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Thomas N. Barnes Center for Enlisted Education (AETC)

Maxwell AFB, Alabama 36118

1 Oct 13


TIME: 2 Hours
METHOD: Experiential
Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 1. Air Force Basic Doctrine, 17 November 2003.
Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 2. Operations and Organizations, 3 Apr 2007.
Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 2-1.5. Nuclear Operations, 15 July 1998.
Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 2-3. Irregular Warfare, 1 August 2007.
Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 2-10. Homeland Operations, 21 March 2006.
Bartolotto, LTC John K. The Origin and Development Process of the National Security
Strategy. Research Project, US Army War College, 3 May 2004.
Dalton, H. Scott. The Principles of War: Mass. Associated Content. Website:
cat=37 . June 2009.
Dalton, H.Scott. The Principles of War: Maneuver. Associated Content. Website:
pg2.html?cat=37 July 2009.
Dalton, H. Scott. The Principles of War: Maneuver. Associated Content. Website:
3.html?cat=37 June 2009.
Department of Defense. National Defense Strategy. Washington, DC, June 2008.
Department of Defense. Strategy for Homeland Defense and Civil Support. Washington,
DC, June 2005.
Joint Publication 1. Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, 2 May 2007
incorporating Change 1, 20 March 2009.
Joint Publication 1-02. DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001.
Joint Publication 3-0. Joint Operations, 17 September 2006, Change 2, 22 March 2010.
Joint Publication 3-07. Joint Doctrine for Military Operations other than War, 16 June

Joint Publication 3-29, Foreign Humanitarian Assistance, 17 March 2009.

Joint Publication 5-0. Joint Operation Planning, 26 December 2006.
Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The National Military Strategy of the
United States of America. Washington, DC, 2011.
1. Read student guide (9,000 words, approximately 60 minutes)

GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME: Upon completion of this lesson, students are
better prepared to operate in a Joint Environment.
The Joint Warfighter lesson supports the following AF Institutional Competencies:
1. Employing Military Capabilities Operational and Strategic Art
2. Employing Military Capabilities Unit, AF, Joint, and Coalition Capabilities
3. Employing Military Capabilities Non-adversarial Crisis Response
4. Enterprise Perspective Enterprise Structure and Relationships
The Joint Warfighter lesson supports the following Basic EJPME Learning Areas:
Service in a JIIM Environment (Joint Interagency, Intergovernmental, and
TERMINAL COGNITIVE OBJECTIVE: Comprehend Joint Warfighter concepts.
1. Explain Joint Warfighter concepts.
2. Give examples of Joint Warfighter concepts.
AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVE: Value Joint Warfighter concepts.
INTRODUCTION: Attention, Motivation, and Overview
MP1. Joint Warfighter Challenge
MP2. Joint Interagency, Intergovernmental, Multinational Scenarios
CONCLUSION: Summary, Remotivation, and Closure
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As members of the Profession of Arms we are often called upon to defend this country we
are fortunate enough to call our own. We take great pride in defending the homeland and
US interests and are willing to do so by any and all means necessary. However, this does
not mean that we simply make the rules up as we go along. We are provided a playbook,
so to speak, through documents such as Air Force Doctrine and various security strategies
which guide and direct both combat and non-combat operations in which we may become
engaged. Beginning with military theory and shifting into the principles of war, it will
provide a framework of how we engage our adversaries in conflict. Second, it will
examine doctrine and how we use air, space, and cyberspace to meet our objectives.
Finally, it will address the various strategies employed by the United States and conclude
with a look at our range of military operations (ROMO) to include non-adversarial crisis
response. When all of the elements are put together, operational and strategic art is
created. Let us begin in the mind, where ideas and theory begin, specifically, military
NOTE: Joint Interagency, Intergovernmental, Multinational (JIIM) is the same term as
Joint. When you see Joint, it is also means JIIM and vice versa.
1. Full-spectrum of military operations is a military concept whereby a joint military
structure achieves control over all elements of the battlespace using land, air, maritime,
and space based assets. These include the physical battlespace (air, surface and subsurface) as well as the electromagnetic spectrum and information space.
2. The concepts that make up the full spectrum of military operations are Military
Theory, Principles of War, Air Force doctrine, and U.S. Strategy.
1. Military theory can be explained as the scientific, artistic, and philosophical idea or
view relating to principles, methods, rules, and operations of war. Military theory
describes the best way for men to wage war in a universe described by science, and
based on the nature of man in that universe, as described by philosophy.1 Military
theory, which is not subject to the rigors of scientific experimentation, remains invalid
until put to the test in war.
2. It is only after war in which existing military theory has been proven wrong that
new theories are produced. It is fundamental to the scientific method that for a theory
to be invalid there must be the means to prove it wrong. General predictions are used in
theory development, as they are difficult to disprove. In peacetime training, and even in
limited conflicts, it is difficult to sort out the necessary elements of a theory from
fiction because doctrine, technology, and world events (cyber war, the militarytechnical revolution, chaos and warfare, and the now ever-present information war)
seldom present what could be called controlled or anticipated environments for

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Throughout the history of military conflict, leaders have noted certain principles that
resulted in victory. These principles of war are those aspects of warfare that are
universally true and relevant. They are: unity of command, objective, offensive, mass,
maneuver, economy of force, security, surprise, and simplicity.
As members of the joint team, Airmen should appreciate how these principles apply to
all forces, but must fully understand them as they pertain to air and space forces. Air
and space forces provide unique capabilities through operations in the third dimension.
The principles of war are guidelines that commanders can use to form and select
courses of action and concepts of operation. Explanations of the principles of war
1. Unity of Command: This principle emphasizes that all efforts should be directed
and coordinated toward a common objective under one responsible commander.
Coordination may be achieved by cooperation; however it is best achieved by vesting a
single commander with the authority to direct all force employment. Air and space
power is the product of multiple capabilities and centralized command.
2. Objective: This principle pertains to directing military operations toward a defined
and attainable goal that contributes to strategic, operational, and tactical aims. It helps
to create political and military goals that are complementary and clearly articulated.
Campaign or theater objectives determine military priorities. It is important to consider
the impact time and persistence have on attaining the objective. Short-term solutions to
long-term problems must be avoided when defining the forces objectives. From an
Airmans perspective, the principle of objective shapes priorities to allow air and space
forces to concentrate on theater or campaign priorities and seeks to avoid the siphoning
of force elements to fragmented objectives.
3. Offensive: This principle is to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative; and to do it as
soon as possible. Simply stated, it is an action rather than a reaction and it dictates the
time, place, purpose, scope, intensity, and pace of operations. Offensive provides the
means for joint forces to dictate battle space operations. While defense may be dictated
by the situation, success in war is generally attained only while on the offensive. Since
air and space power is best used as an offensive weapon, this principle is particularly
significant to air and space warfare. Control of air and space is an offensive action.
The speed and range of attacking air and space forces provide a significant offensive
advantage over surface forces and even defending air and space forces.
4. Mass: The principle of mass concentrates the effects of combat power at a time and
place that is most advantageous to achieve decisive results. The concentration of
military power is a fundamental consideration in all military operations. Todays air
and space forces have altered the concept of massed forces. The speed, range, and
flexibility of air and space forces, complemented by the accuracy and lethality of
precision weapons and advances in information technologies, allow them to achieve
mass faster than surface forces. Through effective means of attack (not just
overwhelming numbers), mass is an effect that air and space forces achieve. In the past,
hundreds of airplanes attacked one or two major targets each day.
Today, a single precision guided weapon system is programmed; using superior battle
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space intelligence, to inflict destructive results on a specific target rather than

employing multiply bombs to meet mission objectives. Overwhelming force, applied at
the decisive point on the battlefield, is critical to victory.
5. Maneuver: Like the principle of offensive, maneuver forces the enemy to react,
allows successful friendly operations, and reduces friendly vulnerabilities. Maneuver
places the enemy at a disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power in
a multi-dimensional combat space. A combination of speed, range, flexibility, and
versatility are products of air and space powers ability to conduct maneuver during the
planning and execution stages of operations. The ability to quickly integrate a force and
strike an adversarys strategic or operational centers of gravity is the essence of
maneuver. Air maneuver allows engagement anywhere, from any direction, at any
time, forcing the adversary to be on guard everywhere.3
6. Economy of Force: Economy of force is the careful employment and distribution
of forces. Its purpose is to allocate minimum essential resources to secondary efforts.
To ensure overwhelming combat power is available, maximum effort should be devoted
to primary objectives while discouraging the use of excessive force. At the operational
level, commanders must ensure that any effort made towards secondary objectives does
not degrade achievement of the larger operational or strategic objectives. Economy of
force requires Airmen to maintain a broader operational view even as they seek to
obtain clearly articulated objectives and priorities. While this principle was well
developed before airpower existed; it highlights the greatest vulnerability of air and
space power employment. The misuse or misdirection of air and space power can
reduce its contribution even more than enemy action. Ill-defined objectives can result
in the piecemeal application of air and space forces reducing mission effectiveness.
7. Security: The purpose of security is to never permit the enemy to acquire
unexpected advantage. The lethal consequences of enemy attack make the security of
friendly forces a paramount concern. It provides freedom from and freedom to attack.
Air and space power is most vulnerable on the ground. Thus, force protection is an
integral part of air and space power employment. Gaining or maintaining control of the
air, space, and information media provides friendly forces a significant advantage and
sense of security. The principle of security embraces the realms of physical and
information security as well. Information has always been part of air, land, and sea
warfare; now, with the proliferation of information technologies, it becomes even more
central to the outcome of a conflict.
8. Surprise: Surprise leverages the security principle by attacking the enemy at a time,
place, or in a manner for which they are not prepared. Similar to the principle of
maneuver, the speed and range of air and space forces, coupled with their flexibility and
versatility, allow air forces to achieve surprise more readily than surface forces. The
final choice of timing and tactics rests with the commander of air and space forces,
because terrain and distance are not inhibiting factors in the air and space environment.
Air and space forces can enhance and empower surface forces to achieve surprise.
The rapid global reach of airpower also allows surface forces to reach foreign
destinations quickly, thus seizing the initiative through surprise, which makes this
principle one of air and space powers strongest advantages.
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9. Simplicity: Military operations, especially joint operations, are often complex.

Simplicity calls for avoiding unnecessary complexity in organizing, preparing,
planning, and conducting military operations. Each part of a plan provides an
opportunity for something to go wrong; a plan with many complex interactions, that
requires multiple units to perform multiple operations, stands an exponentially greater
chance of failure than one with fewer moving parts. Simple guidance allows
subordinate commanders the freedom to operate creatively within their battle space.
Using common equipment, a common understanding of Service and joint doctrine, and
familiarity with procedures through joint exercises, and training can help overcome
NOTE: The Professional Development Guide lists a tenth Principle of War called
Airlift. However, none of the official references include Airlift. Therefore, we do not
address it in this lesson.
1. Air Force Doctrine is a statement of officially sanctioned beliefs, war fighting
principles, and terminology that describes and guides the proper use of air, space, and
cyberspace power in military operations. It also shapes the manner in which the Air
Force organizes, trains, equips, and sustains its forces. Air Force doctrine applies to all
active duty, Air Force Reserve, Air National Guard, and civilian Air Force personnel.
2. Air Force Doctrine forms the basis from which Air Force commanders plan and
execute their assigned air and space missions and from which they command within a
Service, joint, or multinational force. Doctrine is authoritative, but not directive.
3. As an NCO in the United States Air Force, you may feel as if doctrine has very little
impact on your career or job performance. Several years ago that mentality may have
been understood, however, todays Air Force has moved past the practice of operating
under unspoken rules of thumb and bits of handed down wisdom on what used to
work. Since the mid-1990s, the Air Force has focused on capturing knowledge of
experiences and successful practices, which actually began the formulation of todays
doctrine. Doctrine is, after all, those beliefs, distilled through experience and passed on
from one generation of Airmen to the next, that guide what we do!
4. Today, the Air Force has expanded its library of doctrine to cover the ever-growing
aspects of air and space war fighting. These publications capture those bits of handed
down wisdom, as well as recent thinking on expeditionary organization and emerging
operational concepts such as effects-based operations. Taken together, these
publications express why air and space power is different from other forms of military
power, how it should be organized and employed, and why it is best to do things certain
ways. In addition, by capturing these concepts on paper, the Air Force is now able to
express itself to numerous internal and external communitiesdoctrine is also an
educational tool. By bringing all these ideas together in a coherent fashion, doctrine
captures our Services identity.

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a. Basic Doctrine: Air Force Doctrine Document 1 or DD-1 is the Airmans basic
doctrine. It is the foundation of all other doctrines and sets the tone and vision for
future doctrine development. It describes the elemental properties of air, space, and
cyberspace power and provides an Airmans perspective. This basic doctrine provides a
broad, fundamental, and continual guidance on how United States forces are organized,
trained, equipped, sustained, and employed. Because basic doctrine is broad and
expresses fundamental guidance, development is never complete. As an NCO, you
should look at doctrine as a snapshot in time, a reflection of the thinking at the time of
its creation. Doctrine will evolve as new experiences and advances in technology point
the way to the operations of the future. Due to the fact that basic doctrine expresses
broad, enduring fundamentals, it changes less rapidly compared to the other levels of
b. Operational Doctrine: Operational doctrine is contained in Air Force Doctrine 2series publications. It describes a more detailed organization of forces and applies the
principles of basic doctrine to military actions. Operational doctrine guides the proper
organization and employment of forces in the context of distinct objectives, force
capabilities, broad functional areas, and operational environments. Through operational
doctrine we as an Air Force achieve the focus for developing missions and tasks that
will be executed through tactical doctrine. Doctrine at this level changes a bit more
rapidly than basic doctrine, but usually only after deliberate internal Service debate.
c. Tactical Doctrine: Tactical doctrine describes the proper employment of specific
Air Force assets, individually or in concert with other assets, to accomplish detailed
objectives. Tactical doctrine considers particular objectives (stopping the advance of an
armored column) and conditions (threats, weather, and terrain) and describes how Air
Force assets are employed to accomplish the tactical objective (B-1s dropping antiarmor cluster munitions). Tactical doctrine is codified as tactics, techniques, and
procedures (TTP) in Air Force TTP (AFTTP) 3- series manuals. Because tactical
doctrine is closely associated with employment of technology, change may occur more
rapidly than to the other levels of doctrine. In addition, due to their sensitive nature,
some of these documents are classified.
Strategy defines how we conduct operations to accomplish national policy objectives.
Strategy originates in policy and addresses broad objectives and the plans for achieving
them. It is a plan of action, a matching of means to ends. Today, the strategy of the
U.S. consists of three separate, yet uniquely related entities: The National Security
Strategy, The National Defense Strategy, and The National Military Strategy.
1. National Security Strategy: National Security Strategy is the policy of the United
States to seek and support democratic movements and institutions in every nation and
culture, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world. The goal of our
statecraft is to help create a world of democratic, well-governed states that can meet the
needs of their citizens and conduct themselves responsibly in the international system.
The United States must renew its leadership in the world by building and cultivating the
sources of our strength and influence. Our national security depends upon Americas
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ability to leverage our unique national attributes, just as global security depends upon
strong and responsible American leadership. That includes our military might,
economic competitiveness, moral leadership, global engagement, and efforts to shape
an international system that serves the mutual interests of nations and peoples. The
world has changed at an extraordinary pace, and the United States must adapt to
advance our interests and sustain our leadership. To achieve the world we seek, the
United States must apply our strategic approach in pursuit of four enduring national
a. Security: To attain and maintain the security of the United States, its citizens,
and U.S. allies and partners we must:
(1) Strengthen security and resilience at home
(2) Disrupt, dismantle, and defeat Al-Qaida and its violent extremist affiliates
in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and around the world
(3) Reverse the spread of nuclear and biological weapons and secure nuclear
(4) Advance peace, security, and opportunity in the greater Middle east
(5) Invest in the capacity of strong and capable partners
(6) Secure Cyberspace
b. Prosperity: To ensure a strong, innovative, and growing U.S. economy in an
open international economic system that promotes opportunity and prosperity, we
(1) Strengthen education and human capital
(2) Enhance science, technology, and innovation
(3) Achieve balanced and sustainable growth
(4) Accelerate sustainable development
(5) Spend taxpayers dollars wisely
c. Values: To ensure respect for universal values at home and abroad, we must:
(1) Strengthen the power of our example
(2) Promote democracy and human rights abroad
(3) Promote dignity by meeting basic needs
d. International Order: To ensure international order advanced by U.S. leadership
that promotes peace, security, and opportunity through stronger cooperation to meet
global challenges, we must:
(1) Ensure strong alliances
(2) Build cooperation with other 21st century centers of influence
(3) Strengthen institutions and mechanisms for cooperation
(4) Sustain broad cooperation on key global challenges
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Each of these enduring national interests is linked to the others: no single interest can
be pursued in isolation, but at the same time, positive action in one area will help
advance all four. These initiatives do not encompass all of Americas national security
concerns. However, they represent areas of particular priority and areas where progress
is critical to securing our country and renewing American leadership in the years to
come. The NSS gives guidance and direction to the other strategies we have as
Americans, the National Defense Strategy, and the National Military Strategy. Now we
will move one echelon down into the National Defense Strategy.
2. National Defense Strategy: A core responsibility of the U.S. Government is to
protect the American people in the words of the framers of our Constitution, to
provide for the common defense. For more than 230 years, the U.S. Armed Forces
have served as a bulwark of liberty, opportunity, and prosperity at home. The United
States, our allies, and our partners face a spectrum of challenges, including violent
transnational extremist networks, hostile states armed with weapons of mass destruction
(WMD), rising regional powers, emerging space and cyber threats, natural and
pandemic disasters, and a growing competition for resources. The Department of
Defense must respond to these challenges while anticipating and preparing for those of
tomorrow. To succeed, we must harness and integrate all aspects of national power and
work closely with a wide range of allies, friends, and partners.
The National Defense Strategy (NDS) serves as the Departments capstone document in
this long-term effort. It flows from the NSS and informs the National Military Strategy.
It also provides a framework for other DoD strategic guidance, specifically on
campaign and contingency planning, force development, and intelligence. It addresses
how the U.S. Armed Forces will fight and win Americas wars and how we seek to
work with and through partner nations to shape opportunities in the international
environment to enhance security and avert conflict. The NDS describes our
overarching goals and strategy. It outlines how the DoD will support the NSS,
evaluates the strategic environment, challenges, and risks we must consider and maps
the way forward.
Objectives to support the NSS and provide enduring security for the American people,
the DoD has five key objectives:
a. Defend the Homeland
b. Win the Long War
c. Promote Security
d. Deter Conflict
e. Win our Nations Wars

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We will achieve our objectives by shaping the choices of key states, preventing
adversaries from acquiring or using WMD, strengthening and expanding alliances and
partnerships, securing U.S. strategic access and retaining freedom of action, and
integrating and unifying our efforts.
3. National Military Strategy: The role of the National Military Strategy (NMS) The NMS derives objectives, missions, and capability requirements from an analysis of
the NSS, the NDS, and the security environment. The NSS and NDS provide a broad
strategic context for employing military capabilities in concert with other instruments of
national power. The NMS is the CJCSs strategic direction for the US Armed Forces
and provides focus for military activities by defining a set of interrelated military
objectives and joint operating concepts from which the Service Chiefs and combatant
commanders identify desired capabilities and against which the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff assesses risk.
The National Military Strategy is guided by the Presidents National Security
Strategy and serves to implement the Secretary of Defenses National Defense
Strategy of the United States of America.
The NMS establishes three military objectives that support the National Defense
a. Protect the United States against External Attacks and Aggression
b. Prevent Conflict and Surprise Attack
c. Prevail Against Adversaries
1. According to Joint Publication 3, Joint Operations, a crisis is an incident or situation

involving a threat to a nation, its territories, citizens, military forces, possessions, or

vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of such diplomatic,
economic, political, or military importance that commitment of military forces and
resources are contemplated to achieve national objectives. Similarly, a contingency is
an anticipated situation that likely would involve military forces in response to natural
and man-made disasters, terrorists, subversives, military operations by foreign powers,
or other situations as directed by the President or SecDef.4 These definitions note that
crisis/contingencies are smaller than war and the purpose may be to assist the fight.
2. Crisis response/contingency operations are operations that we, as part of the Joint

Forces, will participate in that may or may not have an adversary, i.e. war or natural
disaster.5 It is smaller than a campaign or major operation and typically limited in
scope and conducted to achieve a very specific objective.6 Crisis response/contingency
operations focus on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, irregular
warfare, national disasters, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic
crisis. These operations may involve elements of both combat and non-combat
operations in peacetime, conflict and war situations.
3. Crisis response/contingency operations can be addressed from two different mindsets

using two different concepts to accomplish the mission, adversarial and nonadversarial, let us explore them now.

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a. Adversarial Crisis Response/Contingency Operations

In this aspect there is an enemy that our energies are being directed toward.
When other instruments of national power are unable to influence a deteriorating
or potentially hostile situation, military force may be required to demonstrate US
resolve and capability, support the other instruments of national power, or
terminate the situation on favorable terms. The general goals of US military
operations during such periods are to support national objectives, deter war, and
return to a state of peace. Such operations involve a greater risk that US forces
could become involved in combat than operations conducted to promote peace.
b. Non-Adversarial Crisis Response/Contingency Operations
On the flipside of the crisis response coin is non-adversarial crisis response
(NACR). It is a descriptive term of how our operational Airmen accomplish
missions that are not war but responses to a crisis or contingency. In these
situations there is no enemy per se, and our actions may be to assist and not
necessarily to combat. Such operations are inherently joint in nature. Although
these operations do not normally involve combat, military forces always need to
be prepared to protect themselves and respond to changing situations. Air
Force leadership deemed our understanding of NACR so important that they
made it an Institutional Sub competency under the Institutional Competency of
Employing Military Capabilities.
DOD Homeland Defense and Civil Support Paradigm
Homeland Security (HS): A
concerted national effort to prevent
terrorist attacks within the US,
reduces Americas vulnerability to
terrorism, and minimize the damage
and recover from attacks that do

Figure 1, DOD, HD, and CS Paradigm 7

Homeland Defense (HD): The

protection of US sovereignty,
territory, domestic population, and
critical defense infrastructure against
external threats and aggression, or
other threats as directed by the

Civil Support (CS): DOD support to US civil authorities for domestic emergencies and
for designated law enforcement and other activities.
Emergency Preparedness (EP): Those planning activities undertaken to ensure DOD
processes, procedures, and resources are in place to support the President and SecDef in
designated National Security Emergencies.

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A secure US Homeland is the Nations first priority and is fundamental to the successful
execution of the Nations military strategy. It is also essential to Americas ability to
project power, sustain a global military presence, and honor its global security
commitments. The military will continue to play a vital role in securing the Homeland
through the execution of HD and CS missions, as well as Emergency Preparedness (EP)
planning activities. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, HS is not synonymous with HD, nor is
HD, CS, and EP subordinate to HS. On the contrary, although HS, as defined in the
National Strategy for Homeland Security (NSHS), is concerned solely with preventing and
mitigating the effects of terrorist attacks, DODs concern cannot be limited to terrorists.
DOD must address both conventional and unconventional attacks by any adversary
(including but not strictly limited to terrorists). When DOD conducts military missions as
the lead agency to defend the Homeland, this is HD.
DOD has lead responsibility for HD, with other departments and agencies in support of
DOD efforts. Circumstances in which DOD supports the broader federal, state, and / or
local government efforts, as coordinated by and in cooperation with DHS or other
departments or agencies as LFA, are appropriately described as CS. In these cases, DHS
(or another LFA) coordinates activities and DOD is prepared to support the plans that are
developed. In the same way that some aspects of HD are unrelated to HS, some aspects of
DODs CS functions are unrelated to terrorism and do not fall under HS, yet DOD can still
provide other unique capabilities in support of civilian authorities (for example, support for
natural disaster relief).
Similarly, as depicted with the examples in some aspects of HS fall outside the purview of
DOD. These functions (such as airport security measures enacted by the Transportation
Security Administration (TSA)), fall under the lead of DHS (or another LFA).
Ballistic Missile Defense of
North America
DOD Support for natural
Disaster Relief
Airport Security (TSA)
CBRNE Consequence
Mobile Redundant Command
Aviation Support to Secret
Service for COG

Figure 2, Paradigm Examples 8

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The United States Air Force has dominated the air for over 50 years, but todays world is
significantly different from that of years past. Todays Air Force operates in more than
one realm; while we still own the skies, we have expanded our control to space and
beyond and find ourselves in more joint operations with our Sister services. While our
ultimate mission remains to Fly, Fight, and Win we have become much more than a
fleet of aircraft putting warheads on foreheads. This reading assignment examines the
components of unit, Air Force, joint, and coalition capabilities and provides the
foundation for the ways in which the United States Air Force utilizes the resources
available, including air and space, to carry out the mission and defend our way of life.
1. AIR
The key operational functions of airpower are:
A. Strategic Attack are offensive actions conducted by command authorities
aimed at generating effects that most directly achieve our national security
objectives by affecting the adversarys leadership, conflict-sustaining resources, and
strategy. Strategic attack is a concept, not just a function. As a concept, strategic
attack builds on the idea that it is possible to directly affect an adversarys sources
of strength and will to fight without first having to engage and defeat their military
forces. Strategic attack may also be used to prevent the enemy from attacking our
vulnerable points, essentially denying them their war aims. Through strategic
attack, military commanders can directly affect leadership perceptions (either by
isolation, deception, or exploitation) and cut off their fielded forces from their
leadership and societies, as well as directly attack the adversarys capacity to sustain
military forces in the field.
B. Counterair consists of operations to attain and maintain a desired degree of air
superiority by the destruction, degradation, or disruption of enemy forces.
Counterairs two elements, offensive counterair (OCA) and defensive counterair
(DCA), enable friendly use of contested airspace and disable the enemys offensive
air and missile capabilities to reduce the threat posed against friendly forces.
Offensive counterair consists of operations to destroy, degrade, or disrupt
enemy air and missile power as close to its source as possible and at a time and
place of our choosing. Because air and space forces are inherently offensive and
yield the best effect when so employed, OCA is often the most effective and
efficient method for achieving the appropriate degree of air superiority.
Defensive counterair entails detection, identification, interception, and
destruction of attacking enemy air and missiles and normally takes place over or
close to friendly territory. DCA concentrates on defeating the enemys offensive
plan and on inflicting unacceptable losses on attacking enemy forces.
C. Counterland. The main objectives of counterland operations are to dominate
the surface environment and prevent the opponent from doing the same. Although
historically associated with support to friendly surface forces, counterland
operations may encompass the identical missions, either without the presence of
friendly surface forces or with only small numbers of surface forces providing target
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Air Interdiction consists of operations to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the
enemys surface military potential before it can be used effectively against friendly
forces. Air interdiction is air and space powers application of interdiction. Air
interdiction is a form of aerial maneuver that destroys, disrupts, diverts, or delays
the enemys surface military potential before it can be used effectively against
friendly forces, or otherwise achieve its objectives.
Close Air Support (CAS) provides direct support to help friendly surface forces
in contact with enemy forces carry out their assigned tasks. CAS can provide a
tremendous tactical advantage when supporting ground forces. CAS can halt
attacks, help create breakthroughs, cover retreats, and guard flanks. To be most
effective, however, CAS should be used at decisive points in a battle and should
normally be massed to apply concentrated combat power and saturate defenses.
D. Countersea is an extension of Air Force capabilities into a maritime
environment. The identified specialized collateral tasks are sea surveillance,
antiship warfare, protection of sea lines of communications through antisubmarine
and antiair warfare, aerial minelaying, and air refueling in support of naval
campaigns. As with the air and space functions, countersea operations are designed
to achieve strategic, operational, or tactical level objectives in the pursuit of joint
force objectives.
E. Agile Combat Support (ACS). This is the timely concentration, employment,
and sustainment of U.S. military power anywhere at our initiative, speed, and
tempo that our adversaries cannot match. Agility in combat support is crucial to
meeting the demands of todays rapidly changing environment. Combat support
creates, sustains, and protects all air and space capabilities to accomplish mission
objectives across the spectrum of military operations.
F. Expeditionary Combat Support (ECS) comprises the expeditionary subset of
ACS. ECS includes the essential capabilities, functions, activities, and tasks
necessary to employ and sustain all elements of aviation and ground combat
operations forces in a deployed location.
G. Airlift. The transportation of personnel and material through the air, which can
be applied across the entire range of military operations to achieve or support
objectives and can achieve tactical through strategic effects. Airlift provides rapid
and flexible mobility options that allow military forces as well as national and
international governmental agencies to respond to and operate in a wider variety of
circumstances and time frames. It provides US military forces the global reach
capability to quickly apply strategic power to various crisis situations worldwide by
delivering necessary forces. The power projection capabilities that airlift supplies
are vital since it provides the flexibility to move rapid-reaction forces to the point
of a crisis with minimal delay.

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H. Air Refueling is the in-flight transfer of fuel between tanker and receiver
aircraft. Air refueling increases the range, payload, loiter time, and ultimately the
flexibility and versatility of combat, combat support, and mobility aircraft. Air
Force air refueling assets employ to accomplish six missions; nuclear operations
support, global strike, airbridge support, aircraft deployment, theatre support, and
special operations support.
I. Special Operations. The use of special airpower operations (denied territory
mobility, surgical firepower, and special tactics) to conduct the following special
operations functions: unconventional warfare, direct action, special reconnaissance,
counterterrorism, foreign internal defense, psychological operations, and
counterproliferation. The difference between special operations and conventional
operations lies in the degree of physical and political risk, degree of overtness,
operational techniques, mode of employment, independence from friendly support,
and dependence on detailed operational intelligence and indigenous assets. That
setting is one often dominated by high risk and political, environmental, and
operational constraints.
J. Surveillance and Reconnaissance. Surveillance is the function of
systematically observing air, space, surface, or subsurface areas, places, persons, or
things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means.
a. Space power is the capability to employ space forces to achieve national
security. Used effectively, space power enhances Americas opportunities to
succeed across the broad range of military operations. Space power is derived from
the exploitation of the space environment by a variety of space systems. A key
element of space power is the people who operate, maintain, or support these
systems. Space affords a commanding view of operations and provides an
important military advantage. At the level of basic aerospace doctrine, the
principles that govern aerospace operations are the same for air and space.
b. Space consists of three elements: space, terrestrial, and link. The space
element consists of the platforms for which astrodynamics is the primary principle
governing movement. Examples include satellites, space stations, or the space
shuttle. The terrestrial-based element consists of the land, sea, or airborne
equipment used to communicate with and control the space element.
c. The terrestrial-based element also includes the personnel required to operate
and maintain equipment. Examples of the terrestrial-based element include ground
stations, ship borne space communication systems. The link element is the
communication between the space element and the terrestrial element. Examples of
the link element include data link signals. All three elements can be key factors in
military operations.
d. As an integral element of national capabilities, space systems influence
operations throughout the conflict spectrum. Space supports Service, joint, and
multinational operations across the range of military operations, from peacetime
engagement to general war.
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e. Space forces contribute at all levels of military activitystrategic, operational,

and tactical. They give our national leaders the presence and war-fighting options
needed for power projection. Space forces develop, operate, and maintain mission
capability through spacelift, satellite operations, utilization of space systems, and
the exploitation of space-derived information. The national security space program
collects information critical to Americas national security. Additional support for
military operations can be gained through prudent planning for and use of civil,
commercial, and allied space systems. (AFDD 2-2, pg 21).
f. Within the DoD, the Air Force is in the forefront of space operations. The Air
Force provides essential support and expertise for space activities to other military
departments and the civil sector. Air Force space operations are based on the core
competencies and missions outlined in AFDD1, Air Force Basic Doctrine. Space
force operations focus on controlling the space environment, applying force,
conducting enabling and supporting operations for terrestrial-based forces, and
supporting space forces. Gaining air and space superiority is a primary goal of a
military campaign and must be achieved early to ensure freedom of action. Like air
superiority, space superiority helps to provide the freedom to conduct operations
without interference from an adversary. Hostile powers must not be permitted to
freely use space systems against US national interests.
1. Space Control. Space control is the means by which space superiority is
gained and maintained to assure friendly forces can use the space environment
while denying its use to the enemy. To accomplish this, space forces must
survey space, protect the ability to use space, prevent adversaries from
exploiting US or allied space services, and negate the ability for adversaries to
exploit their space forces.
2. Counterspace is the mission carried out to achieve space control objectives
by gaining and maintaining control of activities conducted by land, sea, air,
space, information and/or special operation forces. Counterspace includes
offensive and defensive operations
a. Offensive Counterspace. These operations use lethal or nonlethal means
to achieve five major purposes: deception, disruption, denial,
degradation, and destruction.
Deception. Measures designed to mislead the adversary by
manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence to induce the
adversary to react in a manner prejudicial to their interests
Disruption. The temporary impairment of the unity of space systems,
usually without physical damage to the space segments.
Denial. The temporary elimination of the utility of the space systems,
usually without physical damage.
Degradation. The permanent impairment of the utility of space
systems, usually with physical damage.
Destruction. The permanent elimination of the utility of space systems,

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usually with physical damage.

b. Defensive Counterspace. Defensive counterspace operations consist of
active and passive actions to protect US space-related capabilities from
enemy attack or interference.
(a) Active Defense detect, track, identify, intercept, and destroy or
neutralize enemy space and missile forces.
(b) Passive Defense reduce the vulnerabilities and to protect and increase
the survivability of friendly space forces and the information they
Contributing Capabilities. Three capabilities are critical to the successful
conduct of offensive and defensive counterspace operations:
(a) Surveillance and Reconnaissance of Space. Detects and identifies space
systems and helps characterize the threat environment. Information
derived from data allows planners to identify where force application or
space control is required. This support is necessary for targeting and
situational awareness and directly supports the counterspace mission as
well as the terrestrial conflict.
(b) Ballistic Missile Warning. Space-based systems and terrestrial-based
sensors detect, track, and report on ballistic missile launches posing
potential threats against North America, geographic theatres of
operation, and space-based assets.
(c) Space Environment Operations. Knowledge of the space environment
helps warfighters avoid operations during times when space
environment disturbances degrade space-based information; helps
communicators choose the best frequencies, antenna angles, and
transmission schedules; and allows spacecraft operators advanced notice
of effects which may impact satellite and surveillance operations.
Attributes of Space Power. The USAF is unique in its ability to capitalize on
the contributions of space systems by being able to integrate and respond with
rapid mobility and firepower to the near-real-time information afforded by
systems operating in space. Attributes include:
(a) Global Coverage. Space-based systems in appropriate orbital
deployments provide worldwide coverage and frequent access to
specific Earth locations, including those denied to terrestrial-based
forces, on a recurring basis.
(b) Flexibility. Space systems provide flexibility in meeting requirements
for timely, accurate, and reliable space-derived information, data
products, and services.

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(c) Economy. Despite the large initial investments in hardware and lift,
over time some functions are performed more economically from space.
For example, global communications are generally more economical
when operated from space.
(d) Effectiveness. Some activities such as wide area surveillance are more
effective when they are conducted from space. Additionally, the
absence of atmosphere and attenuation provides an optimum operating
medium for future directed energy weapon such as lasers and particle
beams that travel at light speed with great range.
(e) Robustness. Functions accomplished by space-based and terrestrialbased systems, using both air and space assets, provide mutual backup
and complicate hostile attempts to neutralize our overall military
With our ever-increasing reliance on information technology, it is absolutely vital that we
all take an active role in the protection of our third capability cyberspace.
a. Cyberspace touches practically everything and everyone every day. The
security and prosperity of our nation is dependent on freedom of access to and
freedom of action in cyberspace. While there are many benefits that come with this
access, there are numerous inherent vulnerabilities. Threats via cyberspace pose
one of the most serious national security challenges of the 21st Century. The threat
is asymmetrical with a minimal cost of entry; events of the last several years show
that one person, with one computer, can affect an entire nation. Growing arrays of
adversaries are targeting the US military and our critical national infrastructure,
commerce, and citizens. The combined and coordinated efforts of government,
industry and academia will be required to effectively counter many of these attacks
and assure mission success in the future.
b. The significance of USAF operations in cyberspace is readily apparent. Not
only is cyberspace vital to todays fight, it is key to the continued US military
advantage over our enemies, now and in the future. Consequently, the USAF is
steadfastly intent on providing a full range of cyber capabilities to Joint Force
Commanders, whenever and wherever needed. Today, USAF cyber capabilities
range from the virtual to the very real, including critical combat communications
provided to the warfighter within hours upon the arrival of the USAF.
c. As always, USAF Airmen are the core of our mission success; and the civilians
and contract partners of the USAF also play a unique and critical role. Technical
competence alone is not sufficient to meet the challenges of the 21st century.
Airmen must be technically astute, tactically competent, armed with warrior ethos
and equally prepared to deploy forward or operate in place to accomplish the
d. The significance of USAF operations in cyberspace is readily apparent. Not
only is cyberspace vital to todays fight, it is key to the continued US military
advantage over our enemies, now and in the future. Consequently, the USAF is
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steadfastly intent on providing a full range of cyber capabilities to Joint Force

Commanders, whenever and wherever needed. Today, USAF cyber capabilities
range from the virtual to the very real, including critical combat communications
provided to the warfighter within hours upon the arrival of the USAF. The USAF
will move forward aggressively to:
(1) Consolidate and protect the USAF portion of the DOD network
(2) Build capacity by increasing the skill of our people, generating innovative
operational capabilities, leveraging new partners and integrating those
capabilities with those in the air and space
(3) Expedite requirements and acquisition processes to deliver proactive and
responsive cyber capabilities
(4) Develop doctrine, policies, security, and guidance to effectively employ
and innovate in cyberspace
(5) Prioritize and advocate for needed resources for cyberspace
(6) Significantly increase intelligence and analytical capabilities
(7) Shift paradigms from network-focus to mission-focus
(8) Develop cyber expertise to meet mission needs
(9) Improve commanders decision making abilities by increasing situational
(10) Affect changes in behavior, practices and culture by improving training,
standards, communication, and accountability
(11) Modernize and sustain the technology and equipment used for combat
(12) Eliminate seams in command and control (C2), security and doctrine to
improve cross-domain effectiveness
(13) Combine and converge traditional operations with cyberspace operations
to deter attacks and affect outcomes
(14) Partner with the DOD and other services to integrate, synchronize and
consolidate the network infrastructures used by the joint forces
JP 1-02 defines a campaign as a series of related major operations aimed at achieving
strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space. Earlier, it was stated
that joint connotes activities, operations, organizations, etc., in which elements of two or
more military departments participate. If we combine these two definitions, a joint
campaign is a series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and
operational objectives within a given time and space, in which elements of two or more
military departments participate.
The United States overwhelming dominance in recent conventional wars has made it
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highly unlikely that most adversaries will choose to fight the US in a traditional,
conventional manner. Thus, for relatively weaker powers (including non-state entities)
irregular warfare (IW) has become an attractive, if not more necessary, option. IW
presents different challenges to our military and to the Air Force.
1. The Air Forces ability to operate in the air, space, and cyberspace domains
provides our fighting forces with a highly asymmetric advantage over IW adversaries.
Command of the air prevents adversaries from conducting sustained operations in this
domain while allowing US and coalition forces to exploit numerous advantages.
2. While our IW adversaries have their own asymmetric capabilities such as suicide
bombers, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and the cover of civilian populations,
they lack and cannot effectively offset unfettered access to the high ground that
superiority in air, space, and cyberspace provides. Exploiting altitude, speed, and range,
airborne platforms can create effects without the impediments to movement that terrain
imposes on ground forces.
3. The following definitions highlight some key differences between irregular and
traditional warfare, and conventional and unconventional warfare. Understanding these
differences allows Airmen to have a common frame of reference when discussing these
types of warfare.
a. Traditional warfareA confrontation between nation-states or
coalitions/alliances of nation-states (Joint Publication [JP] 1, Doctrine for the
Armed Forces of the United States). This confrontation typically involves force-onforce military operations in which adversaries employ a variety of conventional
military capabilities against each other in the air, land, maritime, space, and
cyberspace domains. The objective may be to convince or coerce key military or
political decision makers, defeat an adversarys armed forces, destroy an
adversarys war-making capacity, or seize or retain territory in order to force a
change in an adversarys government or policies.
b. Irregular warfareA violent struggle among state and non-state actors for
legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations. This is warfare in which
one or more combatants are irregular military rather than regular forces. Guerrilla
warfare is a form of irregular warfare, and so is asymmetric warfare.
Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric warfare approaches, though it may
employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode an
adversarys power, influence, and will. It is inherently a protracted struggle that
will test the resolve of a state and its strategic partners. Concepts associated with
irregular warfare are older than the term itself.
Across the range of IW scenarios there is a set of overarching concepts that provide the
foundation for planning and employing Air Force capabilities.
The Air Force must be prepared to simultaneously conduct irregular and
traditional warfare operations. The nature of a single conflict can easily shift
between types of warfare. Failure to understand or anticipate these shifts often
leads to fighting the wrong type of war, or focusing on the wrong effects for a
given conflict.
OA02SG - 20

Unity of effort across all instruments of power is essential to overall strategic

success. Success in IW depends on a high degree of integration of the military
with other elements of national power within a national security strategy.
Organizationally, the instruments of national powerDIME(Diplomatic,
Information, Military, and Economic) should operate in close cooperation among
joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational (JIIM) organizations. In
some circumstances, Airmen should be prepared to assume non-traditional roles
until other JIIM organizations are able to assume these roles. Providing security,
basic services, and other forms of development needs to be coordinated and
Effective working relationships between people and organizations are key to
success in IW. Coordinated effort across the spectrum of operations is vital and
success often hinges on effective interpersonal relationships.
1. Tactical actions are battles, engagements, and or strikes conducted by combat forces
of a single or a JIIM, coordinated in time and place, to achieve strategic or operational
objectives in an operational area. Tactics are at once both a science and an art.
2. Some practices have not changed since the dawn of warfare: ambushes, seeking
and turning flanks, maintaining reconnaissance, creating and using obstacles and
defenses, etc. Using ground to best advantage has not changed much either. Heights,
rivers, swamps, passes, choke points, and natural cover, can all be used in multiple
ways. What does change constantly is the technological dimension, as well as the
sociology of combatants.
3. Our enemies regular and irregular will be well armed, well trained, well
equipped, and often ideologically inspired. We must overmatch their training with our
training and with the development of our leaders. We must counter their ideologies
with our history and with a sustained commitment to our values. They will be patient,
and they will adapt. We must learn faster, understand better, and adapt more rapidly.
Our enemies will decentralize, partner, and network to form syndicates of threats
against us. We must form our network by partnering with our Joint, Interagency,
Intergovernmental, Multinational (JIIM) teammates to defeat their networks. If we fail
to change as our enemy changes our mission could fail.
4. The JIIM (Joint Interagency, Intergovernmental, and Multinational) environment
demands that leaders understand the context of the factors influencing the military
situation, act within that understanding, continually assess and adapt those actions
based on the interactions and circumstances of the enemy and environment, consolidate
tactical and operational opportunities into strategic aims, and be able to effectively
transition from one form of operations to another. Todays leaders must be able to
operate in JIIM environments, and leverage other capabilities in achieving their
As an enlisted leader, you must continue learning as much as you can about operating in
joint environments because our enemies are always learning and adaptingthey will
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surprise you and no amount of technology will change that reality. You must also
understand that employment of military force will continue to be conditioned by
politicsthose of the United States, our allies, and our opponents. Therefore, above all,
you must have a clear understanding of the strategic and political goals for which we and
our enemies conduct military operations, how and why were organized to plan and
conduct operations, and because you will find yourself working closely with partners, its
absolutely paramount for SNCOs to have a thorough understanding of U.S. Political goals!

OA02SG - 22


Pellegrini, Robert P., Thesis: The Links between Science, Philosophy, and Military Theory:
Understanding the Past, Implications for the Future (Air University Press Maxwell
Air Force Base, Alabama. August 1997), 42.

Bassford, Christopher. Clausewitz in English: The Reception of Clausewitz in Britain and

America (Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 1994), 43.

Dalton, H.Scott. The Principles of War: Mass. Associated Content. Website: June 2009.


Ibid., 20.

Department of Defense. Homeland Defense and Civil Support Joint Operating Concept,
Version 2.0, pg, 5, 1 October 2007.

Ibid. pg, 5.

Department of Defense. CAPSTONE CONCEPT for JOINT OPERATIONS. Version 2.0.

August 2005, 8.

Joint Publication 3. Joint Operations, 17 September 2006, Change 2, 22 March 2010, VI-1.

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