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ELECTRONICS

Frequency Response of

BJT Amplifiers (Part 1)

The Decibel (dB)

A logarithmic measurement of the ration of power or voltage

Power gain is expressed in dB by the formula:

AP 10 log aP

where ap is the actual power gain, Pout/Pin

AV ( dB) 20 log av

If av is greater than 1, the dB is +ve, and if av is less than 1, the

dB gain is –ve value & usually called attenuation

Amplifier gain vs frequency

Midband range

of stray capacitance and

transistor capacitance effects

effects of CC and CE

f BW f H f L

Definition

Frequency response of an amplifier is the graph of its gain versus

the frequency.

Cutoff frequencies : the frequencies at which the voltage gain

equals 0.707 of its maximum value.

Midband : the band of frequencies between 10fL and 0.1fH where

the voltage gain is maximum. The region where coupling &

bypass capacitors act as short circuits and the stray capacitance

and transistor capacitance effects act as open circuits.

Bandwidth : the band between upper and lower cutoff frequencies

Outside the midband, the voltage gain can be determined by

these equations:

Amid Amid

A A

1 f1 / f 2 1 f / f2

2

Lower & Upper Critical

frequency

Critical frequency a.k.a the cutoff frequency

The frequency at which output power drops by 3

dB. [in real number, 0.5 of it’s midrange value.

An output voltage drop of 3dB represents about a

0.707 drop from the midrange value in real

number.

Power is often measured in units of dBm. This is

decibels with reference to 1mW of power. [0 dBm

= 1mW], where;

1mW

10 log 0dBm.

1mW

Gain & frequencies

Gain-bandwidth product : constant value

of the product of the voltage gain and

the bandwidth.

Unity-gain frequency : the frequency at

which the amplifier’s gain is 1

fT Amid BW

LOW FREQUENCY

coupling capacitors and bypass capacitors.

As signal frequency , the reactance of the

coupling capacitor, XC - no longer behave

as short circuits.

Short-circuit time-constant method

(SCTC)

coupling and bypass capacitors:

n

1

L

i 1 RiS Ci

the other capacitors replaced by short circuits.

Common-emitter Amplifier

VCC = 12V

Given :

R1

Q-point values : RC C2

30 k

1.73 mA, 2.32 V 4.3 k vO

RS C1 0.1 F

= 100, VA = 75 V

RL

1 k 2 F

100 k

vS R2

Therefore, RE C3

10 k 10 F

1.3 k

r = 1.45 k,

ro =44.7 k

Common-emitter Amplifier

- Low-frequency ac equivalent circuit

C2

vo

RS C1

RC RL

vs RB

RE C3

capacitors). Hence we need to find 3 resistances at the terminals of the

3 capacitors in order to find the lower cut-off frequency of the amplifier

circuit.

Circuit for finding R1S

RinCE

RS R1S

Replacing C2

RC RL

and C3 by

short circuits

RB

where RB R1 R2 7500

1 1

225 rad / s

R1S C1 2.22 k2.00F

Circuit for finding R2S

RoutCE

Replacing C1

and C3 by R2S

short circuits RC

RL

RS RB

where r0 44.7k

1 1

96.1 rad / s

R2 S C2 104 k0.100F

Circuit for finding R3S

RTH

Replacing C1

and C2 by

RC||RL

short circuits

RS RB

RE R3S

RoutCC

R3S RE RoutCC RE 1300 22.7

1 101

RTH RS RB 882

1 1

4410 rad / s

R3S C3 22.710F

Estimation of L

3

1

L 225 96.1 4410 4730 rad / s

i 1 RiS Ci

L

fL 753 Hz

2

Common-base Amplifier

RS 4.7 F 1 F

vO

100 C1 C2

RE RC RL

vS 43 k 22 k 75 k

-VEE +VCC

Given :

Q-point values : 0.1 Therefore,

mA, 5 V gm = 3.85 mS, ro = 700 k

= 100, VA = 70 V r = 26

Common-base Amplifier

- Low-frequency ac equivalent circuit

vo

RS C2

C1

RC RL

RE

vs

Circuit for finding R1S

RS R1S Replacing C2

by short

circuit

RE RC || RL

RinCB

r

R1S RS RE RinCB RS RE 100 4300 0.26 100

1

1 1

2.13 103 rad / s

R1S C1 100 4.7 F

Circuit for finding R2S

RoutCB R2S

Replacing C1

by short circuit

RS || RE RC RL

R2 S RL RC RoutCB RL RC 75 k 22 k 97 k

1 1

10.309 rad / s

R2 S C2 97 k1F

Estimation of L

2

1

L 2.13 103 10.309 10.309 rad / s

i 1 RiS Ci

L

fL 1.64 Hz

2

Common-collector Amplifier

+VCC

RS C1

1 k 0.1 F C2

RB vO

vS

100 k 100 F

RL

RE

47 k

3 k

-VEE

Given :

Q-point values : 1 mA, 5 V Therefore,

= 100, VA = 70 V r = 2.6 k, ro =70 k

Common-collector Amplifier

- Low-frequency ac equivalent circuit

RS C1

C2

vs vo

RB

RE RL

Circuit for finding R1S

RinCC

RS R1S Replacing C2

by short circuit

RB

RE || RL

R1S RS RB RinCC RS RB r 1ro RE RL

74.43 k

1 1

136.18 rad / s

R1S C1 74.43 k0.1F

Circuit for finding R2S

Replacing C1

by short circuit RoutCC

R2S

RTH = RS || RB

RE RL

RTH r

R2 S RL RE RoutCC RL RE ro

1

47.038 k

1 1

0.213 rad / s

R2 S C2 47.038 k100F

Estimation of L

2

1

L 136.18 0.213 136.393 rad / s

i 1 RiS Ci

L

fL 21.7 Hz

2

Example

Given :

Q-point values : 1.6 VCC = 10V

mA, 4.86 V

= 100, VA = 70 V

Therefore, R1 RC

62 k C2

2.2 k vO

r = 1.62 k, ro = 43.75 k, gm

= 61.54 mS

RS C1 0.1 F

RL

600 0.1 F

vS 10 k

R2

RE C3

Determine the total low- 22 k 10 F

1.0 k

frequency response of the

amplifier.

Low frequency due to C1 and

C2 C3

Low frequency due to C1

RB R1 R2 16.24 k

1 1

f C1 768.86 Hz 769 Hz

2R1S C1 2 2.07 k0.1F

1 1

f C2 131.64 Hz 132 Hz

2R2 S C2 2 12.09 k0.1F

Low frequency due to C3

R3S RE 1k 21.32

1 101

RTH RS RB 0.58 k

1 1

f C3 746.5 Hz 747 Hz

2R3S C3 2 21.3210F

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