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Chapter 13

Beams and Frames


having Nonprismatic Members

Deflection of Nonprismatic Members

Mm

dx
EI
0
Where I to be expressed as a function of x

Example 1

Loading Properties of Nonprismatic Members

Fixed End Moment (FEM)

Stiffness Factor (K)

Carry-over Factor (COF)

Loading Properties of Nonprismatic Members

MB=CABMA
=CABKA

MA(KA)

MA=CBAMB
=CBAKB

MB(KB)

Use of Maxwell-Bettis reciprocal theorem requires: that the work


done by loads in case (a) acting through displacements in case (b) is
equal to work done by loads in case (b) acting through displacements in
case (a)

U AB U BA

M A (0) M B (1) M A (1.0) M B (0.0)


K A 0 C AB K A 1 C BA K B 1 K B 0

C AB K A C BA K B

Example 2
Determine the fixed end moment for the beam shown. The cross
sectional area has a constant width of 1 ft. E is constant

Example 3
Determine the Stiffness and carry-over factors for the end A of the beam
shown. The cross sectional area has a constant width of 1 ft. E = 10(103) ksi.

Example 4
Determine the Stiffness and carry-over factors for the end A of the
tapered beam shown. The cross sectional area has a constant
width of 1 ft. E is constant.

Loading properties of Nonprismatic Members


using Tables
Graphs and tables have been made available to determine fixed-end moments,
stiffness factors and carry-over factors for common structural shapes used in
design. One such source is the Handbook of Frame constants published by the
Portland Cement Association, A portion of these tables, is listed here as Table 1
and 2

Nomenclature of the Tables


aA , ab = ratio of length of haunch at end A and B to the length of span
b = ratio of the distance (from the concentrated load to end A to the length of span
hA, hB = depth of member at ends A and B, respectively
hC = depth of member at minimum section

Ic = moment of inertia of section at minimum section = bhc3/12


with b as width of beam
kAB, kBA = stiffness factor for rotation at end A and B, respectively
L = Length of member
MAB, MBA = Fixed-end moments at end A and B, respectively; specified
in tables for uniform load w or concentrated force P
rA, rB = ratios for rectangular cross sectional area, where

hA hC
rA
hC

hB hC
rB
hC

Also

k AB EI C
k BA EI C
KA
, KB
L
L

Moment Distribution for Structures Having


Nonprismatic Members
1- Beam Pin Supported at Far End

K 'A K A 1 C AB C BA
FEM 'AB FEM AB C BA FEM BA
2- Symmetric Beam and Loading

K 'A K A 1 C AB
3- Symmetric Beam with Antisymmetric Loading

K 'A K A 1 C AB

Moment Distribution for Structures Having


Nonprismatic Members
4- Relative joint Translation of Beam if End B is fixed

FEM AB K A 1 C AB
L

5- Relative joint Translation of Beam if End B is pinned

FEM 'AB

K A 1 C AB C BA
L

Example 5
Using Moment distribution, determine the internal moments at the
support of the beam shown.
The cross sectional area has a constant width of 1 ft. E is constant.

Using Modified FEM


FEM 'BA FEM BA C AB FEM AB
119.5 0.619*(119.5) 193.47

Joint
Member

AB

BA

BC

CB

0.171E

0.105E

0.875E

1.031E

0.107

0.893

COF

0.619

0.619

0.781

0.664

FEM

193.47

-56.73

22.77

Dist.

-14.63

-122.11

0.0

COM

0.0

0.0

-95.37

178.84

-178.84

-72.60

DF

0.0

Slope-Deflection Equation for Nonprismatic


Members
M AB
M BA

K A A C AB B 1 C AB FEM AB
L

K B B C BA A 1 C BA FEM BA
L

Using One General Equation

MN

K N N C N F 1 C N FEM N
L

Beam Pin Supported at Far End

MN

K 'N N FEM 'N


L

Example 5
Solve Using Slope Deflection Equations

Problem 13-13
Determine the moments at A, B and C by the moment
distribution method. Assume the support at A and C is fixed and
roller at B is on a grid base. The girder has a thickness of 4 ft.
Use Tables 13-1. Use E is constant. The haunches are straight.

Problem 13-13
6
0.3
20
42
rA rB
1
2

aA

aB

4
0.2
20

From Table 13-1


For span AB

For span BC

C AB 0.622

C BA 0.748

k AB 10.06

k BA 8.37

K AB

k AB EI C 8.37EI C

0.4185EI C
L
20

C BC 0.748

C CB 0.622

k BC 8.37

k CB 10.06

K BC

k BC EI C 8.37EI C

0.4185EI C
L
20

FEM AB 0.1089 8 20 348.48 k .ft

FEM BC 0.0942 8 20 301.44 k .ft

FEM BA 0.0942 8 20 301.44 k .ft

FEM CB 0.1089 8 20 348.48 k .ft

Problem 13-13
Joint
Member

A
AB

K
DF

B
BA

C
BC

0.1485EIc 0.1485EIc

CB
1.031E

0.5

0.5

COF

0.622

0.748

0.748

0.622

FEM

-348.48

301.44

-301.44

348.48

Dist.

-348.48

301.44

-301.44

348.48

Problem 13-14
Solve Problem 13-5 using slope deflection equations

Problem 13-14
6
0.3
20
42
rA rB
1
2
From Table 13-1
aA

aB

4
0.2
20

For span BC

For span AB
C AB 0.622

C BA 0.748

k AB 10.06

k BA 8.37

k AB EI C 10.06EI C

0.503EI C
L
20
k EI
8.37EI C
BA C
0.4185EI C
L
20

K AB
K BA

FEM AB 0.1089 8 20 348.48 k .ft


2

FEM BA 0.0942 8 20 301.44 k .ft


2

C BC 0.748

C CB 0.622

k BC 8.37

k CB 10.06

k BC EI C 8.37EI C

0.4185EI C
L
20
k EI
10.06EI C
CB C
0.503EI C
L
20

K BC
K CB

FEM BC 0.0942 8 20 301.44 k .ft


2

FEM CB 0.1089 8 20 348.48 k .ft


2

Problem 13-14

M N K N N C N F 1 C N FEM N
L

M AB 0.503EI 0 0.622 B 0 348.48

M AB 0.312866EI B 348.48

M BA 0.4185EI B 0 0 301.44

M BA 0.4185EI B 301.44

M BC 0.4185EI B 0 0 301.44

M BC 0.4185EI B 301.44

M CB 0.503EI 0 0.622 B 0 348.48

M CB 0.312866EI B 348.48

Equilibrium
M BA M BC 0

M AB 348.48

M BA 301.44

M BC 301.44

M CB 348.48

c 0.0

Problem 2
For the beam and loading shown, span BC has non-prismatic cross section.
Using moment distribution determine the moments at support A, B, C and D.
Use I = constant for span BC, span CD and at the mid of span AB, E = constant.
For span AB use the following factors

C AB C BA 0.65, k AB k BA 8.9