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FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

EducationinIndonesiafallsundertheresponsibilityoftheMinistryofEducationandCulture(KementerianPendidikan

EducationinIndonesia

danKebudayaanorKemdikbud)andtheMinistryofReligiousAffairs(KementerianAgamaorKemenag).InIndonesia,all
citizensmustundertakenineyearsofcompulsoryeducationwhichconsistsofsixyearsatelementarylevelandthreein
secondarylevel.IslamicschoolsareundertheresponsibilityoftheMinistryofReligiousAffairs.
Educationisdefinedasaplannedefforttoestablishastudyenvironmentandeducationalprocesssothatthestudentmay
activelydevelophis/herownpotentialinreligiousandspirituallevel,consciousness,personality,intelligence,behaviour
andcreativitytohim/herself,othercitizensandthenation.TheConstitutionalsonotesthattherearetwotypesof

MinistryofEducationandCulture
MinistryofReligiousAffairs

educationinIndonesia:formalandnonformal.Formaleducationisfurtherdividedintothreelevels:primary,secondary
andtertiaryeducation.
SchoolsinIndonesiaareruneitherbythegovernment(negeri)orprivatesectors(swasta).Someprivateschoolsreferto
themselvesas"nationalplusschools"whichmeansthattheircurriculumtoexceedsrequirementssetbytheMinistryof

MinisterofEducation MuhadjirEffendy
andCulture
LukmanHakim
MinisterofReligious Saifuddin
Affairs

Education,especiallywiththeuseofEnglishasmediumofinstructionorhavinganinternationalbasedcurriculuminstead
ofthenationalone.InIndonesiathereareapproximately170,000primaryschools,40,000juniorsecondaryschoolsand
26,000highschools.84percentoftheseschoolsareundertheMinistryofNationalEducation(MoNE)andtheremaining

Nationaleducationbudget(2014)
Budget

16percentundertheMinistryofReligiousAffairs(MoRA).Privateschoolsonlycomprise7%ofthetotalschoolsnumber.[4]
Contents[hide]
1 History
1.1 Earlykingdoms
1.2 EraofIslamicstates

IDR368.8trillion(USD
27Billion)[1]
Generaldetails

Primarylanguages

Indonesian

Systemtype

Curriculum

Competencybased
curriculum

14October2004

Literacy(2011)

1.3 Colonialera
1.4 Japaneseoccupation

Total

92.81%[2]

1.5 PostIndependence

Male

95.59%

2 Earlyeducation

Female

90.07%

3 Publicprimaryandsecondaryeducation

Primary

92%(26.9million)

3.1 Schoolgrades

Secondary

77%(15.7million)

3.2 Curriculum

Postsecondary

32%[3]

3.3 2013Curriculum
4 Islamicschools
5 Highereducation
5.1 Indonesiandegrees
5.2 Foreignuniversity
6 Internationaleducation
7 Seealso
8 References
9 Externallinks

History

Studentswearingthepramuka(boyscout)
uniformstudying.Thisuniformisusuallyworn
oneitherFridayorSaturday.

[ edit ]

Earlykingdoms

[ edit ]

EducationsystemintheeraofHinduBuddhistcivilisationiscalledkarsyan.Karsyanisaplaceofhermitage.

EraofIslamicstates

[ edit ]

TheemergenceofIslamicstateinIndonesiaisnotedbytheacculturationofbothIslamictraditionandHinduBuddhist
tradition.Atthistimeperiod,pondokpesantren,atypeofIslamicboardingschoolwasintroducedandseveralofthem
wereestablished.Thelocationofpesantrenismostlyfarawayfromthehustlingcrowdofthecity,resemblingthelocation
ofKarsyan.

Colonialera

[ edit ]

ElementaryeducationwasintroducedbytheDutchinIndonesiaduringthecolonialera.TheDutcheducationsystemare

Thestudentspicturedabovearelisteningto
aguideattheTrowulanMuseum,EastJava
whilstexaminingamodeloftheJawitemple.

Querystringsofeducationalbranchesthatwerebasedonsocialstatusofthecolony'spopulation,withthebestavailable
institutionreservedfortheEuropeanpopulation.In1870,withthegrowthofDutchEthicalPolicyformulatedbyConrad
TheodorvanDeventer,someoftheseDutchfoundedschoolsopenedthedoorsforpribumi(lit.nativeIndonesians).TheywerecalledSekolahRakjat(lit.folkschool),
theembryoofwhatiscalledSekolahDasar(lit.elementaryschool)today.[5]In1871theDutchparliamentadoptedaneweducationlawthatsoughttouniformthehighly
scatteredanddiversifiedindigenouseducationalsystemsacrossthearchipelago,andexpandthenumberofteachertrainingschoolsundersupervisionofthecolonial
administration.Thebudgetforpublicschoolingwasraisedinstepsfromca.300,000guildersin1864,toroughly3millionguildersbytheearly1890s.Mostoften
howevertheeducationdevelopmentwerestarvedoffunding,becausemanyDutchpoliticiansfearedexpandingeducationwouldeventuallyleadtoanticolonial
sentiment.[6]Fundingforeducationonlycountfor6%ofthetotalexpenditureofthecolonialbudgetin1920s.Thenumbergovernmentandprivateprimaryschoolsfor
nativehadincreasedto3,108andthelibrariesto3000by1930.[7]Howeverspendingsharplydeclinedaftertheeconomicdepressionin1930.[6]
TheDutchintroducedasystemofformaleducationforthelocalpopulationofIndonesia,althoughthiswasrestrictedtocertainprivilegedchildren.TheSchoolsforthe
EuropeanweremodeledaftertheeducationsysteminNetherlandsitselfandrequiredtheproficiencyinDutchlanguage.Dutchlanguagewasalsoneededforhigher
educationenrollment.TheeliteNative/ChinesepopulationwholackDutchlanguageskillscouldenrollineitherDutchNativeorChineseSchools.Theschoolswere
arrangedinthefollowinglevels:
ELS(Dutch:EuropeescheLagereSchoollit."EuropeanLowSchool")PrimarySchoolforEuropeans

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HSS(Dutch:HollandschSchakelSchoollit."DutchSwitchSchool")
HIS(Dutch:HollandschInlandscheSchoollit."DutchNativeSchool")PrimarySchoolforNatives
HCS(Dutch:HollandschChinescheSchoollit."DutchChineseSchool")PrimarySchoolforChinese
MULO(Dutch:MeerUitgebreidLagerOnderwijslit."MoreAdvancedLowEducation")MiddleSchool
AMS(Dutch:AlgemeneMiddelbareSchoollit."GeneralMiddleSchool")HighSchoolorCollege
HBS(Dutch:HogereBurgerSchoollit."HigherCitizenSchool")PreUniversity
Forthepopulationintheruralarea,theDutchcreatedtheDesaSchoolsorVillageschoolssystemwhichaimedtospread
literacyamongthenativepopulation.Theseschoolsprovidetwoorthreeyearstrainingofvernacularsubjects(reading,writing,

TechnischeHogeschoolte
Bandoeng,openedasabranchofDelft
UniversityofTechnology.

ciphering,hygiene,animalsandplants,etc.),andservedasacheaperalternativeschools.Thesevillageschoolshowever
receivedmuchlessfundingthantheprivilegedEuropeanschools,thusthequalityofeducationprovidedisoftenlacking.Despite
ofitsflaw,thenumberofVillageSchoolshasreached17,695by1930.[7]Therestoftheruraleducationwerelefttotheworkof
Christianmissionary,whichareconsideredmorecostefficient.[7][8]
ThesegregationbetweenDutchandIndonesianineducationpushedseveralIndonesianfigurestostarteducationalinstitutions
forlocalpeople.ArabIndonesiansfoundedJamiatKheirin1905,AhmadDahlanfoundedMuhammadiyahinNovember1912,
andKiHajarDewantarafoundedTamanSiswainJuly1922toemancipatethenativepopulation.Pesantrens(IslamicSchools)
werealsomushroomingrapidlyduringtheseperiod.[9]
Duringthecolonialperiodtherewasalsoalargegapbetweeneducatedmaleandfemalepopulation.In1920,theislandofJava
andMaduraoutofthe6.5%literatemalepopulation,only0.5%ofthefemalenativepopulationareliterate.Similarphenomenon

NeutraleLagereSchoolinMalang.

canbeobservedontheForeignOrientals(ArabsandChinese),with26.5%literatemalepopulationandonly8.5%literate
femaleoutofthetotalpopulation.IntheouterislandsbeyondJavathedifferencebetweenliteratemaleandfemalepopulation
are12%and3%outoftotalpopulationrespectively.[7]InspiredbyaJavanesebornaristocratKartiniwhodiedyoungattheage
of25,theVanDeventerfamilyworkedtoincreasefemaleinvolvementineducationandreceivedsupportfromtheDutch
government.EventuallyleadingtofoundationofKartiniSchoolsin1911.[7]
TheDutchcolonialgovernmentalsoestablishedanumberofuniversitiesandcollegesfornativeIndonesianontheisland
ofJava.PriortofoundingofBandungInstituteofTechnologyin1920,therearenouniversitylevelofeducationinthecountry
andstudentshavetogoabroad(mainlytoNetherlands)inordertoreceivethem.Mostoftheseuniversitieshadbecomethe
country'stopeducationalinstitutionasoftoday.Theseeducationalinstitutionareasfollow:[10]

KartiniSchoolinBogor.

SchooltotOpleidingvanInlandscheArtsenorSTOVIA,amedicaluniversitywhichlaterbecomeGeneeskundige
HogeschoolinBatavia.
NederlandIndischeArtsenSchoolorNIAS,amedicalschoolinSoerabaja.
RechtsHogeSchool,alawschoolinWeltevreden,Batavia.
DeTechnischeHogeSchool,orTHS,atechnicschoolinBandoengandthefirstfullfledgeuniversityinthecountryopened
in1920.
MiddelbareLandbouwschool,anagriculturecollegewhichlaterbecomeLandbouwkundigeFaculteitinBuitenzorg
OpleidingSchoolvoorInlandscheAmbtenarenorOSVIA,collegesfortrainingNativeCivilServants.
HollandscheIndischeKweekschool,collegesfortrainingteachers.
Bythe1930s,theDutchhadintroducedlimitedformaleducationtonearlyeveryprovinceoftheDutchEastIndies,althoughby

InsideaclassroomofDutchNative
SchoolinBandung.

thisperiodonly7%ofthepopulationwereliterateand2%arefluentintheDutchlanguage.AroundtheOuterIslandsbeyond
Java,tomeetdemandofschoolingtheDutchgovernmentreliedheavilyonmissionaryschoolsthatmostlyprovidebasicandmoraleducation.[7]

Japaneseoccupation

[ edit ]

DuringtheJapaneseoccupationinWorldWarII,thevariousoperationoftheDutcheducationalsystemwereconsolidatedintoonesingleoperationthatparallelthe
Japaneseeducationsystem.TheJapaneseoccupationmarkedthedeteriorationofeducationinIndonesia,asschoolswereorganizedwiththegoalofcreatingGreater
EastAsiaCoProsperitySphereofinfluence.Asaresult,schoolsbeguntraininginmilitaryandphysicaldrillthatareantiWestoriented.Italsoincludeindoctrinationof
Japanesecultureandhistory.StudentswererequiredtoraiseJapaneseflagandsalutetheemperoreverymorning.TheJapanesehadmadeschoolslessstratified,
despiteofthistheschoolenrollmenthadshrunkby30%forprimaryeducationand90%forsecondaryeducationby1945.[8]

PostIndependence

[ edit ]

UndertheJapaneseandDutchoccupation,mostoftheeducationalinstitutionswerecreatedtosupporttheneedsofthe
occupyingpowerandtherewereveryfeweffortstopromotetheintellectualadvancementoftheindigenouspopulation.After
Indonesiafinallydeclareditsindependencein1945,thesurvivingeducationsystemwasfragileandunorganized.Inaddition
therewasalsoashortageofteachers,asmostoftheteachershadbeeneitherDutchorJapanese.VeryfewIndonesianshad
experienceinmanagingschools.Eagertoaddresstheneglectoffocusededucationonnativepopulation,thefirstgovernment
ofIndonesiahadtocreateasystemfromscratchandrejectthecolonialEuropeansystem.Anactisdeclaredin1945as
Chapter8,article131,clause1that"everycitizenhastherightforeducation".Theministryofeducation,instructionandculture
wasfoundedwithitsfirstminister,Soewandi.Thenewinstitutionsoughttocreateaneducationthatisantidiscriminatory,elitist
andcapitalist,inordertopromotenationalismofthenewrepublicofIndonesia.Itisalsodecidedthatreligiondeservedaproper
placeandattentionunderthenewrepublic,resultinginanincreasedsupportforPesantrenandIslamicMadrasah.[8]

Earlyeducation

[ edit ]

PreSchooleducationinIndonesiaiscoveredunderPAUD(PendidikanAnakUsiaDini,lit.EarlyAgeEducation)that

AschoolhouseinKalimantanfor
eradicatingadultilliteracy,c.1952

coversTamanBermain(playgroup)andTamanKanakKanak(kindergarten,abbreviatedasTK).PAUDisunderdirect
supervisionandcoverageofDirectorateofEarlyAgeEducationDevelopment(DirektoratPengembanganPendidikanAnakUsia
Dini).Fromtheageof2,parentssendtheirchildrentoattendTamanBermain.Fromtheageof4,theyattendTamanKanakKanak.MostTKarrangetheclassesinto
twogrades,gradeAandgradeB,whichareinformallycalledkelasnolkecil(littlezerograde)andkelasnolbesar(bigzerograde)respectively.Whilethislevelof
educationisnotcompulsoryforIndonesiancitizens,itisaimedtopreparethemforprimaryschooling.Ofthe49,000kindergartensinIndonesia,99.35%areprivately
operatedschools.[11]Thekindergartenyearsareusuallydividedinto"ClassA"and"ClassB"studentsspendingayearineachclass.

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Publicprimaryandsecondaryeducation

[ edit ]

Indonesiansarerequiredtoattendtwelveyearsofschool.[12]Theymustgotoschoolsix(orfive,dependingontheinstitution)daysaweekfrom6:30a.m.until
afternoon(usually2or3p.m.).[13]Theycanchoosebetweenstaterun,nonsectarianpublicschoolssupervisedbytheDepartmentofNationalEducation(Depdiknas)or
privateorsemiprivatereligious(usuallyIslamic)schoolssupervisedandfinancedbytheDepartmentofReligiousAffairs.[13]Studentscanalsochoosetoparticipatein
extracurricularactivitiesprovidedbytheschoolsuchassports,arts,orreligiousstudies.[13]However,although86.1percentoftheIndonesianpopulationisregistered
asMuslim,accordingtothe2000censusonly15percentofschoolageindividualsattendedreligiousschools.[13]Overallenrolmentfiguresareslightlyhigherforgirls
thanboysandmuchhigherinJavathantherestofIndonesia.[13]
Acentralgoalofthenationaleducationsystemisnotmerelytoimpartsecularwisdomabouttheworldbutalsotoinstructchildrenintheprinciplesofparticipationinthe
modernnationstate,itsbureaucracies,anditsmoralandideologicalfoundations.[13]BeginningunderGuidedDemocracy(195965)andstrengthenedintheNew
Orderafter1975,akeyfeatureofthenationalcurriculumaswasthecaseforothernationalinstitutionshasbeeninstructioninthePancasila.[13]Childrenagesixand
olderlearnedbyroteitsfiveprinciplesbeliefinoneGod,humanitarianism,nationalunity,democracy,andsocialjusticeandwereinstructeddailytoapplythe
meaningsofthiskeynationalsymboltotheirlives.[13]ButwiththeendoftheNewOrderin1998andthebeginningofthecampaigntodecentralisethenational
government,provincialanddistrictleveladministratorsobtainedincreasingautonomyindeterminingthecontentofschooling,andPancasilabegantoplaya
diminishingroleinthecurriculum.[13]
Astyleofpedagogyprevailsinsidepublicschoolclassroomsthatemphasisesrotelearninganddeferencetotheauthorityoftheteacher.[13]Althoughtheyoungest
childrenaresometimesallowedtousetheirlocallanguage,bythethirdyearofprimaryschoolnearlyallinstructionisconductedinIndonesian.[13]Teacherscustomarily
donotaskquestionsofindividualstudentsrather,astandardteachingtechniqueistonarrateahistoricaleventortodescribeamathematicalproblem,pausingatkey
juncturestoallowthestudentstocalloutresponsesthat"fillintheblanks".[13]Bynotidentifyingindividualproblemsofstudentsandretaininganemotionallydistanced
demeanor,teachersaresaidtoshowthemselvestobepatient,whichisconsideredadmirablebehaviour.[13]
Childrenaged611attendprimaryschool,calledSekolahDasar(SD).[13]Mostelementaryschoolsaregovernmentoperatedpublicschools,accountingfornearly93%
ofallelementaryschoolsinIndonesia.[14]Studentsspendsixyearsinprimaryschool,thoughsomeschoolsofferanacceleratedlearningprograminwhichstudents
whoperformwellcancompletethelevelinfiveyears.[citationneeded]
Threeyearsofjuniorhighschool(SekolahMenengahPertama,orSMP),whichfollowselementaryschool.[13]Someschoolsalsoofferanacceleratedlearningprogram
inwhichstudentswhoperformwellcancompletethelevelintwoyears.
Aftercompletionofthem,theymaybeattendthreeyearsofhighschool(SekolahMenengahAtasorSMA).Somehighschoolsofferanacceleratedlearningprogram
sostudentswhoperformwellcancompletetheirlevelwithintwoyears.Besideshighschool,studentscanchooseamong47programmesofvocationalandpre
professionalhighschool(SekolahMenengahKejuruanorSMK),dividedinthefollowingfields:technologyandengineering,health,arts,craftandtourism,information
andcommunicationtechnologies,agrobusinessandagrotechnology,businessmanagement.Eachrequiresthreeyearsofstudy.[15]Thereareacademicand
vocationaljuniorhighschoolsthatleadtoseniorleveldiplomas.Therearealso"domesticscience"juniorhighschoolsforgirls.[13]Attheseniorhighschoollevel,three
yearagricultural,veterinary,andforestryschoolsareopentostudentswhohavegraduatedfromanacademicjuniorhighschool.[13]Specialschoolsatthejuniorand
seniorlevelsteachhotelmanagement,legalclerking,plasticarts,andmusic.[13]
Studentswithdisabilities/specialneedsmayalternatelyopttobeenrolledinaseparateschoolfromthemainstreamcalledSekolahLuarBiasa(lit.Extraordinary
School).[citationneeded]
Indonesianeducationsystemisfourthlargestintheworldwithmorethan50millionstudents,3millionteachers,300,000schools.[16]Primarytohighschoollevelis
compulsory.[16]Primaryandmiddleschoolisfree,whileinhighschool,thereissmallfees.[16]ThecompletionrateforIndonesianprimaryschoolsishigh.[16]In2011,the
netenrolmentrateforprimaryeducationisabout95.55%,butthenumberofenrolmentrateisdecreasingformiddleschoolto77.71%andforhighschoolto
57.74%.[16]Whilethetertiaryeducationparticipationisevenlowerabout27.1%althoughthisnumberisstillquitehighcomparetoothermemberASEANstates.[16]For
thesameyear,thesurvivalrateforprimary,middle,andhighschoolasthefollowingnumbers:95.3%,97.68%,and96.8%.[16]Thehigherthepercentageofsurvival
ratemeansthefewerstudentsatcertaineducationlevelwhoaredropout.AlthoughIndonesiangovernmenthasachievedsignificantimprovementineducationsector,
therearestillmanychallengesthatshouldbeaddressed,includingfunding,management,equity,andeducationquality.
Teachertrainingprogramsarevariedandgraduallybeingupgraded.Forexample,inthe1950sanyonecompletingateachertrainingprogramatthejuniorhighschool
levelcouldobtainateacherscertificate.[13]Sincethe1970s,however,primaryschoolteachershavebeenrequiredtohavegraduatedfromaseniorhighschoolfor
teachers,andteachersofhighergradeshavebeenrequiredtohavecompletedauniversityleveleducationcourse.[13]Remunerationforprimaryandsecondary
schoolteachers,althoughlow,comparesfavourablywiththatinotherAsiancountriessuchasMalaysia,India,andThailand.[13]Studentteacherratiosalsocompare
satisfactorilywiththoseinmanyAsiannations:Theywere23.4to1and18.8to1,respectively,forprimaryandsecondaryschoolsin2004thatsameyear,theoverall
averagesforAsiaPacificcountrieswere22to1and18to1,respectively.[13]
By2008,thestaffshortageinIndonesia'sschoolswasnolongerasacuteasinthe1980s,butseriousdifficultiesremain,particularlyintheareasofteachersalaries,
teachercertification,andfindingqualifiedpersonnel.[13]InmanyremoteareasoftheOuterIslands,inparticular,thereisasevereshortageofqualifiedteachers,and
somevillageshaveschoolbuildingsbutnoteachers,books,orsupplies.[13]ProvidingtextbooksandotherschoolequipmenttoIndonesias37millionschoolchildren
throughoutthefarflungarchipelagocontinuestobeasignificantproblemaswell,especiallyinmoreremoteareas.[13]

Schoolgrades

[ edit ]

Theschoolyearisdividedintotwosemesters.ThefirstcommencesinJulyandendsinDecemberwhilethelattercommencesinJanuaryandendsinJune.
Level/Grade

Typicalage

Preschool
Preschoolplaygroup

34

Kindergarten

46

PrimarySchool
1stGrade

67

2ndGrade

78

3rdGrade

89

4thGrade

910

5thGrade

1011

6thGrade

1112

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MiddleSchool
7thGrade

1213

8thGrade

1314

9thGrade

1415

HighSchool
10thGrade

1516

11thGrade

1617

12thGrade

1718

Postsecondaryeducation

Tertiaryeducation(CollegeorUniversity)

Agesvary(usuallyfouryears,
referredtoasFreshman,
Sophomore,Juniorand
Senioryears)

Graduateeducation
Adulteducation

Curriculum

[ edit ]

Disciplines

Subjects

Gr
PrimarySchool

Name

Name

Middle
School

HighSchool

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th

1
2
3
4
1
2

Education

2 Language(andLiterature) 3
4

Naturalsciences

Socialsciences

Humanities

Arts

2013Curriculum

1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
1
2
3
4

Name

Education

Religion
Civics
PhysicalEducation
InformationTechnologyandCommunication
IndonesianLanguage
EnglishLanguage
Traditional/LocalLanguage
(Sundanese,Javanese,Balinese,etal.)
ForeignLanguage
(Mandarin,Arabic,Japanese,German,French,Korean,
etal.)
Mathematics
Physics
Biology
Chemistry
History
Geography
Economics
Sociology
Anthropology
IndonesianLiterature
ForeignLanguage(HigherLevel)
Music
Painting
Skill
Dancing
Totalsubjects

13

16

13

[ edit ]

Discipline
#

11th 12th 11th 12th 11th


(NS) (NS) (SS) (SS) (H

Subjects
#

Name

1 Religion
2 Pancasilaandcivics

3
4
1
2 Language(andliterature)
2
1
3
Naturalsciences
2
3
1
4
Socialsciences
2
3
1
2
5
Arts
3
4
1
6
N/A

Physicaleducation
Prakarya
Indonesianlanguage
Englishlanguage
Mathematics
Physics
Biology
History
Geography
Economics
Music
Painting
Skill
Dance
PeminatanAkademik

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Indonesia

Grade
Primaryschool[17] Middleschool[18] Highschool[19]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8
9
10
11
12
4
3
2
6
2
4

n/a

2
6

n/a
6
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a

4
4
1.5
1.5

2
2
1
1
1

n/a
n/a
2
n/a
n/a

1
1
1
1
n/a

n/a
n/a
2

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2 KelompokPeminatan
Naturalsciences
Socialsciences
Languageandliterature n/a Totalhour
Totalhoursubjects
30
36
Totalsubjects
6
8
10

16
42
14

Specializationgroups(kelompokpeminatan)
#
1
2
3
4

Naturalsciences
Mathematics
Physics
Biology
Chemistry

Islamicschools

Socialsciences
History
Geography
Economics
Sociology

Languageandliterature
Indonesianlanguage
Englishlanguage
Traditional/Locallanguage
Foreignlanguage

Totalhour
4
4
4
4

[ edit ]

ThesecularandnationalistemphasisinpublicschoolshasbeenresistedbysomeoftheMuslimmajority.[13]Adistinctandvocal
minorityoftheseMuslimsprefertoplacetheirchildreninapesantren(Islamicboardingschool),orIslamicschool.[13]Usually
locatedinruralareasanddirectedbyaMuslimscholar,pesantrenareattendedbyyoungpeopleseekingadetailed
understandingoftheQuran,theArabiclanguage,thesharia,andMuslimtraditionsandhistory,aswellasmoremodern
subjectssuchasEnglish,mathematics,andgeography.Studentscanenterandleavethepesantrenanytimeoftheyear,and
thestudiesarenotorganisedasaprogressionofcoursesleadingtograduation.[13]Althoughthechiefaimofpesantrenisto
producegoodMuslims,theydonotshareasinglestancetowardIslamorapositiononsecularism.[13]Somepesantren
emphasisetheautonomyofmodernstudentstothinkforthemselvesandtointerpretscriptureandmodernknowledgeinaway
thatisconsistentwiththeteachingsofIslam.[13]Othersaremoretraditionalandstresstheimportanceoffollowingthewisdomof
elders,includingtheirteachingsonscience,religion,andfamilylife.[13]AlthoughtheterroristbombingsinKuta,Bali,in2002

Studentsinthedormofaschoolof
higherIslamiceducation,Bukittinggi,c.
1953

raisedsuspicionsaboutwhetherpesantrenpromoteextremistviews,themajorityoftheseschoolsinIndonesiaaretheologically
moderate,reflectingtheviewsoftheIndonesianpopulationasawhole.[13]Forthosewhooptforapesantreneducation,asixth
gradeequivalencycertificateisavailableaftersuccessfulcompletionofastatetest.[13]
Inorderforstudentstoadapttolifeinthemodernnationstate,inthe1970stheMuslimdominatedDepartmentofReligion(nowtheDepartmentofReligiousAffairs)
advocatedthespreadofanewervarietyofMuslimschool,themadrassa.[13]Thiskindofschoolintegratesreligioussubjectsfromthepesantrenwithsecularsubjects
fromtheWesternstylepubliceducationsystem.[13]AlthoughingeneralthepublicbelievesthatIslamicschoolsofferlowerqualityeducation,amongIslamicschoolsa
madrassaisrankedlowerthanapesantren.[13]
MadrasahIbtidaiyah(MI)istheIslamicschoolingalternativetoSD,followingacurriculumwithmorefocusonArabicandIslam.MadrasahTsanawiyah(MTs)isthe
IslamicschoolingequivalentofSMP.MadrasahAliyah(MA)istheIslamicschoolingequivalentofSMAwhileMadrasahAliyahKejuruan(MAK)istheequivalentof
SMK.[citationneeded]

Highereducation

[ edit ]

Thehighereducationinstitutioniscategorisedintotwotypes:publicandprivate.BotharesupervisedbytheMinistryofNationalEducation.Therearefourtypesof
highereducationinstitution:universities,institutes,academies,andpolytechnics.[citationneeded]
Indonesia'sinstitutionsofhighereducationhaveexperienceddramaticgrowthsinceindependence.[13]In1950therewere10institutionsofhigherlearningwithatotal
ofabout6,500students.In1970,450privateandstateinstitutionsenrolledabout237,000students,andby1990therewere900institutionswithabout141,000
teachersandnearly1.5millionstudents.[13]By2009therewere2,975institutionsofhighereducationandmorethan4.2millionstudents.[13]Oftheseinstitutions,3
percentwerepublic,with57.1percentofthestudentenrolment,and97percentwereprivate,with42.9ofthestudentenrolment.[13]Eventhoughgovernmentsubsidies
financeapproximately80to90percentofstateuniversitybudgets,universitieshaveconsiderablymoreautonomyincurriculumandinternalstructurethandoprimary
andsecondaryschools.[13]Whereas,tuitioninsuchstateinstitutionsismoreaffordablethanprivateuniversitytuition,enablingattendancebystudentsfromrelatively
modestbackgrounds,facultysalariesarelowbyinternationalstandards.Lecturersoftenhaveotherjobsoutsidetheuniversitytosupplementtheirwages.[13]
Privateuniversitiesaregenerallyoperatedbyfoundations.[13]Unlikestateuniversities,privateinstitutionshavebudgetsthatarealmostentirelytuitiondriven.Aonetime
registrationfee(whichcanbequitehigh)isdeterminedatthetimeofentry.[13]Universitieswithareligiousaffiliationmayreceivedonationsorgrantsfromreligious
organisations.[13]Thegovernmentprovidesonlylimitedscholarshipsupportforstudentswishingtoattendprivateuniversities.[13]
Mostofthe6,000foreignstudentsstudyinginIndonesianuniversitieshailfromMalaysia.Inparticular,theyareinthefieldsofmedicine,pharmacy,literature,
humanities,Islamicstudiesandengineering.ThemajorityaresponsoredbytheMalaysiangovernment.TheseforeignstudentsaredispersedacrossIndonesiain
almostallpublicuniversitiessuchasUniversitasSumateraUtara,UniversityofIndonesia,GadjahMadaUniversity,BandungInstituteofTechnology[20]andalsoin
privateinstitutionssuchasUniversitasKristenKridaWacana(UKRIDA).

Indonesiandegrees
Typeofdegree
Diploma1(D1)
Diploma2(D2)
Diploma3(D3)
Diploma4(D4)
Sarjana1(S1)
Sarjana2(S2)
Sarjana3(S3)

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Indonesianterm
Profesionalahlipratama
Profesionalahlimuda
Profesionalahlimadya
Sarjanasainsterapan
Sarjana
Magister
Doktor

Foreignuniversity

EquivalentinEnglishspeakingcountries
Associatedegree
Associatedegree
Associatedegree
Bachelor'sdegree
Bachelor'sdegree
Master'sdegree
Doctoraldegree

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ForeignuniversitiescanoperateinIndonesia,buttheyarerequiredtocooperatewithlocaluniversities.AfinalandbindingConstitutionalCourthasrejectedajudicial
reviewproposedbysixstudentstorefuseforeignuniversitiestooperateinIndonesia.[21]

Internationaleducation

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Indonesia

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10/11/2016

EducationinIndonesiaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AsofJanuary2015,theInternationalSchoolsConsultancy(ISC)[22]listedIndonesiaashaving190internationalschools.[23]ISCdefinesan'internationalschool'inthe
followingterms"ISCincludesaninternationalschooliftheschooldeliversacurriculumtoanycombinationofpreschool,primaryorsecondarystudents,whollyorpartly
inEnglishoutsideanEnglishspeakingcountry,orifaschoolinacountrywhereEnglishisoneoftheofficiallanguages,offersanEnglishmediumcurriculumotherthan
thecountrysnationalcurriculumandisinternationalinitsorientation."[23]ThisdefinitionisusedbypublicationsincludingTheEconomist.[24]

Seealso

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IndonesianNationalAcademicExam
ListofschoolsinIndonesia
ListofuniversitiesinIndonesia
ListofIndonesianagriculturaluniversitiesandcolleges

References

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1.^"Amidsoaringeducationbudget,performanceremainslow" .JakartaPost.18October2014.Retrieved30October2015.linefeedcharacterin|title=atposition24(help)
2.^"IndonesiaLiteracyrate" .
3.^Indonesia:ACountryStudy

byWilliamH.Frederick,RobertL.Worden

4.^"WorldBankandEducationinIndonesia" .WorldBank.1September2014.Retrieved30October2016.Checkdatevaluesin:|accessdate=(help)
5.^"Nichtverfgbar" .Infocondet.com.Retrieved1November2012.
6.^ a b"WhywastheDutchlegacysopoor?EducationaldevelopmentintheNetherlandsIndies,18711942" .
7.^ a b c d e fhttp://indonesiadutchcolonialheritage.nl/Special%20Subjects/Education%20in%20Dutch%20EastIndia.pdf
8.^ a b c IndonesianEducation:Teachers,Schools,andCentralBureaucracy

byNovakStephen,ChristopherBjork

9.^"SedikitUraianSejarahPendidikanIndonesiaTinulad" .Tinulad.wordpress.com.Retrieved1November2012.
10.^"Hendry'sSite1.SEKOLAHMENENGAH" .Attaubah60.multiply.com.10April1946.Retrieved1November2012.
11.^Kindergartenstatisticsbetween20042005http://www.depdiknas.go.id/statistik/thn0405/TK_0405.htm
12.^"RIkicksoff12yearcompulsoryeducationprogram" .JakartaPost.26June2013.Retrieved22May2014.
13.^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa abac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as atKuipers,JoelC."Education".InIndonesia:ACountryStudy
FrederickandRobertL.Worden,eds.).LibraryofCongressFederalResearchDivision(2011).

(WilliamH.

Thisarticleincorporatestextfromthissource,whichisinthepublicdomain.

14.^PrimarySchoolstatisticsbetween20042005http://www.depdiknas.go.id/statistik/thn0405/SD_0405.htm
15.^UNESCOUNEVOC(July2013)."VocationalEducationinIndonesia" .Retrieved22May2014.
16.^ a b c d e f g"ASEANSTATEOFEDUCATIONREPORT2013"

(PDF) .AssociationofSoutheastAsianNations(ASEAN)2013.February2014.RetrievedJuly2016.Checkdate

valuesin:|accessdate=(help)
17.^[1]

KurikulumSD2013

18.^[2]

KurikulumSMP2013

19.^[3]

KurikulumSMA2013

20.^"ForeignstudentsinIndonesiamostlyMalaysians" .Waspada.co.id.23May2011.Retrieved1November2012.
21.^"ForeignuniversitiesmayoperateinRI:MK" .14December2013.
22.^"InternationalSchoolConsultancyGroup>Home" .
23.^ a b"InternationalSchoolConsultancyGroup>Information>ISCNews" .
24.^"Thenewlocal" .TheEconomist.17December2014.

Externallinks

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(English)WorldBankdataoneducationinIndonesia

VocationalEducationinIndonesiaUNESCOUNEVOC(2013)
(Dutch)PrimaryeducationintheDutchEastIndies

EducationinIndonesia ,webdossieroftheGermanEducationServer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Indonesia

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