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Student Workbook

7.1 The Skin System (Higher Level)


7.1.1 Annotate a diagram of the generalised structure of the skin

Hair, Sweat gland, Hair erector muscle, Blood vessels, Sebaceous gland,
Pacinian corpuscle, Melanocyte

Label the diagram: Dermis, Epidermis, Sweat gland, Nerve, Fatty Tissue, Oil
gland

Test yourself - https://quizlet.com/164557101/match


7.1.2 Describe the functions of the skin
Function
Regulation of
body
temperature

Description

Protection and
immunity

Sensation

Excretion

Synthesis of
vitamin D

7.2 Structure & function of the brain (Higher Level)


7.2.1 Label the location of the principal structures of the brain.

Label the diagram: the brain stem (pons, medulla oblongata) the
diencephalon, the two hemispheres of the cerebrum (1 visible in this
diagram), the cerebellum
7.2.2 Label the location of the principal lobes of the cerebrum

Label the diagrams: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe,
limbic lobe
7.2.3 Outline blood supply to the brain
WATCH: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qwea37qTCA0 [10:40]
Pathway

Outline the blood supply to the brain


The major arteries that supply blood to the brain are

Major arteries
7.2.4 Describe the principal source of energy for brain cells
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bTUGw9EzAX4

The brain obtains energy using glucose and oxygen, which pass rapidly
from the blood to the brain cells.
Glucose and oxygen are used to make ATP inside the brain by the process
of aerobic respiration.
Carbohydrate storage in the brain is limited, so the supply of glucose
must be continuous.
If blood entering the brain has low glucose or oxygen levels, mental
confusion, dizziness, convulsions, and loss of consciousness may occur.

Q: During a long distance race an


athlete experiences dizziness and

mental confusion.
What may be the cause of these
symptoms?
7.2.5 Explain the function of the principal parts of the brain.
Principal part of the brain
Brain stem
Respiratory and cardiovascular control centres
Diencephalon
Thalamus - perception of sensations (pain, temperature, pressure); cognition.
Hypothalamus - control of autonomic nervous system (ANS), heart rate and
blood pressure, pituitary gland, body temperature, appetite, thirst, fluid and
electrolyte balance, circadian rhythms
Pineal gland (Endocrine system)
Cerebrum
Responsible for high-level brain functions such as thinking, language and
emotion, and motivation. The function is divided into three broad processes.
1. sensory (receiving sensory impulses)
2. association (interpreting and storing input, and initiating a response)
3. motor (transmitting impulses to effectors).
Although the lobes do not function independently, each lobe is associated
with certain aspects of the following processes.
Frontal lobe - many aspects of association such as reasoning and motivation,
planning, emotions and problem solving. Also contains the speech and
movement motor areas.
Parietal lobe - somatic sensory and motor areas linked to movement, body
awareness, orientation and navigation. Also contains symbolic and speech
association areas.
Occipital lobe - visual sensory and association centre.
Temporal lobe - auditory sensory and association area; many aspects of longterm and visual memory.
Limbic lobe - concerned with association processes such as emotion,
behaviour, motivation and long term memory.
Cerebellum
Helps to smooth and coordinate sequences of skeletal muscle contractions.
Regulates posture and balance. Makes possible all skilled motor activities,
form catching a ball to dancing.
Cerebrum: WATCH: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vy8EvyQoQIE
[2:45]
Cerebellum: WATCH: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FkJvl3qhDb4
[3:45]

Q: Explain the role of the cerebrum in decision making, using the


example of performing a return of serve in tennis.

Q: Explain how the cerebellum controls the body movement of a track


cyclist travelling around a bend

7.1 The skin system Answers


7.1.1

Annotate a diagram of the generalised structure of the skin

7.1.2 Des
cribe
the

functions of the skin

7.2 Structure and function of the brain (5 hours)


7.2.1 Label the location of the principal structures of the brain

7.2.2

Label the location of the principal lobes of the cerebrum

7.2.3

Outline blood supply to the brain

Pathway
Major arteries

Outline the blood supply to the brain


The major arteries that supply blood to the brain are carotid
and vertebral arteries. Basilar artery.
Brachiocephalic trunk (right and left common carotid
artery)
Right and left internal and external carotid artery
Blood brain barrier

7.2.4

Describe the principal source of energy for brain cells

7.2.5

Explain the function of the principal parts of the brain.