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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

CBSE-BOARD - 2014
Physics (55/3)
solutions
1.

Anticlock wise

2.

Metal A has higher threshould frequency as v10 v0 , since x intercept is more

3.

The ampere is the value of steady current which, when maintained in each of the two very long, straight,
parallel conductors of negligible cross section places one meter apart in vaccum, would produce on each of
these conductor a force equal to 2107 newtons per meter of length.

4.

Bi-concave lens air [uair =1] has diverging property but when it is observed in a medium whose refractive
index is greater than refractive index of lens, then its property will be reversed hence will behave has converging
lens as uwater ulens

5.

If two electric field line cross each other than at point of intersection 2 (two) tangents can be drawn showing
direction of electric lines of forces which is not possible hence electric lines of force never cross each other.

6.

51011 Hz frequency lies in microwave range of electromagnetic spectrum.

7.

Neutrinos are neutral particle with very small [possilbe, even zero] mass compared to electrons. They have
only weak interaction with other particles. They are therefore very difficult to detect, since they can penetrate
large quantity of matter without any interaction.

8.

AC voltage is preferred over DC voltage because : 1. It can be easily & efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers.
2. Also, Eelectric energy generated by A-C voltage can be transmitted economically over long distance.

9.

At the time of charging of parallel plate capacitor no current flows & hence there must be no magneitc field
according to amperes law.

B de u0i but when magnetic needle was brought between plates there is deflection in needle at the

time of charging, which is due to varying electric field due to charging. Hence displacement current must be
added to generalize Amperes circuital law so that it is still valid.

B d u0 io id
d
where, id is displacement current produced due to varying electric field & is equal to id 0 e
dt

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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

10

Given - Area (A) = 2 5 107 m 2


Current (I) 2 7 A
No. of electrons (n) 9 1028 m 3 per unit volume
drift velocity (Vd) = ?
Now,

I n e AVd

where, e = change of e 1 6 1019 C

Vd

I
n e A

Vd

27
9 1 6 2 51019 1028 107

0 075 102 m / s
Vd 7 5 104 m / s

11.

V E Ir

or

V rI E
Now above equation can be compared to straight line equation
y mx c
where y V

xI

m r
&

CE

Hence,
*
y inter-cept of V - I curve will give EMF (E) of cell
*
Modulus of slope will give internal resistance (r) of the cell
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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

12.

Given,
Capacitance
Potential

=C
=V

Charge on capacitor Q CV
Now, when above capacitor is connected to another uncharged capacitor of same capacitance C then,
Equal charge will be diveded to both so in new configuration on both capacitors will have charge Q/2 on
each.
2

Also, Energy stored in capacitor =

1 charge
2 capacitance

Energy in single capacitor system (E1)

E1

1 Q2
2 C

Q2
2C

1 Q / 2
Energy in combined system (E2)
2 C

E2
E2

1 Q / 2 2

2 C

Q2 Q2

8C 8C
Q2
4C

E2
?
E1

Now,

E2 Q 2 / 4C

E1 Q 2 / 2C
E2 1

E1 2

13.

Energy in combined system 1

Energy in single capacitor


2

According to rutherford model of atom, the electrostatic force (Fe) of attraction between revolving electrons
provide necessary centripetal force (Fc) to keep them in orbit.
Fe Fc

or

mv 2
1 e2

r
4 0 r 2

1 e2
2
mv

4 0 r
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...(i)
3

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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

Total Energy of electron = kinetic Energy + Potential Energy


1 2
mv
2

Kinetic Energy (KE)


using equation (i)
1 e2
K.E =
8 0 r

(PE) = (Work done) = F . ds

Potential Energy

P.E

e2
4 0 r

e2
e2

Total Energy of electron


8 0 r 4 0 r

e2
4 0 r

The total energy is negative which implies electron is bound to the nucleus.
OR
According to Bohrs postulate the angular momentum are integeral multiple or

i.e.

h
.
2

h
mvn rn n
2

e
4 0 mrn

also,

e
nh
rn
2
4 0 mrn

[Velocity of electron in radius of nth orbit.]

n 2 h 4 0
r

n m 2 e 2

This is the expression for radius of nth electron orbit.


Bohrs radius corresponds to radius for n 1
h 2 0
r1
m e2

Bohr radius

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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

14.

(i) Magnetic field lines in presence of paramagnetic substance.

(ii) Magnetic field lines in presence of Di-magnetic substance.

Paramagnetic substance :They have tendency to move form a region of weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field. The field lines
gets concentrated inside the material & the field inside is enhanced.
Diamagnetic substance :They have tendency to move from stronger to weaker part of external magnetic field. The field lines are
repelled & the field inside the material is reduced.
15.
P

T
RL

Vi ~

T ----- Transformer
D ---- Diode
V0 ---- output voltage
Vi ---- input voltage
RL ---- Load resistance

V0

O
Vi

V0

Working: In first cycle of input voltage, the anode of the diode is positive potential w.r.t. cathode. Hence the
diode is in forward - biased. Hence it conduct current. The current flows through load resistance giving
voltage drop iRL . This voltage drop is called output voltage. During next half cycle the anode of diode is in
negative potential w.r.t. Hence it is in reversed-biased. Hence it does not conduct the current. Hence current
does not flows through load resistance giving no P.D. across it. Hence output votage is unidirectional. It is
called as D.C.

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16.

Such that
138
sin 1

2
1 1 52
& sin
or
2

17.

----- emitter
b ---- base
c ---- collector
RL---- load resistance
VRR---- base bias
VCC---- collector bias
Vi ---- input voltage
V0---- output voltage

O
b

RL

V0

~
O
VBB

VCC
n-p-n transistor amplifier

The input (base-emitter) circuit is forward biased and the output (collector-emitter) circuit is reverse biased.
When no a.c. signal is applied, the potential difference VCC between the collector and emitter is given by
VCC VCE I C RC

18.

When an a.c. signal is fed to the input circuit, the forward bias increases during the positive half cycle of the
input. This results in increase in IC an d decrease in VCC. Thus during positive half cycle of the input, the
collector becomes less positive.
During the negative half cycle of the input, the forward bias is decreased resulting in decrease in IE and hence
IC. Thus VCC would increase making the collector more positive. Hence in a common-emitter amplifier, the
output voltage is 180 out of phase with the input voltage.
(i) Receiver :A receiver extracts the desired message signals from the received signals at the channel output.
(ii) Demodulator :The process of retrieval of information from the carrier wave at the receiver is termed demodulation. this is
the reverse process of modulation.

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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

19.

Convex Lens :- Focal length (FL) = 20 cm


Convex mirror : - Radius of curvature = 20 cm
Focal length (Fm) = 10 cm

For lens, [with proper sign]


Object distance (uOL) = 40 cm
Focal length of lens (fL) = 20 cm
Let Image distance vIL = ?
1
1
1
Also v u f
IL
OL
L

1
1 1 1
1
= + =
+
v IL f u 20 -40

or

v IL = 40 cm
Hence, the image formed by lens is 40 cm behind lens & this will act as an object for mirror
For mirror, (with proper sign)
Object distance u OM = 25 m [ 4015 cm]
Focal length

f M = 10 cm

Let image distance vIM = ?


Also

1
1
1
+
=
v IM u OM f M

1
1
1
=
v IM f M u OM

1
1 1
= v IM 10 25

v IM =

50
cm
3

This is the final image of object which is a distance

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50
cm behind mirror..
3

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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

20.

V 50 103V

12.27 0
A
V

12.27
A0
50,000

12.27 0
A
223.6

0.055A0

Resolution power =

D
1.22

since order of wavelength of yellow light is 104 A0 where as order of wavelength in electron microscope
10 1 A0

21.

Resolving power of electron microscope is 10 5 times that of optical microscope.


1) Insulator : In case of insulator the valance band is full and conduction band is empty. The forbidden gap
is equal to or more than 5 eV. Therefore at ordinary temperature it is not possible to move the electrons from
valance band to conduction band. Hence current does not flow through insulator even through the battery is
connected. If the temperature of insulator increased enough then some electron goes into conduction band
and cause very small current. Thus resistance of insulator decreases with increases in temperature.
Therefore insulator have negative temperature coefficient of resistance. ( TCR is negative)
2) Conductor: In conductor there is no forbidden gap between valance band and conduction band. The
two band overlap on each other. A smaller potential difference also causes current. But with increase in
temperature current decreases i.e. its resistance increases. Therefore conductor have positive temperature
coefficient of resistance. (TCR is positive)
Valance band

Conduction band
Conduction band
1eV

5 eV or more
Energy
Energy
Valance band

Valance band

Energy
Valance band

Conductor

Semiconductor

Insulator

3) Semiconductor : In semiconductor the valance band is almost filled and conduction band is partially
filled. The forbidden gap is very small. It is 0.72 eV for germanium and 1.12 eV for silicon. Therefore at low
temperature energy is not sufficient to move electron from valance and to conduction band. At room temperature, the energy is sufficient to move electron from valance band to conduction band. Hence very small
current flows if potential difference is applied across the semiconductor. If temperature of semiconductor
band and more current flows through it. Thus resistance of semiconductor decreases with increase in temperature. Therefore semiconductor have negative temperature coefficient of resistance.
(TCR is negative).

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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

22.

The basic modes of communications are (i) Space communication (ii) Line communication (iii) satilite communication.
m t

x t

A msinm t
Modulating
signal

SQUARE LAW y t
DEVICE

B x C x 2 t

c t
A csinc t
carrier

23.

BANDPASS FILTER AM wave


CENTEREDAT C

Amplitude Modulation (AM) :- In this type, the amplitude of carrier wave is varied accroding to information signal. e.g. All india radio Mumbai Station are transmitted at 1044 kHz. This is carrier frequency
(a)
The resistivity of copper is very low
Resistance of copper strip is very small. Also the resistance decreases as thickness increases
the conncetion between the ressistors in a meter bridge made of thick copper strips.
(b)
The mains sources of error in wheatstones metre bridge experiment are as follows :
(1) The wire may not be uniform. i.e. its areas of cross-section may not same throughout the
wire.
(2) The two ends of the wire are joined to thick copper strips. At these points, a contact
resistance is produced. To minimise these errors it is generally preffered to obtain the
balance point in the middle of the meter bridge wire.
(c)
The material is use for the meter bridge wire is maganin or constanan
The resistance of maganin or constanan is very high and the melting point is large.
Maganin or constanan is used for the meter bridge wire.
OR
R0
R
R0 R
R1 2

R0
R R0 2 R
2
V2 R2

V1 R1

R0 R
V2 R0 2 R

V1
R0 / 2
V2
2R
V R 2R
1
0
V2

2 R V1
R0 2 R

V1 V2 V
2R

1 V1 V

R0 2 R
R 2R
V1 V 0

4 R R0
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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

24.

(a)
(i) Aarti is a good observer
(ii) Aarti is quite concerned about her family.
(b)
(i) Radioisotopes have found extensive use in diagnosis & therapy.
(ii) These radioactive isotopes have provent particularly effective as tracers in certair diagonostic procedures.
(iii) As radio isotopes are identical chemical with stable isotopes of the same element, they can take the
place of latter in physiological process.
(iv) Because of their radioactivity they can be readily traced even in minute quantities.
(v) Phosporous - 32 useful in the identification of malignant tumours because cancerous cells tend to
accumulate phosphate more than normal cells do.

25.

(a)

Let us consider a straight conductor moving in a uniform and time independent magntic field. fig.
shows that a rectangular conductor PQRS in which the conductor PQ is free to move. The rod PQ
is moved towards the left with a constant velocity v as shown in the fig. Assume that there is no loss
of energy due to friction. PQRS form a closed circuit enclosing an area that changes as PQ moves.
It is placed in a uniform magnetic field B which is perpendicular to the plane of this system. If the
length of RQ = x and RS = l, the magnetic flux B enclosed by the loop PQRS will be B Blx
since x is changing with time, the rate of change of flux B will induce an emf given by :

dB
d
Blx
dt
dt

Bl

(b)

dx
Blv
dt


The Lorentz is given by F q E v B

If v 0 F qE
No induced e.m.f. is generated a time -varying magnetic field should present for existence of
induced emf or induced current. Charges in motion can exert force on stationary magnet conversely
a bar magnet in motion can exert a force on stationary charge. This is the fundamental significance
for motional emf.

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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

26.
(a)

Ordinary light

M
Plane polarised light
I=p

I=p

90
B

Med. I
Med. II

D
Unpolarised light

Polarisation of light by reflection : The simplest method to produce plane polarised light is by reflection.
When unpolarised light is reflected from a surface, the reflected light may be completely polarised, partially
polarised or unpolarisde depending on the incident angle.
The angle of incident at which the reflected light is completely polarised, is called polarising angle. It is
represented by p. The value of p depends on the wavelength of light used. Therefore complete polarisation
is possible only for monochromatic light. The reflected light along BC is completely plane polarised. The
light refracted along BD is unpolarised.Hence the reflected light is completely plane polarised in the plane of
incidence.
(b)

According to Malus law, the intensity of light transmitted by an analyser (polaroid) is given by I I 0 cos 2
where is angle between optical axis of the analyser and polariser..
Initial intensity of light is IO .
The intensity of light transmitted through P1 is

I0
2

The intensity of light transmitted through P3

I0
I
cos2 60 0
2
4

Intensity of light transmitted through P2 0 , since 900


27.

Consider an electric circuit containing a source of a.c. e.m.f. and L-C-R circuit. The a.c. current in circuit is
given by i i0 sin t and a.c. e.m.f. is given

X
V V0 sin t where V0 i0 Z and is the phase between e.m.f. and current
where X is
R
reactance and R is resistance in the circuit
The instantaneous power = V i The instantaneous work done dw V i dt .
Total work done in the complete cycle i.e. in time T is given by
T

W dW V0 sin t i0 sin t dt
0

W V0i0 sin t sin t dt


0

Average power dissipated in one cycle is given by


11
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T

W
Pav

T
Pav

V0 i0 sin t sin t dt
0

V0i0
sin t sin t dt
T

V0i0
e i
2sin t sin t dt 0 0 cos cos 2t dt

2T
2T
2sin A cos B cos A B cos A B

V0i 0
2T

T
T

cos

dt

cos
(2

)dt

0 0

T
sin 2t
V0 i0
T
Pav
cos t 0

2T
2

Pav

Pav

V0 i0
2T

sin 2T sin 2 0
cos T

sin 4 sin
V0 i0
T cos
2T
2

Pav

V0 i0
T cos
2T

Pav

Pav

V0 i0 i0

2
2

Pav Vrms irms cos

V0 i0

2 T

sin sin
T cos
2

V0 i0
cos
2

(i) When R 0 , 900 and cos 0


No power is dissipated even though current flows through the circuit.
(ii) When X=0 , 00 and cos 1 and the power in the circuit is maximum.
(28)

(a) Youngs experiment :In Youngs double slit experiment, the slit `S` in screen I is illuminated by monochromatic light. The screen
II has two narrow parallel slits at a short distance apart. The screen so arrange that the slit S is parallel to
S1S2 and lies re bisector of S1S2. The cylindrical wave front divergine from S illuminates S1& S2. The
slits S1S2 act as two coherent sources. These spread cylindrical wave fornts. These wave fronts overlap on
the screen III, bright and dark bands PoP1P2....... etc. are obtained

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Experssion for the band width or fringe width :-

The distance between two consecutive two bright (dark band) is called band width or fringe width X . Let
Xn & Xn+1 be the distance of nth & (n+1)th bright band from central bright band P. X X n 1 X n

Xnd
nD
(n 1)D
n X n
X n 1
D
d
d
X X n 1 X n

(b)

(n 1)D nD D

d
d
d

I min r 1

I max r 1

9 r 1

25 r 1

D
d

a1
where r a
2

r 1 3

r 1 5
r4

a1
4
a2

a
I
1 1
I2
a2

I1 16

I2
1

The ratio of width of two slits =

16
1
OR

(a)

Suppose a parallel beam of monochromatic light of wavelength falls normally on a slit AB of width a.
The diffraction occurs on passing through the slit. The diffraction pattern is focused on to the screen by a
convex lens. The diffraction pattern consists of a central bright fringe, having alternate dark and bright fringes
of decreasing intensity on both sides.
Position of central maxima: Let O be the centre of the slit AB. According to Huygens Principle, when light
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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

falls on the slit, it becomes a source of secondary wavelets. All the wavelets originating from slit AB are in
same phase. These secondary waves reinforce each other resulting the central maximum intensity at PO .
Suppose the secondary wavelets start from different parts of the slit in same phase but they reach the point
P in different phases. Draw perpendicular AC from A on the ray from B. Then the path difference between
the wavelets from A and B will be
BP - AP = BC = AB sin = a sin
Position of minima: Let the point P be so located on the screen that the path difference = and the angle
= 1 . Then from above equation , we get
a sin 1 =
We can divide the slit AB into two halves AO and OB. Then the path difference between the wavelets from
A and O will

. Similarly, corresponding to every point in the upper half AO, there is a point in the lower
2

half OB for which the path difference is

. Hence the wavelets from two halves reach the point P always
2

opposite phase.
They interfere destructively so as to produce a minimum. Thus condition for first dark fringe is ,
a sin 1 =
Similarly condition for second dark fringe will be, a sin 2 = 2
Hence condition for nth dark fringe can be written as a sin n = n
sin n = n

n = n
a
a

[ As << a, so sin n = n ]

Position of secondary maxima: Suppose the point P is so located that path difference at P =

3
2

3
When = '1 then a sin '1 =
2
We can divide the slit into three equal parts. The path difference corresponding points of the first two parts

. The wavelets from these points will interfere destructively. However, the wavelets from the third
2
part of the slit will contribute to some intensity forming a secondary maxima.
3
Condition for the first secondary maximum is a sin '1 =
2
5
Similarly, the condition for second secondary maximum is, a sin '1 =
2
Hence, the condition for nth secondary maximum can be written as

a sin 'n = ( 2 n + 1)
where n = 1, 2 , 3 -----2

sin 'n = ( 2 n + 1)
'n = ( 2 n + 1)
2a
2a
The secondary maxima a go on becoming weaker in intensity as the order. The reason is that the intensity of
central maxima is due to constructive interference of wavelets from all parts of the slit. The first secondary
maximum is due to the contribution of wavelets from on third part of the slit
( wavelets from remaining two parts interfere destructively). The second secondary maximum is due to the
contribution of wavelets from the one-fifth part only ( the remaining four parts interfere destructively) and so
on. Hence, the intensity of diffraction fringes decreases as order (n) increases.

will be

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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

(b)

d sin

3
2

dx 3 x 2

D
2
3 D
x
d
3 590 109 1.5
x1
2 106

3 295 1.5 10 3
1327.5 10 3 m
x 1 1.328m

x2

3 596 109 1.5


2 106

3 298 1.5 10 3
1341 10 3 m
x2 1.341m

29.
(a)

Lorentzs magnetic force on moving charge


F q vB

F v and F B

The force deflects the particle sideways making it follow a circular path. Lorentzs magnetic
force = Centripetal force

q.B
Frequency of rotation

(b)

mv 2
or qBr mv
r

1
1
v

2 r
T
2 r
v

Cyclotron : The cyclotron was designed by E.. Lawrence and Livingstone in 1932.
Principle: An electric field is used to accelerate a charged particle while magnetic field is used to produce
circular motion of the particle.
Construction : The cyclotron consists of a flat, cylindrical copper box, divided into two parts by cutting it
along its diamter. Each part is called a Dee The two parts are kept separated from each other by a small
gap inside an evacuated steel box. The dees are connected to a high frequency oscillator to which a high
alternating voltage 10 4 V ,10 7 Hz is applied between dees. The steel box is placed between the poles of
strong magnet.

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Working :- Suppose that a positive charged particles is introduce in the gap between the dees at an instant
when the dee D2 is at a positive potential and the dee D1 is at negative potential.The particle repelled by the
dee D2and attracted by the dee D1 .Therefore the particle is accelerated towards the dee D1. Since magnetic
field is at right angle to motion of particle, the particle moves in circular path inside the dee D1.When it
completes semicircle, it enters the gap between the dees. At this instant, electric field reverse its direction, so
that D2 becomes negative and D1 becomes positive. Therefore the particle is accelerated towards D2 with
increasing speed. Inside D2 the particle moves along a semicircle with a greater radius since speed is more.
This process goes on repeating.
During the motion every times the radius of the circular path increases with the increase in the velocity of the
particle. The particle covers each semicircle in the same time-interval and enters the gap when electric field
is reversed since the time period is independent of speed and radius. Finally the particle emerges from
cyclotron with a very high speed with high energy of the order of 25 MeV.
Uses: The cyclotron is used to produce very high speed positively charged particles such as protons, deuterons,
particles etc. These particles are used for the artificial disintegration of atomic nuclei and for the production
of radioactive isotopes.
OR
(a)

Principle: - When a current I is passed through a rectangular coil of area A suspended in a uniform
magnetic field of induction B, it experiences torque which is given by N I AB cos .
N - number of turns of the coil.
angle between the plane of the coil and the direction of magnetic field.
Construction : - Suspended coil type galvanometer : - It consist of a powerful horse shoe magnet having
cylindrical concave pole- piece. A soft iron core cylinder is fixed between the two pole-piece. The coil is
would on a rectangular frame which is placed about iron core. The current enters the coil through suspension
wire and leaves it through a loosely wound spring. Because of cylindrically concave magnet, it produces a
strong radial magnetic field. The plane mirror M is fixed on suspension wire. This is along a lamp and scale
arrangement is used to measure the rotation of the coil in the radial magnetic field.

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Principle of working (Theory) : - In the moving coil galvanometer, a coil is suspended in the uniform
magnetic field of a strong electromagnet. Let N be number of turns of the coil and A be its area. If no
current flows through the coil, it will remain at rest.When current I flows through the coil. A torque acts on
the coil which is given by N I A B cos . Where B be the magnetic induction.
However as the magnet has got concave pole pieces, the magnetic field is a radial. Therefore in any position
of the coil, its plane is parallel to the magnetic field.

0. Hence the torque acting on the coil is given N I A B ......... 1


Due to this torque, the coil gets deflected and suspension fibre is twisted. Due to its elastic properties, it tries
to return to its original position. It exerts a restoring couple of the coil which is given by Restoring couple
k where be angle of twist & k be couple per unit twist or torsional constant.
The coil comes rest when Deflecting couple = Restoring couple N I A B k
I

k
k
I a
N AB
N A B is constant

Hence the current flowing through the coil is directly proportional to the angle of deflection. This is the
principle of working of moving coil galvanometer.
(b)

(i)

In a moving coil galvanometer, a soft iron core is mounted inside the coil. Due to the soft iron core,
the strength of the magnetic field is increased, so that a greater deflecting troque acts on the coil.
As a result of this the angle of deflection increases. Therefore sensitivity of the galvanometer is
increased. Since soft iron piece is paramagnetic substance, it prodcues eddy current and makes
galvanometer dead-beat.

(ii)

The current sensitivity of the galvanometer as the deflection per unit current. this current sensitivity
is.

NAB

I
k
The voltage sensitivity as the deflection per unit voltage.

NAB I NAB 1

V k V k R
The current sensitivity may not necessarily increase the voltage sensitivity. Let us take which provides
a measure of current sensitivity. If N 2 N , i.e. we double the number of turns, then

2
I
I
Thus, the current sensitivity doubles. However, the resistance of the galvanometer is also likely to
double, since it is proportional to the length of the wire. N 2 N and R 2 R, thus the voltage

sensitivity
remains unchanged.
V
V
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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

30.
Steel chamber
Metallic comb
S
Metallic sphere

C2 P2
D
I
Insulating belt
M1

M2
C1

HT

Motor driven pulley


P1

Target

Principle:The natural tendency is for positive charge to move from higher to lower potential. Thus provided we are
somehow able to introduce the small charged sphere into the larger one, we can in this way keep piling up
larger and larger amount of charge on the latter. The potential at the outer sphere would also keep rising, at
least until we reach the breakdown field of air.
Uses :- Van de Graaff generator produces very high energy charge particle having energy of order of 10
Mev. Such particles are used
1) To carry out the disintegration of the nuclei of different elements.
2) To produce isotopes radioactive.
3) To study the nuclear structure.
4) To study different types of nuclear reactions.
Limitation:Van de Graaff generator capable of building up potential few million volts and fields close to the breakdown
field of air which is about 3 106 V / m .
If the potential the crosses the breakdown voltage then there is a possibility of leakage.
OR
Torque acting on an electric field dipole in uniform electric field :
+q
B
2l

(a)

+qE

qE

Couple acting on an electric dipole


in uniform electric field.

Consider an electric dipole placed in uniform electric field E. The dipole formed by two electric charge + q
& - q separated by distance 2 . The dipole makes an angle with an electric field.

The force acting on + q charge is + q E and on q charge is - q E . These two forces are separated by
distance 2 sin .
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Rao IIT Academy/ 2014/ CBSE - Board Physics (55/3) / Solutions

Magnitude of moment couple ( Torque ) = Magnitude of one of the force forming couple perpendicular
distance between two parallel forces

= q E BP = q E 2 sin
= p E sin
In vector form
(b)

But p = q 2

1 The flux enclosed by sphere S1 and 2 = The flux enclosed by sphere S2


By Gausss law the flux =

2Q
0
1
1
2 3
1

charge
permittivity

6Q
0

1 ' The flux enclosed by sphere S1 when the medium inside the sphere is dielectric.
2Q
'
Then 1
r 0

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