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EC2255 CONTROL SYSTEMS QUESTION BANK

UNIT I - CONTROL SYSTEM MODELING

PART - A
1. What is control system?
A system consists of a number of components connected together to perform
a specific function. In a system when the output quantity is controlled by varying
the input quantity then the system is called control system.
2. What are the two major types of control system?
The two major types of control system are open loop and closed loop
3. Define open loop control system.
The control system in which the output quantity has no effect upon the input
quantity are called open loop control system. This means that the output is not
feedback to the input for correction.
4. Define closed loop control system.
The control system in which the output has an effect upon the input quantity so as
to maintain the desired output value are called closed loop control system.
5. Distinguish between open loop and closed loop system
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.

OPEN LOOP SYSTEM

Inaccurate
Simple and economical
The changes in output due
to external disturbances are
not corrected automatically
Stable

CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM

Accurate
Complex and Expensive
The changes in output due to
external
disturbances
are
corrected automatically
Unstable

6. Why negative feedback is invariably preferred in closed loop system?

The negative feedback results in better stability in steady state and rejects
any disturbance signals.
7. What are the components of feedback control system?
The components of feedback control system are plant , feedback path elements,
error detector and controller.
8. Define transfer function.
The T.F of a system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of output to
Laplace transform of input with zero initial conditions.
9. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical translational
system.
Mass, spring and dashpot
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T.Indumathy & D .VijayaKumari

10. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical rotational
system?
Moment of inertia J
Dashpot with rotational frictional coefficient
B Torsional spring with stiffness K
11. Name two types of electrical analogous for mechanical system.
The two types of analogies for the mechanical system are Force voltage and
force current analogy
12. What is block diagram?
A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the functions
performed by each component of the system and shows the flow of signals. The
basic elements of block diagram are blocks, branch point and summing point.
13. What is the basis for framing the rules of block diagram reduction
technique?
The rules for block diagram reduction technique are framed such that
any modification made on the diagram does not alter the input output relation.
14. What is a signal flow graph?
A signal flow graph is a diagram that represents a set of simultaneous
algebraic equations. By taking L.T the time domain differential equations
governing a control system can be transferred to a set of algebraic equations in sdomain.
15. What is transmittance?
The transmittance is the gain acquired by the signal when it travels from one node
to another node in signal flow graph.
16. What is sink and source?
Source is the input node in the signal flow graph and it has only outgoing
branches. Sink is a output node in the signal flow graph and it has only incoming
branches.
17. Define non touching loop.
The loops are said to be non touching if they do not have common nodes.
18. Write Masons Gain formula.
Masons Gain formula states

k - no. of forward paths in the signal flow graph.

Pk - Forward path gain of kth forward
path
= 1 - [sum of individual loop gains ] + [sum of gain products of all
possible combinations of two non touching loops] - [sum of gain products of all

possible combinations of three non touching loops] +

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k

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for that part of the graph which is not touching kth forward path.

19. Write the analogous electrical elements in force voltage analogy for the
elements of mechanical translational system
Force-voltage e
Velocity v-current i
Displacement x-charge q
Frictional coeff B-Resistance R
Mass M- Inductance L
Stiffness K-Inverse of capacitance 1/C
20. Write the analogous electrical elements in force current analogy for the
elements of mechanical translational system.
Force-current i
Velocity v-voltage v
Displacement x-flux_
Frictional coeff B-conductance 1/R
Mass M- capacitance C
Stiffness K-Inverse of inductance 1/L
21. Write the force balance equation of an ideal mass element.

F M

d 2x
2

dt

d
F B x
dt

23. Write the force balance equation of ideal spring element.

F = Kx
V (s)
24. Determine the transfer function 0
of the electrical system shown in the
Vi (s)
figure.

PART B
1. Determine the transfer function

C(s)

of the system shown in the fig 3. by block

R(s)
diagram reduction method. Verify the above with SFG

2.

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Obtai
n the
mathe
matica
l
model
of the
follow
ing
Mecha

3. Convert the block diagram representation of a system as shown in fig into a signal
C(s)
flow graph. Hence find the transfer function
of the closed loop system
R(s)

4. Write the simultaneous differential equations for the translational

mechanical system shown in the fig. and hence find X1(s).

C(s)

function

R(s)

shown in the figure.

6. For the
damper
system
the fig.
differen
equatio
governi
system f is the force applied.

spring,
and mass
shown in
obtain the
tial
ns
ng the

7. Using block diagram reduction techniques find the transfer function from

each input to
system shown

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in the fig.

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8.
Draw the equivalent signal flow graph for the system shown in the fig.

v
a
f
s

10.
transfer
following

9. Draw the
oltage and
current
nalogs for the
ollowing
mechanical
ystem.

Determine the overall

function of the
block diagram

11. Using Masons gain formula, determine the ratio C/R for the system represented
by the following block diagram.

12.
gain

13.
bloc
reduct

Using Masons
formula find C/R

Find C/R using

k diagram
ion technique.

14. Draw the equivalent mechanical system of the system shown below. Write the
set of equilibrium equations for it and obtain electrical analogous circuits using

(i) F-V analogy (ii) F-I analogy.

15. Reduce the block diagram shown below and obtain its closed loop transfer

function

R.M.
Engin
Tech

C(s)
R(s)

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eering and
nology

16. Find

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C(s) by using Masons gain formula fro the signal flow graph shown
R(s)

below.

17.

A
d
ynamic
v
ibration
a
bsorber
i
s shown
i
n
the
f
ig. This
s
ystem is
r
epresent
a
tion of
many situations involving the vibration of machines containing
unbalanced components. The parameters M2 and K12 may be chosen so that the
main mass M1 does not vibrate when F(t) a sin 0t . Sketch the analogous
electrical circuit
based on force current
analogy

18.
diffe
descr

Obtain the
rential equation
ibing the system.

19. Explain the rules for block diagram reduction and hence find the transfer
function for the following block diagram.

C(s)
d
fi

20. Reduce the block

iagram shown in the
g. and obtain the
R(s)

21. Obtain
he analogous
ectrical
etwork for the
ystem given
elow,

t
el
n
s
b

Y2 (s)
F (s)

the
transf
a

24.
tra
a
sys
bel

graph given below evaluate

closed loop
er function of
system

Obtain the
nsfer function of
mechanical
tem shown
ow.

25. Write the differential equation governing the mechanical rotational system
shown in the figure. Draw the torque-current electrical analogous circuit and

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26. The block diagram of a closed loop system is given in fig below using the block
C(s)
diagram technique determine the closed loop transfer function
R(s)

UNIT II - TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS

PART A
1. What is transient response?
The transient response is the response of the system when the system changes from
one state to another.
2. What is steady state response?
The steady state response is the response of the system when it approaches infinity.
3. What is an order of a system?
The order of a system is the order of the differential equation governing the
system. The order of the system can be obtained from the transfer function of
the given system.
4. Define Damping ratio.
Damping ratio is defined as the ratio of actual damping to critical damping.
5. List the time domain specifications.
The time domain specifications are
Delay time
Rise time
Peak time

Peak overshoot

6. Define Delay time.

The time taken for response to reach 50% of final value for the very first time is
delay time.
7. Define Rise time.
The time taken for response to raise from 0% to 100% for the very first time is
rise time.
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8. Define peak time.

The time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the first time is peak time.
9. Define peak overshoot.
Peak overshoot is defined as the ratio of maximum peak value measured from
the Maximum value to final value
10. Define Settling time.
Settling time is defined as the time taken by the response to reach and stay
within specified error
11. What is the need for a controller?
The controller is provided to modify the error signal for better control action
12. What are the different types of controllers?
Proportional controller
PI controller
PD controller
PID controller
13. What is proportional controller?
It is device that produces a control signal which is proportional to the input error
signal.
14. What is PI controller?
It is device that produces a control signal consisting of two terms one proportional
to error signal and the other proportional to the integral of error signal.
15. What is PD controller?
PD controller is a proportional plus derivative controller which produces an
output signal consisting of two time -one proportional to error signal and other
proportional to the derivative of the signal.
16. What is the significance of integral controller and derivative controller in a
PID controller?
The proportional controller stabilizes the gain but produces a steady state
error. The integral control reduces or eliminates the steady state error.
17. Why derivative controller is not used in control systems?
The derivative controller produces a control action based on the rate of change
of error signal and it does not produce corrective measures for any constant
error.
18. Explain the function of a PID controller
19. Define Steady state error.
The steady state error is defined as the value of error as time tends to infinity.
20. What is the drawback of static coefficients?

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The main draw back of static coefficient is that it does not show the variation of
error with time and input should be standard input.
21. What is step signal?
The step signal is a signal whose value changes from zero to A at t= 0 and remains
constant at A for t>0.
22. What is ramp signal?
The ramp signal is a signal whose value increases linearly with time from an
initial value of zero at t=0.the ramp signal resembles a constant velocity.
23. What is a parabolic signal?
The parabolic signal is a signal whose value varies as a square of time from an
initial value of zero at t = 0.This parabolic signal represents constant acceleration
input to the signal.
24. What are the three constants associated with a steady state error?
Positional error constant
Velocity error constant
Acceleration error constant
25. What are the main advantages of generalized error co-efficient
a) Steady state is function of time.
b) Steady state can be determined from any type of input
26. Determine the percentage overshoot of the system, whose closed loop transfer
100
function is 2
s 34.5s 1000
27. What are the effects of adding a zero to a system?
Adding a zero to a system results in pronounced early peak to system response
thereby the peak overshoot increases appreciably.

PART B
1. Derive the expressions of the time domain specifications for a second
order system with unit step input.
Time response of second order system
Rise time
Peak time
Peak overshoot
Settling time
2. Find the time response of a first order system for various standard
inputs. Apply the input
Solve using partial differential equation
Apply inverse Laplace transform
3. Find the time response of a second order system for unit step
input. Apply the input
Solve using partial differential equation

Apply inverse Laplace transform

4. Problems using static error coefficients or generalized error coefficients.
Find the error coefficient
Apply in formula
5. Write the procedure for designing the lead
compensator. Find the value of K
Find the phase margin of uncompensated system
Find the new phase margin
Find new gain cross over frequency
Calculate B & T
Find Gc(S)
Find Go(s)
Verify Phase margin
6. Write the procedure for designing the lag compensator.
Find the value of K
Find the phase margin of uncompensated system
Find the new phase margin & gain cross over frequency
Calculate _ & T
Find Gc(S)
Find Go(s)
Verify Phase margin
7. Write the procedure for designing the lag-lead
compensator. Find the value of K
Find the phase margin of uncompensated system
Find the new phase margin
Find new gain cross over frequency
Calculate B, _ , T1 & T2
Find Gc(S)
Find Go(s)
Verify Phase margin
8. Design Problems
9. Write how you will select a suitable compensator for the given system.
10. Derive the expression for percentage overshoot of a second order system for an
input r(t) = 1
50
11. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is G(s)
s(1 0.1s)
.

Determine the error series of the system for r(t) 1 2t t and hence the
state error.
12. Determine the range of values of K for which the unity feedback system, whose
K
G(s) 2
is stable and determine the frequency of sustained
s s s 1 s 4
oscillations
13. Derive the expression for peak time from the expression for step response of
second order underdamped system.

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14. For a Unity feedback second order system, the open loop transfer
2
function G(s)
. Calculate the generalized error coefficients and find
ss 2n
error series
15. Consider the unity feedback system whose open loop transfer function is
4
G(s)
. Design a lead compensator for the system so that the
s(s 2)
static
-1
0
velocity error constant Kv is 20 sec , the phase margin is at least 50 , and
the gain margin is atleast 10dB.
16. Consider the unity feedback system whose open loop transfer function is
1
G(s)
. Design a lag compensator for the system so that
s(s 1)(0.5s 1)
the
-1
0
static velocity error constant Kv is 5 sec , the phase margin is at least 40 ,
and the gain margin is atleast 10dB.
17. Derive the expression fro unit impulse response of a second order undamped
Wn2
system G(s) 2
2
s 2zWn s Wn
18. Find the unit impulse response of the second order system whose transfer function
9
G(s) 2
s 4s 9
19. Derive the expression for steady state error of the closed loop system in terms
of generalized error coefficients
1
20. For a closed loop system with G(s)
and H(s) = 5, calculate
(s 5)
generalized error co-efficient and find the error series.
21. Derive the steady state error for type one system with unit step, ramp
and parabolic inputs.
22. Derive the condition for maximum overshoot of a second order system
23. Obtain the steady state error fro unit step, ramp input and parabolic input in
terms of the transfer function
24. The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by
K
G(s)
. The system is to have 25% maximum overshoot and peak time
s(s 2)
1.0 sec. Determine the value of K.
25. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system
is
k(1 0.5s)(1 2s)
G(s) 2 2
. Determine the position, velocity and acceleration
s s s 1
error
n

constants and the steady state error for

i. Unit ramp
ii. Unit Step and
iii. Unit Parabolic inputs

40(s 2)

. Determine type of the system,

s(s 1)(s 4)
all the error co-efficient and error for ramp input with magnitude 4.

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EC2255 CONTROL SYSTEMS
QUESTION BANK

C(s)

25

. Find its rise time, peak

R(s) s 6s 25
27. A second order system is given
by,
overshoot and settling time if subjected to unit step input. Also
calculate expression for its output response.
28. Certain measurements were conducted on a servo mechanism which shows the
60t

10t

system response as c(t) 1 0.2e 1.2e when subjected to a unit step input.
1) Find the expression for closed loop transfer function
2) Obtain the undamped natural frequency and damping ratio
d 2 y(t)
dy(t)
29. The system is described by
8
25y(t) 50x(t) . Evaluate the
2
dt
response and maximum output for a step of 2.5 units
dt 2) PI controller
30. Write short notes on : 1) PD controller
31. Determine the time response specifications and expressions for output for
unit step input to a system equation as follows. Assume initial conditions
zero.
d 2 y(t)
dy(t)
5
16y(t) 9x(t)
2
dt
32. Draw and explain a typical circuit to demonstrate the action of proportional
anddtdifferential controller. Derive the transfer function
33. The unity feedback system is characterized by an open loop transfer function
K
G(s)
. Determine the gain K, so that the system will have a
s(s 10)
damping
ratio of 0.5. For this value of K, determine the settling time, peak
10
overshoot for a unit step input.
34. For a servomechanism with open loop TF, G(s)

, what type of
(s 2)(s 3)
input signal gives the constant steady state error and calculate its value.
35. The system shown in the figure is initially at equilibrium, with r=1 and d=0. a
step function disturbance d(t) = u(t) is then initiated at t = 0. Determine the
response c(t)
for t>0.

36.

Determine

the damping ratio,

undamped natural frequency for the system shown in the fig. What is the
response c(t) of this system to a unit-step function excitation r(t) = u(t)
when all initial
conditions are zero.

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37. The parameters of a mechanical system shown in the figure are M = 100kg, f
= 1000 N/m/sec and k = 10000 N/m. A step force of 100 Newton is applied to
dy(0)
the mass at t = 0. The initial conditions are y(0)
0 . Find
d
t
3) Damping factor
4) Undamped natural frequency
5) Damped natural frequency
6)
Step response as function of
time.

38. Determine the value of K and a such that the system has a damping ratio of 0.7
and an undamped natural frequency of 4 rad/sec for the system shown in the fig.

39. Consider the

feedback system shown in the
fig.
(1) Find the
values of K and
a to satisfy
the following
r
frequency
domain
specifications:
Mr =1.04, =
(2) For the values of K and a determined in part (1) , calculate the settling time
bandwidth of the system.

40. Consider a unity

closed
function
C(s)loop transfer
Ks

R(s)

s as b

the steady state error with unit ramp input is given by

aK
b

41. A unity feedback control system has an open loop transfer function

G(s)

10

. Find the rise time, percentage overshoot, peak time and settling
s(s 2)
time for a step input of 12 units.

UNIT III - FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS

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T.Indumathy & D .VijayaKumari

PART A
1. What is frequency response?
A frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the
system is a sinusoidal signal.
2. List out the different frequency domain specifications?
The frequency domain specifications are
i)Resonant peak.
ii)Resonant frequency.
3. Define resonant Peak ?
The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is
called resonant peak.
4. Define Resonant frequency?
The frequency at which resonant peak occurs is called resonant frequency.
5. What is bandwidth?
The bandwidth is the range of frequencies for which the system gain is more
than 3 dB. The bandwidth is a measure of the ability of a feedback system to
reproduce the input signal, noise rejection characteristics and rise time.
6. Define Cut-off rate?
The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut-off is called cut-off rate. The cutoff rate indicates the ability to distinguish the signal from noise.
7. Define Gain Margin?
The gain margin, Kg is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of the open
loop transfer function at phase cross over frequency.
Gain margin kg = 1 / | G(jw pc) |.
8. Define Phase cross over?
The frequency at which, the phase of open loop transfer functions is called
phase cross over frequency w pc.
9. What is phase margin?
The phase margin ,g is the amount of phase lag at the gain cross over
frequency required to bring system to the verge of instability.
10. Define Gain cross over?
The gain cross over frequency w gc is the frequency at which the magnitude of the
open loop transfer function is unity.
11. What is Bode plot?
The Bode plot is the frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system.
A Bode plot consists of two graphs. One is the plot of magnitude of sinusoidal
transfer function versus log w. The other is a plot of the phase angle of a sinusoidal
function versus log w.
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12. What are the main advantages of Bode plot?

The main advantages are:
i) Multiplication of magnitude can be in to addition.
ii) A simple method for sketching an approximate log curve is available.
iii) It is based on asymptotic approximation. Such approximation is sufficient
if rough information on the frequency response characteristic is needed.
iv) The phase angle curves can be easily drawn if a template for the phase
angle curve of 1+ jw is available.
13. Define Corner frequency?
The frequency at which the two asymptotic meet in a magnitude plot is called
corner frequency.
14. Define Phase lag and phase lead?
A negative phase angle is called phase lag.
A positive phase angle is called phase lead.
15. What are M circles?
The magnitude of closed loop transfer function with unit feed back can be shown
to be in the for every value if M. These circles are called M circles.
16. What is Nichols chart?
The chart consisting if M & N loci in the log magnitude versus phase diagram
is called Nichols chart.
17. What are two contours of Nichols chart?
Nichols chart of M and N contours, superimposed on ordinary graph. The M
contours are the magnitude of closed loop system in decibels and the N contours are
the phase angle locus of closed loop system.
18. How is the Resonant Peak(Mr), resonant frequency(Wr ) , and band width
determined from Nichols chart?
i) The resonant peak is given by the value of contour which is tangent to G(jw )
locus. ii) The resonant frequency is given by the frequency of G(jw ) at the tangency
point. iii) The bandwidth is given by frequency corresponding to the intersection
point of G(jw ) and 3dB M-contour.
19. What are the advantages of Nichols chart?
i) It is used to find the closed loop frequency response from open loop
frequency response.
ii) Frequency domain specifications can be determined from Nichols chart.
iii) The gain of the system can be adjusted to satisfy the given
specification.

PART B

1. Derive the expression for the frequency domain specifications of a second

order system.
Gain Margin
Phase margin
Gain cross over frequency
Phase crossover frequency
2. Given the open loop transfer function G(s)H(s)=1/s(s+1)(2s+1) of a unity
feedback system. Find the gain margin and phase margin using polar
plot.
Ans: gain margin =1.42db
phase margin =12o
Find croner frequency
Calculate gain & phase for various Values of w
Sketch the plot
3. Write the step by step procedure for plotting the magnitude plot and phase plot
of a open loop system represented by the transfer function G(s).
Find croner frequency
Calculate gain & phase for various Values of w
Sketch the plot
4. Construct the Bodes diagram of the system whose transfer
1
function H (s)
. Determine the gain margin of the system.
s(1 0.2s)(1 0.02s)
5. Using the Nichols chart determine the gain margin, phase margin and
bandwidth
2
of the system described by G(s)
s

s(1s) 1
3

10
6. Design a cascade phase compensator for the system whose H (s)
, to
s(1 s)
0
have a phase margin of 45 , using Bodes plot.
7. Sketch the bode plot for the following transfer function G(s) and determine
the system gain K for the gain cross over frequency W c to be 5
k 2
G(s)
s
(1 0.2s)(1
0.02s)
8. A unity feedback system has an open loop transfer function
k
G(s)
. Design a suitable phase lag compensator to achieve
s(s 1)(0.2s 1)
0

the following specifications: KV = 8 and phase margin = 40 with usual notations

k
9. A unity feedback system has an open loop transfer function G(s)
.
s(s 1)
Design a suitable phase lead compensator to achieve the following
0
specification: KV = 10 and phase margin > 45 with usual notations
10. Draw the bode plot of the system G(s)

s(s 0.1)(0.1s 1)

.hence obtain

the

K
exact plot by doing necessary corrections at corner frequencies.
i. Find the gain margin and phase margin
0
ii. The value of K for phase margin = 20

11. The open loop transfer function of a uncompensated system is G(s)

.
s(s 2)
Design a suitable lag compensator for the system so the the static velocity
-1
0
error constant Kv is 20 sec , the phase margin is at least 55 , and the gain
margin is atleast 12dB.
K
12. Consider a type 1 unit feedback system with an OLTG G f (s)
. It is
s(s 1)
-1
0
specified that Kv =12 sec and PM 40 .Design lead compensator to meet
the specifications
13. Draw the Nyquist plot for the open loop transfer function given below and
K
comment on the closed loop stability G(s)H (s)
2
s(s 1)(s 2s 2)
14. Construct bode plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is
given below
and
determine (i)
the
gain margin (ii)
phase margin4
G(s)H (s)

15. Consider the system whose open loop transfer is G(s)

. The
s(s 1)(s 4)
system is to be compensated to meet the following specifications. Damping
-1
ratio z =0.4, Settling time t s = 10sec. velocity error constant Kv =5 sec .
Convert the given specifications to suit frequency domain and then use bode plot
to design the compensator.
16. Briefly explain the procedure fro drawing Bode plot of a type 1, third
order system and to determine the gain margin, phase margin and stability
of the system.
17. Describe the design procedure for a lag compensator.
18. Discuss the limitations and effects of phase lead compensation
19. Discuss the conditions in which phase lead network cannot be used successfully.
20. Determine resonant frequency, peak resonance for the system whose transfer
C(s)
5

function is given by
2
R(s) s 2s 5
80
21. A unity feedback control system has G(s)
. Draw the bode plot.
s(s 2)(s 20)
Determine Gain margin, Phase margin, gc and pc . Comment on the stability.
K
22. For a certain control system, G(s)H (s)
. Sketch the Nyquist plot
s(s 4)(s 10)
and determine the range of values of K for stability.
23. Design a suitable lead compensator for a system with unity feedback and having
K
open loop transfer function G(s)
to meet the specifications
s(s 1)(s 4)
as
damping ratio =0.5 and undamped natural frequency = 2 rad/sec

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K ( 0.3)
2 30s 20
(s 4)ss
where K=2000. Determine the gain margin, phase margin,pc, gc. Comment on
0
stability. Determine the value of K to obtain phase margin of 30
K
25. Design a compensating network for G(s)
so that its
s(1 0.2s)(1 0.001s)
phase
0
margin at least will be 40 and steady state error will be in the final
position will not exceed 2% of the final velocity of 50m/sec
K
26. A unity feedback system has G(s)
. Draw the Bode plot and find
s(s 4)(s 10)
the value of K when gain margin is 10dB
27. Draw the circuit of a lag lead compensator and derive its transfer function.
What are the effects?
28. Plot the Bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and
10
phase cross over frequencies. G(s)
s(1 0.4s)(1 0.1s)
1
29. The open loop TF of a unity feedback system is G(s)
. Sketch
s(1 s)(1 2s)
the polar plot and determine the gain margin and phase margin
30. Realize the basic compensators using electrical network and obtain the TF.
31. Design the suitable lead compensator for a system with unity feedback and having
K
open loop TF, G(s)
to meet the specifications,
s(s 1)(s 4)
i. Damping ratio () = 0.5
ii. Undamped natural frequency, n = 2 rad/sec
32. Sketch the bode plot for the following TF and determine the gain margin
and 0.75(1 0.2s)
phase margin G(s)
s(1 0.5s)(1 0.1s)
K
33. A unity feedback system has an open loop transfer function G(s) 2
s (0.2s 1)
.
Design a lead compensator to meet the following specifications
1. Acceleration constant Ka = 10
2. Phase margin = 35 degrees
34. Consider a unit feedback system with the following open loop transfer
K
function G(s)
. Design a lag compensator to satisfy the following
s(s 1)(s 4)
specifications
i. Damping ratio =0.5
ii. Settling time t s = 10 sec
-1
iii. Velocity error constant Kv 5 sec
24. Draw the Bode plot for a unity feedback system with G(s)

T.Indumathy & D .VijayaKumari

K 0.2s
G(s) e
. Find K so that the
s(s 2)(s 8)

system is stable with (i) Gain margin equal to 6dB and (ii) Phase margin equal to
0
45
36. A unity feedback system has an open loop transfer function,
K
G(s)H (s)
. Design a suitable lag compensator so that phase margin
s(1 2s)
0
is 40 and the steady state error for ramp input is less than or equal to 0.2

UNIT IV - STABILITY ANALYSIS

PART - A
1. What is Nyquist contour
The contour that encloses entire right half of S plane is called Nyquist contour.
2. State Nyquist stability criterion.
If the Nyquist plot of the open loop transfer function G(s) corresponding to
the Nyquist control in the S-plane encircles the critical point 1+j0 in the
counter clockwise direction as many times as the number of right half S-plane
poles of G(s), the closed loop system is stable.
3. Define Relative stability
Relative stability is the degree of closeness of the system, it an indication of
strength or degree of stability.
4. What are the two segments of Nyquist contour?
i. An finite line segment C1 along the imaginary axis.
ii. An arc C2 of infinite radius.
5. What are root loci?
The path taken by the roots of the open loop transfer function when the loop gain
is varied from 0 to are called root loci.
6. What is a dominant pole?
The dominant pole is a air of complex conjugate pair which decides the
transient response of the system.
7. What are the main significances of root locus?
i. The main root locus technique is used for stability analysis.
ii. Using root locus technique the range of values of K, for as table system can
be determined
8. What are the effects of adding a zero to a system?
Adding a zero to a system increases peak overshoot appreciably.

9. The characteristics equation of a feedback control system is

4
3
2
s 22s 10s 2s K 0 . Determine the range of K for which the system
is stable.
10. Define BIBO stability
A linear relaxed system is said to have BIBO stability if every bounded input
results in a bounded output.
11. What is impulse response?
The impulse response of the system is the response of a system for impulse
input and it is given by inverse Laplace transform of the system transfer function
12. What is the requirement of the BIBO stability?

that,

m(t) dt ,

where m(t) is

impulse response of the system.

13. What is Characteristic equation?
The denominator polynomial of C(s)/R(s) is the characteristic equation of
the system.
14. How the roots are related to stability?
If the roots of the characteristic equation has positive real part then the
impulse response of the system is not bounded (the impulse response will be
t
as ). Hence the system will be unstable. If the roots has negative real
infinite
part
then the impulse response is bounded (the impulse response will be zero as
t ). Hence the system will be stable.
15. What is the necessary condition for stability?
The necessary condition for stability is that all the coefficients of
the characteristic polynomial be positive.
16. What is the relation between stability and coefficient of characteristic
equation?
If the coefficients of characteristics polynomial are negative or zero, then some
of the roots lies on right half of s-plane. Hence the system is unstable. If
the coefficients of characteristic polynomial are positive and if no co-efficient is
zero than there is a possibility of the system to be provided all the roots are
lying on the left half of the s-plane.
17. What will the nature of impulse response when the roots of characteristic
equation are lying on imaginary axis?
If the roots of characteristic equation lies on imaginary axis the nature of impulse
response is oscillatory.

T.Indumathy & D .VijayaKumari

18. What will the nature of impulse response when the roots of characteristic
equation are lying on right half of the s-plane?
When the roots are lying on the real axis on the right half of s-plane, then
the response is exponentially increasing. When the roots are complex conjugate
and lying on the right half of s-plane, then the response is oscillatory
with exponentially increasing amplitude.
19. What is the principle of argument?
The principle of argument states that let F(s) be an analytic function and if it
an arbitrary closed counter in the clockwise direction is chosen in the s-plane so
that F(s) is analytic at every point of the counter. Then the corresponding F(s)plane contour mapped in the F(s) plane will encircle the origin, N times
in the anticlockwise direction, where N is the difference between number of
poles, P and zeros Z of F(s) that are enclosed by the closed counter in the s-plane
(i.e., N=P-Z)
20. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for stability in Routh Hurwitz
criterion
The necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of the elements
in the first column of the Routh array should be positive.
21. What is Routh Hurwitz criterion?
Routh criterion states that the necessary and sufficient condition for stability
is that all of the elements in the first column of the Routh array be positive. If
this condition is not met, the system is unstable and the number of sign changes
in the elements of the first column of the Routh array corresponds to the number
of roots of characteristic equation in the right half of the s-plane.
22. What is auxiliary polynomial?
In the construction of Routh array a row of all zeros indicate the existence of
an even polynomial as a factor of the given characteristic equation. In an
even polynomial the exponent of s are even integers or zero only. This even
polynomial is called auxiliary polynomial are given by the elements of the row
just above the row of all zeros.
23. What is quadrantal symmetry?
The symmetry of roots with respect to both real and imaginary axis is called
24. In Routh array what conclusion you can make when here is a row of all
zeros?
All zero row in Routh array indicates the existence of an even polynomial as
a factor of the given characteristic equation. The even polynomial may have
roots on imaginary axis.
25. What is limitedly stable system?
For a bounded input signal, if the output has constant amplitude oscillations
then the system may be stable or unstable under some limited constraints.
Such a system is called as limitedly stable.

26. What is Nyquist stability criterion?

If G(s)H(s) contour in the G(s)H(s) plane corresponding to Nyquist contour in
s-plane encircles the point - 1 + j0 in the anti clockwise direction as many
times as the number of right half of the s- plane poles of G(s)H(s). then the
closed loop system is stable.
27. What is magnitude criterion?
The magnitude condition states that s = sa will be a point on the root locus if for
that of s magnitude of G(s)H(s) is equal to 1, (i.e., |G(s)H(s)| = 1).

G(s)H (s)

K (s z1 )(s z2 )(s z3 )........

(s p1 )(s p2 )(s p3 )........

For s = sa be a point in root locus,

| G(s)H (s) |
| G(s)H (s) |K

K | sa z1 | | sa z2 | | sa z3 | ......
| sa p1 | | sa p2 | | sa p3 | ......

Pr oduct of length of vectors from open loop zeros to the point sa

Pr oduct of length of vectors from open loop poles to the point sa

28. What is angle criterion?

The angle criterion states that s = sa will be a point on root locus if for that
value
of s the argument of phase of G(s)H(s) is equal to an odd multiple of
0
180 ,

0

Let,

G(s)H (s)

K (s z1 )(s z 2 )(s z3 )........

(s p1 )(s p2 )(s p3 )........

0

180 (2q 1)
Sum of angles

Sum of angles

Or

(2q 1) to the point s s

to the point
a

s sa

29. How will you find the gain K at a point on root locus?
The gain K at a point s sa on root locus is given by,

Pr oduct of length of vectors from open loop poles to the point

sa Pr oduct of length of vectors from open loop zeros to the point
sb

30. How will find root locus on real axis?

To find the root locus on real axis, choose a test point on real axis. If the
total number of poles and zeros on the real axis to the right of this test point
is odd
R.M.K.College of Engineering and Technology

T.Indumathy & D .VijayaKumari

number, then the test point lies on the root locus. If it is even then the test
point does not lie on the root locus.
31. What are asymptotes? How will you find the angle of asymptotes?
Asymptotes are straight lines which are parallel to root locus going to infinity
and
meet the locus at infinity.
1800-2q 1

Angle of Asymptotes

; q 0,1,2.......... ..(n m)

32. What is centroid? How the centroidnis calculated?

The meeting point of asymptotes withmreal axis is called centroid. The centroid
is given by,
poles sum of zeros
sum
Centroid
nm
of
33. What is break away and break in point? How to determine them?
At breakaway point the root locus breaks from the real axis to enter into
the complex plan. At breakin point the root locus enters the real axis from
the complex plane.
To find the breakaway or breakin points, form an equation for K from
the characteristic equation, and differentiate the equation of K with respect to s.
Then
d
dK
find the roots of equation K 0 . The roots of
are breakaway and breakin
ds
ds
points, provided for this value of root, the gain K should be positive and real.
34. How to find the crossing point of root locus in imaginary axis?
Method (i) By Routh Hurwitz
Method (ii) By letting s jin the characteristic equation and separate the
real and imaginary part. These two equations are equates to zero. Solve the
two equations for and K. The value of gives the point where the root
locus crosses imaginary axis and the value of K is the gain corresponding
to the crossing point.
35. How will you fix the dominant pole on root locus and find the gain K
corresponding to the dominant pole?
The dominant poles are given by roots of the quadratic factor

s 2n n2 0 .
2

2n 42n2 4n2
2

n jn 1

To fix a dominant pole on root locus draw a line at an angle of cos with
respect to the negative real axis. The meeting point of this line with root locus
will give the location of dominant pole. The value of K corresponds to dominant
pole can be obtained from magnitude condition.

Pr oduct of length of vectors from open loop poles to do min ant

poles Pr oduct of length of vectors from open loop zeros to do min ant
poles

PART- B
1. Write the rules for constructing the root
locus. Locate poles & Zeros
Find centroid & asymptotes
Find Break away or Break in points
Find crossing point in imaginary axis
2. Problems using root locus technique.
Locate poles & Zeros
Find centroid & asymptotes
Find Break away or Break in points
Find crossing point in imaginary axis
3. Stability analysis using Rouths criterion.
Construct routh arry
Check the first column for stability
4. Given the open loop transfer function a system with unity
feedback, G(s)H(s)=K/s(s+2)(s+10).Determine the range of K for which closed
loop system is stable.
Nyquist stability criterion.
0<K<240
5. Construct the Root locus diagram of the unity feedback system whose
K (s 2)
H (s)
s(s 1)(s 4)
6. Determine the stability of the closed loop system by Nyquist stability criterion,
1
whose open loop transfer function is H (s)
s(1 s)(1 2s)(1 3s)
k(s 0.5)
7. For a unity feedback system with open loop transfer function G(s) 2
s (s 4.5)
. Mark the following on the graph sheet and hence plot the root locus.
(ii)
Plot open loop poles and zeros
(iii)
Break away points
(iv)
Centroid
(v)
Asymptotes
8. Check the stability of the system whose open loop transfer function is
10
G(s) 2
by Nyquist criterion.
s (1 0.2s)(1 0.5s)
9. The loop transfer function of a feedback control system is given by
K (s 6)
G(s)H (s)
s(s 4)
i. Sketch the root locus plot with K as a variable parameter and
show that loci of complex roots are part of a circle.
ii. Determine the break away/break in points, if any

iii. Determine the range of K fro which the system is under damped.
R.M.K.College of Engineering and Technology

iv. Determine the value of K for critical damping

v. Determine the minimum value of damping ratio.
k
10. Test the stability of the unity feedback system G(s)
when
s 1s2 (s 5)
K=10
using Nyquist criterion and then find the range of K for stability.
11. Using Routh-Hurwitz criterion determine the relation between K and T so
that unity feedback control system whose open loop transfer function given
below is
K
stable G(s)
ss(s 10) T
12. Sketch the root locus diagram of the following open-loop transfer function.
K
G(s)H (s)
s(s 2)(s 5)
13. Utilize the Routh table to determine the number of roots of the
following polynomials in the right half of the s-plane. Comment about the
stability of the system.
5
4
3
2
1) s 2s 3s 6s 10s 15
5
4
3
2
2) s 6s 15s 30s 44s 24
14. Obtain the root locus for the unity feedback system with open-loop transfer
K
function. G(s) 2
s(s 6s 25)
15. Using Nyquist criterion investigate the closed loop stability of the system whose
50
open loop transfer function is given by, G(s)H (s)
(s 1)(s 2)
16. With the help of the frequency plot, explain how is phase lag-lead
compensation obtained in control systems
17. Check the stability of a system with characteristic equation
4
3
2
s s 20s 9s 100 0 using Routh Hurwitz criterion
18. List all the rules to construct a root locus and explain
19. Explain the procedure to determine the stability of the closed loop system
when open loop transfer function G(s)H(s) is given using Nyquist stability
criterion and also give the rules and regulations to be followed
5
4
3
2
20. Examine the stability of Rouths criterion s s 2s 2s 3s 15 0 .
21. Find the range of values
of K so that system with the characteristics
2
equation F(s) s s s 1 s 4 k 0 will be stable using Rouths criterion.

22. Apply Nyquist stability criterion to the system with loop transfer function
4s 1
G(s)H (s) 2
and ascertain its stability.
s (1 s)(1 2s)
23. Sketch the root locus for the system and comment on stability
K (s 4)(s 5)
G(s)H (s)
, K>0
(s 3)(s 1)
24. Using Routh criterion, determine the stability of the system whose
4
3
2
characteristic equation is s 8s 18s 16s 5 0 . Comment on the location of

the roots.

T.Indumathy & D .VijayaKumari

k(s b)
25. The loop transfer function G(s)
and H(s) = 1 for the system shown in
s(s a)
the fig. prove that a
part of root locus is a
circle.

26. By Nyquist stability criterion determine the stability of closed loop system, whose
open loop transfer function is given by G(s)H (s)
Comment

s2

(s 1)(s 1)

UNIT V - STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS & DIGITAL

CONTROL SYSTEMS
PART A
1. What is state?
The state of a dynamic system is defined as a minimal set of variables such that the
knowledge of these variable at t = t 0 together with the knowledge of inputs for t 0 .
2. What is state variable?
The variables involved in determining the state of dynamic system are called the
state variables. Generally x1(t), x2 (t), . xn(t) are called the state variables.
3. What is state vector?
The spate vector x(t) is the vector sum of all the state variables.
4. What is state space?
The space whose coordinates axes are nothing but the n state variables with time
as the implicit variable is called the state space.
5. What are the properties of state transition matrix?
1.

(0) e

Ax 0

I (Identity Matrix)

2. (t) (t)
3. (t1 t2 ) (t1 ). (t2 )
4.
5.

(t)n (nt)

(t2 t1 ). (t1 t0 ) (t2 t0 )

6. What is controllability?

th

completely controllable if and only if the rank of

the

QC B : AB :..... : A

n 1

is
composite
matrix

is n

7. What is observability?

A general n order multi-input-multi-output time invariant system X AX BU

, Y = CX is completely observable if the rank of composite matrix
th

QC C : A C : ..... : A n-1C T is n
8. List the advantages of Phase variable method
1. Phase variables are simple to realize mathematically
2. Provides a powerful method for state variable information
3. Provides a link between transfer function design approach and time domain
approach.
9. List the disadvantages of Phase variable method
1. Phase variables need not always be physical variables of the
system. Therefore they may not be directly for measurement and control
purposes.
2. When the transfer function is not having zeros, it becomes difficult to
realize second or higher derivative outputs.

PART B
1. Write the
mechanical
figure

state equations for a

system shown in the

2. Obtain a state space representation of the system shown in the figure below.

3. For the circuit shown below obtain the state equations. The input voltage is
Vi(t) and the output voltage is taken across the capacitor C
R.M.K.College of Engineering and Technology

down the state

shown below write

equations

5. Find the transfer function for the system which is represented in state space
representation as follows,

x
1

2 1
x2 0 3
x 3
4
3
y 0

0 x1 0
1 x2 0 u

5 x3 1

x1

0 x2

x3

6. A linear second order single input continuous time system is described by the
following state variable model. Comment on the controllability and observability.

1 0

X
X 1U
0 2
1

1 1
0
X
X U
1 1
1

Y 1 0 X

Check the controllability and observability.

d y(t)
3
u(t) where
d3
t the system in
y(t) is the observed output and u(t) is the input signal. Describe

8. A control system is described by the differential equation

the state variable form and check for controllability and observability of the
system.