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1. Management Change In A Company

2. Problems of Manpower, Training & Development
3. Shortage of stocks/supplier problem


Problem solving is translated as the process of working through details of a

problem to reach a solution. Problem solving may include mathematical or
systematicoperations and can be a gauge of an individual'scritical thinking skills (retrieved while decision making is translated as the thought process of
selecting a logical choice from the available options. Although many problems turn out to

have several solutions (the means to close the gap or correct the deviation), difficulties
arise where such means are either not obvious or are not immediately available.
There are six basic steps to accomplish good problem solving and decision making
which are:
1. Identify the problem
Before being able to confront a problem its existence needs to be identified. This
might seem an obvious statement but, quite often, problems will have an impact for
some time before they are recognized or brought to the attention of someone who
can do anything about them.
2. Gather information
All the necessary information need to be gathered in order to solve problem
3. Clarify the problem
Information gathered need to be clarified
4. Consider possible solutions
Get as many possible solutions you can get as some problems can have many
different ways to solve.
5. Select the best options
Select the best solution from all the possible solutions gathered.
6. Make a decision and monitor the solution
This is the last step to problem solving. Monitoring needs to be done to make sure
we have chosen the best option.

Problem solving and decision making are very effective to get the best way to solve
any problem but still there are some disadvantages that come with it. Here are advantages
and disadvantages of using problem solving and decision making method:


Greater output
Cross fertilization
Better solution
New Experiences
Positive Attitude


Increase Risk Taken

Time Constraints

We from the group One Nation will be discussing on three most important issues or
challenges experienced by our group member at our companies which are:
1. Management in a company
2. Manpower, Training & Development
3. Shortage of stocks/supplier problem


Briefly put, change management means when something, a process, a new
building, new ideas, new workplaces, new anything within the organization changes, we
must prepared for resistance or change negativity because as the saying goes, people
dont like change.
After learning through this course I have some knowledge and skills to apply in solving the
problems that the company is facing.
1.1 Changes At The Helm
This is what happen in the company recently because there is change of a new
management. A new leader General Manager has join the new company, where some
workers feel they should have been chosen for the new job because they have been work in
the company very long. There have been a lot of change resistances toward this because
they feel that they are more senior in the company. To handle this, management must

gather the group first and explain why the person was chosen, what they will (not can) be
able to offer and how it will make their entire job easier. For those who still resist, the new
GM should speak individually to the person.
1.2 Communication
This is one of the top management issues as seen in the failure to communicate
when a change occurs or is about to occur. If processes, procedures, management or even
the redesigning of a workplace is never communicated to employees or staff, it will indeed
face anger and resistance. No matter how large or small a change may be, if employee are
left out or are never aware of the change, it can be disruptive. Establish a good form of
company-wide communication and use it to announce change and give employees a
chance to ask questions.
1.3 This Is How We Do It Now
General Managers (GM) can get so frustrated at employee efforts that they devise
an entire new system based on customer or client complaints. This can be a good thing as
long as the employees know it its coming. Should never just throw a plan at your team and
say, forget the old way, this is how we do it now, without explaining the reason for the
1.4 Low On The Totem Pole
Management forgets about informing staff that are in lower placement positions
that certain elements will be changing. Often this can bring comments from you like, you
should have been aware of the change. How can they know about the change if they were
never told? Dont expect immediate supervisors to handle company-wide change, thats
your job and overlooked employees often fall within this category.
1.5 Swift Change
Another one of the top change management issues is changing something too
swiftly and not allowing staff to get used to the idea. If your company or department will
be involved in large change, consider making the change in stages so employees can
embrace the change and engage in it gradually.

1.6 The Change Isnt Working

If staff responds to change in a negative way by implying the change (or process)
doesnt work, ask yourself why they think its not working? Are there defects in the model
of change? Or are experiencing change resistance due to lack of communication. Before
the change is implemented, explain you may have some rocks in the road and tell the staff
what youve planned for when they occur.
1.7 Misery Loves Company
This change management issue is often forefront when change occurs. You may
have only one staff member who hates the change, but will do everything in their power to
ensure everyone else hates the change too. Identify these people and speak to them
individually. Very often, its not the change; its another problem, perhaps even a personal

1.8 Wishy-Washy Change

Some companies or departments implement change and then dont follow through.
The idea behind the change may have been thought out but how to implement the change
may not be clear. This can result in everyone just going back to the old way, especially if
supervisors and team leaders dont reinforce the change and allow employees to avoid the
change and then do nothing about it.
1.9 Totally Unacceptable Changes
The last of the change management issues is determining if a change will be good
or bad. It is really that simple. A good idea on paper may not consider the human element
and therefore not work at all, no matter how well thought out. Change in any area, no
matter how large or small should be discussed and involve the people it will effect on
every level. Allow for input from staff and consider that input wisely and compare it to
your written change plan. Often, a competitors idea of change that worked doesnt mean it
will work for you.

Last but not least Management plays an important role in order for the workers in
the company to contribute more towards the company. Some workers did not give their
whole hearted to the company because management does not notice them. Everybody is
important in the company.
Nobody should left out in the process of developing the company to a higher level.


Managing the development needs of a diverse employee population typically
involves assessing the performance issues and designing, developing and deploying
training solutions. Challenges faced in supporting employees in fast-paced environments,
such as global companies, include difficulty providing consistent new employee
orientation programs, supplying enriching yet cost-effective career development in
complicated subject areas including leadership or project management, and managing
manpower performance during rapid change.
2.1 Rising Costs
Organizations face rising costs and need to plan effectively so we can efficiently
recruit and hire the best manpower, both permanent and temporary. Fewer management
layers and less support staff make it more difficult to provide new employees with the
personalized attention they typically need to get started. Self-paced training courses that
provide details about how to use company tools, such as email or accounting systems,
often replace instructor-led classroom sessions. Employees need training and tips on how
to use these alternatives effectively.
2.2 Changing Priorities

Companies typically set strategic goals on an annual basis. Training programs should
be aligned with strategic plans. For example, if company executives want to see an
increase in customer satisfaction, training professionals should focus on identifying
problems in providing customer support proficiently. Then, they can design training
courses and career development opportunities that help employees learn the best
techniques for troubleshooting problems and handling customer complaints skillfully.
Once operational metrics improve, the focus may change to other areas, such as reducing
product defects or eliminating waste.
2.3 Diverse Workforce
Company leaders need to manage a diverse workforce. Providing training courses
to all employees on diversity and team work enables participants to develop the skills and
knowledge they need to function effectively. Employees need to learn to work with those
from other countries in different time zones and communicate effectively with others who
may not speak the same primary language as they do. By regularly sending employees
paper-based or online surveys about what they need to help them complete their job tasks,
training professionals can respond with relevant programs. For example, many companies
provide training in cultural awareness or English as a second language to employees who
interact with other staff or customers from around the globe.
2.4 Continuing Education
With constant changes in technology, business professionals need to keep up-todate by taking courses designed to improve their technical skills and knowledge. Programs
such as the Microsoft Certified Professional certification provide comprehensive training,
practice and testing opportunities to business professionals seeking to further their careers.
Flexible alternatives such as web-based training, coaching and mentoring or recorded
multimedia sessions enable busy professionals to train for an advanced role or even a
career change.
2.5 Planning
Manpower, Training & Development planning is one of the most important
functions of modern management. The planning is essentially the task of trying to place

the right people in the right situations, depending upon where their strengths and skills are.
The hope is that when put into the proper niche, these people will in turn provide the
greatest positive impetus to the company's development. Manpower, training &
development planning can be placed into three major categories: short-term, intermediateterm and long-term. Each of these types has its own significance and importance.
At all points, planning has four phases: gathering and analyzing data,
establishing objectives, designing and implementing programs, and monitoring and
evaluating these programs. These phases play an important role in every type of manpower
planning, but often in different ways.


Short-Term Planning

Short-term planning refers to staffing needs in the near future. It mainly involves a
keen awareness of demand and supply, that is, an awareness of what positions need to be
filled and who in the workforce is available to fill those positions. Usually, it is much
easier to establish objective at this point in manpower planning. These objectives usually
involve how to attract desirable employees and how to get rid of undesirable ones. Shortterm planning programs include recruiting programs, selection programs and performance
appraisal systems. Assessing the level of success at this point is usually very easy.

Intermediate-Term Planning

Intermediate-term manpower, training & development planning involves a lot more

uncertainty at every phase of manpower planning. The main question that must be asked
is, What will we need? The task becomes less about evaluating what is available now
and more about forecasting. Often, a lot of these questions are answered based upon the
judgment and discretion of midlevel management. Establishing objectives in this type of
manpower planning usually involves trying to adjust employees' skills to match those that
will be needed in the immediate future.

Long-Term Planning

Long-term planning is becoming one of the most important tasks faced by

companies that want to survive. Succession planning is a large part of this type of
manpower planning. It involves judging what kinds of skills managers will need in the
future and figuring out how to provide people the chance to build these skills. Also,
competitive strategy plays a big role in long-term manpower planning; will the company
want to focus on maintaining innovation or on cutting costs? Career development
programs are often a part of the third phase of this type of planning. The success of longterm planning programs is still difficult to assess, but as time passes, more and more
information becomes available.


Hospital is a hectic institution which deals with emergency cases, surgeries, life
saving medication and maintenance care. Due to overflow of patients especially in peak
seasons such as school holidays, festive seasons where both adults and children gets sick
or sudden disease outbreak such as H1N1 Flu virus, Typhoid, Middle East Respiratory
Syndrome (MERS) could trigger stress especially to the pharmacy team as it needs
constant re stocking of medications and vaccines to support the need of the patients. The
demand of medications is higher than the proposed par level of stocks. If the suppliers or
pharmaceutical companies have adequate stocks then the flow of medication will be
smooth. On the other hand it will be such a problem if one of the supplier has problems
with their stocks.
3.1 Identifying the problem
The problem that pharmacy department is dealing with is supplier has insufficient
stocks of the medications or drug shortage. This situation really affect our daily flow
especially the life saving medications which is to treat diseases such as heart, diabetes,
cholesterols, high blood pressure and cancer. Life saving medications is categorized under
fast moving item in our department hence stocks should be available at all time in our
pharmacy store.
3.2 Gather information and clarify the problem

Basically, pharmaceutical companies will inform to our department when they have
problems with the stocks. For example, Pzifer is currently having shortage of Piperacillin
Injection (an antibiotic) due to manufacturing delays. Manufacturing delays can happen
due to lack of raw materials in their manufacturing plant as well as lack of certain
components to produce the medications. Besides that, discontinuation of the drug could be
the factor contributing to drug shortage. Discontinuation of the drug could be of the
ingredients in the drug which has lesser effect than the brand new drug. Drug shortage can
happen if the company is the sole supplier for a certain medication.

3.3 Consider possible solution

Upon the news, a pharmacy meeting will then be conducted will all members
present in order to inform the drug shortage of respective medication. From here, we will
consider possible solutions in order to contain the situation. For example, pharmacy
manager will liaise with the sales representative to loan the medication from other
hospitals. Pharmacy manager also will try to get in touch with other hospitals nearby in
favor to loan the medications to our hospitals. On the other hand, our head of department
will distribute memo to all doctors to inform that this particular medication is currently
lack of stock until further notice and suggest doctors either to switch to other similar
medication or to purchase generic brand from other company. Besides that we will try to
minimize the usage of the drug as many as we can. For example, to cut down supply of
medication to patient from three months to a month supply until further notice.
3.4 Selecting the best option and monitor the solution
If we still cant get adequate stock to supply to our patients, the best option is to
purchase a generic medication from other available pharmaceutical companies. A generic
drug is identical to the brand name drug in dosage form, strength, route of administration,
quality and sold with a cheaper price compared to the brand drug. Generic drug is not the
choice of most doctors but to prevent the shortage of drug, it is a life saver action.
Basically, the company that produce generic drugs will have a lot of stock in hand as it
might not be the first choice of most hospitals.


Pharmacy manager will monitor and record the movement of the generic drug
through system and if the brand drug is still facing delays in producing the drug, we will
opt to purchase more generic drugs from the company.

Problem and decision making are part of our daily life. We encounter problem from
every aspect of our life. In order to solve a problem, we need first to identify what is the
real issue? For this case study, we have generally identified some major issue or problems
faces by our organization as well identification of some important point on how we could
solve the current problem. Basically we had adopted the six basic steps to accomplish good
problem solving and decision making.









determination, focus, creativity, and critical thinking. We might come out with many
solutions for the problems, but not all solution is possible. This is due to many reason,
some of the key point might be due to variance in term of communication, culture,
economic, environment and social condition.
In basic, it is required to be enhanced and practice problem-solving and decisionmaking process in scientific as well to take into consideration of personal differences,
background, knowledge, understanding and viewpoints. Since the scientific process has
proved one of the successful methods used wildly in order to solve various problems,
based on researcher outcome, personal attributes and character that what can influence
people perception in problem solving. These variances are the one that can be used to
locate the exact problem solving techniques or step that involve in problem solving
The problem solving and decision making steps illustrate in this case study, give
personnel to access his /her preferences in various situation on what action that need to
take in order to solve the current issue. This steps not only can be used to access personal
preferences, but it also applicable for group situation in order to meet others expectation
in effective problem solving. Decision that are made in this way are more preferred as it


give ample of room for both personal and group to access the advantage and disadvantage
of any decision made.
Generally, we One Nation team, felt strongly that the current problems that been
discussed in this case study are not only our internal problems but this is a universal
problem faces by each one of us regardless where or which organization that we belong
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