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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 03 | September 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Effect of Steel Fiber and Glass Fiber on


Mechanical Properties of Concrete
Nitin Verma
M. Tech. Scholar
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering
National Institute of Technical Teachers, Training and
Research, Bhopal, India

Hemant Kumar
M. Tech. Scholar
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering
National Institute of Technical Teachers, Training and
Research, Bhopal, India

Dr. A. K. Jain
Professor & Head
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering
National Institute of Technical Teachers, Training and Research, Bhopal, India

Abstract
Fibers are generally used as resistance of cracking and strengthening of concrete. This paper presents the effects of crimped steel
fibers and alkali resistance glass fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete. Experimental programme consist of conducting
compressive strength test, flexural strength test and split tensile strength on hybrid reinforced concrete. Two types of fibers used
are crimped steel fiber of length 45mm with aspect ratio 50 and glass fiber of length 12 mm with aspect ratio 857.1. The main
aim of this experiment is to study the strength properties of hybrid reinforced concrete of M20 grade with 0.2%, 0.25%, 0.30%,
0.35% of glass fiber containing by weight of cement and 0.40%, 0.45%, 0.50%, 0.55% of steel fibers containing by volume of
concrete. From the experimental results it was observed that samples containing steel and glass fibers showed enhanced
properties compared to the normal specimen.
Keywords: Crimped Steel Fibre, Glass Fibers, Flexural Strength, Compressive Strength, Splite Tensile Strength Hybrid
Fiber Reinforced Concrete
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
I.

INTRODUCTION

Concrete is a most commonly used construction material. The utilization of concrete or cement based material is quite ancient.
With the passage of time the significance of concrete has grown and the limitations of concrete have been gradually cut, making
the concrete more durable with a higher performance. To improve the tensile strength of concrete, fiber reinforcement was
added. The introduction of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is an important achievement in concrete technology. Fibers are
added to improve the strength parameters of the concrete. Fiber as reinforcement is effective to improve the flexural strength and
compressive strength of concrete. In recent years, researchers have realized the benefits of combining fibers, in term of obtaining
synergy and improving the response of composite material. A composite can be referred to as hybrid, if two or more types of
fibers are reasonably combined to produce a composite mass
II. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
A. Materials Used
The material selected for this experimental work includes crushed coarse aggregates, Natural River sand as fine aggregate,
cement, crimped steel fiber, alkali resistance glass fiber and water.
1) Cement
In this experimental work ordinary Portland cement (OPC) of 53 grade of Ultratech brand was used for all concrete mixes. The
physical properties of cement are as given in Table.1.
S. No.
1
2
3
4

Table 1
Physical Properties of Cement
Properties
Value
IS Specification and Test procedure
Specific gravity
3.15
IS:4031
Standard consistency
35%
IS:4031 & IS269
Initial setting time
35 Min.
>30, IS:4031 & IS 269
Final setting time
300 Min.
<600, IS:4031 & IS269

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Effect of Steel Fiber and Glass Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Concrete


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2) Fine Aggregate
Locally available river sand passing through 4.75mm sieve was used as fine aggregate for research work. The physical properties
of fine aggregate are as given in Table 2.
Table 2
Physical Properties of fine aggregate
S. No.
Properties
Value
1
Specific gravity
2.65
2
Fineness modulus
3
3
Grading of sand
Zone II

3) Coarse Aggregate
The coarse aggregates used for the work is of 20mm maximum and 10mm minium size which is free from deleterious materials.
It should be hard, strong, dense, durable and clean.
Table 3
Physical Properties of Coarse aggregate
S. No.
Properties
Value
1
Specific gravity
2.70
2
Fineness modules
4

4) Water
Potable water is used for casting of specimen and as well as curing of specimen as per IS: 456 2000. Water should be free from
acids, oil, alkalies, vegetables or other organic impurities.
5) Steel Fiber
In this investigation crimped steel fibers have been used. Steel fibers were obtained from Bakul Wires Private Ltd. Dewas, M.P.
The properties and specification of steel fibers are mentioned in Table 4. (Fig. 1)
S. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Table 4
Properties of Steel fibers
Properties
Specifications
Types
Crimped steel fiber
Tensile strength (MPa)
1100
Diameter (mm)
0.90
Length (mm)
45
Aspect ratio
50

6) Glass Fiber
In this investigation the Alkali Resistance Glass fibers with 12mm cut length and having tensile strength of 1700Mpa is used.
The glass fibers were obtained from International Trade Company Mumbai, Maharashtra. The properties of glass fiber are
mentioned in Table 5 (Fig. 2).
S. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Fig. 1: Steel Fibres

Table 5
Properties of Glass fibers
Properties
Specifications
Specific Gravity
2.68
Tensile strength (MPa)
1700
Diameter ()
14
Length (mm)
12
Modulus (GPa)
72
Percentage Elongation
2.3

Fig. 2: Glass Fibres

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Effect of Steel Fiber and Glass Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Concrete


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B. Experimental Methodology
In this study, M20 grade of concrete was used. The concrete mix design was done as per IS:102062-2009. The water cementratio adopted is 0.55 for the proper workability of concrete. Cubes, Beams and Cylinders were casted with addition of glass and
steel fibers in different proportions. The mix proportions of M20 grade concrete are shown in Table 5. Glass and steel fibers
were used in different proportions are given in Table 7. Glass fibers were added by weight of cement and steel fibers were added
by volume of concrete in the concrete mix.

Mixes
1
2
3
4
5

Table 6
Concrete Mix Proportions
Materials
Quantity
Proportion
Cement
386 Kg/ m3
1
Sand
648 Kg/ m3
1.68
Coarse Aggregate 1273 Kg/ m3
3.3
Water
212 Kg/ m3
0.55
Table 7
Percentage variations of fibers
Glass fibers by weight of cement (%) Steel fibers by volume of concrete (%)
0
0
0.20
0.40
0.25
0.45
0.30
0.50
0.35
0.55

1) Compressive Strength Test


For compressive strength test, cubes samples of size 150x150x150 mm were casted for M20 grade of concrete. The mould were
filled with concrete prepared with different percentage variation of glass and steel fiber such as G0-S0, G0.20-S0.40, G0.25S0.45, G0.30-S0.50, G0.35-S0.55. Compaction was done by tamping rod, top surface of sample were leveled and finished. After
7 and 28 days of curing these cube samples were tested on universal testing machine as per IS: 516-1959. In each catagories
three cubes tested and there average value is reported failure load. The compressive strength was calculated as- (Fig. 3)
Compressive Strength = Failure Load/ Cross sectional area
2) Split Tensile Strength Test
For split tensile strength, cylindrical specimen of size 150mm diameter and 300mm length were casted. These specimens were
left for curing and tested under universal testing machine after 7 and 28 days of age. In each categories three cylindrical samples
are tested and there average value is reported. The split tensile strength was calculated asSplit Tensile Strength= 2P/ DL
Where- P= Failure load, D= Diameter of cylinder, L= Length of cylinder

Fig. 3: Compressive Strength Test

Fig. 4: Split Tensile Strength Test

3) Flexural Strength Test


For flexural strength test, beam specimen of size 100x100x500 mm were casted in same percentage content of glass and steel
fiber used in preparation of cube samples. Beam specimens are demoulded after 24hours and they were allowed to cure for 7 and
28 days. The beam specimen were tested under two point loading over an effective span of 400mm on universal testing machine
as per IS:516-1959. In each categories three beam samples are tested and there average value is repoted. The flexural strength
was calculated as- (Fig. 4)

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Effect of Steel Fiber and Glass Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Concrete


(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 03 / 032)

Fig. 5: Flexural Strength Test

Flexural Strength=
Where- P= Failure Load
L= Center to center distance between the support
b= Width of specimen
d= depth of specimen

(P x L)/(b x d2)

C. Experimental Results
Following tables (8, 9, 10) gives compressive, splite tensile strength and flexural strength test results for M20 grade of concrete
with G0-S0, G0.20-S0.40, G0.25-S0.45, G0.30-S0.50, G0.35-S0.55 glass and steel fibers and these results are graphically
represented in figure 6, 7 and 8.
Table 8
Compressive strength Test
Mixes

Glass Fiber by Weight of Cement (%)

Steel Fiber by Volume of Concrete (%)

1
2
3
4
5

0
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35

0
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55

Compressive Strength (N/mm2)


7 days
28 days
23
29
27.91
32.22
28.58
37.07
29.06
40.02
24.65
30.28

Fig. 6: Compressive Srength Test


Table 9
Split Tensile Strength Test
Mixes

Glass Fiber by Weight of Cement (%)

Steel Fiber by Volume of Concrete (%)

1
2
3
4
5

0
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35

0
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55

Split Tensile Strength (N/mm2)


7 days
28 days
1.78
2.45
1.94
2.70
2.03
2.75
2.10
2.90
1.84
2.54

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Effect of Steel Fiber and Glass Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Concrete


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Fig. 7: Split Tensile Strength Test


Table 10
Flexural Strength Test
Mixes

Glass Fiber by Weight of Cement (%)

Steel Fiber by Volume of Concrete (%)

1
2
3
4
5

0
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35

0
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55

Flexural Strength (N/mm2)


7 days
28 days
2.6
3.02
2.82
3.24
2.95
3.38
3.045
3.56
2.73
3.30

Fig. 8: Flexural Strength Test

III. CONCLUSION

From the test results obtained during the experimental work it is clear that the strength of fiber reinforced concrete
significantly higher than the normal concrete. The crack formation is also very small in fiber specimen compared to nonfiber specimen.
The highest compressive strength of sample G0.30-S0.50 was observed 38% at 28 days compared with the conventional
concrete mix G0-S0. The increasing percentage of compressive strength of samples G0.20-S0.40,G0.25-S0.45, G0.30S0.50 and G0.35-S0.55.are 11.10%, 27.87%, 38% and 4.41% respectively at 28 days compared with the control concrete
mix.
The highest flexural strength of sample G0.30-S0.50 was found 17.88% at 28 days greater than conventional concrete G0S0. Three other samples, G0.20-S0.40, G0.25-S0.45, G0. 35-S0.55 also showed the higher flexural strength as compare to

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Effect of Steel Fiber and Glass Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Concrete


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conventional concrete G0-S0. These increments are 7.28%, 11.92% and 8.27% at 28 days. All results are greater than the
conventional concrete mix G0-S0.
The highest split tensile strength of sample G0.30-S0.50 was increased 18.36% compared with the conventional concrete
and samples G0.20-S0.40, G0.25-S0.45, G0.35-S0.55 gives split tensile strength slightly higher than the conventional
concrete mix G0-S0. The increasing percentage of split tensile strength of G0.20-S0.40, G0.25-S0.45, G0.30-S0.50 and
G0.35-S0.55 are 10.20%, 12.24%, 18.36% and 3.60% respectively.
When increase the percentage of fiber in hybrid fiber concrete then decrease the workability of hybrid reinforced concrete.
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