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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY

GE2229: WATER AND THE ENVIRONMENT
SEMESTER 2: 2015/2016
EXAMINER: DR PAUL F PASSY
5 MAY 2016 (1 – 3 pm)

TIME ALLOWED: 2 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1.

Please write your matriculation/registration number only.
Do not write your name.

2.

This examination paper contains FORTY-TWO questions and
comprises fourteen printed pages.

3.

Answer ALL questions in the answer booklet provided.
Start each Section on a new page.

4.

Scientific calculator is allowed for this examination.

5.

This examination question paper will be collected at the end of exam
hour.

6.

This is a CLOSED BOOK examination.

and Takla Makan are examples of ________. C: Rectangular. E. C: Radial. Deserts such as the Great Basin. write 1-a if the answer to Q1 is ‘a’. D: Trellis Why are there no hurricanes above the equatorial zone? (a) it is too cloudy (b) the air is too warm (c) the sunlight is too strong (d) the Coriolis effect is too weak (e) the water is too warm . C: Radial.GE2229 Page 2 of 14 SECTION A : Multiple Choice Questions (40 questions. 20 marks) Write your answers in the answer booklet against the question number. D: Radial Dendritic.g. Gobi. D: Dendritic Dendritic. B: Trellis. D: Trellis Rectangular. A: A: A: A: Trellis. 1. B: Rectangular. (a) Chinook deserts (b) Subtropical deserts (c) Rainshadow deserts (d) Monsoon deserts 2. B: Dendritic. What are the patterns observed on the following diagrams? (a) (b) (c) (d) 3. C: Rectangular. B: Radial.

12 m d-1. the green channel in red and the infrared channel in “red”.1 to 1 10-3 to 0.GE2229 Page 3 of 14 4. what is the nature of an aquifer with a hydraulic conductivity of 0. According to the following table. The suspended load of a stream ________. What will be the colour of the vegetation be in this false colour composite? (a) green (b) blue (c) red (d) yellow (e) white 5. an active cold front overtakes a warm front __________. a) is deposited before the bed load b) contains highly soluble substances c) moves along the bottom d) usually consists of fine particles 6. In a false colour composite image.1 10-5 to 10-3 10-9 to 10-5 10-10 to 10-9 is the cause of coastal eutrophication? an excess of phytoplankton an algal bloom an imbalance between nitrogen. blue channel is coloured in green. the fronts cancel each other out cloud formation ceases an occluded front forms a stationary front is created Gravel Sand Silt Clay Granite (a) sand (b) granite (c) clay (d) gravel (e) silt 8. phosphorus and silica an excess of silica in regard of nitrogen and phosphorus phaeocystis . When (a) (b) (c) (d) 7. What (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Media Hydraulic conductivity (cm s-1) 0.

3: Yakutsk. 3: Istanbul. 3: Ouagadougou. 2: Istanbul. which nutrient may we expect to find in high quantity at its outlet? (a) magnesium (b) carbon (c) phosphorus (d) silica (e) nitrogen 11. 2: Iquitos. 4: Singapore.3 -20 0. 2: Istanbul. 4: Istanbul. (a) the troposphere and stratosphere (b) tropical and polar air masses (c) the troposphere and mesosphere (d) two layers of high-ozone concentration . 2: Yakutsk.GE2229 9. 4: Singapore. 5: Singapore Ouagadougou. 3: Ouagadougou.5 5 5 10 7 Relative humidity (%) 79 12 10 62 94 15 10 20 14 25 20 30 26. City Singapore Istanbul Ouagadougou Yakutsk Iquitos T (°C) H (g kg-1) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1: 1: 1: 1: 1: -40 0.75 Temperature (°C) -10 2 0 3. The tropopause is the boundary between ________. 5: Iquitos Ouagadougou. If a watershed is used for intensive agriculture. 4: Singapore. 5: Iquitos 10. classify these cities from driest to the wettest. Page 4 of 14 According to the meteorological data in the first table and information provided in the second table.5 35 35 40 47 Yakutsk. 2: Ouagadougou. 3: Istanbul. Which of the following is associated with ocean ridges? (a) rifts zones (b) mountainous topography (c) volcanic structures (d) all of the above 12. 5: Yakutsk Yakutsk. 4: Iquitos.1 30 15 35 -30 25 -30 0. 5: Iquitos Singapore.

we can observe: (a) fires in Peru (b) heavy rainfall on the coast of Peru (c) many anchovies on the Indonesian coasts (d) drought in Europe (e) heavy rainfall in Indonesia 16. If an observer sees cirrus clouds. You are swimming in the open ocean near the equator. (a) warm (b) cold (c) warm or cold (d) none of the above 14. followed later by cirrostratus. If the sea surface temperature is 24°C. During an El Nino event. The thermocline in this location is about 1°C per 50 meters of depth. Which one of the following curves is the pycnocline found in low latitudes? (a) (b) (c) (d) pycnocline a pycnocline b pycnocline c none of these pycnoclines .GE2229 Page 5 of 14 13. and then altostratus. how deep must you dive before you encounter a water temperature of 19°C? (a) 100 m (b) 150 m (c) 200 m (d) 250 m (e) 300 m 15. he or she is witnessing the approach of a ________ front.

084 m3 (d) 100. Assume that the droplets in every cubic meter of the cloud total 0. mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock? (a) Oxidation (b) Eluviation (c) Hydrologic cycling (d) Frost wedging is the correct equation for photosynthesis? 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + photons  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + photons  C 6 H 6 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + photons  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 6 CO 2 + H 2 O + photons  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + photons  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 12 O 2 .5 cubic centimetres. 8 km wide and 8 km long. As stream discharge increases ________. Which one of the following is an important.384 m3 (e) 384. and depth increase (b) only velocity increases (c) velocity. (a) velocity. How much liquid does the cloud contain (in cubic meter)? (a) 14 m3 (b) 384 m3 (c) 10. width. Which of the following rivers is an endorheic river? (a) Mekong River (b) Volga River (c) Congo River (d) Orinoco River (e) Mississippi River 18.000 m3 19. Let’s imagine a cumulonimbus cloud which is roughly 12 km tall. and depth decrease (d) only depth increases 20.GE2229 Page 6 of 14 17. What (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 21. width.

What is the runoff coefficient of this watershed? (a) 0. which one is the spectral signature of the water? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) spectral spectral spectral spectral spectral signature signature signature signature signature 1 2 3 4 5 .GE2229 Page 7 of 14 22.35 (d) 0. If a catchment has a high Gravelius index. A hydrological survey was carried out over a 3000 km2 wide watershed. what does it mean? (a) the geology is impermeable (b) its shape is more like a square (c) the rivers are meandering (d) it is an elongated catchment (e) its shape is more like a circle 24.65 23. Among the following spectral signatures.40 (e) 0.25 (c) 0.15 (b) 0. The watershed receives 1500 mm of precipitation per year and the mean annual discharge at its outlet is 50 m3 s-1.

evaporation (d) precipitation.000 m3 day-1 (e) 30. (a) light (b) nutrients (c) water (d) both light and nutrients 28. The piezometric head in two wells 1 km apart is 55 m (well A) and 50 m (well B). The average thickness of the aquifer is 30 m and the average width of the aquifer is 5 km. The hydraulic conductivity (K) for this aquifer is 40 m day-1. (a) evaporation. and the porosity (n) is 0. temperature (e) none of the above 26. evaporation (c) temperature.3.000 m3 day-1 (c) 20. and water.GE2229 Page 8 of 14 25. Salinity in the ocean is highest in regions where _________ is high and ________ is low. What is the discharge of the aquifer (in m3 per day)? (a) 5. The limiting factor in the tropical ocean is _______.000 m3 day-1 (d) 25. A confined aquifer has a source of recharge. light. Life needs nutrients. The bed load of a stream is best described as: (a) material dissolved in the water (b) material suspended in the water (c) material sliding or rolling along the bottom (d) all of the above 27.000 m3 day-1 (b) 10.000 m3 day-1 . precipitation (b) precipitation.

GE2229 29.000 years (d) 25. Page 9 of 14 watershed A watershed B watershed C none of these watersheds The polar ice caps have a volume of 2. According to these data. B.000 years (e) 100.000 years .6 × 107 km2. According to the following DEM. which of the three outlines (A.4 × 107 km3 and an area of 1. The total annual volume of precipitations over the polar ice caps is 2000 km3 yr-1. C) describes the watershed of the selected pixel? (a) (b) (c) (d) 30. what is the residence time of water within polar ice caps? (a) 2 years (b) 400 years (c) 12.

which graph represents an urban area? (a) (b) (c) (d) A represents urban area and B represents rural area A represents rural area and B represents urban area B represents urban area and A represents rural area none of the above 33. (a) steepest near the mouth (b) steepest near the head (c) the same at both the head and mouth (d) none of the above 32. Which graph represents a rural area. you would probably find that the gradient is ________. Relative humidity increases as air temperature _______. The most abundant salt in seawater is ________.GE2229 Page 10 of 14 31. If you were to examine the profile of a typical river. (a) decreases (b) increases (c) stays about the same as time of day changes (d) stays about the same as long as the sun is out 34. The following graphs show lag times between rainfall and peak flow (flooding) for an urban area and rural area. (a) KCI (b) MgCl 2 (c) NaCl (d) none of the above .

You are looking at a river which has flooded its banks and looks very muddy. (a) bed load (b) dissolved load (c) suspended load (d) high settling velocity 37. Page 11 of 14 Which one the following curves is the thermocline for high latitudes? (a) (b) (c) (d) thermocline a thermocline b thermocline c none of the above 36. For which religion is the Zamzam well sacred? (a) Judaism (b) Islam (c) Buddhism (d) Hinduism (e) Animism is the name of the organ through which plants transpire? Cell guard Phytolithe Stoma Plagioclase Aperture . What (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 38.GE2229 35. The muddy appearance is the result of the _______.

GE2229 Page 12 of 14 39. What do you call the property of a rock to allow the passage of fluids through it? (a) erodability (b) porosity (c) transmissivity (d) conductivity (e) permeability . Which instrument do we use to calculate evapotranspiration? (a) Spectrometer (b) Piezometer (c) Radar (d) Lysimeter (e) Evapometer 40.

15 0.83) where n is the number of revolutions per second Calculate the water velocities at each measurement point.02 Count of revolutions per second 5.00 5. Measures M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 a) Horizontal distance (m from left bank) 0.05 0.45 m wide profile. you measured velocities at different depths.2 0. Calculation of discharge Using a pygmy current-meter.92) v = 0.90 The velocities can be calculated from the measured revolutions per second.28 1.50 0.8 0.13 5. What is the shape of this channel? Why? b) Draw a diagram of the cross-section of the river.27 0.31 0.015 (if n <= 1.93 6.31 0.93 2.14 < n <= 17. You measured these velocities at three different points of the profile.23 0.27 0.27 0.28 1.27 Depth of measurement (m from the surface) 0.0568n + 0. . you measured water velocities in a small river along a 1.0533n + 0.60 7.01 0.28 1. On this diagram show all the relevant information which can help you to calculate the total discharge of the river.13 0.GE2229 Page 13 of 14 SECTION B: CALCULATIONS (Total: 10 marks) Please write your answers in the answer booklet provided. c) Calculate the total discharge of the river.47 7.14) v = 0.27 0.23 11.28 1.8 0.28 0.025 (if 1.28 0.28 0.31 0.12 0.2 0. You obtained the following table.27 0.050 (if 7. The relationships between the numbers of revolutions per second and the velocities are given in the following equations: v = 0. At each point.13 0.28 Depth of water column (m) 0.92 < n <= 7. 41.53 10.2 0.24 0.8 1.87 8.0620n + 0.21 0.

----------. The sea is entirely covered by a layer of green algae.GE2229 Page 14 of 14 SECTION C: Essay (10 marks) Please write your answers in the answer booklet provided.END OF PAPER ----------- . explain why algal blooms are an environmental issue and describe the main mechanisms leading to this phenomenon. The following picture shows an algal bloom along a stretch of coast in China. Figure 1: Algal bloom in China (Credit: New York Times) In a short essay (no more than 1 page). 42.