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Goffs Media Department

BTEC CREATIVE
DIGITAL MEDIA
PRODUCTION

UNIT 1
DIGITAL SECTORS
AND AUDIENCES

REVISION
GUIDE

AREAS OF REVISION
A
1
A
1
A
2
A
3
A
3
A
3

Media Technologies Digital and Analogue and Synergy

A
3
B1
B2
B3

Interactivity and Personalisation

Synergy
Media Sectors
Digital Media platforms and devices
Convergence
Digital technology Advantages and Disadvantages

Types of Audience (Individual/Group, primary/Secondary. Passive/Active


Audience and producer control ( Regulatory Bodies)
Understanding audiences through research (Primary/Secondary,
Qualitative,/Quantitative
B4 Audience profiling
B4 Demographics

C1 Communication of Meaning
C1 Genres
C1 Codes and Conventions

CREATIVE DIGITAL MEDIA PRODUCTION


REVISION GUIDE
A1 Media Technologies - Digital and Analogue
Computers are digital devices, meaning they perform all
calculations using ones and zeros. This method of computing is
referred to as the "binary system," and is the heart of all digital
technology.
Analogue devices read the media, such as tapes or records, by
scanning the physical data off the media. They read data linearly
from one point to another. For example, a record player reads the
bumps and dips in the grooves of the record and translates the
information into an audio signal
EXAMPLES OF
ANALOGUE
PRODUCTS
Vinyl Records
Cassette Tapes
Video Tapes
Block printed
poster
EXAMPLES OF
ANALOGUE
DEVICES
Video players
Cassette players
Record Players
Radios
Printing press

EXAMPLES OF DIGITAL
PRODUCTS
CDs - Compact Discs
DVDs - Digital Video Discs
Apps
Websites / e-publications
Digital games
Podcasts
EXAMPLES OF DIGITAL
DEVICES

Sky boxes
DVD players
CD players
MP3 players including Smart
phones, tablets, iPads
PCs and laptops
Games consoles (Nintendo, Wii,
Xbox)
Digital radio

YOU MUST LEARN

The explanation of the difference between digital and


Analogue
Examples of Digital and Analogue products and
devices/platforms

A1 - Media Sectors
There are 5 media sectors - GWAMP

Sector
1

GAMES

WEBSITE
S
AUDIO

MOVING
IMAGE

Examples of digital media products


from that sector
entertainment, educational, fitness,
simulation

Film/Vid
eo
TV

PUBLISHI
NG

adverts, drama, news and current


affairs, light entertainment,
podcasts, movie soundtrack
films, trailers, documentaries,
animations, corporate or training
videos, music videos
drama, adverts, light entertainment
shows, music videos, news
programmes, factual programmes
e-magazines, e-newspapers, posters,
flyers, adverts

YOU MUST LEARN


Each of these 5 sectors
All the examples of digital media products in that sector
Be able to give specific examples e.g: Angry Birds app in
Games, Mockingjay in Film, The Archers a soap opera on
Radio 4

A1 Synergy
Synergy is where different media sectors work together to promote
and distribute a product
An advert in a magazine to promote a
newly
released film
A tv advert for the a new Xbox game

An trailer in the cinema for a newly released music album

YOU MUST LEARN


The explanation of what synergy is
Examples of synergy

A2 - Process
Process

What it
means

Preproductio
n

PLANNING,
RESEARCHIN
G AND
PREPARING
THE
PRODUCT

Productio
n

SHOOTING
OR
CONSTRUCTI
NG THE
ELEMENTS
OF THE
PRODUCT

Examples
Film
Writing a
script for a
film
Creating a
story board
Creating a
Shooting
schedule
Designing
costumes
Photographin
g locations
Collecting
props
Filming
footage
Recording
dialogue

Audio
Writing a
script for a
radio play
Writing the
music and
lyrics for a
song

Publishing
Taking
photos
Planning
layout
Holding
interview
s
Writing
text for
articles

Digital Games
Sketching
ideas for
characters
Finding
sound
effects

Recording
the play in a
studio
Recording
the track
using
recording
equipment
in your shed

Postproductio
n

Distributi
on

BRING ALL
THE
ELEMENTS
FROM
PRODUCTION
TOGETHER
TO
COMPLETE
THE
PRODUCT

MAKING THE
PRODUCT
AVAILABLE

Adding in
voice overs
Editing the
pieces of
footage

Creating
posters for
display at bus

Editing
sound clips
together
Mixing
instrument
tracks using
Garage
Band
software

Get a music
blogger to
write a

Pasting
text into
a
Microsoft
Publisher
page
Taking
photos for
the
magazine
Videoing
interview
s
Cropping
and
pasting
photos
onto the
page
Creating
a link to
the
videoed
interview
s
Get a
celebrity
to

Using
scratch
software to
create
game
levels
Creating
the
animated
characters
using CAD

Adding
sound
effects to
the game
sequence

Creating a
pop-up
advert on a

TO
AUDIENCES
THROUGH
ADVERTISING
AND
PROMOTION

Exhibitio
n/
consump
tion

VIEWING OR
INTERACTING
WITH THE
FINISHED
PRODUCT

stops
Creating a
trailer
Use a TV
show to film
the red
carpet
premier
event
Watching the
film at the
cinema or on
a DVD or on
pay-per-view
(Sky Box
Office)

review of
the album
Actors from
the radio
play are
interviewed
on TV about
their roles
Broadcast
on Radio
channel
Website
with link to
a podcast
Releasing a
CD

endorse
the
magazine
in a TV
advert
Hand out
first issue
free
copies at
a gig
Download
emagazine
onto an
iPad
Buy a
hard copy
of a
magazine
in a store

website
that
reviews
games
Creating an
advert to
appear in a
magazine
about
gaming
Playing the
game as an
app
Playing the
game on
Xbox

YOU MUST LEARN


A.3
Digital
media
platforms
and devices
All
5 process
and
examples
from the different
media sectors (GWAMP)
Media products are distributed on different platforms and can then
be consumed / accessed (read or watched) on different devices

PLATFORMS

DEVICES

TV broadcast
Pay-per-view (eg: Sky
Box Office)
Cinema release
Digital download ( eg: On
demand, iTunes, podcasts)
Apps
Radio broadcast
DVD
CD
Online content (webpages,
streaming)

Mobile phones
PCs,
Laptops,
Mp3 players,
Mp4 players,
Games consoles
Handheld devices
Radio
Tablets (iPads etc.)

YOU MUST LEARN


The list of platforms
The list of devices

A.3 Convergence

Digital media products from all sectors can be accessed across


platforms using one
device. This is called convergence. For example
you can use an iPad to listen to music by Little Mix on a radio
station or download their new album via iTunes
you can read news stories from the daily mail by downloading
their app onto your smart phone or reading their website on
your smart phone
you can watch TOWIE on your laptop by either buying the box
set and watching a DVD or by watching it on ITV player

YOU MUST LEARN


The explanation of what convergence is
Examples of convergence

A.3 Digital technology advantages and


disadvantages
Advantages
immediacy: increased speed, instant messaging, on demand
media
access: no longer exclusive, inexpensive, user-friendly, allows
amateur/guerrilla media-making, democracy,
convenience: free or cheap, global, national, local, user friendly
portability: movement and flexibility, working patterns, always
connected
connectivity: global village, digital communities, social networks,
virtual reality
Disadvantages
access 24hour access means information overload
reliance on connectivity problem if battery runs down, signal
issues, buffering, slow broadband/3G speeds, lack of network
coverage
safeguarding and child protection younger people having
access to age-related material, online security issues

storage all media stored electronically, if device or software


corrupts/breaks then all media is lost, hacking
health and wellbeing health issues reported from overuse of
digital devices (headaches, eyesight, disturbed or lack of sleep,
disruption to concentration)

YOU MUST LEARN


The list of advantages and disadvantages

A.3 Interactivity & personalisation


Interactivity
This means that the user/viewer/consumer is not just passive but
active and can engage with the product
level of control or activity, game-play,
user-generated content (videos, images, recordings), digital
editing (mash-ups)
hyperlinks/web addresses, forums and message boards,
uploads and downloads
texting and emailing to participate
red button and TV menus.
Personalisation
This means that the media product is made personal to the
consumer
logging in/signing in, usernames, avatars

adapting interfaces - changing appearance (wallpapers,


colours)
digital TV menus (Electronic Programme Guide -EPGs), hard
disc video recorders
font features
music playlists.

YOU MUST LEARN


The explanation of what Interactivity and personalisation mean
Examples of how audiences can interact with and personalise
the product

YOUR NOTES ON SECTION A

B.1 Types of audience


Individual:
engages with a digital
media product alone
(reader, gamer, consumer,
web surfer, listener, DVD
viewer, social networking)
solo enjoyment (privacy,
convenience, individuality,
accessibility, control)

Primary audience
target audience
the audience that the
product is aimed at

Group:
engages with a digital
media product with others
(cinema audience, TV
audience,
online gamers, radio
listeners, DVD viewers,
social networking)
collective enjoyment (social
interaction, competition,
belonging, sharing).

Secondary audience
substantial number of
viewers/consumers outside
the primary target audience
which can affect
consumption statistics if not
accounted for

Passive viewing

Active viewing:

Definiti
on

audience/viewer/consumer
that does not interact
physically with
The product or its content,
does not generate content
or influence the production

audience/viewer/consumer
that physically interacts with
the product.
Audience interactions
contribute and become part
of the production. The
audience has an element of
control over how they
interact with the product

Theory

passive audience theory


the hypodermic needle
model
It suggests that the
audience receives
information via media and
that they do not challenge
or process the information.
advantages and
disadvantages)

active audience theory


uses/gratifications model
It suggests that there are
four main reasons we choose
to consume any given media
product
I - identity
S - Social Interaction
E - Education
E - Entertainment

advantages and
disadvantages
Exampl
es

Watching a film at the


cinema

Using red button on TV

YOU MUST LEARN

What individual and group audiences are


The definition of a primary and secondary audience
The definition of passive and active viewing / consumption
The definition of the hypodermic needle theory
The definition of the uses and Gratification Theory (ISEE)

B.2 Audience and producer control


There are 5 (6) regulatory bodies that have control over media
products and check that certain standards apply
Body
BBFC

Sector
Film

ASA

TV,
Audio,
Publishi
ng

PEGI

Games

PCC

Publishi
ng,
Website
s,

Name
British Board of Film
Classification
Advertising Standards
Authority

Pan
European
Game
Information
Press Complaints
Commission

OFCO All
M
Media

Office of
Communications

IPSO

Independent Press
Standards Organisation

Publishi
ng,

What it does
Creates certificates /age
ratings on films
Checks that all adverts
(TV, Radio and in
publishing meet
standards of fairness,
equality and decency
Creates classification,
age ratings for games
Checks that all
magazines and
newspapers meet
standards of fairness,
equality and decency
Checks that all media
meets standards of
fairness, equality and
decency
Checks that all
magazines and

Website
s,

replaced the PCC in


Sept 2014

newspapers meet
standards of fairness,
equality and decency

YOU MUST LEARN


The each of the 5 (6) regulatory bodies and what the letters
stand for
Which media sector they regulate
What they do

B.3 Understanding audiences through research


Research
method
definition

Primary research

Secondary research

information obtained firsthand from the audience

examples

questionnaires
surveys
interviews in person
over the telephone
internet interviews
focus groups
vox pops
product analysis
Information obtainedfirst hand from the
audience
A range of sources can
be used e.g.
questionnaires,
surveys, interviews in
person, over the
telephone or internet
interviews, focus
groups, vox pops,
product analysis
You can ask further
questions of the
audience
Target issues are
addressed
Interpretation of data
is better
The information is upto-date

second-hand research
by using existing primary
research
information
internet research
library research
archive research
reading reports

advantage
s and
disadvanta
ges

YOU MUST LEARN

Wider range of
sources
Greater amount of
information
Global, local and
national information
can be gathered
and compared
Information can be
gathered over a
longer time period
Trends/patterns can
be identified

The definition of the two research methods


Examples of these research methods
Advantages of these research methods
Research
results

Qualitative research

Quantitative
research

definition

measuring individual
opinions, attitudes,
behaviour and the
psychology behind the
choices people make

to measure responses
in quantifiable terms,
(how much,
how many), using
numerical data

How to
gather the
research

Advantage
s and
disadvanta
ges

questionnaires
surveys
interviews in person
over the telephone
internet interviews
focus groups

subjective

circulation, sales
downloads
readership figures
hits, likes/dislike
box office figures,
ratings

Objective, reliable, valid

YOU MUST LEARN


The definition of the two research methods
Examples of these research methods
Advantages of these research methods

B.4 Audience profiling


Audience Types
There are 6 types of audience member
G
W
A
M
P
ALL

Games
Websites
Audio
Moving Image
Publishing
Media Sectors

Gamer
Surfer
Listener
Viewer
Reader
Consumer

YOU MUST LEARN


The 6 types of audience members and which media sector
they come from

Demographics
Media producers divide audiences into groups this called
demographics. Audiences from different groups will tend to choose
media products of different genres and using different technologies
The 7 categories are:

gender
age
socio-economic background/status ( see table)
race
occupation
income
education

How socio-economic status is classified


A
upper middle
Higher managerial, administrative or
class
professional
B
middle class
Intermediate managerial, administrative
or professional
C1
lower middle
Supervisory or clerical and junior
class
managerial, administrative or professional
C2
skilled working
Skilled manual workers
class
D
working class
Semi and unskilled manual workers
E
non-working
Casual or lowest grade workers,
pensioners, and others who depend on the
welfare state for their income

YOU MUST LEARN


The definition of the 7 categories of demographics
The 6 categories of socio-economic status

YOUR NOTES ON SECTION B

C.1 Communication of meaning


Media products communicate meaning through

Denotatio description or identification


n
Connotati associations that the image
or text implies or suggests
on

what you see


what it means, why
its there, what it tells
the audience

Codes and conventions are the features or elements that commonly


appear in that genre or style
Colour

Colours chosen, contrast, brightness, black and


white, filters, saturation, de-saturation, shades,
tones
Camera
long shot, close up, medium long shot, extreme
shots,
close up, medium close up, medium shot,
framing and
overhead, over shoulder, point of view, straight-on,
angles
low, high, cut in
Camera
panning, tilting, tracking, slow motion, speed,
movement
zoom in, zoom out, handheld,
Composition layout, focus, rule of thirds, asymmetrical
or navigation composition,
balance, juxtaposition, integration of text with
image, fonts, to directviewing/reading
Mise en
use of costume, hair, make-up, props, setting and
scne
figure expression
Lighting
under, overhead, side, fill, high key, low key,
shadows, silhouette,
functional
Editing
pace, rhythm, continuity, cuts, fades, transitions
Sound
incidental music, bridges, aural motifs, jingles,
voiceovers, sound effects,dialogue, levels,
perspective

YOU MUST LEARN


What Denotation and Connotation
are
What codes and conventions are

How aspects of codes and conventions are used in different


genres of media product

C.1 Communication of meaning


These codes and conventions have the following effect:
Create mood, atmosphere, meaning, intimacy, excitement,
dynamism, style
direct or alert the viewer; draw attention to person, character
or detail;
communicate messages and values;
indicate a specific era, time period, climate, theme or change
of timeframe, status,
communicate character, feelings, messages and values, genre,
character traits
enhance or flatter the subject;
mimic or reinforce action
move narrative (story) forward
improve ease of consumption.
These codes and conventions engage audiences in the following
ways

through the use of stylistic features, positioning and perspective


audience identification
use of stereotyping (gender, social class, race).
generic elements (which make the product recognisable as being
of its type)
narrative (the order of story or positioning of content):
storyline (plot, story, narrative)
characterisation (identification)
themes
structures (linear, non-linear, openings, endings)
narrative devices (use of narrator, subjective, objective, direct
address)
continuity (same style across products).

YOU MUST LEARN


Examples of codes and conventions and how the might be
used in different genres

Horror Movie

Documentary on Lions
in Africa

Cover of
Teenage
Girls
magazine

Warfare
themed
computer
game

Programme titles in
oranges and yellows to
represent the colours of an
African sunset

Pastel colours,
pinks and
purples

Dark colours

Extreme close
ups on faces to
show fear

Close up on lions
different activities eating,
hunting, with cubs

Medium shot
of a group of
happy girls

Points of view
shots down the
barrel of a gun

Handheld
camera shots to
create tension.

Panning shots across the


Africa desert to show the
vastness and beauty of the
landscape.

Colours

Camera
shots,
framing
and
angles
Camera
movement

Shades of
military greens

Slow motion to show the


graceful movement of the
animals
Compositi
on or
navigation

Direct address by
presenter to camera with
location of desert behind

Layout of
photo, centre
of magazine
but titled at
an angle

Desert locations. Presenter


dressed in natural colours (
beige and khaki) to reflect
scenery. Use of map to
show the lions territory

Photos of
teenage girls
jumping up
and smiling
dressed in
fashionableca
sual clothes
( jeans

Mise en
scne

Locations of dark
woods, old
abandoned
houses

Lighting

Back lighting to
create
silhouettes

Editing

Jump cuts to
make the
audience feel on
edge

Slow fades to show the


peacefulness of nature.
Contrast with fast paced
editing from lion to prey in
hunting sequence

Sound

Sound track of
hich pitched
violins for

Voiceover. Diegetic sound


of animals in the desert

Sound effects of
gunshots. Loud
volume.

tension
Narrative

Helicopter
sounds
Story of a pride of lions
through one year from
cubs born to being adults

YOUR NOTES ON SECTION C

REVISION CARDS
When making a radio play, what part of the
production process is it if you are writing the
script
Pre-production

When creating a digital game, what part of the


process is when you are sketching ideas for
characters
Pre-Production

What Media sector would making a movie


soundtrack come
Audio
Give two other examples of audio media
products

Is a VCR an analogue or digital device?


Analogue
Give an explanation of how analogue
technology works

Is a DVD an analogue or digital product?


Digital

What media sector does a documentary come


from
Moving Image

Give an explanation of how digital technology


works

What media sector would a Wii game come


from

YOUR NOTES ON SECTION C