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Theoretical Framework

The following theories and models are taken into account by researchers which
provided the concepts relevant to the aim of this study.
Radio frequency Interference is a resultant of two electromagnetic waveforms
that may accumulate or cancel each other. It can be as annoying in the audio
equipment like speakers and microphone or can make a wireless device completely
unusable and interruptive.
If using Bluetooth Modules, according to Franklin and Layton (n.d.), Bluetooth
networking transmits data via low-power radio waves. It communicates on a
frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (actually between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz, to be
exact). But Bluetooth uses low power signal that easily attenuates therefore only
requires short radius of 10 meters.
If using wireless fidelity in ISM band, Fleishman (2009) stated, The 2.4GHz
band is a junk bandits a frequency range thats heavily polluted. Its one of the
most heavily used industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands, which have broad
rules to allow equipment that needs to emit a signal to work in within its confines.
Fleishman (2009) also stated, The big advantage 2.4GHz has over 5GHz is range.
The shorter wavelengths used in the 5GHz band cannot penetrate as well through
seemingly solid objects like walls, ceilings, desks, and people. The flip side is that
5GHz has different rules about how much power a base station can use to send
GSM-900 uses 890915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the
base station (uplink) and 935960 MHz for the other direction (downlink). Duplex
spacing of 45 MHz is used. GSM-900 has low propagation losses and has double the
coverage as compared to GSM-1800. Only 3 telecom operators were given
frequency assignments on the GSM 900 bands; Globe, Smart and Islacom.
according to Siel (2012).
Each GPS satellite transmits data on two frequencies, L1 (1575.42 MHz) and L2
(1227.60 MHz). The atomic clocks aboard the satellite produce the fundamental Lband frequency, 10.23 MHz. The L1 and L2 carrier frequencies are generated by
multiplying the fundamental frequency by 154 and 120, respectively. according to
Gabor (n.d.).
It is required to analyze the factor of assigning the specific bandwidth that will allow
the wireless key access device to communicate that only the security system and to
make sure that the data transmitted will be received only by the security system.
Sensitivity and Span

According to the Kendig and Vagts (2002), Sensitivity is the change in output of
the sensor over per unit change of the physical quantity being measured. Another
factor is the Span of the input, it represents the maximum value of the input can be
applied to the sensor without causing inaccuracy and faulty reading of the physical
quantity being sensed. Shown is the Span and Full scale output.

We will aimed to consider sensitivity and span to consider that the system will only
respond and read the specific physical quantity being detected if it is a real theft by
means of sensing it in the required values for that particular action.
Exclusive Lock Mechanism model
According to Nair (n.d.), An exclusive lock protects the locked object against all
types of locks from other transactions. Only the same lock owner can reset the lock
Mechanism for Exclusive lock model based on SAP ABAP (, n.d.):

This model will be the aim and basis for the security system to be integrated by the
lock mechanism and wireless key device. Since the lock mechanism is internal, it

cannot be physically access, unless by means of the wireless key device that will be
used to the concept of exclusive lock.
Time-based One-Time Password (TOTP) algorithm
Algorithm is a set of codes, symbols, signals and pulses with distinct pattern that be
transmitted and read by the device or output being controlled.
Gary Puckering (2014) stated, An algorithm in code looks like a food recipe or set of
assembly instructions in English. The difference is that an algorithm in code is
written in a programming language rather than in English (or some other human
written language). It also tends to be more rigorous, because computers do not
understand vagueness of any kinds and do infer any context that a human might
use to aid in comprehension.
According to Chia (2013), TOTP is commonly used as the second factor in Two
Factor Authentication. It is an open standard with available implementations in
multiple programming languages and platforms.
Google Authenticator has this unique way of extreme security measures when it
comes to accessing Google account, this concept pretty much predicted that only
the user can only access because of the constantly changing codes that syncs realtime to the receiver therefore it is somewhat a distinct type of key that only the
owner can use. It implements Time-based One-Time Password (TOTP) algorithm.
According to Robbie Garbage website (2014), Apps like Google Authenticator
implement the Time-Based One-Time Password (TOTP) algorithm. It has the
following ingredients: A shared secret (a sequence of bytes), an input derived from
the current time, and a signing function.
In the case of Time-based one-time password algorithm, it is like any regular
algorithm being transmitted, it can only be a simple set of instructions, like the
hello world program. But TOTP algorithm has the property of constantly changing
codes in real-time while the receiver and transmitter are being sync in the same
time interval. Therefore the codes being transmitted are considered acceptable by
the receiver after reading the signal, but only to that synced transmitter.
The shared secret is a primary distinct long code (usually base 32 or 64) that will
used to verify that your authenticator will access only to that single account. It is
mostly implementing in QR codes and is use only at the set-up of the two way
verification. Google can interpret code manually by using the format shown below:
X can be interpreted as a both letters and numbers, but excluded other characters.

The input derived from current time is interval that needed to be synchronized
in a specific time, so it is important that the device has accurate time sync to the
Lastly, is the signing function, the dynamic code itself that the user being inserted
in the verification to authenticate the account.
In the Robbie Garbage website (How Google Authenticator Works, 2014) it is stated
that, The signing function used is HMAC-SHA1. HMAC stands for Hash-based
message authentication code and it is an algorithm that uses a secure one-way
hash function (SHA1 in this case) to sign a value. Using an HMAC allows us to verify
authenticity - only people knowing the secret can generate the same output for the
same input (the current time). An example of the basic program line that
implements signing function is shown:
HMAC = SHA1(secret + SHA1(secret + input));
Therefore a study of the TOTP algorithm and its basic concepts are needed to fully
support the reliability of the wireless access device by means of security and
privacy of the user in controlling the lock of the luggage.
Battery or Charge Capacity
Phil Frost (2013) stated, The charge capacity (the number measured in mAh) is
determined by measuring how much charge can be removed from the battery
before voltage drops to some arbitrarily selected level where the battery is
considered "discharged".
Peukert's law
According to website,Peukert's law, presented by the German
scientist Wilhelm Peukert in 1897, expresses the capacity of a battery in terms of
the rate at which it is discharged. As the rate increases, the battery's available
capacity decreases. The greater the discharge rate, the lower the delivered
The effects of the battery have a big effect on the longevity of the system
operation. Therefore we will consider measuring and analyzing the time it will run
and charge capacity of the battery, and the supply that operates the system.
Impact absorption capacity of Coconut fiber
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Coconut Fibers (Ali, 2010, page 3):

Costa Castro introduced, a viable alternative would be the use of coconut
fiber as a protective material in packaging systems, though some studies do
mention this possibility. It has been theorized by many that coconut fiber are good
for making casing and containers for protecting fragile materials on shock and
Costa Castro (2011) also stated, All tests were conducted at room
temperature 21C 2C and relative humidity of 60% 3%.To assess the
performance of the natural coconut fiber, the drop height was 0.30 m and the
following variables were selected: 1) Static pressure varying from 0.11 to 0.94 kPa,
a range which falls into the category classified as light.
Planning of shock absorption test using coconut fibers without agglutinants, as
static pressure and mass of test specimen: (Costa Castro, 2011, page 3)

The coconut fiber will be used as case for the security system, against shocks that
may occur.
Global Positioning System (Mathematical View) website (n.d.) stated, GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a
very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this
information and use trilateration to calculate the user's exact location.
According to Vidmar(n.d.), Every GPS satellite transmits its position and the time.
Subtracting time sent from time received and multiplying by the speed of light is
how a receiver measures distance between itself and the satellites. Doing so with
three satellites would yield three simultaneous equations in three unknowns (user
position: x, y, z) if the precise time was available. The fourth equation is required
to determine exact time is unknown when only three points are considered. Using
Pythagorean Theorem:

Each equation is used for each point. Studying the Positioning in GPS tracking will
be needed for precise and correct response and measurement for the object being
track real time.
These theories, models and concepts are needed and aim to prove that the security
system of the luggage will provide reduction of the risk in stealing the contents of
the luggage, protection of the luggage and security system in specified physical
interactions, reliability of the security system and its operations and longevity, and
for implementing different features of the luggage that will distinguish to other
smart devices that reduces the cases of theft.