
Jan
310
253
477
40
Feb
304
296
492
66
Mar
378
245
526
46
Apr
340
312
507
63
May
341
283
468
53
June
321
298
501
64
July
327
325
594
82
Aug
351

Total

2260

2014
Months

4028

477

2672

Injuries

Fatalities

512
484
640
602
630
603
521
642

66
40
67
67
51
46
67
46

4634

450

Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report


Table 2 Crashes, injuries and fatalities per month
63

4.9.2 Crashes reported at MVA Fund


Table 2 indicates to total number of crashes that were recorded by the Fund during the
month under review. The table shows the total number of crashes that were reported to
the MVA Fund, of which 86% were reported through the Call Center and 14% were
reported via the submission of benefit claims. The table also presents the number of
crashes per region 9 region where crashes occurred). As the table illustrates, for all the
regions, most of the crashes were reported through the 0819682 toll-free numbers. This
table also means that most of the accidents took place in Khomas which can be related
to the high population of vehicles in the region.
Crashes reported at MVA: Call center VS Claims lodged August
Region
Total crashes
Through call center
Through claims
Khomas
139
126
13
Otjozondjupa
31
27
4
Oshikoto
26
23
3
Oshana
42
36
6
Kavango
12
8
4
Erongo
43
37
6
Omusati
14
10
4
Hardap
9
8
1
Kunene
0
0
0
Ohangwena
16
15
1
//Karas
6
4
2
Zambezi
5
4
1
Omaheke
8
5
3
Total
351
303
48
Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report
Table 3 Crashes reported at MVA fund
4.9.3 Types of vehicles involved in crashes

Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report


65

300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Figure 5 Types of
vehicles involved in crashes (Aug 2015)
Figure 5 shows that a total of 494 vehicles were involved in crashes that occurred
during August, indicating an increase by 12% from the recorded 440 vehicles that were
involved during the previous month. Most of the vehicles that were involved in August
crashes were sedans (50%) followed by pick-up (26%) while trucks and SUV, accounted
for 5% and 5% respectively.
4.9.4 Triage information
Table 3 indicates the triage information for August 2015. As per table, a total number of
642 people were injured, of which 606 were outraged at state. As per statistics, 4 of the
injured persons were outraged at a private hospital due to the nature of the injuries
sustained. However, 23 persons referred themselves (self-referrals) to a private hospital
with their medical aid. This translates in a 99% triage at state. Furthermore, the table
indicates that a total of 128 patients were admitted in hospitals for injury management.
August 2015 triage information
67

No. of patient injured


No. of patients triaged at state
No. of patients triage at private hospitals
No. of self-referrals to private hospitals
No. of patients admitted

642
606
4
23
128

Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report


Table 4 August 2015 triage information
4.9.5 Fatalities by road users category
20
18
16
14
12
10

Road users

8
6
4
2
0
Passengers

Pedestrian

Drivers

Unknown

Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report


Figure 6 Fatalities by road users category (Aug 2015)
Figure 6 indicates the August 2015 fatalities by road user categories. In terms of
fatalities by road user categories, statistics show that the majority of those that lost their
lives in road crashes during the August month were passengers (41%) followed by
pedestrians (30%). Meanwhile, drivers account for 26% of the fatality record.
4.9.6 Claims by benefit type
Types of claims from January to August 2015
69

Injury grant
Funeral
LOS
Medical
settlements
LOI
Other
contribution
Total

January
241
62
10
5

February
201
40
7
6

March
229
74
21
1

April
243
67
13
5

May
192
56
11
0

June
220
42
17
12

July
249
69
19
1

Aug
206
53
14
0

1
1

4
1

6
1

1
0

0
0

6
4

8
0

4
0

320

259

332

329

259

301

346

277

Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report


Table 5 Types of claims from January to August 2015
The table above shows the distribution of the registered claims per benefit type from
January 2015 to August 2015 months. As the table indicates, most of the types of claims
received during August were for injury grant benefit (74%) followed by claims in respect
of funeral benefit (19%). This table has also indicated that most of the financial
resources are spent into injuries than in any other claims. The claims have also gone
down in August.
4.9.7 Lodged and expected funeral claims
Figure 7 indicates the status of the expected claims in respect of funeral grant for
August. Of the expected 46 claims, as at 02/09/2015, a total of 39 (85%) claims has
been submitted and paid. However a certain amount was paid in August for funeral
grant claims while 7 (15%) of the expected claims in this regards are still outstanding.

71

15%

Received
Awaited

85%

Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report


Figure 7 Lodged and expected funeral claims

73

4.9.8 Claims payment

Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report

Claims payment Vs budgeted amount


Claims type
Budgeted amount Paid amount
Injury grant
N$ 2.8 million
N$ 3.5 million
Funeral grant
N$ 420,000.00
N$ 371,000.00
Medical & Hospital claim
N$ 13.3 million
N$ 15.1 million
budgeted amount

Table 6
Claims
payment Vs

This table indicates the amount of money that was paid in respect of injury grant, funeral
grant and medical claims during August. As per the table, MVA spent more money, in
respect of injury grant and medical claim types as compared to the budgeted amounts.
This means that the amount paid for injury grant as well as medical and hospital claims
has exceeded the budgeted amount, this can have a negative impact to MVA.
4.9.9 Loss of support claims
This table illustrates the number of Loss of Support claims that were received during the
year 2015, per month. Millions of financial resources are being spent on road accidents
in which those millions could have been used for the national development such as the
development of infrastructures.
Months
January
February
March

Claims received
10
7
21

Total projection
N$ 1,924,833.00
N$ 1,688,573.00
N$ 2,288,796.57
75

Paid amount
N$ 201,172.00
N$ 119,157.00
N$ 213,483.09

Balance outstanding
N$ 1,723,661.00
N$ 1,568,884.00
N$ 2,075,313.48

April
13
N$ 627,036.00
N$ 35,306.00
N$ 591,730.00
May
11
N$ 1,243,705.00
N$ 117,216.00
N$ 1,126,489.00
June
17
N$ 2,695,407.00
N$ 316,398.00
N$ 2,379,009.00
July
19
August
14
Total
112
N$ 10,468,350.57 N$ 1,002,732.09 N$ 9,465,086.48
Source: MVA fund August 2015 Business Information Analysis Report
Table 7 Loss of support claims for 2015
4.9.10 Overload Control Statistics for Financial Year 2013/2014
The table below illustrates the overload statistics for the Weighbridges in Namibia.
Overloading is one of the factors that can be related to road crashes. When a vehicle is
overloaded it can cause a breakdown to a vehicle leading to an accident. Hence, a
vehicle that is overloaded can damage the road; a damaged road can as well cause an
accident and the cost of repairing a damaged road is very high. As this table shows,
Brakwater weighbridge weighed most vehicles even exceeding their target while the
Walvis Bay weighbridge trapped most vehicles overloaded. Meanwhile, not only
Brakwater weighing station has exceeded their target but at least four more weighing
stations have gone beyond their targets.
Weighbridg

Target

Vehicles
weighed

Vehicles

Total

overload

vehicles

Above 5%

overload

Percentage
overload

Brakwater

85 960

91 614

655

6 358

6.9

Aris

73 844

75 613

413

3 627

4.8

Gobabis

27 328

45 066

169

1 032

2.3

Walvis Bay

60 000

50 228

725

11 127

22.2

77

Onhuno

35 332

29 426

270

2 079

7.1

Noordoewer

6 784

6 277

29

489

7.8

Ariamsvlei

12 500

10 070

259

1 143

11.4

Rosh Pinah

1 512

1 073

31

159

14.8

Oshivelo

35 276

40 799

593

7 034

17.2

Katima

15 820

17 882

297

2 967

16.6

TOTAL

354 356

368 048

3 441

36 015

9.8

Source: Roads Authority Annual Report 2013/2014


Table 8 Overload control statistics

79

4.10

Observation data analysis

4.10.1 Traffic Law enforcement operation September 2015


This table below shows the traffic offenses that the road users (drivers) that used the B1
Brakwater road has committed in September. Various offenses that can contribute to
road crashes were identified. It was found that most of the vehicles that used that road
were not roadworthy. These vehicles can be dangerous to other road users, resulting in
an accident. Other drivers were caught driving beyond the authorized speed which is
speeding. Likewise speeding can be dangerous in case of emergency; it can be so hard
for drivers if something jumps into the road, resulting in a driver to lose control of the
vehicle. Other offenses such as; licensing of vehicles, violation of the rules of the road
as well as loads on the vehicle were also noted during the traffic law operation.
Overloading can damage the road infrastructure and this will result in costs of repairing
the damaged road.
Traffic Violations/offences
Licensing and Registration
Unlicensed vehicles
Operator card
Roadworthiness/ Equipments
Tyres
Reflectors
Information plate
Head lamps
Stop lamps
Sounding devise
Directional indicators
Rear lamps

Citations
2
1
3
11
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
19

Moving Violations and Rules of the


Road
81

Inconsiderate driving
Red traffic signal
Seatbelt
Load on vehicle
Overloading
General speed limit
80km/h prescribed limit (GVM 3500)
100km/h prescribed limit (buses)
120km/h limit
Grand total

1
1
1
3
2
2
1
1
13
15
42

Source: Observation data


Table 9 Traffic law enforcement for September 2015
4.10.2 Traffic Law enforcement operation October 2015
Table 8 illustrates another traffic law enforcement that was carried out during the month
of October 2015. During this month operation, speeding dominated with 147 offenders,
followed by the violation of the rules of the road with 47 offenders. In this operation 37
vehicles were found not roadworthy. Driving on national roads, one must possess a
driving license; however, during the operation 19 drivers were caught driving without
license. 26 vehicles were found conveying goods which are not fastened on the vehicle
and some of which are abnormal loads. Goods that are not fastened can fall of the
vehicle during the movement, posing danger to other road users.

Traffic Violations/offences

Citations

Drivers Fitness
83

Employing/permitting person to drive 1


vehicle without license
Driving license
18
19
Licensing and Registration
Unlicensed vehicles
6
6
Roadworthiness/ Equipments
Tyres
5
Reflectors
3
Damage Lamps
2
Stop lamps
3
Fire extinguishers
9
Sounding devise
1
Directional indicators
3
Defective safety belt
3
Notice of suspension
6
37
Moving Violations and Rules of the
Road
Road traffic sign-no crossing marking 4
Road traffic sign-no over taking
6
Road sign-yellow directional arrow
1
Road sign-No Stopping
9
Road sign-no stopping line marking
2
Inconsiderate driving
3
Cellphones
6
Over taking endangering oncoming 1
traffic
Driving facing Oncoming Traffic
6
Driving on the shoulder of the Road
2
Seatbelt
2
42
Load on Vehicle -Passengers
Overloading (Passengers)
1
1
Conveyance of Goods & Abnormal
Loads/Vehicles
Abnormal permit
3
Contrary to abnormal permit
1
Unfastened loads/goods
22
26
Speed Limit
100km/h limit
24
85

120km/h limit

123
147

Grand TOTAL

313

Source: Observation data


Table 10 Traffic law enforcement for October 2015
4.11

Summary of findings

According to the data presented, it is clear that the number of crashes and injuries have
increased in 2015. From January until August 2014, the numbers of crashes were
running at 2260 while in 2015 they were 2672. Meanwhile, the numbers of injuries have
also increased. Therefore, it is crystal clear that road traffic accident in Namibia is
increasing rapidly.
Looking at the age group mostly involved in road crashes, it is marked that the age
group of 25-25 years is mostly involved in road crashes. This age group consists of the
economic active individuals, which means they have a huge contribution to the
economic development and growth of Namibia. It is also evident that the stakeholders
spend tremendously on road accidents in terms of financial resources. Such resources
are spent on medical settlements, funeral grants, loss of support, loss of income, on
campaign as well as other added costs. Those costs have exceeded the budgeted
amount. The financial resources spent on accidents could have been used to build more
schools as well as health facilities. More schools means the citizens will have access to
education and if quality education is provided, people will be fit and skilled to work and
make a significant contribution to the economic growth. Meanwhile, if the citizens have
access to health facilities, it means a healthy production nation.

87

Moreover, it was noted that road crashes are related to certain factors. Road users
allow accidents to happen, the way they are behaving on the road is very harsh, and
they pose danger to other road users. Nevertheless, this study has suggested
measures that can be applied to prevent road crashes. Some of the suggested
measures are such as; the introduction of road safety education at the primary level as
well as the reviewing of policies.

5. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1

Conclusion

In conclusion, the road safety situation has deteriorated and it is evident that road
crashes are one of the enormous challenges facing the Namibian Government and the
stakeholders. The trend in road accidents has shown that crashes have prime to huge

89

impact to the economic as well as to the society. Families are driven into poverty when
they lose their breadwinners. Millions are budgeted for accidents while there are
individuals that are sleeping with empty stomach and at the same time there is no
enough and adequate health facilities.
It is indicated that most accidents happen in Khomas region; this is because the
population of vehicles is rising daily, and everyone wants to own a car. In terms of
fatalities by road user category, as a result of accidents, the majority that is losing their
lives are passengers. Road accidents are associated with a wide range of causes such
as; speeding, overtaking when is not clear to do so, fatigue, drunk and driving, the use
of mobile phone while driving and the list goes on, all those causes are regarded as
human behavior.
However, the Government of Namibia and the stakeholders do not want road accidents
to keep on taking our loved ones lives, our future generation to perish on the roads.
Thus, measures were suggested in order to prevent road crashes but most important is
to review policies and try to approach the suggested measures in a modern way.
5.2

Recommendations

The increasing number of road traffic accidents links to large traffic volumes. Therefore,
it must be controlled to prevent injury and the loss of human life, as well as to reduce
public health expenditure on injury-related costs. Stricter law enforcement as well as
campaigns and subsidization of public transport could go a long way to improve the
effects of the increased levels of motorization.

91

It is also recommended that road safety education needs to be enhanced from the
primary school. Delivering the basic rules and risks of the road to children gives them a
safer journey from home to school and is the best way to improve the road safety
situation in the long term. Moreover, the introduction of road safety as subject at the
secondary level will also help in the future to prevent road accident from taking place.
The behavior of road users in Namibia requires guidance and control for appropriate
interaction with other components of the road traffic system such as the vehicle and the
built environment. Separately from human behavior, other aspects which directly
contribute to accidents are vehicle performance, including defects or faults, as well as
road design and maintenance. Most accidents do not just happen, they are made to
happen or they are allowed and encouraged to happen (accidents never occur, they are
caused). Driving while using a cell phone, driving without a license, failure to respect
and obey traffic regulations are some of the risk factors associated with human behavior
that contribute to high number of road accidents in Namibia.
Fatigue is one of the factors that contribute to road crashes it is caused by long distance
driving between towns. Therefore, it is recommended that there should a development
of mini towns as well as service stations where the drivers can rest.
Since most of the drivers do not want to adhere to the legal speed limit, the government
of Namibia should pass a law that is permitting the registered dealers of car to limit the
speed within the prescribed legal speed before they sell the cars. More cameras can
also be installed along highways and the drivers should be aware of this, only then they
will abide to the restricted speed level otherwise they will be heavily fined.
93

The government of Namibia should establish traffic courts in all regions. This will help to
avoid the unnecessary postponement of traffic cases. The focus will be strictly on the
traffic cases and the offenders will be facing their punishment on time without delays.
So, the road users will try not to violate the traffic rules since the punishment will be
soon once they get caught.
Ultimately, it is recommended that the policies for road transportation should be
appraised for the purpose of reducing road traffic accidents and the economic costs of
such accidents as well as for the purpose of achieving the above mentioned
recommendations. This can also be done through benchmarking with countries that are
prospering in road safety.

References
Abawi, K. (2013). Data Collection Instruments (Questionnaire & Interview). Training in
Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva, 3.
Agbonkhese, O., Yisa, G. L., Agbonkhese, E. G., Ankanbi, D. O., Aka, E. O., &
Mondigha, E. B. (2013). Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: Causes and
Preventive Measures. Civil and Environmental Research, 3(13), 7-8.
Ali, S. (2004). The Economic Cost of Road Accidents in Bangladesh. Retrieved May 16,
2015, from Drive and Stay Alive: http://www.driveandstayalive.com/Info
%20Section/news/individual%20news%20articles/x_040418_economic-cost-ofroad-accidents-in-bangladesh.htm

95

Barrett Law. (2015). The Economic Impact of Car Accidents in Mississippi. Retrieved
October 03, 2015, from Barrettlaw: http://barrettlawpllc.com/blog/the-economicimpact-of-car-accidents
Boslaugh, S. (2005). An Intermediate Guide to Data Analysis Programmes. Retrieved
April 26, 2015, from Sage Journals: http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/anintermediate-guide-to spss-programming/n1.xml
Christie, N., Drupsteen, L., Van Kampen, J., Kuijt-Evers, L., Schmitz-Felten, E., &
Verjans, M. (2010). A review of accidents and injuries to road transport drivers.
Luxembourg: Office of the European Union.
Chung, L. (2015). Microsoft Access versus Microsoft Excel for Data Analysis and
Reporting.
Retrieved
October
13,
2015,
from
FMS:
https://www.fmsinc.com/microsoftaccess/DataAnalysis/versus-excel.html
Cleveland State University. (2009). Theories of accidents causation. Retrieved March
11, 2015, from Academic: http://acamedic.csuohio.edu/duffy_s/Section_03.pdf
Coetzee, N. (2011). A Guide to Ehtical Consideration. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from
Academic: http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/Research_Ethics.pdf
Engombe, T. M. (2012). The Economic Costs of Road Traffic Accidents in Namibia.
Retrieved
March
02,
2015,
from
Academia:
https://www.academia.edu/7697766/UNIVERSITY_OF_NAMIBIA_The_Economic
_Costs_of_Road_Traffic_Accidents_in_Namibia
Harwell, M. R. (2012). Researdesign in qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods.
Retrieved April 2015, 01, from Sage: http://www.sagepub.com/upmdata/41165_10.pdf
Iipinge, S. (2013). Assessment of the Effectiveness of Road Safety Programmes in
Namibia.
Retrieved
March
02,
2015,
from
Scholarlink:
http://jetems.scholarlinkresearch.com/articles/Assessment%20of%20the
%20Effectiveness.pdf
Kawulich, B. (2004). Data analysis techniques in qualitative research. Retrieved April
22,
2015,
from
Eera
Online:
http://www.eeraonline.org/journal/files/2004/JRE_2004_08_Kawulich.pdf
MVA. (2015). Road Crash Cost Implications to the MVA Fund. Retrieved August 22,
2015, from MVA Fund: http://www.mvafund.com.na/index.php/shortcode/mediareleasess/367-road-crash-cost-implications-to-the-mva-fund

97

MVA Fund. (2014). Road User Behaviour Survey Report-Botswana. Gaborone: Motor
Vehicle Accident Fund .
Nangombe, A. (2012). Statistical Analysis of Road Traffic Fatalities in Namibia.
Retrieved
March
27,
2015,
from
Digital:
http://digital.unam.na/bitstream/handle/11070.1/5545.nangombe2012.pdf?
sequence=1
National Road Safety Council. (2007). Road Accidents in Namibia. Windhoek: National
Road Safety Council.
Norman, L. (2010). Road Traffic Accidents . Retrieved September 10, 2015, from
Bitstream: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/39723/1/WHO_PHP_12.pdf
Radiowave. (2014). MVA Fund Spends Close to N$ 200 Million on Car Crashes.
Retrieved
March
03,
2015,
from
Radiowave:
http://www.radiowave.com.na/news/dailynews/9586-mva-fund.spends-close-to-n200-million-on-car-crashes
Simataa, G. (2009). Road Accidents in Namibia. Windhoek: National Road Safety
Council.
Siukuta, G. (2014). Road Accidents in Namibia. Retrieved August 22, 2015, from
Namedia: http://www.namedia-nam.com/namedia-press-release-media-reportson-road-accidents-in-namibia/
Stakeholder Report. (2014). Festive Season Road Safety Campaign. Windhoek:
National Road Safety Council.
Technopedia. (2010). Microsoft Excel. Retrieved November 29, 2015, from Techopedia:
https://www.techopedia.com/definition/5430/microsoft-excel
Tjombonde, K. (2015). Young people top death in car crashes. Windhoek: The
Namibian.
Tu-anh, T. (2013). Economic impacts of road traffic accidents. Retrieved 05 17, 2015,
from Easts: http://www.easts.info/on-line/proceedings_05/1923.pdf
Walden University. (2014). The most dangerous countries to drive in. Retrieved January
08, 2016, from Drive: http://www.drive.com.au/motor-news/the-most-dangerouscountries-to-drive-in-20140221-335yt.html
Westfall, L. (2009). Sampling Methods. London: ASQ Quality Press.

99

101