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# KULLIYYAH OF ENGINEERING

END-OF-SEMESTER EXAMINATION
SEMESTER 1, 2016/2017 SESSION
Programme

: Communication Engineering

Level of Study

: UG 2

Time

: 2.30 pm -5.30 pm

Date

: 27/12/16

Duration

: 3 Hours

Course Code

: ECE 4346

Section(s)

:1

Course Title

## : Selected Topic in Communication Eng. (Introduction to Radar Systems)

This Question Paper Consists of 4 (Four) Printed Pages (Including Cover Page) with 5 (Five)
Questions.

INSTRUCTION(S) TO CANDIDATES
DO NOT OPEN UNTIL YOU ARE ASKED TO DO SO

## This examination is worth 40 % of the total course assessment.

Only approved calculator with KoE approved sticker is allowed (non-programmable and nongraphical).

## Any forms of cheating or attempt to cheat is a serious offence which may

All electronics gadgets are prohibited in the exam hall / venue.
(e.g. mobile / smart phones, smart watches, and smart glasses)

## QUESTION 1 (20 marks)

a) Sketch and label a typical air defence radar configuration during deployment consisting of (4)
any 8 (eight) components.

b) Draw and label the radar block diagram consisting of any 10 (ten) components.

(5)

## c) Outline the function of any 6 (six) components of a radar.

(6)

d) Draw the map of Malaysia and pinpoint 5 (five) locations of the Royal Malaysian Air (5)
Force MAF air defence radar installation. For each location, name place as well as the

## QUESTION 2 (20 marks)

a) The Fieldguard radar for multi-launch rocket system operated by Malaysian Army is
expected to detect all aerial intruders with 1 m2 cross section at distance of 2 km. The
radar has the following parameters; operating frequency of 2.0 GHz, transmit power of 1
W, antenna with 18 dB gain, noise figure of 5 dB and bandwidth of 50 kHz. The
Boltzmann constant multiplied with absolute temperature is given as -174 dBm/Hz.
Determine:

i.

(5)

ii.

(5)

## b) Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH17/MAS17) was a scheduled international passenger (4)

flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur was shot down on 17 July 2014 by a Buk
surface-to-air missile launched from Donetsk, Ukraine. Provide 2 (two) hypotheses how
the flight could have been mistakenly identified as hostile target.

c) Provide 3 (three) theories how on the missing Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370 managed

(6)

unfortunate day of March 8, 2014.
2

Fig. 3(a)
i.

(2)

ii.

(2)

iii.

(2)

iv.

the resolution.

(2)

v.

## the maximum unambiguous range.

(2)

b) Explain how the French made Exocet missiles used by the Argentinian Forces during (5)
the Falkland war managed to cause massive damage to Great Britain Navy.

c) Summarize 2 (two) techniques employed using chaff as countermeasure from homing (2)
missiles.
d) Outline the way to uncover targets position using Radio Direction Finding RDF (3)
technique.

## QUESTION 4 (20 marks)

a) Design an airport surveillance radar that has the capability to detect small

(14)

aircraft of 1 m2 cross section at least from 60 nmi away with typical signal-tonoise ration S/N 1.3 dB.

b) Propose with justification the best antenna design for the radar in question (a)

(3)

above.

c) Propose with justification the most appropriate refresh rate for the radar in

(3)

## QUESTION 5 (20 marks)

a) The Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) is considering to purchase a new air

(14)

## defense radar designed capable of detecting targets of 2 m2 cross section and

above at range of 200 nmi. The proposed radar is expected have the following
characteristics; operating frequency at L-band (1230 MHz), antenna efficiency
of 60% and receiver minimum detectable signal 3x10-13 W. Funding is a real
constraint. The unit cost of transmitter is RM2.00 per watt of peak power and
the unit cost of antenna is RM1,000 per square meter of physical area. Assume
the cost of the receiver and other items to be RM1 Million. As the lead design
engineer, do recommend in which component to invest.

(6)

warship.

END OF PAPER