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You are on page 1of 19

CBSE-BOARD - 2014

Physics (55/3)

solutions

1.

Anticlock wise

2.

3.

The ampere is the value of steady current which, when maintained in each of the two very long, straight,

parallel conductors of negligible cross section places one meter apart in vaccum, would produce on each of

these conductor a force equal to 2107 newtons per meter of length.

4.

Bi-concave lens air [uair =1] has diverging property but when it is observed in a medium whose refractive

index is greater than refractive index of lens, then its property will be reversed hence will behave has converging

lens as uwater ulens

5.

If two electric field line cross each other than at point of intersection 2 (two) tangents can be drawn showing

direction of electric lines of forces which is not possible hence electric lines of force never cross each other.

6.

7.

Neutrinos are neutral particle with very small [possilbe, even zero] mass compared to electrons. They have

only weak interaction with other particles. They are therefore very difficult to detect, since they can penetrate

large quantity of matter without any interaction.

8.

AC voltage is preferred over DC voltage because : 1. It can be easily & efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers.

2. Also, Eelectric energy generated by A-C voltage can be transmitted economically over long distance.

9.

At the time of charging of parallel plate capacitor no current flows & hence there must be no magneitc field

according to amperes law.

B de u0i but when magnetic needle was brought between plates there is deflection in needle at the

time of charging, which is due to varying electric field due to charging. Hence displacement current must be

added to generalize Amperes circuital law so that it is still valid.

B d u0 io id

d

where, id is displacement current produced due to varying electric field & is equal to id 0 e

dt

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10

Current (I) 2 7 A

No. of electrons (n) 9 1028 m 3 per unit volume

drift velocity (Vd) = ?

Now,

I n e AVd

Vd

I

n e A

Vd

27

9 1 6 2 51019 1028 107

0 075 102 m / s

Vd 7 5 104 m / s

11.

V E Ir

or

V rI E

Now above equation can be compared to straight line equation

y mx c

where y V

xI

m r

&

CE

Hence,

*

y inter-cept of V - I curve will give EMF (E) of cell

*

Modulus of slope will give internal resistance (r) of the cell

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12.

Given,

Capacitance

Potential

=C

=V

Charge on capacitor Q CV

Now, when above capacitor is connected to another uncharged capacitor of same capacitance C then,

Equal charge will be diveded to both so in new configuration on both capacitors will have charge Q/2 on

each.

2

1 charge

2 capacitance

E1

1 Q2

2 C

Q2

2C

1 Q / 2

Energy in combined system (E2)

2 C

E2

E2

1 Q / 2 2

2 C

Q2 Q2

8C 8C

Q2

4C

E2

?

E1

Now,

E2 Q 2 / 4C

E1 Q 2 / 2C

E2 1

E1 2

13.

2

According to rutherford model of atom, the electrostatic force (Fe) of attraction between revolving electrons

provide necessary centripetal force (Fc) to keep them in orbit.

Fe Fc

or

mv 2

1 e2

r

4 0 r 2

1 e2

2

mv

4 0 r

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...(i)

3

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1 2

mv

2

using equation (i)

1 e2

K.E =

8 0 r

Potential Energy

P.E

e2

4 0 r

e2

e2

8 0 r 4 0 r

e2

4 0 r

The total energy is negative which implies electron is bound to the nucleus.

OR

According to Bohrs postulate the angular momentum are integeral multiple or

i.e.

h

.

2

h

mvn rn n

2

e

4 0 mrn

also,

e

nh

rn

2

4 0 mrn

n 2 h 4 0

r

n m 2 e 2

Bohrs radius corresponds to radius for n 1

h 2 0

r1

m e2

Bohr radius

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14.

Paramagnetic substance :They have tendency to move form a region of weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field. The field lines

gets concentrated inside the material & the field inside is enhanced.

Diamagnetic substance :They have tendency to move from stronger to weaker part of external magnetic field. The field lines are

repelled & the field inside the material is reduced.

15.

P

T

RL

Vi ~

T ----- Transformer

D ---- Diode

V0 ---- output voltage

Vi ---- input voltage

RL ---- Load resistance

V0

O

Vi

V0

Working: In first cycle of input voltage, the anode of the diode is positive potential w.r.t. cathode. Hence the

diode is in forward - biased. Hence it conduct current. The current flows through load resistance giving

voltage drop iRL . This voltage drop is called output voltage. During next half cycle the anode of diode is in

negative potential w.r.t. Hence it is in reversed-biased. Hence it does not conduct the current. Hence current

does not flows through load resistance giving no P.D. across it. Hence output votage is unidirectional. It is

called as D.C.

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16.

Such that

138

sin 1

2

1 1 52

& sin

or

2

17.

----- emitter

b ---- base

c ---- collector

RL---- load resistance

VRR---- base bias

VCC---- collector bias

Vi ---- input voltage

V0---- output voltage

O

b

RL

V0

~

O

VBB

VCC

n-p-n transistor amplifier

The input (base-emitter) circuit is forward biased and the output (collector-emitter) circuit is reverse biased.

When no a.c. signal is applied, the potential difference VCC between the collector and emitter is given by

VCC VCE I C RC

18.

When an a.c. signal is fed to the input circuit, the forward bias increases during the positive half cycle of the

input. This results in increase in IC an d decrease in VCC. Thus during positive half cycle of the input, the

collector becomes less positive.

During the negative half cycle of the input, the forward bias is decreased resulting in decrease in IE and hence

IC. Thus VCC would increase making the collector more positive. Hence in a common-emitter amplifier, the

output voltage is 180 out of phase with the input voltage.

(i) Receiver :A receiver extracts the desired message signals from the received signals at the channel output.

(ii) Demodulator :The process of retrieval of information from the carrier wave at the receiver is termed demodulation. this is

the reverse process of modulation.

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19.

Convex mirror : - Radius of curvature = 20 cm

Focal length (Fm) = 10 cm

Object distance (uOL) = 40 cm

Focal length of lens (fL) = 20 cm

Let Image distance vIL = ?

1

1

1

Also v u f

IL

OL

L

1

1 1 1

1

= + =

+

v IL f u 20 -40

or

v IL = 40 cm

Hence, the image formed by lens is 40 cm behind lens & this will act as an object for mirror

For mirror, (with proper sign)

Object distance u OM = 25 m [ 4015 cm]

Focal length

f M = 10 cm

Also

1

1

1

+

=

v IM u OM f M

1

1

1

=

v IM f M u OM

1

1 1

= v IM 10 25

v IM =

50

cm

3

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50

cm behind mirror..

3

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20.

V 50 103V

12.27 0

A

V

12.27

A0

50,000

12.27 0

A

223.6

0.055A0

Resolution power =

D

1.22

since order of wavelength of yellow light is 104 A0 where as order of wavelength in electron microscope

10 1 A0

21.

1) Insulator : In case of insulator the valance band is full and conduction band is empty. The forbidden gap

is equal to or more than 5 eV. Therefore at ordinary temperature it is not possible to move the electrons from

valance band to conduction band. Hence current does not flow through insulator even through the battery is

connected. If the temperature of insulator increased enough then some electron goes into conduction band

and cause very small current. Thus resistance of insulator decreases with increases in temperature.

Therefore insulator have negative temperature coefficient of resistance. ( TCR is negative)

2) Conductor: In conductor there is no forbidden gap between valance band and conduction band. The

two band overlap on each other. A smaller potential difference also causes current. But with increase in

temperature current decreases i.e. its resistance increases. Therefore conductor have positive temperature

coefficient of resistance. (TCR is positive)

Valance band

Conduction band

Conduction band

1eV

5 eV or more

Energy

Energy

Valance band

Valance band

Energy

Valance band

Conductor

Semiconductor

Insulator

3) Semiconductor : In semiconductor the valance band is almost filled and conduction band is partially

filled. The forbidden gap is very small. It is 0.72 eV for germanium and 1.12 eV for silicon. Therefore at low

temperature energy is not sufficient to move electron from valance and to conduction band. At room temperature, the energy is sufficient to move electron from valance band to conduction band. Hence very small

current flows if potential difference is applied across the semiconductor. If temperature of semiconductor

band and more current flows through it. Thus resistance of semiconductor decreases with increase in temperature. Therefore semiconductor have negative temperature coefficient of resistance.

(TCR is negative).

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22.

The basic modes of communications are (i) Space communication (ii) Line communication (iii) satilite communication.

m t

x t

A msinm t

Modulating

signal

SQUARE LAW y t

DEVICE

B x C x 2 t

c t

A csinc t

carrier

23.

CENTEREDAT C

Amplitude Modulation (AM) :- In this type, the amplitude of carrier wave is varied accroding to information signal. e.g. All india radio Mumbai Station are transmitted at 1044 kHz. This is carrier frequency

(a)

The resistivity of copper is very low

Resistance of copper strip is very small. Also the resistance decreases as thickness increases

the conncetion between the ressistors in a meter bridge made of thick copper strips.

(b)

The mains sources of error in wheatstones metre bridge experiment are as follows :

(1) The wire may not be uniform. i.e. its areas of cross-section may not same throughout the

wire.

(2) The two ends of the wire are joined to thick copper strips. At these points, a contact

resistance is produced. To minimise these errors it is generally preffered to obtain the

balance point in the middle of the meter bridge wire.

(c)

The material is use for the meter bridge wire is maganin or constanan

The resistance of maganin or constanan is very high and the melting point is large.

Maganin or constanan is used for the meter bridge wire.

OR

R0

R

R0 R

R1 2

R0

R R0 2 R

2

V2 R2

V1 R1

R0 R

V2 R0 2 R

V1

R0 / 2

V2

2R

V R 2R

1

0

V2

2 R V1

R0 2 R

V1 V2 V

2R

1 V1 V

R0 2 R

R 2R

V1 V 0

4 R R0

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24.

(a)

(i) Aarti is a good observer

(ii) Aarti is quite concerned about her family.

(b)

(i) Radioisotopes have found extensive use in diagnosis & therapy.

(ii) These radioactive isotopes have provent particularly effective as tracers in certair diagonostic procedures.

(iii) As radio isotopes are identical chemical with stable isotopes of the same element, they can take the

place of latter in physiological process.

(iv) Because of their radioactivity they can be readily traced even in minute quantities.

(v) Phosporous - 32 useful in the identification of malignant tumours because cancerous cells tend to

accumulate phosphate more than normal cells do.

25.

(a)

Let us consider a straight conductor moving in a uniform and time independent magntic field. fig.

shows that a rectangular conductor PQRS in which the conductor PQ is free to move. The rod PQ

is moved towards the left with a constant velocity v as shown in the fig. Assume that there is no loss

of energy due to friction. PQRS form a closed circuit enclosing an area that changes as PQ moves.

It is placed in a uniform magnetic field B which is perpendicular to the plane of this system. If the

length of RQ = x and RS = l, the magnetic flux B enclosed by the loop PQRS will be B Blx

since x is changing with time, the rate of change of flux B will induce an emf given by :

dB

d

Blx

dt

dt

Bl

(b)

dx

Blv

dt

The Lorentz is given by F q E v B

If v 0 F qE

No induced e.m.f. is generated a time -varying magnetic field should present for existence of

induced emf or induced current. Charges in motion can exert force on stationary magnet conversely

a bar magnet in motion can exert a force on stationary charge. This is the fundamental significance

for motional emf.

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10

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26.

(a)

Ordinary light

M

Plane polarised light

I=p

I=p

90

B

Med. I

Med. II

D

Unpolarised light

Polarisation of light by reflection : The simplest method to produce plane polarised light is by reflection.

When unpolarised light is reflected from a surface, the reflected light may be completely polarised, partially

polarised or unpolarisde depending on the incident angle.

The angle of incident at which the reflected light is completely polarised, is called polarising angle. It is

represented by p. The value of p depends on the wavelength of light used. Therefore complete polarisation

is possible only for monochromatic light. The reflected light along BC is completely plane polarised. The

light refracted along BD is unpolarised.Hence the reflected light is completely plane polarised in the plane of

incidence.

(b)

According to Malus law, the intensity of light transmitted by an analyser (polaroid) is given by I I 0 cos 2

where is angle between optical axis of the analyser and polariser..

Initial intensity of light is IO .

The intensity of light transmitted through P1 is

I0

2

I0

I

cos2 60 0

2

4

27.

Consider an electric circuit containing a source of a.c. e.m.f. and L-C-R circuit. The a.c. current in circuit is

given by i i0 sin t and a.c. e.m.f. is given

X

V V0 sin t where V0 i0 Z and is the phase between e.m.f. and current

where X is

R

reactance and R is resistance in the circuit

The instantaneous power = V i The instantaneous work done dw V i dt .

Total work done in the complete cycle i.e. in time T is given by

T

W dW V0 sin t i0 sin t dt

0

0

11

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T

W

Pav

T

Pav

V0 i0 sin t sin t dt

0

V0i0

sin t sin t dt

T

V0i0

e i

2sin t sin t dt 0 0 cos cos 2t dt

2T

2T

2sin A cos B cos A B cos A B

V0i 0

2T

T

T

cos

dt

cos

(2

)dt

0 0

T

sin 2t

V0 i0

T

Pav

cos t 0

2T

2

Pav

Pav

V0 i0

2T

sin 2T sin 2 0

cos T

sin 4 sin

V0 i0

T cos

2T

2

Pav

V0 i0

T cos

2T

Pav

Pav

V0 i0 i0

2

2

V0 i0

2 T

sin sin

T cos

2

V0 i0

cos

2

No power is dissipated even though current flows through the circuit.

(ii) When X=0 , 00 and cos 1 and the power in the circuit is maximum.

(28)

(a) Youngs experiment :In Youngs double slit experiment, the slit `S` in screen I is illuminated by monochromatic light. The screen

II has two narrow parallel slits at a short distance apart. The screen so arrange that the slit S is parallel to

S1S2 and lies re bisector of S1S2. The cylindrical wave front divergine from S illuminates S1& S2. The

slits S1S2 act as two coherent sources. These spread cylindrical wave fornts. These wave fronts overlap on

the screen III, bright and dark bands PoP1P2....... etc. are obtained

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12

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The distance between two consecutive two bright (dark band) is called band width or fringe width X . Let

Xn & Xn+1 be the distance of nth & (n+1)th bright band from central bright band P. X X n 1 X n

Xnd

nD

(n 1)D

n X n

X n 1

D

d

d

X X n 1 X n

(b)

(n 1)D nD D

d

d

d

I min r 1

I max r 1

9 r 1

25 r 1

D

d

a1

where r a

2

r 1 3

r 1 5

r4

a1

4

a2

a

I

1 1

I2

a2

I1 16

I2

1

16

1

OR

(a)

Suppose a parallel beam of monochromatic light of wavelength falls normally on a slit AB of width a.

The diffraction occurs on passing through the slit. The diffraction pattern is focused on to the screen by a

convex lens. The diffraction pattern consists of a central bright fringe, having alternate dark and bright fringes

of decreasing intensity on both sides.

Position of central maxima: Let O be the centre of the slit AB. According to Huygens Principle, when light

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13

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falls on the slit, it becomes a source of secondary wavelets. All the wavelets originating from slit AB are in

same phase. These secondary waves reinforce each other resulting the central maximum intensity at PO .

Suppose the secondary wavelets start from different parts of the slit in same phase but they reach the point

P in different phases. Draw perpendicular AC from A on the ray from B. Then the path difference between

the wavelets from A and B will be

BP - AP = BC = AB sin = a sin

Position of minima: Let the point P be so located on the screen that the path difference = and the angle

= 1 . Then from above equation , we get

a sin 1 =

We can divide the slit AB into two halves AO and OB. Then the path difference between the wavelets from

A and O will

. Similarly, corresponding to every point in the upper half AO, there is a point in the lower

2

. Hence the wavelets from two halves reach the point P always

2

opposite phase.

They interfere destructively so as to produce a minimum. Thus condition for first dark fringe is ,

a sin 1 =

Similarly condition for second dark fringe will be, a sin 2 = 2

Hence condition for nth dark fringe can be written as a sin n = n

sin n = n

n = n

a

a

[ As << a, so sin n = n ]

Position of secondary maxima: Suppose the point P is so located that path difference at P =

3

2

3

When = '1 then a sin '1 =

2

We can divide the slit into three equal parts. The path difference corresponding points of the first two parts

. The wavelets from these points will interfere destructively. However, the wavelets from the third

2

part of the slit will contribute to some intensity forming a secondary maxima.

3

Condition for the first secondary maximum is a sin '1 =

2

5

Similarly, the condition for second secondary maximum is, a sin '1 =

2

Hence, the condition for nth secondary maximum can be written as

a sin 'n = ( 2 n + 1)

where n = 1, 2 , 3 -----2

sin 'n = ( 2 n + 1)

'n = ( 2 n + 1)

2a

2a

The secondary maxima a go on becoming weaker in intensity as the order. The reason is that the intensity of

central maxima is due to constructive interference of wavelets from all parts of the slit. The first secondary

maximum is due to the contribution of wavelets from on third part of the slit

( wavelets from remaining two parts interfere destructively). The second secondary maximum is due to the

contribution of wavelets from the one-fifth part only ( the remaining four parts interfere destructively) and so

on. Hence, the intensity of diffraction fringes decreases as order (n) increases.

will be

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14

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(b)

d sin

3

2

dx 3 x 2

D

2

3 D

x

d

3 590 109 1.5

x1

2 106

3 295 1.5 10 3

1327.5 10 3 m

x 1 1.328m

x2

2 106

3 298 1.5 10 3

1341 10 3 m

x2 1.341m

29.

(a)

F q vB

F v and F B

The force deflects the particle sideways making it follow a circular path. Lorentzs magnetic

force = Centripetal force

q.B

Frequency of rotation

(b)

mv 2

or qBr mv

r

1

1

v

2 r

T

2 r

v

Cyclotron : The cyclotron was designed by E.. Lawrence and Livingstone in 1932.

Principle: An electric field is used to accelerate a charged particle while magnetic field is used to produce

circular motion of the particle.

Construction : The cyclotron consists of a flat, cylindrical copper box, divided into two parts by cutting it

along its diamter. Each part is called a Dee The two parts are kept separated from each other by a small

gap inside an evacuated steel box. The dees are connected to a high frequency oscillator to which a high

alternating voltage 10 4 V ,10 7 Hz is applied between dees. The steel box is placed between the poles of

strong magnet.

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15

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Working :- Suppose that a positive charged particles is introduce in the gap between the dees at an instant

when the dee D2 is at a positive potential and the dee D1 is at negative potential.The particle repelled by the

dee D2and attracted by the dee D1 .Therefore the particle is accelerated towards the dee D1. Since magnetic

field is at right angle to motion of particle, the particle moves in circular path inside the dee D1.When it

completes semicircle, it enters the gap between the dees. At this instant, electric field reverse its direction, so

that D2 becomes negative and D1 becomes positive. Therefore the particle is accelerated towards D2 with

increasing speed. Inside D2 the particle moves along a semicircle with a greater radius since speed is more.

This process goes on repeating.

During the motion every times the radius of the circular path increases with the increase in the velocity of the

particle. The particle covers each semicircle in the same time-interval and enters the gap when electric field

is reversed since the time period is independent of speed and radius. Finally the particle emerges from

cyclotron with a very high speed with high energy of the order of 25 MeV.

Uses: The cyclotron is used to produce very high speed positively charged particles such as protons, deuterons,

particles etc. These particles are used for the artificial disintegration of atomic nuclei and for the production

of radioactive isotopes.

OR

(a)

Principle: - When a current I is passed through a rectangular coil of area A suspended in a uniform

magnetic field of induction B, it experiences torque which is given by N I AB cos .

N - number of turns of the coil.

angle between the plane of the coil and the direction of magnetic field.

Construction : - Suspended coil type galvanometer : - It consist of a powerful horse shoe magnet having

cylindrical concave pole- piece. A soft iron core cylinder is fixed between the two pole-piece. The coil is

would on a rectangular frame which is placed about iron core. The current enters the coil through suspension

wire and leaves it through a loosely wound spring. Because of cylindrically concave magnet, it produces a

strong radial magnetic field. The plane mirror M is fixed on suspension wire. This is along a lamp and scale

arrangement is used to measure the rotation of the coil in the radial magnetic field.

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16

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Principle of working (Theory) : - In the moving coil galvanometer, a coil is suspended in the uniform

magnetic field of a strong electromagnet. Let N be number of turns of the coil and A be its area. If no

current flows through the coil, it will remain at rest.When current I flows through the coil. A torque acts on

the coil which is given by N I A B cos . Where B be the magnetic induction.

However as the magnet has got concave pole pieces, the magnetic field is a radial. Therefore in any position

of the coil, its plane is parallel to the magnetic field.

Due to this torque, the coil gets deflected and suspension fibre is twisted. Due to its elastic properties, it tries

to return to its original position. It exerts a restoring couple of the coil which is given by Restoring couple

k where be angle of twist & k be couple per unit twist or torsional constant.

The coil comes rest when Deflecting couple = Restoring couple N I A B k

I

k

k

I a

N AB

N A B is constant

Hence the current flowing through the coil is directly proportional to the angle of deflection. This is the

principle of working of moving coil galvanometer.

(b)

(i)

In a moving coil galvanometer, a soft iron core is mounted inside the coil. Due to the soft iron core,

the strength of the magnetic field is increased, so that a greater deflecting troque acts on the coil.

As a result of this the angle of deflection increases. Therefore sensitivity of the galvanometer is

increased. Since soft iron piece is paramagnetic substance, it prodcues eddy current and makes

galvanometer dead-beat.

(ii)

The current sensitivity of the galvanometer as the deflection per unit current. this current sensitivity

is.

NAB

I

k

The voltage sensitivity as the deflection per unit voltage.

NAB I NAB 1

V k V k R

The current sensitivity may not necessarily increase the voltage sensitivity. Let us take which provides

a measure of current sensitivity. If N 2 N , i.e. we double the number of turns, then

2

I

I

Thus, the current sensitivity doubles. However, the resistance of the galvanometer is also likely to

double, since it is proportional to the length of the wire. N 2 N and R 2 R, thus the voltage

sensitivity

remains unchanged.

V

V

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30.

Steel chamber

Metallic comb

S

Metallic sphere

C2 P2

D

I

Insulating belt

M1

M2

C1

HT

P1

Target

Principle:The natural tendency is for positive charge to move from higher to lower potential. Thus provided we are

somehow able to introduce the small charged sphere into the larger one, we can in this way keep piling up

larger and larger amount of charge on the latter. The potential at the outer sphere would also keep rising, at

least until we reach the breakdown field of air.

Uses :- Van de Graaff generator produces very high energy charge particle having energy of order of 10

Mev. Such particles are used

1) To carry out the disintegration of the nuclei of different elements.

2) To produce isotopes radioactive.

3) To study the nuclear structure.

4) To study different types of nuclear reactions.

Limitation:Van de Graaff generator capable of building up potential few million volts and fields close to the breakdown

field of air which is about 3 106 V / m .

If the potential the crosses the breakdown voltage then there is a possibility of leakage.

OR

Torque acting on an electric field dipole in uniform electric field :

+q

B

2l

(a)

+qE

qE

in uniform electric field.

Consider an electric dipole placed in uniform electric field E. The dipole formed by two electric charge + q

& - q separated by distance 2 . The dipole makes an angle with an electric field.

The force acting on + q charge is + q E and on q charge is - q E . These two forces are separated by

distance 2 sin .

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18

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Magnitude of moment couple ( Torque ) = Magnitude of one of the force forming couple perpendicular

distance between two parallel forces

= q E BP = q E 2 sin

= p E sin

In vector form

(b)

But p = q 2

By Gausss law the flux =

2Q

0

1

1

2 3

1

charge

permittivity

6Q

0

1 ' The flux enclosed by sphere S1 when the medium inside the sphere is dielectric.

2Q

'

Then 1

r 0

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19

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