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EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR

SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF UNGOGO LGA, KANO STATE
BY
Idris Salisu Rogo
Department of Education, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano
rogoidris@gmail.com

Abstract
The paper investigated the effect of social media on the academic performance of senior
secondary school students of Ungoggo Local Government Area of Kano State. Survey research
design was used in the study and Kreycie and Morgan (1971) table of determining sample size
was used in determining the sample size for the study. Researcher made questionnaire named
students social media usage scale (SSUS) was designed to assess the frequency of social media
usage by the students’ and first term mathematics examination score was used to find out the
academic performance of the students. The questionnaire was administered to 370 students
drawn from the total population of 10,058 students’ using stratified random sampling technique.
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) and Chi-square test of independence
were used to analyze the data for the study. The findings for the study revealed that there is a
strong negative relationship between social media and academic performance of senior
secondary school students of Ungoggo L.G.A of Kano State where the result showed the
correlation coefficient of -0.805. Therefore, the study concludes that Social media has a negative
effect on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in the study area. The
study further revealed that there is a significant gender difference in the use of social media by
senior secondary school students of Ungogo LGA where female students are found to be more
frequent in the use of social media than their male counterparts. Based on the above findings the
study recommends that parents and teachers should monitor and supervise the activities of their
children most especially in the areas of internet and social media and should also prevent
students of secondary school from using sophisticated handsets with internet connectivity.
Key Words: Social Media, Academic Performance and Senior Secondary School Students.

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share. 2005). Androids. beliefs. Social Media network sites include. knowledge or prestige (Asemah & Edego. kinship. love. 2012). Social media employs mobile and web based technology to create highly interactive platforms via which individuals and community share.Introduction The advent of computer and information technology has turned the entire world into a “global village”. social media. This improvement in the global means of communication has brought with it both positive and negative effects on students’ Academic Performance. (Asemah & Edego 2012). Information and communication technology comprise of internet. Badoo etc. and/or exchange information and ideas (Hammond. Google+ Messenger. Blackberry Messenger (BBM). financial exchange. 2012). co-create. Facebook Messenger. Whatsapp. 1 . Yahoo Messenger. 2000). 2go. satellite. Also. Google talk. iPhone. discuss and modify user generated content (Jeong. cable data transmission and computer assisted equipment. sexual relationship. social media is regarded as one of the vital means of communication in recent times and it has become the most important tool among students especially adolescents (Al-Rahimi & Othman. Social media serves as an avenue through which students are connected by one or more interdependency relationship such as friendship. common interest. It is a group of internet based application that allows the creation and exchange of users generated content. It creates an avenue of interactions among adolescents in which they create. The remarkable improvement in information and communication technology recently has widened the scope of communication through information and communication technology (Asemah & Edego 2012). Twitter. With social media one can chat with friends everywhere in the world and can also send and receive messages almost immediately. Instant Gram.

 To find out the effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary  school students of Ungogo LGA. 2003). and policy makers in recent times (Yang. Hence. as youth no longer need to visit cybercafé before they chat. It is common knowledge to see students’ chatting in classrooms during class instruction. educators. which has become a source of concern and worry to scholars and researchers of education. Whether these opportunities harnessed from the social media promote academic performance is a question that needs to be answered. To find out the gender difference in the use social media among senior secondary school students of Ungogo LGA. the attention of many students nowadays has been shifted from studies to chatting.A.However. lack of regulatory framework in the use of internet and social media in Nigeria has led to its abuse and excessive use. Some scholars are of the view that social media facilitates learning because it gives room for easy accessibility to learning materials and also provides a platform upon which many opportunities are harnessed. Research Questions  What is the effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary  school students of Ungoggo L. Kano State. Objectives of the Study The study was guided by the following objectives. this study was set to investigate the effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary school students of Ungoggo Local government Area. Kano State Is there any gender difference in the use of social media among senior secondary school students in the study area Research Hypotheses 2 .G. The advent of sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the situation. Thus. Therefore. the effect of social media on academic performance of students has generated a heated debate among scholars.

Asemah & Edego (2012) assert that online interpersonal relationship has the same influence as face-to-face relationship where peer influence and transmission of values can easily be disseminated. but due to its frequent and excessive patronage among secondary school students without control. Within the social media. making important activities like reading. 2012). 2014). They introduce substantial and pervasive communication between organizations. Social media was believed to have bridged communication gap among students. Facebook. 2go and Twitter are the most patronized social media among secondary school students (Al-Rahmi & Othman. Social media is a group of internet based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of web 2.G. 2012). writing and research to affected in the process (Al-Rahmi & Othman. social media depends on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which youth and adolescents. Social media has gained wider acceptability and patronage in the recent past and it has become the major means of communication among adolescents (Al-Rahmi & Othman. it creates a serious gap between the students and their studies which consequently affects their academic performance in school (Picciano. 2000).0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content (Yoon. Whatsapp. Youths nowadays have shifted their attention from visible to invisible friends through social media. Furthermore. share. Kano State H02: There is no significant gender difference in the use of social media among senior secondary school students of the study area Review of Related Literature Social media refers to the interaction forum through which people create. come in contact with one another to share information. This by 3 . 2012). and/or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks.A. 2002). communities and individuals (Sunusi.H01: There is no significant effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary school students of Ungoggo L.

(2012) on “the impact of facebook on undergraduate academic performance”. the more it negatively affect their academic performance. creates a sense of belonging among users. the more a student uses social media. Shana (2012) asserts that students use social media mainly for making friends and chatting not for research and academic advancement. motivates students to learn. Many researchers and scholars have conducted researches to investigate the effect of social media on the academic performance of students. socialization. and easy accessibility to learning materials (Moon. 4 . the less time he has for his studies and the more peer influence will be exerted on him. it provides greater access to information. enhances contact among the students and improves students participation in class. rather than for academic purpose. flexibility. most of the adolescents use social media mainly for socialization. provides more interaction and communication between people from different socio-economic status and increases the technological competency of social media by users (Shana. 2011). 2012). Similarly. encourages creativity among individuals and group. The result showed that the more students use social media. In general. in a study conducted by Asemah & Edegoh. students unconsciously personalize social media as if they are human beings. (Oye. That is to say. the findings of the study indicate that social media has a negative impact on students. It further enhances mutual relationship. 2012) also opines that. benefits typically associated with the use of social media include the following: it encourages greater social interaction via electronic medium. Social media are equal to real life and are given human attributes where adolescents talk to computers as if they were talking to human beings. most especially introvert students (Seo. 2004). for example. develops the culture of crossfertilization of ideas.implication means. The driving factors for the adoption of social media by students include among others convenience.

058 students. (Young. Researcher made students social media usage scale (SSUS) was used for data collection in the study. consumes time. SS2 (33%). The justification for using survey design was simply because it provides answers to the questions of who. Research Design and Methodology The research design used for this study was survey design. The sample comprises of senior secondary school students from SS1 (33%). The population for the study comprises 10. it has less effect on studies and academic activities. and where etc which is associated with this particular research problem. Yoon (2000) also observes that the type of social media or network subscribed to by a student exerts influence on him or her to visit the internet. when. a sample size of 370 students was drawn from six different senior secondary schools in the study area as guided by Kreysie and Morgan table of sample size. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach 5 . Jeong (2005) and Seo (2004) note that internet addiction is significantly and negatively related to students’ academic performance.In a contrary view. and also provides the necessary impetus through which the impact of social media on students’ academic performance could be explored. 2006) in a study titled “the effect of internet use and social capital on the academic performance of students” observes that the internet expands its reach to teenagers’ school life. Yang (2003) cited in Asemah. & Edegoh. The mean age of the subjects was 16 years and the gender ratio was 60% male students and 40% female students. Young further notes that students are more reliant on the internet to access information that affect their school life as well as entertainment. as well as emotional attributes. (2012) opined that the effect of social media on academic performance depends largely on the degree of its usage. The researcher further adds that although internet. and using the stratified random sampling technique. what. The design enables the researcher to obtain reliable information concerning the current problem under review. SS3 (34%).

000 370 1 370 . The instrument has satisfactory levels of validity through face and content validity by experts in the areas of English Language. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to find out the effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary students in the study area while the Chi-square test of independence was used to determine the gender difference on the use of social media among senior secondary students of the study area.805 0. Educational Psychology. Results and Discussions Testing Hypothesis 1 H0 There is no significant effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary school students of Ungogo LGA Table 1 Pearson correlation coefficient showing the effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary school students of Ungoggo L. In determining the academic performance of the students the researcher collected the students’ first term examination scores in mathematics.Alpha formular where the overall internal consistency coefficient was found to be 0. (2 tailed) N Correlation is significant at 0.85.01 levels (2 tailed). The Data collected from the field was statistically analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Chi-square test of independence with the help of SPSS (16. Kano State Social media Social Media 1 Pearson Correlation Sig.805 0. 6 -0.000 370 Academic Performance -0. (2 tailed) N 370 Academic Performance Pearson Correlation Sig.G.A.0 version). guidance and counseling after their review of appropriateness of the items contained in the instrument to the objectives of the study.

Asemah & Edegoh. rather than for academic purpose.01) and negative strong relationship (r= 0.G.G.A. Kano State. Kano State.A. 7 . Testing Hypothesis 2 H01: There is no significant gender difference in the use of social media among senior secondary school students of Ungoggo LGA. the more it negatively affects their academic performance. Based on the above results. their result showed that the more students use social media. we reject the null hypothesis which says there is no significant effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary school students of Ungoggo L. Kano state and accept the alternate hypothesis that. This is in line with the study of Jeong (2005) and Seo (2004) where they note that internet addiction is significantly and negatively related to students’ academic performance. Similarly.G.805) between the social media usage and academic performance of senior secondary school students of Ungoggo L. Hence.A. Kano state.G. Shana (2012) opined that students use social media mainly for making friends and chatting not for research and academic purposes. also finds that social media has a negative effect on students’ academic performance. as well as emotional attributes.A. the study therefore concludes that social media usage has a strong negative effect on the academic performance of senior secondary school students of Ungoggo L. (2012) conducted a research on the impact of social media on the academic performance of high school students. Oye (2012) also found that most of the adolescents use social media mainly for socialization. Kano State. there is a significant effect of social media on the academic performance of senior secondary school students of Ungoggo L. Moon (2011) in the study he conducted on “the impact of facebook on undergraduate academic performance”.The results in the table above (Table 1) reveal a statistically significant (P< 0.

The finding above corroborates Asemah and Edegoh (2012) who noted that female students patronize social media more than their male counterparts because of the ample time they have at home. Kietzmannn (2012) conducted a survey on social media usage between male and female adolescents.G. as such. The H0 is therefore rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant gender difference in the use of social media among senior secondary school students of Ungoggo L.A. they tend to engage themselves into socialization through social media.1 Score 25.9 56.7 47.A. experience more loneliness and depression as such they became more addicted to social media than their male counterparts.1 45 Score 37 77.G.1 81. Kano where female students are found be to using social media more frequently than the male students. he concludes that female adolescents nowadays spend less time talking to family members.9 59 11 22.84) for df = 1 at P= 0. χ =15.1 100 104 104 48 100 48 154 The Data in table 2 reveals that the Calculated χ2 (15.9 22.Table 2 Chi-square test of independence showing the gender difference in the use of social media among senior secondary school students of Ungoggo L.12.9 70.3 Score 56. Kano State Variables Male Observed Female % Expected Frequent Score 45 Not 59 frequent Total 104 2 df=1 .5 Total Observed % Expected Total 43.12) is greater than the critical χ2 (3.05 level. p=0. Another survey released in 2000 by the Pew Internet and American life project also reports that female students use internet and social media more 8 .

Oye. For instance a young lady of 16 years called Cynthia Okojie was gang raped and murdered by her Facebook friends in Lagos when she visited them. Hence. It is observed that students give more attention to social media than their studies (Ndaku. gambling. Recommendations 9 . Shana. social media is an educational distraction avenue which offers more educational harm to students than benefit.than the male students. and her nude pictures were displayed on the net by the perpetrators (Ndaku. 2013). there are many incidences of murders and gang rapping of girls by guys whom they meet through social media. 2012. Kietzmannn. 2004. distraction and divided attention between social media and the students’ academic activities. 2012). The rate at which these adolescents devote their time and energy in chatting via social media calls for urgent attention. This social media gained popularity among adolescents. Seo. As such. Due to their less activities and commitment in day to day activities of life. Conclusion The 21st Century brought with it the advent of new media with fast tracking means of sending and receiving information via internet called social media. or alcohol. female students get more time to participate in the social media chatting than the male students there by making them more vulnerable to social media activities (Asemah and Edegoh. 2012). 2013). Since the advent of social media in the mid-1990s many scholars and educationists assert that students’ academic performance is drastically reducing due to the neglect. 2005. Senior secondary school students nowadays often waste their time chatting in the social media at the detriment of their academic work (Jeong. The study further reveals that female adolescents are addicted to internet in the same way they might be addicted to drugs. 2013.

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