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A PROJECT REPORT ON

TRANSFORMERS

TESTING

AT

NTPC RAMAGUNDAM
A thesis report submitted to the
SREENIDHI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
YAMNAMPET, GHATKESAR, R.R DIST.
AFFILIATED TO JNTU-H
In partial fulfillment of the degree of
TRAINING IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED BY
S.KASI VISHWANATH

13311A0279

V.ASHOK BABU

13311A0264

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

SREENIDHI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


YAMNAMPET, GHATKESAR, R.R. DIST.
AFFILIATED TO JNTUH.

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CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled
TRANSFORMERS TESTING
By
S.KASI VISHWANATH

13311A0279

V.ASHOK BABU

13311A0264

Students of DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

SREENIDHI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


AFFILIATED TO JNTU-H
Has done TRANSFORMERS TESTING
At NPTC Ramagundam and gained valuable knowledge along with industrial
experience.

PROJECT GUIDE
ORDINATOR

PROJECT CO-

SRI SUNDAR VADIVEL

SRI B.V.SUBRAMANYAM,

SUPERINTENDENT (EMD),

AGM (EMD),

NTPC RAMAGUNDAM.

NTPC RAMAGUNDAM .

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ACKNOWLEGEMENT
We take this opportunity to record our gratitude to all those who helped us in successful
completion of the project.

The successful completion of my work is indeed practically


incomplete without mentioning all of these encouraging people who
genuinely supported and encouraged us the whole time.
I would like to express my sincere thanks to Sri B. V.
SUBRAMANYAM, AGM (EM) for the help and support in the EM
Department for giving this wonderful opportunity at NTPC Ltd (RSTPS). I
express my profound gratitude to Sri S. SUNDARAVADIVEL, DEPUTY
SUPERINTETNEND (EM), for the consistent support and exceptional
resourcefulness throughout my training period.
Finally, I thank all the members who coordinated and extended their
valuable help and support in this endeavor. we wish to express our profound
thanks to all the employees, in charges and workmen without their support, completion of
this project would have been impossible.
We solicitly express our gratitude towards the MR.M.V.R.SARMA(DY.MGREDC),L.HARIDAS,SYED YOUSUF,and other staff of EDC for extending their valuable
services towards us to enter in this organization.

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INDEX
Sl.no.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sl.no.

Name of the Topic

Pg.no.

NTPC OVERVIEW
07
TRANSFORMER
14
TRANSFORMERS IN RSTPS
17
TRANSFORMER TESTING
21
TEST PROCEDURES
a)Oil test
31
b)Voltage ratio measurement
32
c) Vector group & polarity
33
d)3- excitation at 415v no load
35
e)Winding resistance m/m
36
f) Insulation resistance m/m
37
g) Capacitance & tandelta m/m
39
h)Separate source applied voltage test 41
i) No load &magnetizing m/m
42
j) Harmonics of no load current
44
k)Lighting impulse test with transfer
voltage measurements
l) Switching impulse voltage withstand

45

test
m) Load loss & impedance m/m
n) Temp. rise test
o) Cooler loss m/m

47
48
50
52

Name of the Topic


p) Oil leakage

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4

Pg.no.
53

q) Insulation test on core, frame


&auxiliary wdg

54

r) ratio &polarity test

55

6.

CONCLUSION

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7.

REFERENCES

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NTPC POWER PLANT


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NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION

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NTPC- OVERVIEW
NTPC, the major power utility, generating over one fourth of the total
thermal power in the country, the corporation established its credentials
over a period of two decades and is maintaining its impeccable record by
consistently generating reliable and quality power. . NTPC established in
1975 and its mission has been to construct commission and operate
power projects most economically and efficiently.
NTPC has chalked out a capacity addition program of adding ambitious
38,014 MW by installing a number of coal and gas based power plants in
the ten years.

NTPC VISION
TO BE THE WORLD'S LARGEST AND BEST POWER PRODUCER, POWERING
INDIA'S GROWTH.

MISSION
DEVELOP AND PROVIDE RELIABLE RELATD, PRODUCTS AND SERVIES AT
COMPETITIVE PRICES, INTERGRATING MULTIPLE ENERGY SOURCES WITH
INNOVATIVE AND ECO FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIES & CONTRIBUTE TO
SOCIETY.

CORE VALUES (BE COMMITTED)


Business Ethics
Environmentally & Economically Sustainable
Customer Focus
Organization & Professional Pride
Mutual Respect and Trust
Motivating Self & Others
Innovation and Speed
Total Quality for Excellence
Transparent & Respected Organization
Enterprising
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Devoted

INTRODUCTION TO RSTPS
APPROVAL OF RSTPS:
RSTPS was declared by government of India in 1978.
Late Sri Morarji Desai, the then PM laid the foundation stone of
RSTPS.
RSTPS began commercial operation by 1983.
Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station spread over 10000
acres of land is situated in Karimnagar district of A.P. It has an installed
capacity of 2600 MW having 3*200 MW three units in Stage-I, 4*500 MW
four units in Stage-II & III. This is the biggest power station in Southern
India.

UNIT WISE POWER GENERATION:The whole plant is divided into 3 Stages, each Stage being planned at one
time.

STAGE-I (3*200 MW)


This stage consists of three units [unit-1, unit-2 & unit-3] each with a
generation capacity of
200 MW. The turbines for these three units
were manufactured by The Ansaldo Energia Ltd. The construction began in
the late 1970s and these units have performed well over a long period
setting many records regarding maintenance and generation over the
other two stages.

STAGE 2 (3*500 MW)


This stage again consists of three units [unit-4, unit-5, unit-6] each with a
generation capacity of 500 MW. The turbines for these three units were
manufactured by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL).

STAGE 3 (1*500 MW)


This stage comprises only one unit [unit-7]. This is a first of its kind in
South India being a computer operated unit. A wide disparity may be seen
between the control rooms of the other two stages and this computerized
unit. To this day, many Power plant engineers train in this unit to upgrade
themselves to this new mode of operation. This unit also has the tallest
chimney in Asia.

DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY:8
8

Total Capacity of Ramagundam NTPC is 2600 MW of Stage 1, 2 & 3 (i.e.


units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7) distributing electricity to the following states:

STATE

MW

% AGE

Andhra Pradesh

610 MW

29 %

Tamilnadu

470 MW

22 %

Karnataka

345 MW

16 %

Kerala

245 MW

12 %

Goa

100 MW

5%

50 MW

2%

Pondicherry

Remaining 250 MW is un-allocated and can be given to any State, but at


present it is being sent to Andhra Pradesh.

SALIENT FEATURES OF RSTPS


Installed capacity

2600MW

Unit Sizes

Stage I

3*200 MW

Stage II 3*500 MW
Stage III 1*500 MW
Location

Ramagundam, Karimnagar, AP

Coal Source

Singareni Coal Mines

Water Source

Pochampad Dam

Coal Consumption

10 Million Tons per Annum

Water Consumption

250 Cusecs

Transmission Line

2475km of 400KV

Approved Investment

Rs. 1702.18 Crs

Coal Transportation

M.G.R System of 22.4km

Height of Chimney

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225m Stage I

250m Stage II
275m Stage III
Ultimate Manpower
Total Land

:
:

3200
10,000 acres

Recognizing its excellent performance and vast potential, Government of


the India has identified NTPC as one of the jewels of Public Sector
'MAHARATNAS'- a potential global giant. Inspired by its glorious past and
vibrant present, NTPC is well on its way to realize its vision of being "one
of the worlds largest and best power utilities, powering India's growth".

PERFORMANCES AND ACHEIVEMENTS


NTPC, Ramagundam was accredited with ISO 14001 certification
for confirming to International Standard of Environmental
Management System.

Up award in environmental protection from council of power


utilities.

It achieved Raj Bhasha award for the year 1998-1999 for the first
time NTPC featured in 1997 edition of the Limca Book of
Records as the largest thermal power plant suppliers and the first
to construct and commission the HVDC transmission link in the
country.

BASIC POWER PLANT PROCESS


It is known for ages that when coal is burnt it releases heat energy.
The same phenomenon chemically represented on
C + O2
CO2+heat energy (395 KJ/mole)

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ENERGY TRANSFER
In the Boiler chemical energy in fuel is converted into thermal
energy by heating water and converting it into steam. The steam
produced in the boiler is expanded. In the turbine, the thermal energy is
converted into kinetic energy. As the steam expands it rotates the turbine.
This motion of the turbine is transmitted to generator in which the
mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy, which is
transmitted to various load centers through transmission line.

POWER GENERATION PROCEDURE IN A THERMAL POWER


PLANT
Coal is the chief fuel in thermal power plants. The generation of
electricity from coal can be classified into the following stages:
Coal to Steam
Steam to Mechanical Energy
Mechanical Energy to Electrical Energy
CHEMICAL
ELECTRICAL
ENERGY
ENERGY
COAL
GENERATOR

THERMAL
ENERGY
BOILER

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MECHANICAL
ENERGY
TURBINE

COAL TO STEAM
COAL HANDLING
Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant, here the
coal is crushed. This coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with
the help of belt conveyers. Coal is transported to Bowl Mills by coal
feeders. These coal feeders are of two types, volumetric and gravimetric.
The coal is pulverized in the Bowl mills, where it is ground to a powder
form. The BOWL MILL is one of the most advanced designs of coal
pulverizer presently manufactured. The advantages of this mill are:

Lower power consumption.


Reliability
Minimum maintenance
Wide capacity

The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. This
table is rotated with the help of a motor. There are three large steel
rollers, which are spaced 120 degrees apart. When there is no coal, these
rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up
between roller and the table and this force the rollers to rotate. Coal is
crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and rotating table. This
crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help
of hot and cold air mixture from Primary Air Fan. The P.A. Fan takes
atmospheric air from F.D Fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the
furnace as combustion air.

STEAM CIRCUIT
Water from the boiler feed pump passes through the economizer
and reaches the boiler drum. Water from the drum passes through down
comers and goes to bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring
header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Due to heat and the
density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. Water is
partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. This steam and
water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is
separated from the water. Water follows the same path while the steam is
sent to super heaters for super heating. The super heaters are located
inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540 deg.) and finally it
goes to the turbine.

FLUE GASES AND ASH CIRCUIT


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Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by I.D fan, which
maintains balance draft in the furnace with F.D Fan. These flue gases
emits their heat energy to various super heaters in the pant house and
finally passes trough air pre-heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators
where the ash particles are extracted. Electrostatic precipitators consist of
metal plates, which are electrically charges. Ash particles are attracted on
to these plates, so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute
the atmosphere. Regular mechanical hammers blows cause the
accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitators where they
are collected in a hopper for disposal. This ash is mixed with water to form
slurry and is pumped to ash pond. But nowadays 80% of the ash is used in
formation of ash bricks which is cheaper and stronger than the normal
bricks other 20% is sent into the atmosphere through the chimney.

STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER


A steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which
can be sued to shut off steam in an emergency) and through control
valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. Stop
valve and control valves are located in a steam chest and a governor,
driven from the main turbine shaft, operates the control valves to regulate
the amount of steam used. (This depends upon the speed of the turbine
and the amount of electricity required from the generator).
Steam from the control valves enters the high-pressure cylinder of the
turbine, where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the
cylinder wall. These act as nozzles and direct steam into a second ring of
moving blades mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. The
turbine has three stages high pressure, intermediate pressure and low
pressure stages .firstly, the steam enters H.P turbine then the steam is
lead to the boiler to again increase its temperature and pressure and then
led to the I.P turbine thereafter to L.P turbine where the system is double
flow kind, where temperature and pressure are lost. The steam almost
reduces to droplets thereby the system rotates the shaft of the turbine
which is coupled to the generator.
Finally, the steam is taken to the low pressure cylinders, each of which it
enters at the centre. The turbine shaft usually rotates at 3,000 revolutions
per minute. This speed is determined by the frequency of the electrical
system used in this country and is the speed at which a 2-pole generator
must be driven to generate alternating current at a frequency of 50 cycles
per second.

MECHANICAL ENERGY TO ELECTRIC ENERGY


The mechanical energy is converted in to the electrical energy in the
generator of the power plant. This conversion takes place through the
principle of dynamically induced EMF and in accordance with the
Faradays laws of Electromagnetic Induction.
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PLANT LAYOUT

TRANSFORMERS

A transformer is an energy transformation device that transforms


alternating current (AC) or voltage at one level to AC and voltage at
another level. A transformer can economically convert voltage or current
from low to high levels, or from high to low levels. The transformer usually
consists of two or more insulated windings on a common iron core. In
industrial and commercial applications, transformers are used to step
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down voltages from utility service voltage to lower distribution voltage


levels or lower utilization voltages that may be required for a facility or a
plant. Transformers are very reliable devices and can provide service for a
long time if maintained and serviced regularly. Transformer failures, when
they occur, are usually of a very serious nature, which may require costly
repairs and long downtime. The best insurance against transformer failure
is to ensure that they are properly installed and maintained.

Transformer Categories and Type


For consideration of maintenance requirements, transformers can be
divided into the following categories:
Insulating medium
Construction
Application and use
1) Insulating Medium:The transformers insulating medium can be subdivided into two types:
dry and liquid filled.
a) Dry Type
Dry-type transformers are usually air cooled with winding
insulation of class A, B, C, or H. The dry-type transformer can be either
Self-cooled or Forced air cooled.
Self-cooled: A self-cooled transformer of the dry type is cooled by natural
circulation of air through the transformer case. The cooling class
designation for this transformer is AA.
Forced air cooled: A forced air-cooled transformer of dry type is cooled
by means of forced circulation of air through the case. Transformers of this
type have air-blast equipment such as fans with louvered or screened
openings. These transformers are rated at 133% of the rating of the Selfcooled Dry-type Transformers. The cooling class designation for this
transformer is FA. Dry-type Transformers can be obtained with both Selfcooled and Forced air-cooled rating. The designation for such a
transformer is AA/FA. Dry-type transformers can also be cooled by gas
instead of air. For such transformers, a sealed tank is required.
B) Liquid-Filled Transformer
In this type of transformer, the windings and core are totally
immersed in a Liquid contained in the transformer tank. The tank is
equipped with cooling fins for circulation of the transformer liquid. The
transformer liquid provides an insulating medium for the coils as well as
for dissipation of heat. Two liquids have been used extensively in the past
for transformers: Mineral oils and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB),
commonly known as Askarel. Askarel was extensively used in transformers
for indoor applications because it is a
15Non-flammable synthetic insulating
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fluid. Askarel is a non-biodegradable and toxic. Newer fluids have been


introduced, such as Silicone, RTemp, Wecosal, and Alpha 1 for
replacement of Askarel. Others are still in developmental stages.
Several cooling methods are used for liquid-filled transformers.
Self-cooled: A self-cooled transformer uses the natural circulation of the
insulating liquid. Heat in the transformer tank is dissipated by convection
currents set up in the liquid, which circulates through the tank and cooling
fins. The cooling class designation for this transformer is oil natural, air
natural OA.
Forced air cooled: In this type of transformer, air is forced over the
cooling surface of the tank to supplement the self-cooled rating. The
supplemental air is provided by fans that are mounted on the transformer
tank and which can be manually or automatically controlled. The cooling
class designation for this type of transformer is OA/FA.
Forced air cooled and forced oil cooled: This transformer uses a
pump to circulate oil through a heat exchanger to increase heat
dissipation, which supplements the self-cooling and forced air cooling. The
cooling class designation for this transformer is OA/FA/FOA.
Water cooled: This transformer uses water instead of air to provide the
cooling. The cooling system consists of a heat exchange by means of
water pumped through a pipe coil installed inside or outside the
transformer tank. The cooling class designation for this transformer is
FOW.

Construction:
Transformers can be classified by tank construction and core construction.
a) Tank Construction
Several types of transformer tank construction are used to prevent
exposing liquid to the atmosphere. These types are as follows:
Free breathing: This type is open to the atmosphere (i.e., the airspace
above the liquid is at atmospheric pressure). The transformer breathes as
the air pressure and temperature change outside the tank. Some of these
transformers can be equipped with dehydrating compounds in the
breather.
Conservator or expansion-tank: These transformers are equipped with
small expansion tanks above the transformer tank. The transformer tank
is completely filled with oil, and the transformer breathes by means of this
small tank, usually through a dehydrating compound. The purpose of the
small tank is to seal the transformer fluid from the atmosphere and to
reduce oxidization and formation of sludge.
Sealed tank: These transformers are equipped with an inert gas, such as
nitrogen that is under pressure above the liquid in the transformer tank.
Generally, the pressure range for this type of transformer is 8 to +8
lb/in2
Gas-oil sealed: These transformers have an auxiliary tank to completely
seal the interior tank, containing transformer liquid, from the atmosphere.
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Vaporization: This type of transformer uses a special non-flammable


insulating fluid, such as fluorocarbon (General Electric R-113), which is
non-flammable, and a special condenser assembly welded on top of the
transformer tank. The cooling tube ends are swaged and welded to tube
headers. This transformer uses the technique of sprayed liquid on core
and coil assembly
(i.e., vaporization cooling known as pool boiling). The purpose of the
condenser is to cool the boiling vapor into liquid for continued circulation
of the fluid.
b) Core Construction
Transformers employ basically two types of core construction
techniques.
Core type: In core-type construction, the transformer winding surrounds
the laminated core. The coils can be cylindrical, flat, or disk shaped. They
can be arranged to fit around the rectangle or square cross section. Coretype construction provides a single-path magnetic circuit through the
magnetic core. Most small distribution transformers are of this
construction.
Shell type: In shell-type construction, the magnetic core surrounds the
windings. The primary and secondary windings may be interspaced side
by side or circularly stacked one above the other. Some large power
transformers have this form of construction. One advantage of the shell
type is that it offers a separate path for the zero-sequence currents
through the core, as compared to the core type in which the zerosequence path exists only through the transformer tank and end
connections.

Application and Use:


Transformers used for converting energy can be classified into five
categories according to their application and use.
a) Distribution Transformers
A Distribution transformer has a rating from 3 to 500 kVA. There are
various types of Distribution transformers, depending upon the cooling
and insulating medium, service application, and mounting method.
Transformers with voltage ratings of as high as 34,500 V are available.
Virtually all Distribution transformers are Self-cooled.
b) Network Transformer
It has special and severe requirements for network service, such as
ventilation, vault size, submergibility, and short-circuit requirements.
Network transformers can have kVA ratings in excess of 500 kVA and
primary voltage up to 23 kV.
c) Arc-Furnace Transformer
The Arc-furnace transformer is a special purpose transformer used in
process industries. It is a low-voltage and high-amperage transformer and
is specially braced to withstand mechanical stresses caused by fluctuating
current requirements. Due to distorted waveform because of arcs, it has
extra winding insulation.
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d) Rectifier Transformer
The rectifier transformer is also a special purpose transformer used in the
rectification of AC to direct current (DC) applications in the process
industry. These transformers are specially braced to withstand mechanical
stresses produced by high currents.
e) Power Transformer
The power transformer has a rating in excess of 500 kVA and is primarily
used in transforming energy from generating stations to transmission
lines, from transmission lines to distribution substations, or from utility
service lines to plant distribution substations.

EHV TRANSFORMERS IN RSTPS:


The transformers used in RSTPS are:a) GENERATOR TRANSFORMER (Unit-1 to Unit-7)
b) TIE TRANSFORMER (TIE-1 to TIE-4)
c) AUTO TRANSFORMER (AT-1 to AT-5)
GENERATOR TRANSFORMER:-It allows energy supplied by the generator to
be transferred to the network at the required voltage.

TIE TRANSFORMER:-It is a step-down transformer which is used to supply


the electrical power to the station transformer and colony transformer.

AUTO TRANSFORMER:-It can be used to buck/boost transformers


increasing or decreasing supply voltage by a small amount .They can be
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used in place of full transformer where the ratio of primary to secondary is


very small (less than ~4) [2:1] .

NAME PLATE DETAILS OF TRANSFORMERS IN RSTPS:GENERATOR TRANSFORMER (1-, 50 Hz)


Shell form
Type of cooling
HV side:-voltage
current
LV side:-voltage
current
Impedance voltage at 420/3/21 KV
Ambient temperature
Maximum temperature oil rise: Winding: -

OIL transformer
Tap changer

WEIGHT-core and winding


Tank and fittings
Oil
Total

AUTO TRANSFORMER (3-, 50 Hz)


Type of cooling
OFAF
HV
IV

17000 liters
220 liters
90000Kg
30000Kg
15500Kg
135500Kg

YNa0d11
- ONAN

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OFAF
420/3 KV
825 A
21KV
9250A
13.89%
50c max.
50c
55c

189
189

252
252

ONAF
315
315

Reactive (MVA)
LV Reactive
LV Active

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MVA RATING
HV side:-voltage
LV side:-voltage
Impedance voltage at 420/3/21 KV
Ambient temperature
Maximum temperature oil rise: Winding: -

Noise level

TIE TRANSFORMER (3-, 50 Hz)

84
4

105
5

315
-

420/3 KV
21KV
13.89%
50c max.
50c
55c

86.5dB Max.

YNyn0d11

Type of cooling

- ONAN / ONAF

Rated capacity (MVA) HV


LV

60/100
60/100

HV side:-voltage
LV side:-voltage
Impedance voltage at 400/34.5 KV
Ambient temperature
Maximum temperature oil rise: Winding: -

OIL transformer

WEIGHT- core and windings


Tank and fittings
Oil
Total

400KV
34.5KV
15.89%
50c max.
40c
55c
23400 liters

72000Kg
31500Kg
21000Kg
124500Kg

TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER (1-, 50 Hz)


Type of cooling
KVA RATING
HV side:-voltage
LV side:-voltage

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ONAN
60

53.5 KV
373.5V

LINE Amperes

HV
LV
Ambient temperature
Maximum temperature oil rise: Winding: DC Output
Max.

1.12
160.6
-

50c max.
50c
55c
70KV peak
800mA

Why Maintain and Test?


A well-organized and implemented program minimizes accidents, reduces
unplanned shutdowns, and lengthens the mean time between failures
(MTBF) of electrical equipment. Benefits of EPM can be categorized as
direct and indirect. Direct benefits are derived from reduced cost of
repairs, reduced
Down-time of equipment, and improved safety of personnel and property.
Indirect benefits can be related to improved morale of employees, better
Workmanship, increased productivity, and the discovery of deficiencies in
the system that were either designed into the original system or caused
by later changes made in the system.

All the electrical equipment need to be maintained safely from


some of the failures. The transformers can fail from any combination of
electrical, mechanical, and thermal factors. Actual transformer failures as
listed above involve breakdown of the insulation system which may result
from any of the factors (failure modes) just mentioned above.
Electrically induced failures: These involve transient or sustained
overvoltage conditions, lightning and switching surges, partial discharges,
and static electrification. The partial discharges may be caused by poor
insulation system design, by manufacturing defects or by contamination
of the insulation system (both oil and solid insulation).
Mechanically induced failures: A mechanically induced failure is due to
deforming of a transformers windings that eventually results in the
abrasion or rupturing of its paper insulation. Transformer winding
deformation happens in either during shipping or during magnetically
induced electromechanical forces. When a transformer experiences an
internal or heavy through fault, the windings are subjected to
electromechanical forces that are beyond their design capability. When
this happens, it can cause hoop (inward radial) buckling of the innermost
windings, conductor tipping, conductor telescoping, spiral tightening, end
ring crushing, and/or failure of the coil clamping system.
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Thermally induced failures: Thermal degradation causes the paper


insulation of the windings to loose its physical strength to the point where
it can no longer withstand the vibration and mechanical movement that
occur inside a transformer. The thermally induced failures are due to
overloading beyond its design capability for long period of time, failure of
the cooling system to dissipate heat, blockage of axial oil duct spaces,
operating the transformer in an overexcited condition, and/or excessive
ambient temperature conditions.

TRANSFORMERS TESTING
DC TESTING: - The DC testing of transformers involves testing of the
solid winding insulation and the insulating fluids used in transformers. The
testing of solid winding insulation complements other transformer testing.
The solid winding insulation tests are not conclusive in themselves, but
provide valuable information on winding conditions, such as moisture
content, and carbonization. The DC tests are considered nondestructive
even though at times they may cause a winding failure.
It should be pointed out that a winding failure results from an
incipient failure that the test was supposed to detect. If it had gone
undetected, it might have occurred at an unplanned time. The DC tests
conducted for transformer winding insulation are:Insulation Resistance Measurement
This test is performed at or above rated voltage to determine if there are
low resistance paths to ground or between winding to winding as a result
of winding insulation deterioration. The test measurement values are
affected by variables such as temperature, humidity, test voltage, and
size of transformer.
This test should be conducted before and after repair or when
maintenance is performed. The test data should be recorded for future
comparative purposes. The test values should be normalized to 20C for
comparison purposes.
The general rule of thumb that is used for acceptable values for safe
energization is 1 M per 1000 V of applied test voltage plus 1 M.

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Electronic megohmmeter, 5000 V

Typical Insulation Resistance Values for Power and Distribution


Transformers
Transformer Winding Voltage (kV)
20C
60 C
6.6
400
25
6.619
800
50
2245
1000
65
66
1200
75

30C

Winding Ground (M)


40C
50C

200

100

50

400

200

100

500
600

250
300

125

100

In the absence of more reliable data the following formula is


suggested:

IR=CE / (KVA)
Where
IR is the minimum 1 min 500 V DC insulation resistance in megohms from
winding to ground, with other winding or windings guarded, or from
winding to winding with core guarded
23
23

C is a constant for 20C measurements


E is the voltage rating of winding under test
KVA is the rated capacity of winding under test
This formula is intended for single-phase transformers. If the
transformers under test is one of the three-phase type, and the three
individual windings are being tested as one, then
E is the voltage rating of one of the single-phase windings (phase to phase
for delta connected units and phase to neutral or star connected units)
KVA is the rated capacity of the completed three-phase winding under
test
Values of C at 20C
60 Hz
Tanked oil-filled type
1.5
Un-tanked oil-filled type
30.0
Dry or compound-filled type
30.0

25 Hz
1.0
20.0
20.0

Dielectric Absorption Test


The dielectric absorption test is an extension of the transformer winding
insulation resistance measurement test. The test consists of applying
voltage for 10 min and taking readings of resistance measurements at 1
min intervals.
The resistance values measured during this test are plotted on loglog
paper with coordinates of resistance versus time. The slope of the curve
for a good insulation system is a straight line increasing with respect to
time, whereas a poor insulation system will have a curve that flattens out
with respect to time.
There are two tests that are conducted under dielectric absorption test
which are PI and DAR tests.

15
24 kV DC dielectric test set
24

.
Dielectric Test Values for Routine Maintenance of Liquid-Filled
Transformers
Transformer Winding Rated Voltage (kV)
Maintenance DC Voltage (kV)

Factory Test AC

Routine

Voltage (kV)

1.2
2.4
4.8
8.7
15.0
18.0
25.0
34.5

10
15
19
26
34
40
50
70

10.40
15.60
19.76
27.04
35.36
41.60
52.00
72.80

DC High-Potential Test
The DC hi-pot test is applied at above the rated voltage of a transformer
to evaluate the condition of winding insulation. The DC high-voltage test is
not recommended on power transformers above 34.5 kV; instead the AC
hi-pot test should be used. Generally, for routine maintenance of
transformers, this test is not employed because of the possibility of
damage to the winding insulation. However, this test is made for
acceptance and after repair of transformers. If the hi-pot test is to be
conducted for routine maintenance, the AC test values should not exceed
65% of factory AC test value. The routine maintenance AC voltage value
should be converted to an equivalent DC voltage value by multiplying it
by 1.6, that is, 1.6 times the AC value for periodic testing (i.e., 1.6 65 =
104% of AC factory test value). The DC hi-pot test can be applied as a
step-voltage test where readings of leakage current are taken for each
step. If excessive leakage current is noticed, voltage can be backed off
before further damage takes place. For this reason, the DC hi-pot test is
considered to be a nondestructive test. Some companies conduct the AC
hi-pot test at rated voltage for 3 min for periodic testing instead of the
65% of factory test voltage.
The procedure for conducting this test is as follows:
Transformer must have passed the insulation resistance test
immediately prior to starting this test.
Make sure transformer case and core are grounded.
Disconnect all high-voltage, low-voltage, and neutral connections, lowvoltage control systems, fan systems, and meters connected to the
transformer winding and core.
Short-circuit with jumpers together all high-voltage bushings and all lowvoltage bushings to ground.
If a hi-pot test is to be conducted for routine maintenance,
consider the following in advance: (1) assume that a breakdown will occur,
(2) have replacement or parts on hand, (3) have personnel available to
25
25

perform work, and (4) is the loss of the transformer until repairs are made
beyond the original routine outage.

AC VOLTAGE TESTS
The AC voltage tests can be classified into the categories as listed below:
1. PF and DF
2. AC high potential tests
3. Very low frequency (VLF)
4. AC series resonant
5. Induced frequency
6. Partial discharge (PD)
7. Impulse tests
The AC tests may be classified as destructive and nondestructive tests.
The PF and DF tests are considered nondestructive since the test voltages
used in performing these tests do not exceed line-to-neutral voltages of
the equipment being tested. The basic principle of the nondestructive
testing is the detection of a change in the measurable characteristics of
an insulation that can be associated with the effects of contaminants and
destructive agents without overstressing the insulation. The AC high
potential, VLF, and AC series resonant tests may be classified as
destructive since the test voltages associated with these tests are higher
than normal operating voltages which may overstress the insulation. The
effect of repeated high voltage (HV) tests on insulation are cumulative
and therefore thoughtful consideration should be given on the benefits of
these tests for routine field and maintenance testing, except for special
investigations or for acceptance testing. The induced frequency, PD, and
impulse tests are primarily conducted at the factory during manufacturing
of electrical apparatus and equipment.

PF/DF Testing

The PF/DF tests measure insulation capacitance, AC dielectric losses, and


the ratio of the measured quantities. When insulation is energized with an
AC voltage, the insulation draws a charging current. This charging current
comprises of two components called capacitive current and resistive
current. The capacitive current leads the applied test voltage by 90,
whereas the resistive current is in phase with the voltage. The capacitive
current is directly proportional to the dielectric constant, area, and voltage
and inversely proportional to the thickness of the insulation under test.
The capacitive current may calculated by the following formula:
Icap= E/ Xc = E x x C
Icap= E x x o x r x (A/d)
Where
E is the test voltage
C = o x r x (A/d)
o is the dielectric constant of vacuum (0.08854 10-12 F/cm)
26
26

r is the dielectric constant of the insulation


A is the area (cm2)
d is the thickness of insulation
Changes in the capacitive current indicate degradation in the insulation,
such as wetness or shorted layers, or change in the geometry of the
insulation. The resistive current supplies the energy lost due to dielectric
losses such as carbon tracking, volumetric leakage, surface conduction,
and corona. Dielectric losses due to water contamination or carbon
tracking or other forms of deterioration increase by the square of the
voltage, where as dielectric losses due to corona increase exponentially as
the voltage increases. PF/DF testing is sensitive enough to detect a
deteriorated moisture problem in the insulation compared to an insulation
resistance test.

Basic Test Connections (Test Modes)


Basic test configurations that simplify testing on complicated insulation
systems inside HV apparatus.

Grounded-Specimen Test Mode

In grounded-specimen test (GST) mode, all current between the AC source


and ground (through CX) is measured by the bridge. GST is used when
one terminal of the insulation to be measured is permanently connected
to ground, such as a bushing flange, transformer tank, or grounded
apparatus frame. GST mode also connects the LV lead(s) directly to
ground. This enables the lead (s) to be used to ground a specimen
terminal that is not normally grounded.

GST Mode with Guard (GST-G)

In Double test sets this connection is referred to as guard-specimen test


mode. In this mode, all current between the AC source and ground
(through CX) is measured by the bridge. The LV lead(s) may be connected
to the test circuit guard. Any current present on the LV lead(s) during the
test are bypassed directly to the AC source return, and are eliminated
from the measurement. GST-G mode is used to isolate an individual
section of insulation and test it without measuring other connected
insulation.

Ungrounded-Specimen Test Mode (UST)

In ungrounded-specimen test (UST) Mode, only current between the AC


source and the LV lead (through CX) is measured. Any current fl owing to a
grounded terminal is bypassed directly to the AC source return, and is
eliminated from the measurement. UST mode is only used to measure
insulation between two ungrounded terminals of the apparatus. In UST
mode, ground is considered guard since grounded terminals are not
27
27

measured. UST mode is used to isolate an individual section of insulation


and test it without measuring other connected insulation.
The PF test as applied to transformers is the most
comprehensive test for detecting insulation degradation, usually caused
by moisture, carbonization, and other forms of contamination. Depending
on the type, size, and voltage rating of transformer, the PF test may be
performed as an overall transformer PF test, or on individual components
of the transformer to localize the dielectric circuit for effective analysis of
the test results; that is deterioration in the solid winding, bushing, and
liquid insulation can be localized by separate tests on these components.
Generally, it is common practice to perform PF tests of the bushing and
the solid winding together on medium-voltage transformers that have
solid porcelain-type bushings. On HV transformers with condenser- type
bushings, the PF tests are performed on the individual bushings by the
UST method. On all other bushings, hot-collar tests are performed by the
GST method.

Hot-Collar Tests of Non-condenser-Type Bushings


The hot-collar tests may be performed on compound-type, porcelain drytype bushing, oil-filled bushings, and cable pot heads. The collar is
energized by the test voltage (thus the term hot collar), while the center
conductor is grounded. It is well-established fact that the compound and
dry type bushing fail from leaks that develop in the top end of the bushing
allowing moisture to enter the bushing chamber. As a result, leakage
paths are established which lead to bushing failure. By applying collar test
in the upper region of the bushing, moisture, or deterioration can be
detected in the early stages. The collar tests are also useful in detecting
low levels of oil or compound in bushing and pot heads. The collar can be
made of conductive rubber or metallic foil, braid or wire. When performing
collar tests, care should be used to ensure that the collar makes intimate
contact with the surface of the bushing or pothead. Hot-collar tests may
be made as single collar tests or multiple collar tests .A single hot-collar
test consists of a measurement between an externally applied collar and
the bushing, while the center conductor is grounded (GST mode). In this
test mode all currents passing between the energized collar and ground
are measured. In the UST mode, current between the energized collar and
the center conductor are measured including the surface leakage currents
flowing over the upper portion of the bushing whereas the surface leakage
currents flowing in the lower portion of the bushing (grounded flange
mounting) are not measured. In the guard mode, the currents between
the energized collar and the center conductor are measured and the
surface leakage currents fl owing over the upper and lower portion of the
bushing are guarded, whereas the surface leakage current over the upper
portion of the bushing only are guarded.

PF/DF TEST FOR BUSHINGS

28
28

The problems found in bushing are


Cracks
Dirty bushings
Loss of oil or compound
Short-circuited condenser bushings
Wet or deteriorated bushings or tap insulation
Dirty tap insulation
Corona in bushing insulation system
The PF tests including the hot-collar tests performed on similar types of
bushing under the same test and weather conditions should test similarly,
and be within acceptable limits. When PF of a clean bushing increases
significantly from its initial value, it is usually due to the effect of
contamination, such as moisture which lowers the dielectric strength of
the bushing. The possibility of the failure of the bushing in service
increases as its dielectric strength decreases due to the effect of
contamination. PF tests, made on a regular basis, have been used in
assessing the serviceability of the bushing over the years. To decide
whether a bushing should be removed from service because it has a
slightly higher PF than normal depends upon the magnitude of the overall
PF and hot-collar test results. However, a bushing that shows a substantial
increase in PF each year is an indication of potential failure hazard. It is
recommended that the bushing insulation should be evaluated based on
the results of PF, capacitance, and hot-collar test results. With regard to
hot-collar test, higher than normal losses are indicative of contamination
or deterioration of bushing insulation. Any bushing differing significantly
from others by few milli-watts (up to one-tenth of a watt for the 10 kV
test) should be investigated. The watts loss limit in bushing for the 2.5 KV
test is approximately 0.15 W. The loss of oil or compound may be detected
by comparing the hot-collar test current rather than the PF value.
Abnormally low test current (10%15%) may indicate absence of
compound or oil. Testing under successively lower petticoats (skirts) will
show normal current reading when compound or oil is reached.

Transformer Excitation Current Test


Transformer excitation current test is another test that can be performed
with the PF test equipment. Excitation current is also known as the NOLOAD OR MAGNETIZING CURRENT of the transformer. In this test, voltage is
applied to the primary windings one at time with all other windings left
open. The excitation current of a transformer is the current the
transformer draws when voltage is applied to its primary terminals with
the secondary terminal open. The excitation current test, when used in
routine preventive maintenance or field acceptance testing of
transformers, provides means of detection for winding problems, such as
short-circuited or open turns, poor joints or contacts, core problems, etc.
The excitation current test is conducted on each phase winding at a time,
that is only one winding is under test with the other winding including the
secondary winding are floating. When performing this test, the bushings
are not shorted together like they are
29when conducting the PF tests. The
29

test is performed by applying voltage to one end of the transformer


winding and connecting the other end with the LV switch of the PF test set
in the UST position.
Three measurements are routinely made (H1H0, H2H0,
and H3H0) at voltages generally below rated voltagenot exceeding 2.5
or 10 kV depending upon the PF test set equipment. The LV winding is
isolated from its source or load and is left floating during the test. The
neutral is left grounded, as is in normal service. The exciting current flows
in the core such that two high and one low readings are obtained because
the middle leg carries a lower amount of current compared to the two
outer core legs. This is because when the middle winding H2H0 is
energized, the current flows only in the middle leg and does not involve
the joints and yokes of the core, where as when the H1H0 and H3H0
windings are energized, the current flow path involves the respective core
leg, two joints and two yokes which gives the higher current.

WINDING RESISTANCE
It helps in determining the following: I2 R losses in transformer
Winding temperature at the end of temperature rise test of
transformer
As a bench mark for assessing possible damages in the field.

It is done at site in order to check for abnormalities due to loose connections,


broken strands of conductor, high contact resistance in tap changers, high
voltage leads and bushings .The resistance is measured at ambient temperature
and then converted to resistance at 75c for all practical purposes of comparison
with specified design values, previous results and diagnostics.
Winding resistance at a standard temperature of 75c
is

R75=Rt [(273+75) / (273+t) ]


MAGNETIC BALANCE TEST
It is used to find the flux distribution (magnetic), core assembly condition
and defect in winding (if any).It may check at LV side or HV side as per site
condition. For star connection, apply the supply at u & n measure the
value at v & n, w & n and repeat the same with other terminals. For delta
connection, apply voltage must be in phase-phase live u & v, v & w, w &
u.
Left side
phase
AN
Voltage applied at left side phase 230 V
Voltage applied at central phase 115 V
Voltage applied at right side
50 V
phase
30
30

Central
phase
BN
180 V
230 V

Right side
phase
CN
50 V
115 V

180 V

230 V

Procedure for magnetic balance test for transformer:1. First keep the tap changer of the transformer in normal position.
2. Now disconnect the neutral from the ground.
3. Apply the single phase AC supply 230volts across HV and Neutral
terminal.
4. Now measure the voltages in the other terminals with respect to
neutral.
5. Repeat the test for each other three phases.

TRANSFORMERS TURNS RATIO TEST


The performance of a transformer largely depends upon perfection of
specific turns or voltage ratio of transformer. So it is an essential test for
transformers. It is performed as a routine test for transformer. So for
ensuring proper performance of electrical power transformer, voltage and
turns ratio test of transformer is one the vital tests.
Procedure for TTR:

Apply three phase 415 volts to HV winding, keeping LV open


Measure induced voltages both on LV and HV sides
Repeat the same for different tap positions separately.

The TTR detects high resistance connections in the lead circuitry or high contact
resistance in tap changer by higher excitation current and difficulty in balancing
the bridge.

VECTOR GROUP
This test is done to conform whether the vector group provided in the
name plate is correct or not and also to confirm that the winding has not
been damaged during transport, installation and erecting. A vector group
is a means of identifying which combination of three phase connection
(wye-delta, delta-delta, delta-wye etc.) will allow three phase transformer
to be paralleled with each other as some combination cannot be
paralleled.

OIL BREAK DOWN VOLTAGE TEST


The dielectric BDV test is an important test to determine with standing
capacity of any insulating oil or liquid. There is a degradation of
transformer oil or ingress of moisture and it is necessary to test the
insulating oils periodically.BDV test is one of the most common test done
31
31

on all insulating fluids but a very critical one.BDV is test of choice because
it takes very less time to conduct and is a precursor to the condition of the
insulating liquids, before carrying out extensive series of tests.

SWEEP FREQUENCY RESPOSE ANALYSIS


SFRA is a powerful and sensitive method to evaluate the mechanical
integrity of core, winding and clamping structure within power transformer
by measuring their electrical transfer function over a wide frequency
range. SFRA is a proven method for frequency measurement.
SFRA Analysis can detect problems in transformers, such as:

Winding deformation-axial, radial like hoop buckling, tilting,


spiraling.
Displacement between HV and LV winding
Partial winding collapse
Shorted open turns
Faulty grounding of core (or) screens
Core movement
Broken clamping structures
Problematic internal connection

DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS


DGA is the single most important test performed on oil from transformers.
As the insulating materials in a transformer break down due to thermal
and electrical stresses, gaseous by-products are formed. The by-products
are characteristic of the type of incipient fault conditions the materials
involved and the severity of the condition. Indeed it is the ability to detect
such as a variety of problems that makes this test such a powerful tool for
detecting incipient fault condition and for root cause investigations are
detectable in low concentration(ppm level) which usually permits early
intervention before failure of the electrical apparatus occurs and allow for
planned maintenance.
DGA Technique involves extracting the gases from the oil
and injecting them in to GAS CHROMATOGRAPH (GC).detection of gas
concentration involves the use of a FLAME IONIZATION DETECTOR (FID)
and THERMAL CONDUCTING DETECTOR (TCD). Most of the system also
employs a methanizer which converts any CO and CO2 present into CH4.
So that it can be burned and detected on the FID, a very sensitive sensor.
The severity of an incipient-fault condition is ascertained by the total
amount of combustible gases present (CO, H2, CH4, etc.) and their rate of
generation.
32
32

Test Procedure for Oil Test


1. Purpose:
A) BDV - To check the di-electric strength of oil
B) PPM - To check the moisture content in oil

2. Standard:
IEC 422
3. Method:
A) BDV : IEC 156
B) PPM : IEC 814
4. Procedure:
A) BDV - A Sample of oil has to be taken from the sampling valve of
the transformer under test. The oil has to be put in the BDV
container & the distance between the 2 electrodes must be set to
2.5 mm.
B) PPM - A Sample of oil has to be taken from the sampling valve of
the transformer under test. Mistubishi Moisturemeter is used to
33
33

measurement water content in oil. It uses the Carl Fischer


titration method. 1 ml of oil has to be injected in the meter.

Test Procedure for voltage ratio Measurement


1. Purpose:
- To measure the voltage ratio of one winding to another associated
with a lower or equal voltage.
- To check that the deviation of the voltage ratio from the specified
value does not exceed the limit given in the related transformer
standard.
2. Standard:
IEC 60076-1, CL 10.3
3. Method:
The voltage ratio test is done phase by phase between the pairs of
windings.
Ratio is measured by using a ratio meter. 1- low voltage supply is given
to HV windings with respective polarity from ratio meter & voltage
induced on the corresponding phase of other winding (i.e. low voltage
winding) is brought to ratio meter. Ratio meter directly indicates the ratio
of the particular tap connected. Similarly ratio is checked at all taps & all
the phases. Measurement shall be done at principle tapping for all three
phases in case of polyphase transformer. During ratio measurement
phase angle error & correctness of polarity is also checked.
4. Acceptance Criteria:
a) % Ratio Error: 0.5 % of declared ratio on all taps.
b) Phase Angle error : 0.5 % radian (No positive phase angle error)
34
34

% Ratio error (Deviation) = [(measured ratio calculated ratio) /


calculated ratio] x 100
Calculated voltage ratio = HV winding voltage / LV winding voltage
5. Instrument used: Digital Ratio meter: Tinsley Make

6. Connection Diagram:

Test procedure for vector group & Polarity


1. Purpose:
To check the phase displacement or connection symbol of the
transformer & to check the phase relationship between the instantaneous
induced voltages in the primary and secondary windings relative to the
terminal markings.
2. Standard:
IEC 60076-1, CL 10.3
3. Method:
a) The phase displacement or connection symbol of three phase
transformers can be checked automatically with the Transformer
Ratio Meter .
b) Vector group is also checked with the help of voltage measurements
as below.
4. Procedure:The confirmation of vector group of HV with respect to LV is
done. In this case a three phase supply is given to HV terminals i.e. 1U11V1-1W1 and one terminal of HV is shorted with the corresponding
terminal of LV i.e. 1U1 & 2U1 shorted, then voltages are measured
between different terminals 1V1-2W1, 1W1-2W1, 1V1-2W1, 1W1-2V1.
The values so obtained should satisfy that particular vector group. Since
this test is carried out to establish the vector group and it depends on the
available supply voltage, so theoretical
values cannot be given.
35
35

YNd11:-

5. Instrument used:
Digital Multimeter (Make Motwane )

36
36

Test procedure for 3- Excitation at 415 volt at No load


1. Purpose:
To measure the excitation current at 415V in order to cross check the
results at site before commissioning from both HV & LV sides.
2. Procedure:
3 phase 415V, 50Hz supply is given to HV & LV winding individually. The
other winding is kept open. Excitation current is measured of supplied
winding.
3. Connection diagram:

4. Instrument used:
a) Digital multimeter (MAKE- Rishabh)
b) Digital Clamp-meter
37
37

Test procedure for Winding Resistance measurement


1. Purpose:
a) To measure the winding resistance & Calculation of I R component of
conductor losses.
b) To check faulty joints.
c) To check loose connection.
2. Standard: IEC - 60076-1, CL 10.2
3. Method:
The average oil temperature is taken as the mean of the top and bottom
oil temperature. The difference in temperature between the top and
bottom oil shall be small. The resistances between all pairs of phase
terminals of each transformer winding are measured using Digital Microohm meter (resistance meter). The measurement is performed for each
connectable winding and for each tapping connection.
4. Calculation of Full winding resistance (FWR):
In case of star connected 3 phase winding
Ru, Rv, Rw = Phase resistance of each phase in ohms.
FWR (R) = (Ru+Rv+Rw)/3*3 in ohms
In case of delta connected 3 phase winding
Ru, Rv, Rw = Line to Line resistance of each phase in ohms.
FWR (R) = (Ru+Rv+Rw)/3*3*1.5 in ohms
5. Temperature correction for resistance:
The Winding resistance measurement is made at a temperature 1 and
the measured value is R. Let m is the reference temperature and R has
to be corrected to m by using the formula:
R(m)= R{(235+m)/(235+1)} in ohm
6. Instrumentation used:
a) Digital winding resistance meter for resistance measurement (MAKETETEX).
b) RTDs with temperature scanner for temp measurement (MAKERADIX).
38
38

Test procedure for Insulation Resistance Measurement


1. Purpose :
To determine the insulation resistance from individual windings to
ground or between individual windings.
2. Standards : CGL standard
3. Method: Insulation resistance is measured using a megger make
Megohmeter with voltage range 0.5-5kV.
4. Procedure :
a) Measure top and bottom oil temp for average oil temp.
b) Connect or short all phase terminals (and neutral if
applicable) of each winding (eg. HV, LV) of the transformer
independently.
c) Connect positive terminal of megger to winding to be tested with
respect to ground or w.r.t. other winding and connect negative
terminal to ground or other winding to be tested.
d) Apply test voltage by starting the instrument.
e) Measure insulation resistance reading in mega-ohm meter after
10 sec and 60 sec and 600 sec for polarization index.
f) Insulation resistance will be measured between
(HV+N)/(LV+TANK+EARTH)
LV/(HV+N+TANK+EARTH)
(HV+N)/LV(TANK+ EARTH)
g) Calculate the polarization index (P.I) which is equal to ratio of
insulation resistance after 600s to insulation resistance after 60s.
Note that P.I value should be greater than or equal to 1.3.
This test will be conducted in cold and hot condition. Hot
shall be taken as an avg oil temp of 600C. Cold shall be
taken as an avg oil temp of 15-30oC.
Insulation resistance between core to earth avg core to
tank will also be measured at 2kV.
5. Acceptance criteria:
P.I shouldnt be greater than39or equal to 1.3.
39

6. Instrument used:
a) Digital insulation resistance meter (Megger) with time
measurement.
b) RTDs with temp scanner for temp measurement (MAKE-RADIX)

7. Connection diagram:
For eg: (HV+N)/LV (TANK+EARTH) Combination

40
40

Test procedure for Capacitance and Tan Delta


Measurement
1. Purpose :
a) To check the tan delta and capacitance of the transformer and
bushings.
b) For comparison with field measurements in order to assess the
probable conditions of the insulation when good judgment is used.
2. Standard : C57.12.90
3. Method: Capacitance and tan is measured by DOBLE
INSTRUMENTS which directly give capacitance and tan with voltage
range from 0.5 to 12kV and frequency of 50 Hz. Capacitance and
insulation power factor (Tan ) measurements are made of windings
to ground, between windings.
4. Procedure for windings and bushings :
a) Measure top oil and bottom oil temp for average oil temp.
b) Connect or short all phase terminals (and neutral if available) of
each winding (eg. HV, LV) of the transformer independently.
c) Connect HV arm cable of the instrument to winding to be tested (or
to the bushings to be tested) and LV arm to the other winding or
earth (or test tap of the bushing to be tested).
d) Record the readings of capacitance and tan .
e) Repeat the test for different combinations.
Combination: 1) HV+N/LV; 2) HV+N/ (LV+EARTH); 3) LV/
(HV+N+EARTH)
5. Acceptance criteria :
a) Capacitance: record purpose only.
b) Tan of winding @ 20oC = 0.5% Max.
c) Tan of bushings = 0.5% Max.
Tan @ 20oC = Tan @ Ambient temp / K
Where K = 0.6428 x e(0.0222 x Amb. temp)
6. Instrument used :
DOBLE make capacitance and tan measurement kit.
Radix make RTDs with temp scanner for temp measurement.
41
41

7. Connection diagram :

42
42

Test procedure for Separate Source Applied Voltage


test
1. Purpose:
To verify the power frequency withstand strength of the line and neutral
terminals and their connected windings to earth and other windings.
2. Standard: IEC 60076-3, CL 10
3. Method: The separate source voltage test is made with a single
phase alternating voltage as nearly as possible to the sine wave
form and of any convenient frequency not less than 80% of the
rated frequency. The peak value of the voltage is measured. The
peak value divided by 2 shall be equal to the test voltage value.
The test is commenced at a voltage not greater than (1/3)rd of the
specified test value and the voltage is increased to the test value
as rapidly as is consistent with measurement. At the end of the
test, the voltage is reduced rapidly to less than (1/3) rd of test value
before switching off. The full test voltage is applied for 60s between
the winding under test and all terminals of the remaining windings,
core, frame and tank or casing of the transformer, connected
together to earth.
Voltage to applied HV/E = 38kV; LV/E = 50kV.
4. Instrument used:
Voltage divider with peak voltmeter for voltage measurement.
Stopwatch for time measurement.
5. Connection diagram:
For eg. Winding to be tested: (HV+N)/ (LV+E)

43
43

Test procedure for No load and Magnetizing current


Measurement
1. Purpose:
a) To check the guaranteed losses and % of excitation current.
b) Interturn short in winding and be noticed in this test.
c) Performance of the core material.
2. Reference standard: IEC 60076-1, CL 10.5
3. Method:
The No load loss and no load current shall be measured on one of the
windings at rated frequency and at a voltage corresponding to rated
voltage since the test is performed on the principal tapping. The remaining
winding or windings shall be left open circuited and any windings can be
connected in open delta shall have delta closed.
A symmetrical and sinusoidal voltage is applied across the terminals and
adjusted according to a voltmeter responsive to mean value of the voltage
but scaled to read rms voltage of a sinusoidal wave having the same mean
value. The reading of this voltmeter is U.
At the same time, a voltmeter responsive to the rms value of voltage shall
be connected in parallel with the mean value voltmeter and its indicated
voltage is U.
4. Procedure:
a) Connect 3- supply to low voltage winding or tertiary winding terminals,
in case of three winding transformer keep all terminals of remaining
windings open.
b) Ensure the tap position of the transformer under test should be at
normal tap.
c) Test is said to be passed if the voltage applied is withstood by the
transformer and the measured no load losses, excitation current at
specified voltage are within the guaranteed parameters.
d) Repeat the test for different 90%, 100%, 110% of rated voltage of LV
winding.
e) On load tap changer is to be operated for one cycle at rated voltage.
5. No load loss correction factor:
The no load loss Po = Pm = (W1+W2+W3) in kW
And the no load loss current
Iavg = Io = (I1+I2+I3)/3 in Amp
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If the voltage indicated by both voltmeter is not the same, the no load loss
is corrected by:
Po = Pm / (P1+K*P2) in kW
Where K = (U/U)2
Where
Po = corrected no load loss
Pm = measured no load loss
U = mean voltage reading
U = rms voltage reading
P1 = ratio of hysteresis losses to total iron losses 0.5 for oriented steel
P2 = ratio of eddy current losses to total iron losses 0.5 for oriented steel
% excitation current = (avg excitation current measured) / (rated current of
excited winding)*100
6. Instrument used:
a) Yokogawa power analyser for measurement of voltage, current,
frequency, power and harmonics.
b) PT (potential transformer) for step down of voltage applied for voltage
measurement purpose.
c) CT (current transformer) for step down of current circulated for current
measurement purpose.
7. Connection diagram:

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Test procedure for harmonics of no load current


1. Purpose :
To measure harmonics of no load current.
2. Standard : IEC 60076-1, CL 10.6
3. Procedure :
The harmonics of the no load current in all the phases are measured by
means of harmonic analyzer and magnitude of the harmonics is
expressed as a percentage of the fundamental component. 3rd, 7th, 9th
and 11th harmonics of no load current at 100% of rated voltage shall be
measured.
4. Connection diagram :

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Test procedure for Lightning Impulse test with Transfer


Voltage measurements
1. Purpose :
This test is intended to verify the impulse voltage withstand capacity
of each winding to earth and other.
2. Standard : IEC 60076-3, CL 13
3. Method :
a) Lightning impulse: this test is carried out to ascertain withstand
capability of the insulation system with respect to lightning
impulse waveform that is a standard wave of wave shape 1.2/50
s.
The transformer is subjected to 1.2(+/-30%)/ 50(+/-20%) s
impulse voltage. The voltage applied is a function of the
insulation level in accordance with IC 600076-PART III.
Each phase terminal is impulse with negative polarity while the
other two phases are earthed through current shunt in case of
delta connected winding or earthed directly in case of star
connected winding and neutral is earthed through current shunt
for current measurement.
In case of star connected winding, the remaining terminals are
earthed during the test.
Standard requirements for impulse test are as below:
Parameters

IEC 60076-PART III

Front time (T1)

1.2sec +/-30% Tol

Tail time (T2)

50sec +/-20% Tol

Chop time

2 to 6sec

BIL (kV)

+/- 3%

Sequence of application of impulses for line terminals are as


follows:
For impulse test as per IEC:
One reduced full wave (50-75%)
One full wave (100%)
One reduced chop wave (50-75%)
Two full chop wave (110%)
Two full waves (100%)
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Sequence of application of impulses for neutral terminal is as


follows:

One reduced full wave.


Three full wave

b) Transfer surge voltage measurement:


This test is carried out to ascertain withstand voltage transferred on
LV side when impulse strikes on HV side. The HV side any one phase
is applied one reduced and one full wave, correspondingly on LV side
same phase measurement is done of the voltage transferred during
impulse.
4. Instrument used:
a) High volt make impulse generator with impulse analyzer.
b) High volt make impulse voltage divider for voltage measurement.
c) Current shunts.
5. Connection diagram:
For eg: Impulse test on HV

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Test procedure for Switching Impulse Voltage Withstand


Test
1. Purpose:
This test is carried out to ascertain the withstand capability of the
insulation system w.r.t. the switching impulse voltage.
2. Standard: IEC 60076-3, CL 14
3. Procedure:
The transformer is subjected to switching impulse voltage the
voltage applied, is a function of insulation level in accordance with
IEC 60076.
During the test, the transformer is connected as shown. Each phase
terminal is impulse with negative polarity while the applied voltage
waveforms are taken on HIGH VOLT MAKE IMPULSE ANALYSER. The
transformer is subjected to the following impulses:
One reduced full wave
Three 100% full waves
Test shall be connected on all the phases of HV windings at different
taps i.e. normal tap and both extreme taps (Phase A-Min ratio tap;
Phase B-Mid ratio tap; Phase C-Max ratio tap). During the test
considerable flux is developed in the magnetic circuit. In order to
avoid core saturation, after every negative polarity shots two 50%
positive polarity impulses shall be applied.

4. Connection diagram:

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Test procedure for Load loss and Impedance


Measurement
1. Purpose:
To check guaranteed load losses and % impedance.
2. Standard: IEC 60076-1, CL 10.4
3. Procedure:
a) Measure top and bottom oil temp for average oil temp.
b) Measurement is done by applying 3- voltage to HV terminals
at power frequency and LV terminals short circuited. The
impedance voltage applied and the rated current passed are
measured on power analyser. Measurement of load loss is
done by three wattmeter method. The load losses include:
I2R loss in windings and
Stray losses in the transformer
c) Measurement will be done at principle, maximum and
minimum taps for losses and % impedance voltage. Note that
each measurement will be performed quickly and intervals
between them will be small enough to ensure that temp rise
dont cause significant errors.
d) The measured values of load loss and impedance shall be
corrected to rated base MVA and reference temp.
e) Test is said to be passed if the measured load loss, %
impedance are within the guaranteed parameters.
Load loss correction to 75oC as follows:
Calculate I2R loss @ 75oC for HV and LV windings.
I = Resistance winding rated current
R = Resistance value at 75oC taken from resistance readings
Total I2R loss @ 75oC = HV I2R loss @ 75oC + LV I2R loss @ 75oC
Total I2R loss @ to C = (235+t) / (235+75) x Total I2R loss @ 75oC
Total measured loss @ to C = Addition of three wattmeter
readings
Total measured loss @ to C at rated current
= (rated current/ measured50
current)2 x Total measured loss @ to C
50

Stray loss @ to C = Total measured loss @ to C at rated current Total I2R loss @ to CStray loss @ 75oC = (235+t) / (235+75) x
Stray loss @ to C
Load loss @ 75oC = Total I2R loss @ 75oC + Stray loss @ 75oC
% impedance @ to C = (impedance voltage at rated current/
rated voltage) x 100
Impedance voltage at rated current
= (rated current/ measured current) x measured impedance
voltage @ to C
4. Instrument used:
a) Power analyzer for measurement of voltage, current,
frequency and power.
b) PT (Potential transformer)
c) CT (Current transformer)
d) RTDs for measurement of temp.
5. Connection diagram:

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Test procedure for Temperature rise test


1. Purpose:
The temperature of the oil and winding of a transformer loaded
continuously with a certain power tends to take on value at which a
balance is created between the heat generated due to losses and the
heat dissipated by the cooling arrangement. This temperature which
depends on the load as well as the surrounding temp, should not
exceed a certain prescribed value. Hence to check these values, this
test is performed.
2. Standard: IEC 60076 PART II
3. Procedure:
To determine the temp rise of oil and winding, the transformer is
connected similar to load loss test and total losses (i.e. no load loss +
load loss) or 80% of total losses or 90% of rated current are supplied
to it. They are converted into heat that must be dissipated by the
cooling arrangement. Readings of the top oil, cooler top and bottom
and the ambient temp (location for ambient temp measurement shall
be agreed during the test) are recorded at one hour intervals. The test
is continued till the top oil rise is stabilized. If the top oil rise is less
than one degree for four consecutive readings, it is taken to be
stabilizes. Then the rated current is circulated for one hour.
Immediately, after that shut down is taken and the resistances of HV
and LV windings is measured at regular time intervals of about half a
minute. These values are then plotted on a graph versus time to
determine the resistance values at instant of shut down, by
extrapolation. The final temp rise of winding is determined from the
resistance values at the instant of shut down. Temperature rise test
will be carried out at maximum los tap position. Same sequence is
repeated for all cooling mode.
The temperature inside the transformer local control cubical shall be
measured by thermometer and recorded throughout the test. The
temperature rise shall not be exceed the 15oC above ambient temp.
The temperature inside the cable box to be measured during
temperature rise test.
4. Acceptance criteria:
Temperature for oil rise and winding rise should not exceed the
guaranteed values.
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5. Instrument used:
Yokogawa power analyzer
Current transformer
Potential transformer
RTDs
Temperature scanner
Resistance meter
6. Connection diagram:

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Test procedure for Cooler loss measurement


1. Purpose:
This is a special test to measure the losses due to the auxiliary
equipments such as fans, pumps.
2. Standard: IEC 60076-1, CL 10.1.3 h
3. Procedure:
Three wattmeter method is used to measure the power taken by fans/
pumps. Three phase supply be applied to all the regular fans/ pumps.
Proper direction of rotation shall be ensured before measuring the
power taken by fans.

Test procedure for Oil Leakage


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1. Purpose:
To check the oil tightness of the transformer.
2. Standard: CBIP Clause No. 17.3.1
3. Procedure:
All oil-filled compartments shall be tested for oil tightness by
completely filling oil of a viscosity not greater than that of
insulating oil conforming at ambient temp and applying a pressure
as per design and specification measured at the base of the tank.
This pressure shall be maintained for a period of not less than
12hrs for oil, during which time no leakage shall occur.
4. Acceptance criteria: No leakage shall occur.

Test procedure for Insulation test on Core, Frame


And Auxiliary winding
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1. Purpose:
To check the insulation withstand capability of core, frame and
auxiliary winding.
2. Standard: As per R & D Plate drawing
3. Procedure:
Auxiliary circuits insulation test:
The wiring for auxiliary power and control circuitry subjected to a 1
min AC separate source test of 2kV.
Core to Frame insulation test:
The core to frame insulation will be subjected to a 1 min AC separate
source test of 10kV.
Frame to tank insulation test:
The frame to tank insulation will be subjected to a 1 min AC separate
source test of 10kV.
4. Acceptance criteria:
The test is passed if voltage is withstood for 1 min.

Test procedure for Ratio and Polarity test on Current


transformer
1. Purpose:
To measure Ratio and polarity of current transformer for proper
connection.
2. Standard: As per R & D Plate drawing
3. Procedure:

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Measurements in Ratiometer
Direct ratio readings and polarity indication will be observed.
4. Acceptance criteria:

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The ratio and polarity readings should match as mentioned in R and D


diagram.Conclusion:The transformers have to be carefully maintained under better
supervision. The transformers have to be tested for a due course of time
to know the condition of the transformer whether it is in a better condition
or have to be replace any of the faulty one. The above mentioned tests
are conducted on different types of transformers as per requirement. All
the test are provided with well-defined kits so that the testing results can
be easily evaluated and compared as required.
The insulation strength , winding resistance , oil BDV etc;
gives the overall view of the condition of transformer so that the loads
connected to it will not get damaged or effected due to the failure of the
transformer.

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