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If you have multiple routers and not all of them are Cisco then you can’t use EIGRP so your remaining options are RIP and OSPF. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an Interior Gateway routing Protocol used to determine the correct route for packets within IP networks. It was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force to replace RIP. Configuring OSPF in a Single Area OSPF is a vendor-neutral routing protocol and is scalable for large internetworks unlike RIP. OSPF supports VLSM, has no limitation of network reachability, better use of network bandwidth for routing updates and faster routing convergence. OSPF-configured routers use the Hello protocol to establish and maintain neighbor relationships using the IP multicast address of 22.214.171.124. The Hello protocol packet contains many things such as Router ID, intervals, neighbors, Area ID, router priority and DR and BDR IP addresses. These values are critical when it comes to discovering, choosing and maintaining OSPF routes. Advantages of OSPF 1. Changes in an OSPF network are propagated quickly. 2. OSPF is hierarchical, using area 0 as the top as the hierarchy. 3. OSPF is a Link State Algorithm. 4. OSPF supports Variable Length Subnet Masks VLSM, CIDR and subnetting 5. OSPF uses multicasting within areas. 6. After initialization, OSPF only sends updates on routing table sections which have changed it does not send the entire routing table. 7. Using areas, OSPF networks can be logically segmented to decrease the size of routing tables. Table size can be further reduced by using route summarization. 8. OSPF is an open standard and offers support for multi-vendor hardware not related to any particular vendor. 9. When several routes to a destination exist, OSPF can create a load balance by using both routes intermittently. 10. OSPF has unlimited hop count.
Disadvantages of OSPF 1. OSPF is very processor intensive. 2. OSPF maintains multiple copies of routing information, increasing the amount of memory needed. 3. In the case where an entire network is running OSPF, and one link within it is "bouncing" every few seconds, OSPF updates would dominate the network by informing every other router every time the link changed state
Using OSPF, a host that obtains a change to a routing table or detects a change in the network immediately multicasts the information to all other hosts in the network so that all will have the same routing table information. Unlike the RIP in which the entire routing table is sent, the host using OSPF sends only the part that has changed. With RIP, the routing table is sent to a neighbor host every 30 seconds. OSPF multicasts the updated information only when a change has taken place. Rather than simply counting the number of hops, OSPF bases its path descriptions on "link states" that take into account additional network information. OSPF also lets the user assign cost metrics to a given host router so that some paths are given preference.
OSPF is uses a hierarchical design this means separating the larger internetwork into smaller networks called areas in order to • • • Decrease routing overhead To speed up convergence To confine network instability to single areas of the network.
Question Which of the following is a link-state protocol that uses a complex database to choose the best route for each network? A. RIP B. OSPF C. IGRP D. BGP Answer B
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol that contains the entire topology of the network in a database. Because the routers know the entire network topology, they can choose the shortest path to a route's destination. A is incorrect, as RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol that contains only a routing table of routes learned by rumour through directly connected neighbors. C is incorrect, as IGRP is also a distance-vector routing protocol. D is incorrect, as BGP is a path-vector routing protocol used between autonomous systems on WANs and the Internet.
Notice how each area connects to the backbone called area 0, or the backbone area. OSPF must have an area 0 and all other areas should connect to this area. Routers that connect other areas to the backbone area within an AS are called Area Border Routers (ABRs). Still at least one interface of the ABR must be in area 0. OSPF runs inside an autonomous system, but it can also connect multiple autonomous systems together. The router that connects these external ASes is called an Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR).
Classification of Routers
The OSPF routers fall into four types according to the position in the AS Internal Router Routers with all their interfaces within the same area. Area Border Router (ABR) An area border router belongs to more than two areas, one of which must be the backbone area. It connects the backbone area to a non-backbone area. The connection between an area border router and the backbone area can be physical or logical. Backbone Router Routers with at least one interface in area 0 attached to the backbone area. Therefore, all ABRs and internal routers in area 0 are backbone routers. Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) Routers that have at least one interface connected to an external internetwork (another autonomous system)
Question A single router interconnects Area 0, Area 10, and a non-OSPF external network. How can the router be described in pure OSPF terms? (Choose all that apply.) A. ABR B. ASBR C. Backbone router D. Internal router E. External router Answer B ASBR
Router ID The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router. Cisco chooses the DR by using the highest IP address of all configured loopback interfaces. If no loop-back interfaces are configured with addresses, OSPF will choose the highest IP address of all active physical interfaces. Adjacency An adjacency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits the direct exchange of route updates. OSPF is really picky about sharing routing information – unlike EIGRP which directly shares route with all its neighbours. Instead OSPF directly shares routes only with neighbors that have also established adjacencies not all neighbors will become adjacent this depends upon both the type of network and the configuration of the routers. Hello protocol The OSPF Hello protocol provides dynamic neighbor discovery and maintains neighbour relationships. Hello packets and Link State Advertisements (LSAs) build and maintain the topological database. Hello packets are addressed to 126.96.36.199 Neighbors and Adjacencies Neighbors are routers that that have an interface on a common network, when two routers are interconnected with a shared link, and share the routing information, then they are neighbors such as two routers connected on a point-to-point serial link they share OSPF's "hello" packets to verify two-way communication between neighboring routers. R1#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 188.8.131.52 1 FULL/BDR 00:00:34 192.168.12.2 Serial1/1 184.108.40.206 1 FULL/BDR 00:00:36 192.168.13.3 FastEthernet0/0 OSPF routers will only become Neighbors if their interfaces share a network that’s configured to belong to the same area number which can be a number in the range 1 – 4294967295 or a dotted decimal e.g. 0.0.0.0 is a legitimate area. Adjacencies are created when neighboring routers exchange link state routing information (LSAs). To minimize update information on a segment, OSPF creates a designated router (DR) as well as a backup designated router to act as the central point for routing table updates. All routers in a segment keep up-to-date tables but exchange routing information with only the designated routers. Adjacent routers free up network resources by centralizing the routing table update process, limiting the update information traffic between neighbors. • • •
Only the DR will send LSAs to the rest of the network. For backup purposes also a Backup DR (BDR) is elected All routers also establish adjacencies to the BDR BDR itself also establishes adjacency to DR
Neighborship database A variety of details such as the Router ID and state are maintained on each router in the neighbourship database it is a list of all OSPF routers which have received hello packets. Topological database All the Link State Advertisements packets that have been received for an area. The router uses the information from the topological database input into the Dijkstra algorithm. Link State Advertisement An OSPF data packet containing link-state and routing information. An OSPF router will exchange LSA packets only with routers with established adjacencies. Designated router (DR) Every OSPF area will have a designated router and a backup designated router. The Designated Router is the router to which all other routers within an area send their Link State Advertisements. The Designated Router will keep track of all link state updates and make sure the LSAs are flooded to the rest of the network. The Designated Router is elected by the Hello Protocol. A router's Hello Packet contains its Router Priority, which is configurable on a per-interface basis. The election is won by the router with the highest priority if this doesn’t differentiate then the Router ID is taken into account. Backup Designated Router (BDR) For each broadcast and NBMA network the BDR is also adjacent to all routers on the network, and becomes DR when the previous DR fails, the period of disruption last only as long as it takes to flood the new LSAs which announce the new DR. Each multi-access interface has a Router Priority ranging from 0 to 255 (default is 1). Routers with a priority of 0 cannot become DR or BDR. The election process is performed with Hello packets which carry the priority. If some routers have the same priority, the one with the highest numerical Router ID wins. If a DR fails the BDR becomes active and a new election for the BDR is started. Note: After election of DR and BDR, adding a new router with higher priority will not replace them. The first two routers immediately become DR and BDR. The only way to control the election is to set the priority for all other routers "DROTHER" to zero so they cannot become DR or BDR.
If there is no DR, the link state communication at a certain network segment would be like a full mesh. Question Which one of the following privileged EXEC mode show commands will display the state of the OSPF DR/BDR election process? A. #show ip ospf interface B. #show ip ospf priority C. #show ospf neighbor detail D. #show ospf processes E. #show ospf neighbor state Answer A This command will display the router ID of both the DR and the BDR on the network segment the interface is connected to.
E and F Display information about all OSPF neighbors.
Configure OSPF over Different Physical Networks OSPF classifies different media into the following three types of network by default.
Broadcast (multi-access) Ethernet allow multiple devices to connect to the same network as well as provide broadcast ability in which a single packet is delivered to all nodes on the network. Non-broadcast multi-access NBMA networks are types such as Frame Relay, X.25 and ATM. These networks allow for multi-access but have no broadcast ability like Ethernet. So NBMA require special OSPF configuration. Point-to-point Network topology consisting of a direct connection between two routers, this can be physical through a serial cable or logical with routers thousands of miles away. This eliminates the need for DRs/BDRs Point-to-multipoint A single interface on one router connecting to multiple routers. All interfaces sharing the point-to-multipoint connection belong to the same network. No DRs or BDRs are needed. Question On point-to-point networks, OSPF hello packets are addressed to which address? A. 127.0.0.1 B. 172.16.0.1 C. 192.168.0.5 D. 220.127.116.11 E. 18.104.22.168 F. 254.255.255.255 Answer E In point-to-point network, OSPF does not choose DR / BDR, all the HELLO packets send to 22.214.171.124
Question On which types of network will OSPF elect a backup designated router? A. point-to-point and multiaccess B. point-to-multipoint and multiaccess C. point-to-point and point-to-multipoint D. nonbroadcast and broadcast multipoint E. nonbroadcast and broadcast multiaccess Answer E Peer-to-peer networks do not need to choose DR \ BDR. NBMA network needs to elect the DR \ BDR Question In which types of networks are OSPF DR elections necessary? (Choose two.) A. point-to-point B. point-to-multipoint C. broadcast multiaccess D. nonbroadcast multiaccess Answer C & D broadcast multiaccess nonbroadcast multiaccess
For OSPF configuration in a NBMA mode, the commands used are interface serial number.subinterface-number multipoint and router ospf process-id followed by the network address wildcard-mask area area-id command. In a NBMA mode, OSPF operates very much like it does in a broadcast network where the routers exchange update traffic to identify their neighbors and elect a DR and BDR. Configuration of neighbors is required however with the neighbor ip-address command, and neighbors must belong to the same subnet. Once configured, the OSPF operation can be verified with the commands show ip protocols for routing protocol configuration, show ip route ospf for routing table updates and show ip ospf neighbor and show ip ospf database.
Neighbour States OSPF routers that are directly connected should exchange Hellos and form neighbour relationships. On a point to point link, every neighbour relationship should also result in an adjacency being formed, but that’s not necessarily true where say several routers are connected to the same LAN segment—in this case they will only form an adjacency with the Designated Router and BDR. When an OSPF adjacency is formed between neighbours, a router goes through several state changes before it becomes fully adjacent with its neighbor. Until all required adjacencies have been formed, your network will not operate correctly.
This is a sample output of the show ip ospf neighbor command on R7 and R8
Notice that R7 establishes full adjacency only with the Designated Router (DR) and the Backup Designated Router (BDR). All other routers have a two-way adjacency established. This is normal behavior for OSPF.
R8 the DR establishes full adjacency with all routers Whenever a router sees itself in a neighbor hello packet, it confirms bidirectional communication and transitions the neighbor state to two-way. At this point, the routers perform DR and BDR election. Once DR and BDR are elected, a router attempts to form a full adjacency with a neighbor if one of the two routers is the DR or BDR. OSPF routers become fully adjacent with routers with which they have successfully completed the database synchronization process. This is the process by which OSPF routers exchange link-state information to populate their databases with the same information. Again, this database synchronization process is only executed between two routers if one of the two routers is the DR or BDR. The 2WAY state means that there is bi-directional communication between them, which is normal on a broadcast medium. If this was a point to point link, it would indicate a problem, since 2WAY should change to FULL. The following describes the show ip ospf neighbor command output. Neighbor ID The Neighbor ID is the router ID of the neighbor router. The router ID is the highest IP address or the highest ip address among loopback addresses (if one is configured) on the Cisco router or can be configured manually by "router-id x.x.x.x". Once the router ID is chosen, it will not be changed unless the ospf process is reset (clear ip ospf process xx) or the router is reloaded. And IP address of router ID doesn't need to be reachable. Priority The Pri field indicates the priority of the neighbor router. The router with the highest priority becomes the designated router (DR). If the priorities are the same, then the router with the highest router ID becomes the DR. By default, priorities are set to 1. A router with a priority of 0 never becomes a DR or a backup designated router (BDR); it is always a DROTHER, meaning a router that isn’t the DR or the BDR. State The State field indicates the functional state of the neighbor router. Refer to OSPF Neighbor States. FULL means the router is fully adjacent with its neighbor. OSPF Neighbor States
Down This state means that no information (hellos) has been received from this neighbor, but hello packets can still be sent to the neighbor in this state. During the fully adjacent neighbor state, if a router doesn't receive hello packet from a neighbor within the RouterDeadInterval time, then the neighbor state changes from Full to Down. Attempt This state is only valid for manually configured neighbors in an NBMA environment. In Attempt state, the router sends unicast hello packets every poll interval to the neighbor, from which hellos have not been received within the dead interval. Init This state specifies that the router has received a hello packet from its neighbor, but the receiving router's ID was not included in the hello packet. When a router receives a hello packet from a neighbor, it should list the sender's router ID in its hello packet as an acknowledgment that it received a valid hello packet. 2-Way This state designates that bi-directional communication has been established between two routers. Bi-directional means that each router has seen the other's hello packet. This state is attained when the router receiving the hello packet sees its own Router ID within the received hello packet's neighbor field. At this state, a router decides whether to become adjacent with this neighbor. On broadcast media and non-broadcast multiaccess networks, a router becomes full only with the designated router (DR) and the backup designated router (BDR); it stays in the 2way state with all other neighbors. On Point-to-point and Point-to-multipoint networks, a router becomes full with all connected routers. Full In this state, routers are fully adjacent with each other. All the router and network LSAs are exchanged and the routers' databases are fully synchronized. Full is the normal state for an OSPF router. If a router is stuck in another state, it's an indication that there are problems in forming adjacencies. The only exception to this is the 2-way state, which is normal in a broadcast network. Routers achieve the full state with their DR and BDR only. Neighbors always see each other as 2-way. Dead Time The Dead Time field indicates the amount of time remaining that the router waits to receive an OSPF hello packet from the neighbor before declaring the neighbor down. On broadcast and point-to-point media, the default dead interval is 40 seconds. On non-broadcast and point-tomultipoint links, the default dead interval is 120 seconds. Address The Address field indicates the IP address of the interface to which this neighbor is directly connected. In the case of unnumbered links, this field shows the IP address of the interface to which the neighbor is unnumbered. When OSPF packets are transferred to the neighbor, this address will be the destination address. Interface The Interface field indicates the interface on which the OSPF neighbor has formed adjacency.
Stuck at EXSTART/EXCHANGE Things have started out okay there’s a relationship formed but the two routers have a problem often caused by vendor interoperability issues, typically MTU mismatches.
OSPF neighbors stuck in EXSTART debug ip ospf adj
This problem is rare, but worth mentioning OSPF neighbors are forever stuck in EXSTART state (occasionally going to DOWN and back to EXSTART). The moment you start suspecting that something might be wrong with the OSPF adjacencies and use debug ip ospf adj command, the problem becomes obvious: the Database Description packet contains an Interface MTU field and if the value received from the neighbor is higher than the ip MTU configured on the inbound interface, the DBD packet is rejected. The router with the lower MTU complains that “Nbr x.x.x.x has larger interface MTU”
A maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the largest size packet or frame, specified in octets, that can be sent in a packet- or frame-based network such as the Internet. The Internet's TCP uses the MTU to determine the maximum size of each packet in any transmission. Too large an MTU size may mean retransmissions if the packet encounters a router that can't handle that large a packet. The "Internet Cell size" is effectively 1500 bytes - the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for Ethernet. Question Which of the following should be considered when troubleshooting a problem with the establishment of neighbor relationships between OSPF routers? (Choose three.) A. OSPF interval timers mismatch B. gateway of last resort not redistributed C. interface network type mismatch D. no loopback interface configured E. administrative distance mismatch F. inconsistent authentication configuration
Answer A, C, F OSPF interval timers mismatch interface network type mismatch inconsistent authentication configuration If you’re adding a router, remember that you must use the same authentication type within the whole area - any area border routers will need authentication configured for each. It’s always possible that you could have mistyped an authentication key, but debugging the OSPF process should tell you that authentication is failing if this is the case
Designated Router (DR) Do not confuse the DR with an OSPF router type. A given physical router can have some interfaces that are designated (DR), others that are backup designated (BDR), and others that are non-designated. The Task of the DR The connection of a network which linked R3 is interrupted R3 will only send the information to R1 the DR, after receiving the message the DR will send the information about the network interruption to R2 and R4. In other words, R1 (DR) is the leader of the entire OSPF network, any changes in the network have to report to the DR and the DR sends the news to the other routers.
The BDR Backup Designated Router If the DR, that manages the entire OSPF network, meets an accident and goes down, then the whole network will be confused. The role of BDR is to become a new DR when the previous DR is invalid. Why choose a DR, BDR? Let’s check what the network will look like if there is no DR / BDR When R2 routers has news about updated information of routers and needs to send the news to other routers then it will copy the information three times to R1、R3、R4 respectively.
When R1, R3, R4 received an updated report from R2, they will do the same thing because they are uncertain whether the other routers know that R2 has been updated, so they will do their best to transfer out all the news they got through their OSPF interface.
This leads to a problem, the update information in the network will be copied many times and will take up much valuable network resources. If there is only one leader as DR and a BDR, then the issue will be resolved: all non-DR and non-BDR routers who get update information will only tell it to DR and BDR, and then the updated information will be transmitted to other routers by DR. The DR has a heavy load so choose a router with excellent processing capabilities. How to choose the DR and BDR? The four OSPF routers exchange the information by using HELLO reports, in choosing a DR, BDR. Throughout the OSPF network, the highest Router ID will become the DR; the next highest one will become the BDR, the rest are known as DRothers. As the Router ID of R1 is the highest, it will be the DR; While the Router ID of R2 is next highest, and will be the BDR; leaving R3, R4 as DRothers.
Election of the DR and BDR
1. The router with the highest Priority becomes the DR the next highest becomes the BDR. The priority values range between 0 - 254, with a higher value increasing its chances of becoming DR or BDR. 2. If two or more routers tie with the highest priority setting, the router sending the Hello with the highest RID (Router ID) wins. Note, a RID is the highest logical (loopback) IP address configured on a router. 3. If no logical/loopback IP address is set then the Router uses the highest IP address configured on its active interfaces. (e.g. 192.168.0.1 would be higher than 10.1.1.2).
Modifying Router Priority to control the DR, BDR Election. In the election routers compare Router ID and priority level, OSPF default priority is 1 if this hasn’t been altered, routers only need to compare Router ID. However, manual changes to the priority can control the election. A router with the highest OSPF priority will win the election for DR. For example, we need to change R3 to DR, R1 as the BDR and the rest as Drother. R3#config t R3(config)#interface f0/0 R3(config-if)#ip ospf priority 100 R1#config t R1(config)#interface f0/0 R1(config-if)#ip ospf priority 80 Highest priority wins so R3 will be the DR, next highest is R1 the BDR Note we have to reload or shutdown the routers for election to take place and priority take effect. We can see Priority with show ip ospf interface R3#show ip ospf interface FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 126.96.36.199 Area 0 Process ID 64999 Router ID 188.8.131.52 Network Type BROADCAST Cost 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec State DR Priority 100 Designated Router (ID) 184.108.40.206, Interface address 192.168.50.1 Priority areas are 0 to 255, when the priority of a router is 0, the router will not participate in the election.
Then check whether the configuration will be into force by the command of “show ip OSPF neighbor”. The show ip ospf neighbor command summarises the OSPF information regarding priority, neighbours and adjacency state and id and if DR or BDR exits. RouterA#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time 192.168.40.1 1 FULL 00:00:30 RouterA# Address 192.168.20.2 Interface Serial0/0
Question The routers in the diagram are configured as shown. The loopback interface on router R1 is labelled as lo0. All OSPF priorities are set to the default except for Ethernet0 of router R2, which has an OSPF priority of 2. What will be the result of the OSPF DR/BDR elections on the 220.127.116.11 network? (Choose two.)
A. R1 will be the DR B. R1 will be the BDR C. R2 will be the DR D. R2 will be the BDR E. R3 will be the DR F. R3 will be the BDR Answer B, C Explanation OSPF default priority is 1. The highest priority router is R2 with a priority of 2 it is the DR. The BDR logically should be the loopback interface on R1 A loopback interface is virtual in nature, and thus will never go down as long as the router is powered on. It doesn't rely on any physical network or cable to be plugged in. Typically, the router chooses its highest IP address of all physical interfaces. However, if there's a loopback interface (seen as a manual intervention), the OSPF process will always use the loopback address as its RID value. However here the loopback interface isn’t connected so R3 the highest ip address is chosen as the BDR.
Transition of Priority and DR/BDR
Even if routers with a higher priority are added later, The DR/BDR doesn’t change!
Question A network administrator is troubleshooting the OSPF configuration of routers R1 and R2. The routers cannot establish an adjacency relationship on their common Ethernet link. The graphic shows the output of the show ip ospf interface e0 command for routers R1 and R2. Based on the information, what is the cause of this problem?
A. The OSPF area is not configured properly. B. The priority on R1 should be set higher. C. The cost on R1 should be set higher. D. The hello and dead timers are not configured properly.
E. A backup designated router needs to be added to the network. F. The OSPF process ID numbers must match. Answer D Hello and dead intervals are not same on both routers. Explanation Certain parameters within the OSPF hellos must match in order for two routers to become neighbors. They include. 1 Hello/dead timers 2 Area ID 3 Authentication type and password 4 Stub area flag Question The OSPF Hello protocol performs which of the following tasks? (Choose two.) A. It provides dynamic neighbor discovery. B. It detects unreachable neighbors in 90 second intervals. C. It maintains neighbor relationships. D. It negotiates correctness parameters between neighboring interfaces. E. It uses timers to elect the router with the fastest links as the designated router. F. It broadcasts hello packets throughout the internetwork to discover all routers that are running OSPF. Answer A, C The two tasks of Hello protocol. It provides dynamic neighbor discovery and maintains neighbor relationships (keep alives).
SPF Tree Within an area each router calculates the best/shortest path to every network in that same area. If a router has interfaces in multiple areas, then separate trees will be constructed for each area. One of the key criteria of SPF route selection is the metric or cost of a path. Cisco uses a 10^8/bandwith. An interface with a bandwith of 64000 would have a default cost of 1563. Question Which router is the root of an SPF tree? A. border router B. nearest neighboring router C. local router D. trunk router, as determined by the SPF algorithm Answer C local router Question You have configured an OSPF interface with the bandwidth 128 command. What is the calculated OSPF cost of this link? A. 1 B. 781 C. 1562 D. 64000 E. 128000
Answer B The formula that OSPF uses to figure the cost of a path is 108/bandwidth (bps). In this case, 10^8/128000 = 781.25. A is incorrect, as that is the cost of a 100Mbps link. C is incorrect, as that is the cost of a 64K link. D and E are invalid costs. Question What does OSPF use to calculate the cost to a destination network? A. bandwidth B. bandwidth and hop count C. bandwidth and reliability D. bandwidth, load, and reliability Answer A Bandwidth
CCNA covers only single area OSPF with each router running a single OSPF process. OSPF Process ID To activate the OSPF routing process: RouterA(config)# router ospf ? <1-65535> A value in the range 1-65535 identifies the OSPF Process ID. It’s a unique number on this router that groups a series of OSPF commands under a specific running process. Different OSPF’s don’t have to use the same Process ID in order to communicate its purely a local value that has little meaning. It can be the same on every router on the network or it can be different it doesn’t matter. It’s locally significant and just enables the OSPF routing on the router. Note the area-id is an integer between 0 and 4294967295
Configuring OSPF Areas
After the OSPF process we need to identify the interfaces and area on which you want to activate OSPF.
RouterA#config t RouterA(config)#router ospf 1 RouterA(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 In multi-area OSPF networks all areas are required to connect to area 0 the backbone area. The arguments of the network command are the network number (10.0.0.0) and the wildcard mask (0.255.255.255) The combination of these 2 numbers identifies the interfaces that OSPF will operate on and is included in OSPF Link State Advertisements (LSA’s).
OSPF will use this command to find any interface on the router that’s configured in the 10.0.0.0 network and it will place that interface into area 0. If you have more than one network statement, the order becomes important. In the following example, the last line matches all IP addresses and assigns them to Area 0. But, because this line comes last, it only picks up any addresses that are not captured by either of the lines above it. However, if we had written this line first, then all of the interfaces would wind up in Area 0. Router1#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router1(config)#router ospf 55 Router1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 2 Router1(config-router)#network 172.20.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 100 Router1(config-router)#network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 Router1(config-router)#end Router1# Question Which command sequence will enable OSPF in the backbone area for the two Ethernet links on RouterA?
RouterA(config)# router ospf 1 RouterA(config-router)# network 172.16.4.0 0.0.1.255 area 1 RouterA(config)# router ospf 10 RouterA(config-router)# network 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 RouterA(config-router)# network 172.16.5.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 RouterA(config)# router ospf 10 RouterA(config-router)# area 0 network 172.16.4.0 0.0.1.255 RouterA(config)# router ospf 0 RouterA(config-route)# network 172.16.4.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 RouterA(config)# router ospf 0 RouterA(config-router)# network 172.16.4.0 255.255.255.0 RouterA(config-router)# network 172.16.5.0 255.255.255.0 RouterA(config)# router ospf 1 RouterA(config-router)# network 172.16.4.0 255.255.254.0 area 0
C. D. E.
Answer B RouterA(config)# router ospf 10 RouterA(config-router)# network 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 RouterA(config-router)# network 172.16.5.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Question On the topic of OSPF routing: which of the following are the traits of an OSPF area? A. B. C. D. E. F. Answer C & E Explanation OSPF uses areas in a hierarchical fashion and the backbone area is always area 0. All other areas have at least one connection to area 0. Incorrect Answers A. Loopback interfaces are often used in OSPF networks so that the router ID can be configured. However this is not a requirement. B. The area-id can be an integer between 0 and 4294967295, 65535 relates to OSPF process ID D. Mentions Hierarchical areas which require multiple areas F. Single area OSPF networks do not have to be configured with the backbone area 0 Although area 1 can indeed be used it is not required that area 1 is used. Question On the topic of OSPF routing which of the following are the traits of an OSPF area? Select three A. B. C. D. Each OSPF area requires a loopback interface to be configured Areas may be assigned any number from 0 to 65535 Area 0 is called the backbone area OSPF networks do not require multiple areas E. Multiple OSPF areas must connect to area 0 F. Single area OSPF networks must be configured in area 1 Answer C, D, E Explanation D. OSPF networks do not require multiple areas as all routers can be contained within a single area. If an OSPF network is configured as a single area then area 0 does not need to be used. No mention of “Hierarchical therefore D is correct! Each OSPF area requires a loopback interface to be configured Areas may be assigned any number from 0 to 65535 Area 0 is called the backbone area Hierarchical OSPF networks do not require multiple areas Multiple OSPF areas must connect to area 0 Single area OSPF networks must be configured in area 1
Quick review of Wildcards
A 0 octet in the wildcard mask indicates that the corresponding octet in the network must match exactly. On the other hand a 255 indicates that we don’t care what the corresponding octet is in the network number. A network and wildcard mask combination of 18.104.22.168 0.0.0.0 would match 22.214.171.124 only and nothing else. This is useful to activate OSPF on a specific network to match a range of networks the network and wildcard mask combo of 126.96.36.199 0.0.255.255 would match anything in the range 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206
The final argument is the area number. It indicates the area to which the interfaces identified in the network and wildcard mask belong. OSPF routers become neighbours only if their interfaces share a network that configured to the same area number. Wildcard Example We have a router with theses 4 subnets connected to four different interfaces. 192.168.10.64/28, 192.168.10.80/28, 192.168.10.96/28, 192.168.10.8/30 All interfaces need to be in area 0. Seems the easiest config is Test#config t Test(config)#router ospf 1 Test(config-router)#network 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 But to cover CCNA objectives lets use separate subnets and wildcards Test#config t Test(config)#router ospf 1 Test(config-router)#network Test(config-router)#network Test(config-router)#network Test(config-router)#network
192.168.10.64 0.0.0.15 area 0 192.168.10.80 0.0.0.15 area 0 192.168.10.96 0.0.0.15 area 0 192.168.10.8 0.0.0.3 area 0
Remember when configuring wildcards they’re always one less than the block size. A /28 is a block size of 16 The /28 means that the first 28 bits of the subnet mask are set to binary 1 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000 255.255.255.240 256 – 240 = 16 block size so we will have the subnet number then a wildcard of 15 in the interesting octet. For /30 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100 255.255.255.252 256 - 252 = 4 block size of 4, we’d use a wildcard of 3. Example
Another Example Here we have a 3 router network with ip addresses on each interface The 1st thing we need to do is look at each interface and determine the subnet for the addresses. Remember we can just use the exact ip addresses of the interface with the 0.0.0.0 wildcard interface but that’s too easy and we want to practise wildcards. Router A e0: 192.168.10.65/29 s0: 10.255.255.81/30 Router B e0: 192.168.10.49/29 s1: 10.255.255.82/30 s0: 10.255.255.9/30 Router C e0: 192.168.10.17/29 s0: 10.255.255.10/30
The RouterA router has two directly connected subnets 192.168.10.64/29 and 10.255.255.80/30 The router is using a /29 or 255.255.255.248 mask on the Ethernet0 interface. This is a block size of 8, which is a wildcard of 7. The s0 interface is a mask of 255.255.255.252 a block size of 4 with a wildcard of 3. RouterA#config t RouterA(config)#router ospf 1 RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.10.64 RouterA(config-router)#network 10.255.255.80
0.0.0.7 area 0 0.0.0.3 area 0
RouterA#config t RouterA(config)#router ospf 1 RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.10.48 0.0.0.7 area 0 RouterA(config-router)#network 10.255.255.80 0.0.0.3 area 0 RouterA(config-router)#network 10.255.255.8 0.0.0.3 area 0
RouterA#config t RouterA(config)#router ospf 1 RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.10.16 0.0.0.7 area 0 RouterA(config-router)#network 10.255.255.8 0.0.0.3 area 0 OK let’s configure OSPF using just area 0. Before we do that lets remove IGRP EIGRP because OSPF has an administrative distance of 110 (IGRP 100, EIGRP 90) and why not remove RIP as well. There are different ways to configure OSPF the simplest is using the wildcard mask of 0.0.0.0 however OSPF is more fun and hence easier to mess up so we see how to configure each router differently. RouterA#config t RouterA(config)#no router eigrp 10 RouterA(config)#no router igrp 10 RouterA(config)#no router rip RouterA(config)#router ospf 132 RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.10.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.20.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 RouterA(config-router)# ˆZ RouterA# Here we removed eigrp, igrp and rip why did we use OSPF 132 no reason the number isn’t relevant, here we used the IP address of each interface and the wildcard mask of 0.0.0.0 which makes things match each octet exactly for simplicity. Now let configure RouterB differently Configuring OSPF on multiple interfaces of a router RouterB is directly connected to networks 20, 30, 40. Instead of typing in each interface I can use one network interface and still make it work. RouterB#config t RouterB(config)#no router eigrp 10 RouterB(config)#no router igrp 10 RouterB(config)#no router rip RouterB(config)#router ospf 1 RouterB(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 area0
Invalid input detected at /\ marker RouterB(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 RouterB(config-router)# ˆZ RouterB# OK we had a little typo where we forgot to place a space between the area command and the area number other than that this is an efficient configuration. Here we turned on routing process 1 and added the network command 192.168.0.0 with a wildcard of 0.0.255.255 This says find any interface that starts with 192.168 and place those interfaces into area 0. RouterC Configuration RouterC is directly connected to networks 40, and 50 RouterC#config t RouterC(config)#no router eigrp 10
RouterC(config)#no router igrp % incomplete command RouterC(config)#no router igrp 10 RouterC(config)#no router rip RouterC(config)#router ospf 64999 RouterC(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 RouterC(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 RouterC(config-router)# ˆZ RouterC# We used 64999 for the process ID, we can use any number as long as its between 1 - 65535.
The OSPF network statement
If I have to assign a specific interface into an area, I would always use network x.y.z.w 0.0.0.0 area n Question You would like to ensure that the Serial interface 0/0 with an IP address of 10.30.12.1/16 participates in OSPF advertisements and is a member of area 1. What network statement should you use? A. network 10.30.0.0 area 1 B. network 10.30.12.1 0.0.0.0 area 1 C. network 10.30.12.1 255.255.255.255 area 1 D. network 10.30.12.1 255.255.0.0 area 1 E. network 10.30.0.0 255.255.0.0 area 1 Answer B network 10.30.12.1 0.0.0.0 area 1
If the area address ranges are nicely assigned (which also helps immensely when you have to start summarizing), you can use a single network statement to cover the whole area. If, for example, area 3 has address range 10.1.16.0/20, use network 10.1.16.0 0.0.15.255 area 3 If the router has all interfaces in a single area, I would always use network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area area-id (unless there is an extremely good reason that some interfaces should not be seen by the OSPF)
Using the Cisco Router and Security Device Manager (SDM). Turn off RIP and EIGRP, although RIP wont bother OSPF since OSPF has a lower AD. The 1st screen shot shows RIP disabled.
Next the EIGRP being disabled just click the Delete button.
After clicking on the OSPF tab, I clicked Add Network and added my OSPF information.
I then clicked OK, chose my passive interfaces and click OK.
OSPF uses the largest IP address configured on the interfaces as its router ID. If the interface with this IP address goes down or is removed the OSPF process must recalculate a new router ID and resend all its routing information out its interfaces. If a loopback interface is configured with an IP address, Cisco IOS will use this IP address as its router ID, even if other interfaces have larger IP addresses. Since loopback interfaces are logical software virtual interfaces that never go down giving greater stability in the routing table. OSPF automatically prefers a loopback interface over any other kind and it chooses the highest IP address among all loopback interfaces. If no loopback interfaces are present the highest IP address in the router is chosen. To configure an IP address on a loopback interface, perform the following in global config mode.
To ensure OSPF stability there should be an active interface for the OSPF process at all times. A Loopback interface is a logical interface if we haven’t used loopback interfaces and the router ID, a serial interface with the highest IP address goes down then a re-election must occur on the network in order to determine who is going to be the DR and BDR on the network, not a problem for OSPF unless this is a flapping link (going up/down). Loopback interfaces solve this problem as they never go down and so the RID of the router never changes.
There are several ways to set the OSPF RID. The easiest is to create and configure a loopback interface
Router5#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router5(config)#interface Loopback0 Router5(config-if)#ip address 172.25.25.6 255.255.255.255 Router5(config-if)#end Router5# If you don't want to use a Loopback interface, you can still force the router ID to use a particular IP address with the router-id configuration command Router5#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router5(config)#router ospf 87 Router5(config-router)#router-id 172.25.1.7 Router5(config-router)#end Router5#
End with CNTL/Z.
You can see what the RID for your router is with the following command: Router5#show ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 87" with ID 172.25.1.7 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs Number of external LSA 5. Checksum Sum 0x28868 Number of DCbitless external LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge external LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 2 Area has no authentication
OSPF DR setup
Man router configuration is Router#config terminal Router(config)#hostname Man Man(config)#interface fa0/0 Man(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Man(config-if)#no shutdown Man(config-if)#interface loopback 0 Man(config-if)#ip address 192.168.31.11 255.255.255.255 Note: the no shutdown command. An interface may be correctly configured and physically connected, yet be "administratively down." In this state it will not function. Configure the OSPF, Configure Man router as a member of OSPF Area 0. Man(config)#router ospf 1 Man(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 1 is the ospf process ID which is locally significant. Another Example Lets see the RID on the Corp router with show ip ospf
We can see that the RID is 10.1.5.1 Lets configure a loopback interface using an ip address of 172.16.10.1
The IP scheme really doesn’t matter here but each router has to be in a separate subnet by using the /32 mask we can use any IP address we want as long as the address are different on each router. The /32 mask 255.255.255.255 is a host mask and allows us to save subnets Now check we actually changed the RID of our router by setting the loopback interface
It’s the same Logical interfaces don’t automatically become the RID of the router we need to reboot or delete OSPF
You can see what the RID for your router is with the following command. Router5#show ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 87" with ID 172.25.1.7 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs Number of external LSA 5. Checksum Sum 0x28868 Number of DCbitless external LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge external LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 2 Area has no authentication The router will continue to use the same RID address, even if you subsequently add a router-id command or a loopback interface. To force OSPF to update the RID, you can either reload the router or restart the OSPF process using the clear ip ospf process command. Router5#clear ip ospf process Reset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes Router5#
RouterA, RouterB, and RouterC in the diagram are running OSPF on their Ethernet interfaces. Loopback interfaces (Lo 0) are configured as shown. What happens when RouterD is added to the network? A. RouterB takes over as DR and RouterD becomes the BDR. B. RouterD becomes the BDR and RouterA remains the DR. C. RouterD becomes the DR and RouterA becomes the BDR. D. RouterC acts as the DR until the election process is complete. E. RouterD becomes the DR and RouterB remains the BDR. F. There is no change in the DR or BDR until either current DR or BDR goes down. Answer F There is no change in the DR or BDR until either current DR or BDR goes down. Explanation DR / BDR elections are "sticky" so once you have a DR, it doesnt change unless the current DR goes away, in which case OSPF promotes the current BDR if there is one.
The OSPF Router ID (RID)
The RID is the value by which other OSPF routers will identify a given OSPF router. There are some interesting defaults for this value, and you should know to hardcode the RID. You had also better know what has to happen for this command to take effect, so let's take a more detailed look at the OSPF RID. In this example, R1 has an adjacency with R2 and R3 over the 220.127.116.11/24 frame network. R1 is the hub, with R2 and R3 as the spokes. No other interfaces are OSPF-enabled on any of the routers. Running show ip ospf neighbor on R2, we see some unusual values under "Neighbor ID", which is another name for the OSPF RID.
Notice that R1's RID is 18.104.22.168, which is one of the loopbacks on that router. No interface other than the serial interface is OSPF-enabled on R1. How can 22.214.171.124 be the OSPF RID if these loopbacks are not OSPF-enabled? When determining the Router ID (RID) of an OSPF-enabled router, OSPF will always use the numerically highest IP address on the router’s loopback interfaces, regardless of whether that loopback is OSPF-enabled. What if there is no loopback? OSPF will then use the numerically highest IP address of the physical interfaces, regardless of whether that interface is OSPF-enabled. BOTTOM LINE: An interface does not have to be running OSPF to have its IP address used as the OSPF RID. The OSPF RID can be changed, but it requires a restart or to reinitialize the OSPF routing process. Use the router-id command to change the default RID of each router as shown, and clear the OSPF process to have the change take effect.
After entering the router-id command, the router console informed you that you have to reload the router or reset the OSPF processes for this to take effect. You enter the clear ip ospf process command to do this. Notice that when you’re asked if you really want to do this, the prompt is “no”? That’s because all the OSPF adjacencies on this router will be lost and will have to begin the process again. That’s OK on a practice rack, not good in a production network. Don’t use that one at work. The OSPF RID is not a complicated concept, but the fact that an interface doesn't have to be OSPF-enabled in order to have its IP address act as the RID takes some getting used to. Question You need to verify the router ID assigned to one of your OSPF speaking routers. What command accomplishes this? A. show ip interface brief B. show ip ospf C. show ip ospf neighbors D. show ip ospf interfaces Answer C show ip ospf neighbors
Configuring OSPF Hub-And-Spoke
This is a typical OSPF hub-and-spoke network. R1 is serving as the hub, with R2 and R3 as the spokes. R2 and R3 can communicate, but any traffic going from one spoke to another must go through the hub. Since R1 will not forward broadcasts or multicasts between the spokes including OSPF Hellos - there are some special considerations to take into account when configuring this OSPF network type. Make sure the hub is the designated router and that there are no backup designated routers. This is done by setting the OSPF interface priority to zero on the spoke routers. R2(config)#int s0 R2(config-if)#ip ospf priority 0 This not only ensures that the hub wins the DR election with its default OSPF interface priority of 1, but it prevents the spokes from ever having a chance to become the DR or BDR. Configure neighbor statements on the hub. Since we're dealing with an NBMA network, the hub cannot dynamically discover its neighbors. Neighbor statements are not needed on the spokes. (They don't hurt anything, but they don't do anything, either.) R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#neighbor 126.96.36.199 R1(config-router)#neighbor 188.8.131.52 Finally, if your OSPF adjacencies do not form as expected, make sure to use your OSI model knowledge. The issue may actually be at Layer Two, with your Frame Relay configuration. If you don't use the broadcast option on your frame relay statements, OSPF hellos will not be transmitted successfully between potential neighbors. OSPF hellos are multicast, but the broadcast option for Frame Relay includes multicasts.
R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#frame map ip 184.108.40.206 122 broadcast R1(config-if)#frame map ip 220.127.116.11 123 broadcast
OSPF Verification & Troubleshooting
The commands show ip ospf show ip ospf database show ip ospf interface show ip ospf neighbor
show ip route
This router output shows routes connected with O which is OSPF also there are dual routes to networks 10.1.6.0 and 10.1.7.0. Note OSPF only uses bandwidth to determine best path also OSPF can load balance only across links of equal costs. It cant load balance across unequal cost links as EIGRP can.
Show ip ospf
The show ip ospf is used to display OSPF process information running on the router and shows router ID, area information, SPF statistics and LSA timer information. Notice the Router ID (RID) of 192.168.0.3 which is the highest IP address in the router.
Lets configure a loopback interface using a completely different IP addressing scheme. RouterA#config t RouterA(config)#int loopback 0 RouterA(config-if)#ip address 172.16.10.1 255.255.255.0 RouterA(config-if)# ˆZ RouterA# The IP scheme really doesn’t matter here, but each router has to be in a separate subnet. Lets configure RouterB now? RouterB#config t RouterB(config)#int lo0 RouterB(config-if)#ip address 172.16.20.1 255.255.255.0 RouterB(config-if)# no shut RouterB(config-if)# ˆZ RouterB# Here is the configuration of the loopback interface on RouterC RouterC#config t RouterC(config)#int lo0 RouterC(config-if)#ip address 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.0 RouterC(config-if)# no shut RouterC(config-if)# ˆZ RouterC# The only question left to answer is if you want to advertise the loopback interfaces under OSPF. There are pro’s and cons to using an address that wont be advertised vs one that is. Using an unadvertised address saves on real IP address space, but the address wont appear in the OSPF table, so you cant’ ping it. So there is a trade off between the ease of debugging the network and conservation of address space. The best strategy is to use private IP address scheme.
To verify the loopback address use the show running-config command RouterC#show running-config ! hostname RouterC ! interface Loopback0 ip address 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.0 ! The show ip ospf command shows the RID in the 1st line. RouterC#show ip ospf Routing Process “ospf 64999” with ID 172.16.30.1 and Domain ID 0.0.253.231 Note the new RIDs don’t show up after the loopback interface is setup until after they are rebooted!!!
Question You work as network administrator your trainee is configuring a router with both physical and logical interfaces. He asks you what factor determines the OSPF router ID. What should you tell him? A. The lowest network number of any interface. B. The lowest IP address of any logical interface. C. The lowest IP address of any physical interface. D. The highest network number of any interface. E. The highest IP address of any logical interface. F. The highest IP address of any physical interface. Answer E Explanation The OSPF topology database includes information about routers and the subnets, or links, to which they are attached. To identify the routers in the neighbor table’s topology database, OSPF uses a router ID (RID) for each router. A router’s OSPF RID is that router’s highest IP address on a physical interface when OSPF starts running. Note: The OSPF router ID is a 32-bit IP address selected at the beginning of the OSPF process. The highest IP address configured on the router is the router ID. If a loopback address is configured, then it is the router ID. In case of multiple loopback addresses, the highest loopback address is the router ID. Once the router ID is elected it doesn't change unless the IP address is removed or OSPF restarts.
Show ip ospf database
The show ip database command indicates the number of routers in the internetwork (AS) and the neighboring router’s ID (this is the topology database) unlike the show ip eigrp topology command OSPF routers are shown not each and every link in the AS as EIGRP does. RouterC#show ip ospf database
OSPF router with ID (172.16.30.1) (Process ID 64999) Router Link State (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count 172.16.10.1 172.16.10.1 689 0x80000002 0xB404 3 172.16.20.1 172.16.20.1 139 0x8000000A 0x4AB1 5 172.16.30.1 172.16.30.1 138 0x80000002 0x2B14 3 The show ip ospf database shows the RID in the first line of output. 172.16.30.1 The router output shows the link ID (remember that an interface is also a link) and the RID of the router on that link under the ADV router (advertising router)
Link-State: The status of a link between two routers also a router interface and its relationship to its neighboring routers.
Show ip ospf interface (finds priority)
Displays all interface-related OSPF information data is displayed about OSPF information for all interfaces and shows interface IP address, area, process ID, Router ID, Network type, cost, priority, Hello, Dead, timer intervals, Adjacent neighbor information RouterC#show ip ospf interface FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 192.168.50.1/24 Area 0 Process ID 64999 Router ID 172.16.30.1 Network Type BROADCAST Cost 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec State DR Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 172.16.30.1, Interface address 192.168.50.1 RouterA#show ip ospf interface Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address 192.168.20.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 132, Router ID 192.168.20.1, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost 64
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Neighbor count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 192.168.40.1
Question What information can be obtained from the output of the show ip ospf interface command? (Choose three.) A. link-state age intervals B. timer intervals C. router ID number D. link-state update intervals E. neighbor adjacencies Answer B, C E timer intervals, router ID number and neighbor adjacencies Question Which router command will display the interface priority value and other key information for the OSPF configuration of the serial 0 interface? A. router# show ospf serial 0 B. router# show interface serial 0 OSPF C. router# show ip interface serial 0 D. router# show ip ospf interface serial 0 Answer D router# show ip ospf interface serial 0
Using the show ip ospf interface command to see why routers cannot establish adjacency.
Hello and Dead timers are not the same router B has the default timers for OSPF 10 and 40.
Show ip ospf neighbor & Show ip ospf neighbor detail
Summarises the OSPF information regarding neighbour id, priority, adjacency state and if DR or BDR exits. RouterA#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time 192.168.40.1 1 FULL 00:00:30 RouterA#
So use the show ospf neighbor command to see who won DR election
Here 871W became the designated router, Corp is configured with point-to-point links and doesn’t enter DR or BDR election.
Show ip ospf protocols
Shows the overview of currently configured protocols
RouterA#sh ip protocols Routing Protocol is “ospf 132” Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Router ID 192.168.20.1 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Maximum path:4 Routing for Networks 192.168.10.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 192.168.20.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 Routing Information Sources Gateway Distance Last Update 192.168.40.1 110 00:05:56 192.168.40.2 110 00:05:56 192.168.20.1 110 00:05:56 RouterA#
Shows router is sending and receiving hello packets
This has more detail i.e. shows the area
Question All parameters are set to default which path will RouterA use to reach RouterD?
Answer Since IGRP has an AD of 100 and OSPF has an AD of 110 Router A will send packets to RouterD through RouterC.
Question On an OSPF router, you use the following command in Router Configuration mode for OSPF network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 What is the effect of this command? A. This command instructs OSPF to send an update to Area 0. B. This command configures the OSPF router with a router ID. C. This command includes all the connected interfaces and networks in the OSPF routing process. D. This command is invalid and is not accepted. Answer C This answer identifies all interfaces on a router with the 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 (All addresses) identifier. A is incorrect, as even though you are identifying all interfaces with Area 0, this command does not send out an LSA to the Area. B is incorrect, as the router id command configures a router with a specific router ID. D is incorrect, as this is an invalid command.
Question You are working on the network shown. You need to configure all interfaces on the Cedar router for OSPF in Area 0. Which of the following syntax examples would accomplish this task and ensure that OSPF runs on only the interfaces depicted below?
A. Cedar(config)#router ospf 1 Cedar(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 Cedar(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
B. Cedar(config)#router ospf 1 Cedar(config-router)#network Cedar(config-router)#network Cedar(config-router)#network Cedar(config-router)#network
192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 area 0 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 area 0 10.1.10.0 255.255.255.0 area 0 10.1.8.0 255.255.255.0 area 0
C. Cedar(config)#router ospf 1 Cedar(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 area 0 Cedar(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 area 0
D. Cedar(config)#router ospf 1 Cedar(config-router)#network Cedar(config-router)#network Cedar(config-router)#network Cedar(config-router)#network Answer D
192.168.2.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 10.1.2.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 10.1.10.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 10.1.8.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
Answer D is the most precise method to add interfaces to the OSPF routing process. A wildcard mask of 0.0.0.0 tells OSPF to run on the interface that has exactly the IP address that you have typed in before the wildcard mask. In this case, all the IP addresses were typed in exactly as defined on the interfaces with the wildcard mask of 0.0.0.0. This ensures OSPF does not run on any interfaces that are either not shown in the figure or that may be added in the future. Answer A accomplishes part of the objective because OSPF runs on any interface starting with 192.168.2 or 10 (because of the wildcard mask applied); however, in the future, if any interface is added to the router that has an IP address beginning with the number 10, it will automatically begin running OSPF. Answers B and C are incorrect because OSPF network statements require you to enter the wildcard mask rather than the subnet mask.
Question Your new network engineer is curious as to why you are using OSPF in your network versus EIGRP. Which of the following is a valid explanation? A. OSPF has a faster convergence time. B. OSPF is a link-state routing protocol and EIGRP is not. C. OSPF utilizes a better route calculation. D. OSPF is compatible with multiple vendors. Answer D
EIGRP is a proprietary Cisco routing protocol that does not function on other vendors' routers. OSPF, however, is an industry standard. A is incorrect, as EIGRP is actually a bit faster than OSPF in converging. B is incorrect, as EIGRP, although not technically a link-state protocol, uses link-state behavior. C is incorrect, as EIGRP's DUAL algorithm is equally capable of route calculation as OSPF's Dijkstra's algorithm.
Question Which of the following OSPF commands, when used together, will put the network 192.168.10.0/24 into OSPF area 0? (Select all valid responses) A. Router(config-router)# network 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255 0 B. Router(config-router)# network 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 C. Router(config-router)# network 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 area 0 D. Router(config)# router ospf 0 E. Router(config)# router ospf 1 Answer B, E Explanation B. The network command specifies the IP address (192.168.10.0) followed by the wildcard mask (not the subnet mask), and the area that is to be associated with the OSPF address range (in this case, area 0). The wildcard mask indicates in binary how much of the IP address much be matched with 0s indicating that the bits must match and 1 indicating that they may vary. Thus 0.0.0.255 or 00000000.00000000.00000000.11111111 indicates that any bit in the last octet can vary while all bits in the first 3 octets must match the network address (in other words, 192.168.10.xx) E. The router ospf command enables OSPF routing and enters router configuration mode. This command takes a <process-id> argument which identifies the OSPF process. Incorrect Answers A. This command is correct, except for the fact that the keyword "area" is missing and needs to be inserted. C. For OSPF, the inverse mask must be used, not the regular subnet mask. D. OSPF can not use process ID 0, and the goal of this question is to put a specific network in area 0, not the entire routing process.
Question A network associate has configured OSPF with the following command: City(config-router)# network 192.168.12.64 0.0.0.63 area 0. After completing the configuration, the associate discovers that not all the interfaces are participating in OSPF. Which three of the interfaces shown below will participate in OSPF according to this configuration statement? (Choose three)
B. Serial0/1.104 C. Serial0/1.103 D. FastEthernet0 /1 E. Serial0/0 F. FastEthernet0 /0 Answer A, D, E Explanation: OSPF uses the concept of wildcard masks much like access list filters. OSPF network matches are done using the network number and wildcard bits. The network number is the network portion of the IP address, with the host bits all set to zero. The wildcard bits determine which portion of the address the access list will act on. Only bits set to zero are acted upon (bits set to one are ignored.) This is the exact opposite of a netmask. Remember that this number is in bits, and you will always have all zeros to the left of the first one, and all ones to the right of the last zero. The table below shows some examples of netmasks and wildcard bits. In this example, the 192.168.12.64 0.0.0.63 will comprise of all interfaces with an IP address in the 192.168.12.64-127 range. Question The network associate is configuring OSPF on the Core router shown below. All the connections to the branches should be participating in OSPF. The link to the ISP should NOT participate in OSPF and should only be advertised as the default route. What set of commands will properly configure the Core router?
A. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.2.14 B. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network 10.10.2.32 0.0.0.31 area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.2.14 C. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network 10.10.2.13 0.0.0.242 area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.2.14 D. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network 10.10.2.16 0.0.0.15 area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.2.14
Answer D Explanation: There are two ways to inject a default route into a normal area. 1. If the ASBR already has the default route in its routing table, you can advertise the existing 0.0.0.0/0 into the OSPF domain with the default-information originate router configuration command. 2. If the ASBR doesn't have a default route, you can add the keyword always to the defaultinformation originate command (default-information originate always). This command will advertise a default route into the OSPF domain, regardless of whether it has a route to 0.0.0.0. Another benefit of adding always keyword is that it can add stability to the internetwork. For example, if the ASBR is learning a default route from another routing domain such as RIP and this route is flapping, then without the always keyword, each time the route flaps, the ASBR will send a new Type 5 LSA into the OSPF domain causing some instability inside the OSPF domain. With the always keyword, the ASBR will advertise the default inside the OSPF domain always, and thus the flapping of the default route from the RIP domain will not cause any instability inside the OSPF domain. Here, only choice D is correct as the wildcard mask correctly specifies the 10.10.2.16 0.0.0.15 networks, which include all IP addresses in the 10.10.2.16-10.10.2.31 range.
Question On your OSPF network, routers R1 and R2 belong to the same Ethernet network. However, they are unable to establish an adjacency over this link. While troubleshooting this problem, you issue the "show ip ospf interface Ethernet 0" command on each router. The output from these commands is displayed below: R1: Ethernet is up, line protocol is up Internet address 192.168.1.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 192.168.31.33, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 192.168.31.33, Interface address 192.168.1.2 No backup designated router on this network Time intervals configured, Hello 5, Dead 20, Wait 20, Retransmit 5 R2: Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address 192.168.1.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 2, Router ID 192.168.31.11, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 192.168.31.11, Interface address 192.168.1.1 No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 What is the underlying cause of the routers failing to become adjacent? A. The OSPF area is misconfigured. B. The priority on TK2 should be set lower. C. The cost on TK2 should be set lower. D. The hello and dead timers are misconfigured. E. You need to add a backup designated router to the network. F. The OSPF process ID numbers do not match. Answer D Explanation: OSPF routers must have the same hello intervals and the same dead intervals to exchange information. By default, the dead interval is four times the value of the hello interval. This means that a router has four chances to send a hello packet before being declared dead. On
broadcast OSPF networks, the default hello interval is 10 seconds and the default dead interval is 40 seconds. On nonbroadcast networks, the default hello interval is 30 seconds and the default dead interval is 120 seconds. These default values result in efficient OSPF operation and seldom need to be modified. As shown in the output, the hello timer on router R1 was changed to 5 seconds, with the dead timer being set to 20 seconds. Incorrect Answers A. Both routers are configured to be in area 0. B. In this example the adjacency should come up regardless of which one was the DR/BRD. Therefore, setting the priority on one router will not solve this problem. C. This will not solve the adjacency issue. E. Only the DR is absolutely required on the Ethernet subnet, not the BDR. F. Unlike other protocols, the routing process ID's do not necessarily need to match in OSPF for routing to work.
Question A new router, named R1, is being installed. You wish to add this router to your existing OSPF network. In doing so, you configure the following R1(config)# router ospf 1 R1(config-router)# network 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 area 0 After making this change, you notice that the networks attached to R1 are not being learned by the other OSPF routers. What could be the cause of this? A. The AS is not correctly configured B. The network subnet mask is incorrectly configured C. The network wildcard mask is configured incorrectly D. The network number is not correctly configured E. The process id is configured incorrectly F. None of the above Answer C Explanation: The network command specifies the IP address (10.10.10.0) followed by the wildcard mask (not the subnet mask) and the area that is to be associated with the OSPF address range (in this case, area 0). The wildcard mask indicates in binary how much of the IP address much be matched with 0s indicating that the bits must match and 1 indicating that they may vary. Thus 0.0.0.255 or 00000000.00000000.00000000.11111111 indicates that any bit in the last octet can vary while all bits in the first 3 octets must match the network address (in other words, 10.10.10.xx) Question Which commands are required to properly configure a router to run OSPF and to add network 192.168.16.0/24 to OSPF area 0? (Select two) A. Router(config)# router ospf 0 B. Router(config)# router ospf 1 C. Router(config)# router ospf area 0 D. Router(config)# network 192.168.16.0 0.0.0.255 0 E. Router(config)# network 192.168.16.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 F. Router(config)# network 192.168.16.0 255.255.255.0 area 0 Answer B, E
Explanation: The valid OSPF process ID can be a value from 1-65535 (0 is not valid). The following is the correct syntax: router# router ospf 1 (router)# network 192.168.16.0 0.0.0.255 This will configure OSPF with process ID 1, and adds the 192.168.16/24 network to be advertised as belonging to area 0.
Question Where does OSPF contain the "map" of all the routes it knows about? A. Neighbor table B. Topology table C. Routing table D. CAM table Answer B An OSPF router contains all known routes in its Topology table. It then runs the SPF algorithm for all the routes to decide the best path based on cost. A is incorrect, as the Neighbor table is merely the list of routers with which the OSPF router has a neighbor relationship. C is incorrect, as the Routing table merely contains the best routes calculated from the Topology table. D is incorrect, as the Content Addressable Memory Table is also known as the MAC address table. The CAM table is located on Catalyst switches. Question Which statements are true regarding the command sequence shown here? (Choose three.) RouterA(config)# interface loopback 0 RouterA(config-if)# ip address 192.168.31.33 255.255.255.255 A. It creates a virtual interface. B. It uses a subnet mask. C. It ensures that an interface is always active, even if a router is shut off. D. It provides an easier way to identify OSPF routing updates. E. The mask of 255.255.255.255 is called a wildcard mask. F. These commands can be issued only to configure Ethernet interfaces. Answers A, B, and D. The command creates a virtual loopback interface with a particular IP address using the 255.255.255.255 subnet mask. When an OSPF router sends a routing update, it includes the router ID to identify itself. In OSPF, the router ID is the highest IP address of a loopback interface. C is incorrect, as a router that is not powered up does not have any active interfaces. E is incorrect, as 255.255.255.255 is typically called a host mask. F is incorrect, as this command sets up a virtual interface, not a physical Ethernet interface. Question What is the maximum number of hops OSPF allows before it deems a network unreachable? A. 15 B. 16 C. 99 D. 255 E. Unlimited Answer E
Explanation: OSPF is a link state protocol. Link state protocols do not use hops to mark networks as unreachable. Instead OSPF implements a steady state operation to its adjacent neighbors by sending and receiving small Hello packets periodically. When an OSPF router does not receive a Hello packet for a specified time period, it assumes that the neighbor is down. The router then runs the SPF algorithm to calculate new routes. Hops counts are not used. Question On the topic of the OSPF hello protocol; which of the statements below are true? (Select two) A. The OSPF Hello protocol provides dynamic neighbor discovery. B. The OSPF Hello protocol detects unreachable neighbors in 90 second intervals. C. The OSPF Hello protocol maintains neighbor relationships. D. The OSPF Hello protocol negotiates the correct parameters between neighboring interfaces. E. The OSPF Hello protocol uses timers to elect the router with the fastest links at the designated router. F. The OSPF Hello protocol broadcast hello packets throughout the internetwork to discover all routers that are running OSPF. Answer A, C Explanation: OSPF contains a protocol (the Hello protocol) that is used to establish and maintain relationships between neighboring nodes. These relationships are called adjacencies. Adjacencies are the basis for the exchange of routing data in OSPF. It is through the use of this protocol, and packet type, that an OSPF node discovers the other OSPF nodes in its area. Its name is intentionally significant; the Hello protocol establishes communications between potential neighboring routers. The Hello protocol uses a special subpacket structure that is appended to the standard 24-octet OSPF header. Together, these structures form a hello packet. All routers in an OSPF network must adhere to certain conventions that must be uniform throughout the network. These conventions include the following: 1. The network mask 2. The interval at which hello packets will be broadcast (the hello interval) 3. The amount of time that must elapse before a non responding router will be declared dead (that is, the router dead interval) by the other routers in the network 4. All routers in an OSPF network must agree to use the same value for each of these parameters; otherwise, the network might not operate properly. These parameters are exchanged using hello packets. Together, they comprise the basis for neighborly communications. They ensure that neighbor relationships (known as adjacencies) are not formed between routers in different subnets and that all members of the network agree on how frequently to stay in contact with each other. The hello packet also includes a listing of other routers (using their unique router IDs) that the source router has recently been in contact with. This field, the Neighbor field, facilitates the neighbor discovery process. The hello packet also contains several other fields such as Designated Router and Backup Designated Router. These fields are useful in maintaining adjacencies and support the operation of the OSPF network in both periods of stability and convergence. Question You are an administrator and you've just configured OSPF on a router with both physical and logical interfaces. Which of the following factors determine the router ID? A. The lowest IP address of any interface. B. The highest IP address of any interface. C. The highest IP address of any logical interface. D. The middle IP address of any logical interface. E. The lowest IP address of any physical interface.
F. The highest IP address of any physical interface. G. The lowest IP address of any logical interface. Answer C Explanation: When the OSPF process starts, the Cisco IOS uses the highest local active IP address as its OSPF router ID. If there is no active interface, the OSPF process will not start. If the active interface goes down, the OSPF process has no router ID and therefore ceases to function until the interface comes up again. To ensure OSPF stability there should be an active interface for the OSPF process at all times. A loopback interface, which is a logical interface, can be configured for this purpose. When a loopback interface is configured, OSPF uses this address as the router ID, regardless of the value. On a router that has more than one loopback interface, OSPF takes the highest loopback IP address as its router ID. To create and assign an IP address to a loopback interface use the following commands: Router(config)#interface loopback number (no can be range from 0 -255) Router(config-if)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask i.e. Router(config)#interface loopback 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.31.33 255.255.255.255 Router(config-if)#exit It is considered good practice to use loopback interfaces for all routers running OSPF. This loopback interface should be configured with an address using a 32-bit subnet mask of 255.255.255.255. A 32-bit subnet mask is called a host mask because the subnet mask specifies a network of one host. When OSPF is requested to advertise a loopback network, OSPF always advertises the loopback as a host route with a 32-bit mask. Summary loopback address (logical address) is use when active interfaces (physical addresses) is down in order to make OSPF stable or reliable. Question Under which circumstance, i.e. network type, would an OSPF router establish a neighbor adjacency, even though the DR/BDR election process was not performed? A. Point-to-point B. Broadcast multicast C. Nonbroadcast multicast D. Backbone area 0 E. Virtual Link Answer A Explanation: If there's a point to point connection, there's no need for a designated router or a backup designated router election. By definition, only two routers exist on a point to point connection. Incorrect Answers B, C. In these network types, the potential for more than two routers on the segment exist, so the Designated Router and Backup Designated Routers are elected. D. This is not a network type. Area 0 is the backbone of any OSPF network. E. Virtual Links are used in OSPF to link an area to area 0. Every area must be directly connected to area 0 at some point, and virtual links are used for areas that do not meet this requirement.
Question On the assumption that every OSPF router in a particular area is configured with the same priority value; which secondary value would be used as a router ID when there is no loopback interface set? A. The IP address of the first Fast Ethernet interface. B. The IP address of the console management interface. C. The highest IP address among its active interfaces. D. The lowest IP address among its active interfaces. E. There will be no router ID until a loopback interface is configured. Answer C Explanation: Ordinarily the loopback interface would be selected as the router ID. In the event that no loopback interface is configured, the router ID will be the first active interface that comes up on the router. If that particular interface has more then one IP address, then the highest address will be selected as the Router ID. Incorrect Answers B. Putting an IP address on the management console is a concept that is configured on a Catalyst switch, not a router. Question On the topic of OSPF routing; which of the following are the traits of an OSPF area? (Select all that apply) A. Each OSPF area requires a loopback interface to be configured. B. Areas may be assigned any number from 0 to 65535. C. Area 0 is called the backbone area. D. Hierarchical OSPF networks do not require multiple areas. E. Multiple OSPF areas must connect to area 0. F. Single area OSPF networks must be configured in area 1. Answer C, E Explanation: OPSF uses areas in a hierarchical fashion, and the backbone area is always area 0. All other areas have at least one connection to area 0. Incorrect Answers A. Loopback interfaces are often used in OSPF networks, so that the router ID can be configured. However, this is not a requirement. B. The area-id can be an integer between 0 and 4294967295. F. Single area OSPF networks do not have to be configured with the backbone area 0. Although area 1 can indeed be used, it is not required that area 1 is used. Single area OSPF networks can be any integer from 0-4294967295. Question If the bandwidth of an OSPF interface is configured with the "bandwidth 64" command, what would be the calculated cost of the link? A. 1 B. 64 C. 1562 D. 64000 E. 1500 Answer C
Explanation: The question states that OSPF interface has been configured with the bandwidth 64command. Cisco IOS always interprets the values for the bandwidth command as being in kbps, so the bandwidth is configured as 64 kbps. The metric for any OSPF defaults to 100,000,000/bandwidth. So, in this example: 100,000,000 / 64000 = 1562.5
Question Which two are NOT characteristics of the OSPF routing protocol? (Select all that apply) A. It confines network instability to a single area of network. B. It increases the routing overhead of the network C. It supports VLSM D. It routes between Autonomous Systems. E. It allows extensive control of routing updates Answer B, D Explanation: Through the use of areas, routing information and instability's are reduced to specific areas. This will reduce the routing overhead on a network, not increase it. OSPF is not used to provide routing information between different systems. BGP is predominately used for this purpose. Incorrect Answers: A, C, E. These are all true statements that describe the features and functionality of OSPF.
Question On what kinds of networks does OSPF elect a backup designated router? A. Point-to-point B. Point to multipoint C. Broadcast D. Non-broadcast multi-access Answer C, D Explanation: The DR and BDR election process is performed on broadcast and non-broadcast multi-access networks. Incorrect Answers: A, B: There is no DR or BDR on point to point and point to multipoint links. On a point to point link, only two routers exist so there is no need for a DR or BDR.
Question Three routers are configured for OSPF area 0 as shown in the diagram
You wish to ensure that router CK2 will be preferred as the designated router (DR) for the 172.16.1.0 /24 LAN segment. What configuration tasks could be used to establish this preference? (Choose all that apply) A. Configure the priority value of the Fa0/0 interface of RouterCK2 to a higher value than any other interface on the Ethernet network. B. Change the router id for Router CK2 by assigning the IP address 172.16.1.130/24 to the Fa0/0 interface of RouterTK2. C. Configure a loopback interface on RouterCK2 with an IP address higher than any IP address on the other routers. D. Change the priority value of the Fa0/0 interface of Router CK2 to zero. E. Change the priority values of the Fa0/0 interfaces of RouterCK1 and RouterCK3 to zero. F. No further configuration is necessary. G. All of the above will make CK2 the DR Answer A, C, E Explanation: In order to ensure that a router will become the OSPF DR for any given segment, there are 3 options. 1.is to manually configure the interface priority as described in option A above using the "ip ospf priority" interface configuration command. 2. is described in option C. OSPF routers will always use the loopback interface IP address as the router ID, when configured, and the router with the highest IP address will be chosen as the DR when the priorities are the same. 3. is to change the priority of the other routers in the segment to zero. When the OSPF priority is set to 0, the router is ineligible to become the DR or the BDR. Important Note: The OSPF DR/BDR election process is not pre-emptive, so any changes to the network regarding the DR/BDR election process will only occur when the routers are restarted. Incorrect Answers B. This method will not work as the router ID is taken by using the highest IP address of all interfaces in the router, or from the loopback interface if it is configured. Although choosing this
option will give router CK2 the highest IP address on the LAN segment, the router ID will be taken from the highest IP address in the router, which as shown will be 192.168.0.101. D. This will make CK2 ineligible to become either the DR or the BDR. Question You are setting up OSPF on your network and your junior administrator asks you about the router ID. She wants to know what sets the router ID for OSPF on your router. Your network is made up of ten 2611 routers with two serial, two Ethernet, and two loopback interfaces. What do you tell her? A. It's the lowest IP address on your physical interfaces. B. It's the highest IP address on your physical interfaces. C. It's the highest IP address on your logical interfaces. D. It's the lowest IP address on your logical interfaces. E. It's the lowest IP address on any interface, physical or logical. Answer C OSPF uses the highest IP address assigned to a loopback address, which is a logical interface created on a Cisco router. A is incorrect because Router ID is always the highest IP address. B is incorrect, as you have logical loopback interfaces on these routers. Logical interfaces override physical interfaces. If there were no loopback interfaces, the highest IP address on a physical interface would be the router ID. D is incorrect, as the router ID is always the highest IP address on a logical interface. E is incorrect, as the router ID is always the highest IP address on the either the logical or physical interface. Question You want to filter inbound routes from an OSPF neighbor. Which command do you use? a. Distribute-list b. Route-list c. Prefix-list d. Filter-list Answer A Distribute-list
Question Refer to the graphic. The network administrator has determined that RTRA needs to be the DR because it is the more powerful router. Which of the following commands would be used to control the election process?
A. RTRA(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0 RTRA(config-if)# ospf priority 0 B. RTRA(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0 RTRA(config-if)# ip ospf priority 255 C. RTRA(config)# ospf priority 1 D. RTRA(config)# ip ospf priority 255 E. RTRA(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0 RTRA(config-if)# ip ospf priority 0 Answer B RTRA(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0 RTRA(config-if)# ip ospf priority 255 Question On which types of network will OSPF elect a backup designated router? A. point-to-point and multiaccess B. point-to-multipoint and multi-access C. point-to-point and point-to-multipoint D. nonbroadcast and broadcast multipoint E. nonbroadcast and broadcast multiaccess Answer E nonbroadcast and broadcast multi-access networks will allow OSPF to elect a backup designated router
Explanation A designated router (DR) is the router interface elected above other routers on a particular multiaccess network segment, generally assumed to be broadcast multiaccess. DRs and BDRs are always setup/elected on Broadcast networks (Ethernet). DR's can also be elected on NBMA (Non-Broadcast Multi-Access) networks such as Frame Relay or ATM. DRs or BDRs are not elected on point-to-point links (such as a point-to-point WAN connection) because the two routers on either sides of the link must become fully adjacent and the bandwidth between them cannot be further optimized.
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