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MEng Team Project

UAS Challenge - 2015

Written By:
Alfred Dzadey, Jonathan Ebhota, Zuber Khan, Tarek Kherbouche, Amit Ramji, Mozammel, Mohammed
Mohinuddin, Micky Ngouani, Malwenna Malwenna , Hassan Turabi, Osman Sibanda, Mohammed Rayad
Ullah
Project Supervisor:
Ray Wilkinson, Joanna Rawska, Kate Williams, Steve lines

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

School of Engineering and Technology

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We (UAS Challenge MEng Group) would like to thank the supervisors who gave us
their support and unconditional attention throughout the course of the project with
weekly group meetings and off the clock advice. Their expertise in the subject helped in
the successful delivery of this project. Other notable mentions are to the technicians;
Chris Childs and Andrew Curl whose expertise, skill and experience were invaluable in
the manufacture of the components of the UAS.
We would also like to thank Gordon Banks from Ensinger for supplying the materials
use for the project at a discounted prize and very swiftly too; Howard Ash for his
assistance in the procurement of materials and components; Yigeng Xu for giving the
MEng group permission to use E131B for assembly and testing purposes; Clive
Borhem for giving technical assistance to the Propulsion Engineer and also everyone
who supported the group directly and indirectly.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................................... i
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................ ii
LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................... vii
GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................ xii
1
Introduction........................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Competition Overview ..................................................................................... 1
1.2 Project Aims .................................................................................................... 1
1.3 The Project Objectives .................................................................................... 2
2
Design Rationale .................................................................................................. 2
2.1 Design Convergence ....................................................................................... 2
2.1.1 Stage 1 Convergence ............................................................................... 2
2.1.2 Stage 2 Convergence ............................................................................... 3
2.2 Further analysis ............................................................................................... 3
3
Project Management ............................................................................................ 4
3.1 Role of the Project Manager ............................................................................ 4
3.2 The Team Structure......................................................................................... 4
3.3 Project Planning .............................................................................................. 5
3.3.1 Milestones ................................................................................................. 7
3.4 Leadership ...................................................................................................... 7
3.5 Team Communication ..................................................................................... 9
3.6 Project Budgeting ............................................................................................ 9
3.6.1 Summary of Project Budget .....................................................................10
3.6.2 Source of Funding ....................................................................................10
3.7 Risk Management ..........................................................................................11
3.8 Conflict management......................................................................................11
3.9 Performance Review ......................................................................................12
3.10 Evaluation ...................................................................................................13
4
Quad-Rotor Design..............................................................................................14
4.1 Design Rationale - Quad-Rotor ......................................................................15
4.2 Payload Box Design and Mechanism .............................................................16
5
UAV Mass Breakdown .........................................................................................17
6
UAV Cost Breakdown ..........................................................................................17
7
Structural Analysis ...............................................................................................18
7.1 Load Case Definition and Free Body Diagrams ..............................................18
8
UAV Stress Analysis ............................................................................................20
8.1 Stress Reduction Techniques .........................................................................20
8.2 Fatigue Awareness .........................................................................................20
8.3 Fatigue due to induced vibration .....................................................................21
8.4 Pressure Loading on Plates............................................................................21
8.5 Load Transfer .................................................................................................22
8.6 Fixed and Movable Arm Stress Maximum ......................................................22
8.7 Simplified Plate Deflection ..............................................................................24
8.7.1 Simply Supported Plate Representation ...................................................24
8.7.2 Analytical Method .....................................................................................25
8.7.3 FEA Simplified Rectangular Approximation ...........................................26
8.8 Plate Deflection - Assembly Contact Model as Built........................................27
8.9 Undercarriage Buckling Calculation ................................................................27
8.10 Undercarriage Bending ...............................................................................27
8.11 Undercarriage Bending - Assembly Contact Model .....................................28
8.12 Undercarriage Torsion.................................................................................29
8.13 Undercarriage Combined Loading - Torsion and Bending ...........................29
8.14 Undercarriage Combined Loading - Assembly Contact Model .....................30

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8.15 FEM Verification Summary of Undercarriage Results ...............................30


8.16 Modal Analysis of Fixed-arm Simplified Case ...........................................31
8.16.1 Analytical Modal Analysis Simplified ..................................................31
8.16.2 Finite Element Modal Analysis Simplified ...........................................33
8.17 Modal Analysis of Fixed-arm Actual Parts (As Built) .................................34
8.18 Summary of Modal Frequency Results ........................................................35
8.19 Summarised Margin of Safety Table ...........................................................36
9
Performance, Propulsion & Systems Engineer ....................................................37
9.1 Propeller Diameter Selection ..........................................................................38
9.2 RC Motor Selection Maximum RPM ...............................................................40
9.3 Propeller Pitch Selection ................................................................................41
9.4 Power Supply Voltage Selection .....................................................................43
9.5 Power Supply Capacity Selection ...................................................................44
9.6 RC Motor Selection Power .............................................................................44
9.7 Electronic Speed Controller Selection.............................................................45
10 Unmanned Aircraft System - Subsystems............................................................46
10.1 Introduction .................................................................................................46
10.2 Navigation Systems.....................................................................................46
10.2.1 Potential Issues with the Navigation systems ........................................47
10.2.2 Solutions ...............................................................................................47
10.3 Mission Control System ...............................................................................47
10.4 Flight Control System ..................................................................................48
10.5 Communication System ..............................................................................50
10.5.1 Serial Connection .................................................................................51
10.5.2 Telemetry Kit Connection ......................................................................51
10.5.3 Radio Connection .................................................................................52
10.6 Systems Integration.....................................................................................52
10.6.1 Communications Systems Test .............................................................52
10.6.2 Interference test ....................................................................................52
10.6.3 Range Test and Altitude Test ................................................................53
10.6.4 Post Manufacture and Assembly Design Checks ..................................53
10.6.5 Post Assembly Control System Calibration ...........................................54
11 Stability and Control I...........................................................................................55
11.1 PID Tuning ..................................................................................................56
11.1.1 Loiter mode ...........................................................................................56
11.1.2 Altitude Hold Mode (AltHold) .................................................................57
11.2 Verifying the performance of PID values .....................................................58
12 Safety Case .........................................................................................................59
12.1 Overview .....................................................................................................59
12.2 Flight Controller Safety Mechanism .............................................................59
12.2.1 Safety Measurements for Flight Testing ................................................59
12.3 Hazardous Components..............................................................................60
12.4 Battery Fail Safe..........................................................................................60
12.5 Radio Fail Safe............................................................................................61
13 Environmental Impact ..........................................................................................62
13.1 Hazardous Material .....................................................................................62
13.2 Air Quality ...................................................................................................62
13.2.1 Emissions .............................................................................................62
13.2.2 Noise ....................................................................................................62
13.3 Infrastructure ...............................................................................................63
13.4 Disposal of Material .....................................................................................63
14 Stability and Control II..........................................................................................65
14.1 Ideal CG location.........................................................................................65
15 Flight modes and tuning .....................................................................................66
15.1 Simulink model ............................................................................................66

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15.2 Test rig PID Testing.....................................................................................68


15.2.1 Pitch and Roll tuning .............................................................................69
15.2.2 Yaw tuning ............................................................................................71
15.2.3 Waypoint navigation tuning ...................................................................71
15.3 Tuning during flight ......................................................................................72
15.4 Future Work ................................................................................................72
16 Flight Termination Case.......................................................................................73
16.1 GPS Loss ....................................................................................................73
16.2 Communication loss from Ground Station ...................................................73
16.3 Geofence Breach ........................................................................................74
16.4 Maximum Pressure Altitude Breach ............................................................74
17 Systems Layout ...................................................................................................75
17.1 System block diagram .................................................................................75
17.1.1 Hardware Systems................................................................................75
17.1.2 Software Systems .................................................................................76
17.2 Communication ...........................................................................................78
18 Image Processing ................................................................................................79
18.1 Image Recognition ......................................................................................79
18.1.1 The Requirements ................................................................................79
18.1.2 Testing ..................................................................................................79
18.1.3 Results..................................................................................................80
18.1.4 Analysis ................................................................................................80
18.1.5 Shape recognation ................................................................................80
18.2 Video ...........................................................................................................81
18.3 On Screen Display Board (OSD) .................................................................82
18.4 Video transmitter .........................................................................................82
18.5 Video Receiver ............................................................................................82
19 Verification and Validation ...................................................................................83
19.1 Verification Matrix ........................................................................................83
19.2 Validation test..............................................................................................83
20 Future work .........................................................................................................84
20.1 Partial control of Quad-rotor positioning ......................................................84
20.2 Full Autonomy .............................................................................................84
21 Preliminary Payload Box Concept & Servo Integration ........................................85
21.1 Initial designs ..............................................................................................85
21.1.1 The Hinge-clamp Method ......................................................................85
21.1.2 The electro-magnet method ..................................................................85
21.1.3 The Hinge-pin method ..........................................................................86
21.1.4 Others ...................................................................................................86
21.1.5 Payload box mechanism integration .....................................................87
21.2 Servo ..........................................................................................................89
21.2.1 Specifications........................................................................................89
21.2.2 Rational ................................................................................................89
21.3 BEC ............................................................................................................90
21.3.1 Specification .........................................................................................90
21.3.2 Rational ................................................................................................90
21.4 Schematics of connections from battery to servo through pixhawk ..............91
21.5 Controlling the servo as a servo ..................................................................92
21.6 Testing with the Mission Planner .................................................................93
22 Other Involvements .............................................................................................94
22.1 Telemetry Kit ...............................................................................................94
22.2 Design Convergence ...................................................................................94
22.3 Challenges ..................................................................................................94
23 Manufacturing ......................................................................................................95
23.1 Machining Selection ....................................................................................95

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23.1.1 Machines ..............................................................................................95


23.1.2 Tools .....................................................................................................95
23.2 Manufacturing process of Quad-rotors components ....................................96
23.2.1 Fixed Bracket ........................................................................................96
23.2.2 Motor arm end bracket ..........................................................................96
23.2.3 Movable arm vertical fixed bracket /support bracket..............................96
23.2.4 Landing gear top/bottom support bracket ..............................................97
23.2.5 Top/Bottom half T-joints ........................................................................97
23.2.6 Landing Gear Lug Bracket/ Pivot ..........................................................97
23.2.7 Arm pivot ..............................................................................................97
23.2.8 Main Body Plate ....................................................................................98
23.2.9 PVCs tubes ...........................................................................................98
23.2.10
Motor mount plate..............................................................................98
23.2.11
Overview of Machining ......................................................................99
23.3 Challenges ................................................................................................100
23.4 Manufacturing Plan ...................................................................................100
23.5 Machining Cost .........................................................................................100
23.6 Other involvements in the project ..............................................................100
24 Test Rig .............................................................................................................101
24.1 Initial Conceptual Design of Gimbal Test Rig ............................................101
24.2 Octagonal Gimbal Test Rig .......................................................................102
24.2.1 Octagonal Model Mount Frame ...........................................................103
24.2.2 Octagonal Mid Frame .........................................................................104
24.2.3 Octagonal Outer Frame ......................................................................105
24.3 Weight Estimation for Octagonal Test Rig .................................................105
24.4 Cost Breakdown for Octagonal Test Rig....................................................105
24.5 Manufacturing Stage of the Octagonal Test Rig ........................................106
25 Structural Testing .............................................................................................107
25.1 Material Testing.........................................................................................107
25.2 Component Testing ...................................................................................107
25.3 Payload Drop Testing ................................................................................108
25.4 Initial Ball socket test rig ............................................................................108
25.5 Manufacturing assistance ..........................................................................109
26 Business Case...................................................................................................109
26.1 Executive Summary ..................................................................................109
26.2 Business overview ....................................................................................110
26.3 Mission statement .....................................................................................110
26.4 UAS key design features ...........................................................................111
26.5 Market Assessment ...................................................................................111
26.5.1 Potential market Emergency Service ...............................................111
26.5.2 Market size and growth .......................................................................112
26.5.3 Regulation restriction ..........................................................................113
26.5.4 Challenges for market entry ................................................................113
26.5.5 Competition ........................................................................................114
26.6 Financial Forecasts ...................................................................................115
26.7 Key assumptions .......................................................................................115
26.8 Costs .........................................................................................................115
26.8.1 Financial statements ...........................................................................117
26.8.2 Profitability ..........................................................................................118
Conclusion ................................................................................................................119
REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................121
Appendix. A ...............................................................................................................125
Appendix. B
UAV Design .....................................................................................141
Appendix. C
UAV Detailed Mass Breakdown .......................................................171
Appendix. D
UAV Detailed Cost Breakdown ........................................................177

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Appendix. E
Material Properties ..........................................................................179
Appendix. F Load Cases and Load Transfer ...........................................................181
Appendix. G
Stress Analysis ................................................................................182
Appendix. H
Performance & Propulsion ...............................................................219
Appendix. I UAS System Set Up............................................................................261
Appendix. J Systems ..............................................................................................269
Appendix. K
Altitude control .................................................................................281
Appendix. L Verification and validation ...................................................................289
Appendix. M
Telemetry kit Specification ...............................................................302
M.1.
Servo calculation ..........................................................................................307
Appendix. N
Manufacturing ..................................................................................308
N.1.
Machining by milling machine ....................................................................309
N.2.
Machining by XYZ 1330 Lathe ..................................................................309
N.3.
Laser Cutting by Tortec Laser cutter .........................................................310
N.4.
Cutting blocks by vertical bandsaws machine............................................310
Appendix. O
Test Rig ...........................................................................................311
O.1.
Initial Gimbal Test Rig Conceptual Design ................................................312
O.2.
Updated Octagonal Gimbal Test Rig Assembly .........................................314
O.3.
Octagonal Model Mount Frame Technical Drawing ...................................316
O.4.
Octagonal Mid Frame Technical Drawing ..................................................318
O.5.
Octagonal Outer Frame Technical Drawing ...............................................320
O.6.
Octagonal Gimbal Test Rig Stand Technical Drawing ...............................322
O.7.
Gimbal Test Rig Weight Estimation ...........................................................324
O.8.
Gimbal Test Rig Manufacturing Cost .........................................................326
O.9.
Qualification test plan ................................................................................326
Electrical Performance Tests (Initial, In-Process, Final) .........................................326
Storage Temperature Cycling ................................................................................326
Thermal Shock ......................................................................................................326
Random/Sine Vibration..........................................................................................327
Operational Temperature Cycling ..........................................................................327
O.10. Initial Involvement in the MEng Team Project ............................................327
O.11. Tri Angular Bracket Technical Drawing......................................................328
O.12. T-Bracket Technical Drawing ....................................................................330
Appendix. O
Design features for business case ...................................................332

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LIST OF FIGURES

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School of Engineering and Technology

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 - Initial Concepts for Stage 1 convergence ..................................................... 2
Figure 2 - Concepts considered in the stage-2 convergence ........................................ 3
Figure 3 - Project Organization Chart ........................................................................... 5
Figure 4 - Progress (to date) of the project ................................................................... 7
Figure 5 - Leadership area of priority Semester A (Left), Semester B (Right) ............ 8
Figure 6 Performance Charts for Jonathan (a) and Zuber (b) ...................................12
Figure 7 - Quad-rotor design .......................................................................................14
Figure 8 - Stowage Instructions ...................................................................................15
Figure 9 - Quad-rotor in Stowed Configuration ............................................................15
Figure 10 Removable Lightweight Payload Box .......................................................16
Figure 11 - Removable Lightweight Payload Box ........................................................16
Figure 12 - Payload Box with simple construction and failsafe mechanism .................16
Figure 13 Payload Box with Payload Clearance .......................................................16
Figure 14 Free Body Diagram - Flight and Landing Cases .......................................18
Figure 15 - Free Body Diagram - Landing Cases ........................................................18
Figure 16 - Free Body Diagram - Flight and Gust Load Cases ....................................19
Figure 17 Fixed Arm Cross Section See also Appendix G.7 ..................................22
Figure 18 Mesh for Fixed-arm Assembly Values as per Appendix G.6 ..................23
Figure 19 - Deflection of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with 7.6mm Deflection ...23
Figure 20 - Stress of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with Stress 15.8MPa
(Contact) and 20MPa (Peak) .......................................................................................23
Figure 21 Stress (Close-up) of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with Stress
15.8MPa (Contact) and 20MPa (Peak) ........................................................................24
Figure 22 - Simplified Plate Representations ...............................................................25
Figure 23 - Simple Plate Deflection Carried out on CATIA showing 4.54mm deflection
....................................................................................................................................26
Figure 24 - Flight and Gust condition of Main Body with 0.13mm Deflection................27
Figure 25 - Lateral Impact Case on Single Leg - 60.6MPa Stress ...............................28
Figure 26 Stress Element A with Principal Stress for - Analytical Undercarriage
Combined Loading Bending, Buckling and Torsion (G.13) .......................................29
Figure 27 - Arm and Mass for Rayleigh Method ..........................................................31
Figure 28 Mass Representation of Motors, Blocks, Plates, Fasteners and ESC .......33
Figure 29 Simplified FE analysis with 1st Nat freq as 19.64Hz 69.3mm Deflection
(Left) and 164MPa Stress (Right) ................................................................................33
Figure 30 Simplified FE with 2nd Nat freq as 20.06 Hz (Left) and 3rd Nat freq as 134.6
Hz (Right) ....................................................................................................................33
Figure 31 Simplified FE with 4th Nat freq as 224.1 Hz (Left) and 5th Nat freq as 411.9
Hz (Right) ....................................................................................................................33
Figure 32 As Built FE Analysis - Mass Representation of Motors, Fasteners, Cables
and ESC......................................................................................................................34
Figure 33 As Built FE analysis with 1st Nat freq as 451 Hz 69.0mm Deflection (Left)
and Stress (Right) .......................................................................................................34
Figure 34 - As Built FE analysis with 2nd Nat freq as 736 Hz (Left) and 3rd Nat freq as
1707 Hz (Right) ...........................................................................................................34
Figure 35 - As Built FE analysis with 4th Nat freq as 2 KHz (Left) and 5th Nat freq as 4.1
KHz (Right) .................................................................................................................34
Figure 36 - Prototype Quad Rotor ...............................................................................44
Figure 37: Waypoint Command File ............................................................................47
Figure 38: Telemetry Information transmitted to ground control station .......................50
Figure 39: Transmission Link Statistics (Serial Connection) ........................................51
Figure 40: Transmission Link Statistics (Telemetry Kit) ...............................................51
Figure 41 PID System (Oscar, 2013) ........................................................................55

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Figure 42 Loiter PID values .........................................................................................56


Figure 43 AltHold mode PID values .............................................................................57
Figure 44 Dataflash log in Stabalized mode opened in Mission planner ......................58
Figure 45 Battery fail safe settings chosen in Mission Planner ....................................60
Figure 46 Battery monitor settings chosen in Mission Planner .....................................61
Figure 47 Side view of the Quad-rotor .........................................................................65
Figure 48 Simulink model used ...................................................................................66
Figure 49 Quad-rotor oscillating with only the P gain (left), with P and D gain (right) ...67
Figure 50 PID values on Simulink................................................................................68
Figure 51 Values that require change (3DR Robotics, 2015) .......................................69
Figure 52 Quad-rotor on the test rig ............................................................................70
Figure 53 Results of what Pixhawk should output (Copter.Ardupilot, 2015) .................70
Figure 54 Geofence configuration on Mission Planner ................................................74
Figure 55 Overall System Hardware Block Diagram ....................................................75
Figure 56 Overall Software Block Diagram ..................................................................77
Figure 57 Matlab alphanumeric code processing letter at 22.98cm .............................80
Figure 58 Shape recognition .......................................................................................81
Figure 59 Circuit Diagram of Ardunio ..........................................................................84
Figure 60: Hinge clamp ...............................................................................................85
Figure 61: electro-magnet ...........................................................................................85
Figure 62: Hinge-pin ....................................................................................................86
Figure 63: Other concept .............................................................................................86
Figure 64: CAD ...........................................................................................................87
Figure 65: Overall payload box ....................................................................................87
Figure 66: Horn and door connection ..........................................................................88
Figure 67: Start up release ..........................................................................................88
Figure 68: Fully Unlocked door ....................................................................................88
Figure 69: Complete release .......................................................................................89
Figure 70 - MG90S servo ............................................................................................89
Figure 71 - SBEC26 Turnigy .......................................................................................90
Figure 72: Schematics of connections .........................................................................91
Figure 73: Configuration of the servo on Pixhawk .......................................................92
Figure 74: Mission with GPS dropping points ..............................................................93
Figure 75: Verification of the performance of the Servo ...............................................93
Figure 76: Machined fixed bracket...............................................................................96
Figure 77: Machined end bracket ................................................................................96
Figure 78: Machined Fixed bracket .............................................................................96
Figure 79: Machined bottom support bracket...............................................................97
Figure 80:T-joint on foam ............................................................................................97
Figure 81: Lug bracket ................................................................................................97
Figure 82: Landing gear pivot ......................................................................................97
Figure 83: Arm pivot for movable arm..........................................................................97
Figure 84: Cutting nylon plate in Laser machine ..........................................................98
Figure 85: Melted edges ..............................................................................................98
Figure 86: Plate after cutting .......................................................................................98
Figure 87: Assembled motor mount .............................................................................98
Figure 88: Motor mount plate ......................................................................................98
Figure 89.1-3: CNC practice sessions .........................................................................99
Figure 90.1-3: Failed attempts ...................................................................................100
Figure 91 - Gyroscope Test Rigs ...............................................................................102
Figure 92 - CAD Drawing of the Quad-rotor ..............................................................104
Figure 93 - Test Rig Components..............................................................................106
Figure 94 - Test Rig Assembly ..................................................................................106
Figure 95 - Nylon Material and Main Body Plate ........................................................107
Figure 96 - Compression Test conducted on Hounsfield Tensometer .......................107

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Figure 97 - Initial ball socket test rig ..........................................................................108


Figure 98 - Autoquads Inspection Ltd Logo ...............................................................109
Figure 99 - Permissions required for different UAS sizes...........................................113
Figure 100 - Break Even Graph .................................................................................118
Figure 101 - Overall View of Quad-Rotor...................................................................142
Figure 102 - Motor Mount Design (Left) & Undercarriage T-Joint (Right) ...................142
Figure 103 - Undercarriage Pivot Design (Left) & Main Body Sandwich Design (Right)
..................................................................................................................................142
Figure 104 - Movable Arm Pivot Design ....................................................................143
Figure 105 - Project Main Body Area ........................................................................181
Figure 106 SOLID187 Element (Ansys, November 2013c) .....................................185
Figure 107 PLANE182 Element (Ansys, November 2013c) ....................................185
Figure 108 - Arm Cross-section for Stress Calculation ..............................................190
Figure 109 - Tension & Compression Stress in Arm ..................................................190
Figure 110 Mesh for Fixed-arm Assembly Values as per Appendix G.6 ..............191
Figure 111 - Deflection of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with 7.6mm Deflection
..................................................................................................................................191
Figure 112 - Stress of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with Stress 15.8MPa
(Contact) and 20MPa (Peak) .....................................................................................192
Figure 113 Stress (Close-up) of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with Stress
15.8MPa (Contact) and 20MPa (Peak) ......................................................................192
Figure 114 Mesh for Arm Assembly (With additional Tab) Mesh Values as per G.6
..................................................................................................................................193
Figure 115 - Modified FB-002 for reduction in point contact stress concentration ......194
Figure 116 - Stress Concentration at Arm (without addition) Contact (a) & Close-up (b)
..................................................................................................................................194
Figure 117 - Deflection of Modified Movable Motor Arm of 7.88mm for flight loads with
SF .............................................................................................................................195
Figure 118 - Stress of Modified Movable Motor Arm of 20.8MPa for flight loads with SF
..................................................................................................................................195
Figure 119 - Modified Movable Motor Arm with Stress of 20.8MPa for flight loads with
SF (a) & Close-up (b) ................................................................................................195
Figure 120 - Load on the Lug (Niu, 1988) ..................................................................196
Figure 121 - Components of the Load (Niu, 1988) .....................................................196
Figure 122 - Areas on the Lug ...................................................................................196
Figure 123 - Lug Bracket Without Flange (Left) & with additional Flange (Right) .......197
Figure 124 Lateral Unit Load Deflection (Left) & Stress (Right) of Lug Bracket Without
Flange .......................................................................................................................198
Figure 125 Lateral Unit Load Deflection (Left) & Stress (Right) of Lug Bracket With
Flange .......................................................................................................................198
Figure 126 - Mesh for MP-001 (Appendix B.7) with values as per Appendix G.6 .......199
Figure 127 Motor Plate Deflection (0.038 mm) and Stress (41.7 MPa) for flight case
with SF at start-up .....................................................................................................199
Figure 128 - Error Elements in Model - Due to Separation at FB-001 and EB-001 ....199
Figure 129 - Simplified Plate Representations ...........................................................200
Figure 130 - Simple Plate Deflection Carried out on CATIA structural analysis .........201
Figure 131 - Mesh of Main Body Plate - Values as per Appendix G.6 .......................202
Figure 132 Single Main Body Plate Analysis with 17.8MPa Stress at contact holes
for flight case with pressure load ...............................................................................202
Figure 133 Mass Representation of components and payloads as per Appendix. C
..................................................................................................................................203
Figure 134 - Mesh of Main body assembly with Values as per Appendix G.6 ............203
Figure 135 Contact model Flight Case for Main body assembly Deflection (left) and
Equivalent Stress (right) ............................................................................................203

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Figure 136 - Contact model Flight Case for Main body assembly - Equivalent Stress
with predicted locations .............................................................................................204
Figure 137 - Resolving Component to Determine Vertical Load ................................205
Figure 138 - Undercarriage Leg Under Pure Bending................................................205
Figure 139 - Undercarriage Leg Under Pure Torsion .................................................206
Figure 140 - Stress Element A (Warren C. Young) ....................................................207
Figure 141 - Plan View of Stress Element A ..............................................................207
Figure 142 - Stress Element A with Principle Stresses ..............................................208
Figure 143 - Undercarriage Mesh for Contact Model with values as per G.6 .............209
Figure 144 Lateral Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 53.6mm Deflection .209
Figure 145 - Lateral Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 60MPa Bending Stress
..................................................................................................................................210
Figure 146 - Lateral Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 60MPa Bending Stress
(Close-up) .................................................................................................................210
Figure 147 - Tip Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 60MPa Bending Stress .211
Figure 148 -Tip Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 66mm Combined bending
and torsion deflection ................................................................................................211
Figure 149 - Tip Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 71MPa Combined bending
and torsion stress ......................................................................................................212
Figure 150 Entire Quad-Rotor Flight Deflection of 7.9mm at Motor Arm Tips .........213
Figure 151 - Entire Quad-Rotor Flight Deflection of 7.9mm at Motor Arm Tips (Closeup).............................................................................................................................213
Figure 152 - Entire Quad-Rotor Flight Stress of 28.8 MPa at Motor mount plates .....213
Figure 153 - Entire Quad-Rotor Flight Stress with Plate Stress peak at 14.42Mpa ....214
Figure 154 Downward Load - 1kg Payload and 10N Additional Load onto PB-005
Plate ..........................................................................................................................215
Figure 155 - Side Load - 1kg Payload and 10N Additional Load onto Hinge Plate at
45deg to horizontal ....................................................................................................215
Figure 156 - Side Load - 1kg Payload and 10N Additional Load onto short edge 45deg
to horizontal...............................................................................................................216
Figure 157 - Side Load as per Figure 156 - Showing Pre-mature Release due to global
deflection...................................................................................................................216
Figure 158 Downward Load as per Figure 154 - new design showing 0.73mm
Deflection ..................................................................................................................217
Figure 159 - Side Load as per Figure 155 new rigid design and Deflection of 1.56mm
..................................................................................................................................217
Figure 160 Side Load as per Figure 156 and Figure 157 with new design and
deflection of 0.41mm*................................................................................................217
Figure 161: Proof of Connection ................................................................................261
Figure 162: Mission Planner top menu ......................................................................262
Figure 163: Initial Setup for all components ...............................................................262
Figure 164: Mission Planner Waypoint Entry Point ....................................................262
Figure 165: Secondary Commands ...........................................................................263
Figure 166: Area for writing flight plans into Pixhawk's Memory ................................263
Figure 167: Stability Tuning for Quad-rotor Control ...................................................264
Figure 168: Mission Plannner environment for changing parameters ........................264
Figure 169: Fail Safe parameters ..............................................................................265
Figure 170: Typical Set Fail Safe Values ...................................................................266
Figure 171: Monitoring System Values ......................................................................267
Figure 172: Flight ready monitoring system ...............................................................267
Figure 173: Quad-rotor Acceleration and Velocity parameters ..................................268
Figure 174 Minim OSD V2.1 (unmannedtechshop, 2015)..........................................276
Figure 175: 3DR uBlox GPS with Compass Kit (unmannedtechshop, 2015) .............278
Figure 176 CG calculations for the x and y-axis ........................................................281
Figure 177 CG calculations for z-axis ........................................................................281

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LIST OF FIGURES

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Figure 178 Overview of the Simulink model ..............................................................286


Figure 179 Section to change PID values ..................................................................287
Figure 180 Quad-rotor control mixing ........................................................................287
Figure 181 Quad-rotor dynamics ...............................................................................288
Figure 182 GUI of the Quad-rotor general parameters ..............................................288
Figure 183: Other CAD views ....................................................................................306
Figure 184: schematics for the force calculations ......................................................307
Figure 185: Machined fixed bracket is CNC Router Pro 2600 ....................................308
Figure 186: Dry assemble of landing gear lug, pivot and the vertical landing strut .....308
Figure 187: Slot bracket
Figure 188: Turn button for servo motor .......................308
Figure 189: Support corners machined in CNC
Figure 190: Triangle payload
support glued with hinges
308
Figure 191: Drilling centre hole in fixed bracket Figure 192: Milling arm Pivot ........309
Figure 193: Chamfering of movable arm support Figure 194: Smoothing surface by
fly cutter
309
Figure 195.1-2: Drilling using slot drills ......................................................................309
Figure 196: High speed steel tool ..............................................................................309
Figure 197.1-2: Machining arm pivot on lathe ............................................................310
Figure 198.1-2 Laser Cutting of Nylon 6 sheet for main body plate ...........................310
Figure 199: Cutting Nylon 6.6 cast block in vertical band saw machine .....................310
Figure 200 -OXV in storage configuration ..................................................................332
Figure 201 - Electro-optic camera on the OXV ..........................................................332
Figure 202- Main body of the OXV ............................................................................332

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GLOSSARY
3D
AFS
Atl
BEC
BOM
CAA
CAD
CCW
CG
CNC
COTS
CPR
CW
D
EMI
ESC
EU
FBD
FE
FEA
FEM
FPV
ft
GPS
Hz
I
IAS
IMechE
km
knots
KV
Li-PO
m
MEng
mm
MPa
MTOM
N
OSD
P
PA
PDR
PVC
PWM

Three Dimensional
Advanced Failsafe
Altitude
Battery Eliminator Circuit
Bill of Material
Civil Aviation Authority
Computer Aided Design
Counter-Clockwise
Cenre of Gravity
Computerised Numerical Control
Commercial of the Shelf
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Clockwise
Derivative
Electro-Magnetic Inteference
Electronic Speed Controller
European Union
Free Body Diagrams
Finite Element
Finite Element Analysis
Finite Element Method
First Person View
Feet
Global Positioning System
Hertz
Integral
Indicated Airspeed
Institution of Mechanical Engineers
kilometer
Nautical Miles
kilo-volts
Lithium Polymer
metres
Masters of Engineering
Millimeter
Mega Pascals
Maximum Take-Off Mass
Newtons
On Screen Display
Proportional
Polyamide (Nylon)
Preliminary Design Review
Polyvinyl Chloride
Pulse Width Modulator

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GLOSSARY

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Quad
RC
RC
RPM
RTL
SCA
SUA
TX
UAS
UAV
VAT
VLOS
W
WBS
WP

Quadcopter
Radio Controller
Receiving (Radio)
Revolutions Per Minute
Return to Launch
Sudden Cardiac Arrest
Small Unmanned Aircraft
Transmission (Radio)
Unmanned Aircraft System
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Value Added Tax
Visual line of Sight
Watts
Work Breakdown Structure
Waypoint

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Introduction

School of Engineering and Technology

1 Introduction

Section by Alfred Dzadey

The Unmanned Aircraft system (UAS) challenge is being introduced by the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers (ImechE) for the first time. Teams entered by universities will only constitute
of members from the undergraduates cohort. The competition will provide students from different
universities to develop and demonstrate leadership, teamwork and technical competencies. Its
being held during the academic year 2014 till 2015. During this period the universities participating
in the competition will follow a structure of designing, developing and demonstrating. It will also
include design reviews, presentations and flight demonstration that will contribute to point scoring.

1.1 Competition Overview


The competition this year is built around a scenario of a natural disaster occurring with a large
areas distressed by an earthquake or tsunami. The scenario could involve many thousands of
people being cut off from supplies and in need for humanitarian aid. The job at hand is to supply
these areas with humanitarian aid food and first aid supplies. Time is critical and the UAS launch
site is some distance away from the affected areas. The UAS operates autonomously via predetermined waypoints to areas affected with the capability of image recognition to identify the
supply drop zone. The UAS can be programmed to carry out circuit trips and return to base and
repeating the mission.

For the competition, the UAS can have a maximum take-off mass of 7kg with Commercial Off The
Shelf (COTS) products not exceeding 1000. The UAS will need to perform a series of tasks such
as take-off, climb to an altitude between 100-400ft, cruise, follow a predefined route, drop two
payloads (Bag(s) of flour) weighing 1kg each at any reachable location and land back completely
autonomously.

1.2 Project Aims


The aims intended at the initial stage of this project were to;
Develop and demonstrate leadership, teamwork, technical competence, as well as
commercial skills.
Develop a complex system that will require design, development and demonstration with
regards to a demanding mission requirement.
Apply the knowledge learnt from previous academic years during the course of the
undergraduate engineering degree.
Represent the university in the UAS challenge, successfully compete and win.

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Design Rationale

School of Engineering and Technology

1.3 The Project Objectives


The main objectives set, in order to be successful are;
To design and develop a UAS with a MTOM less than 7kg and achieve autonomy in all
phases of flight and tasks.
Expenditure on COTS must not exceed 1000
To be able to switch between manual and autonomous flight.
To develop a UAS that can accommodate and deliver a 1 kg bag of flour.
To create an image recognition system to identify the drop zone and read alphanumerical
characters.
To complete the task in the fastest time possible.

2 Design Rationale

Section by Alfred Dzadey

This section begins to discuss the solutions to the mission requirement outlined in the previous
chapter. It assesses various design options and converges to an ultimate solution. Upon evaluation
of various design concepts, it was conclusive that the best approach to tackle the problem was by
going forwards with a Quad-rotor and ground control station.

2.1 Design Convergence


A 2-stage design convergence approach was used to conclude which concept best meets the
requirements. The design concepts selected were compared against set criteria as discussed in
2.1.1 and 2.1.2.

2.1.1 Stage 1 Convergence


Application of the design solutions were analysed using a weighting system under criteria such as
manoeuvrability, structural integrity, stability
during flight and payload accuracy to name a
few. A workable concept was congregated
after a two-stage design convergence; Stage1 convergence was to determine the type of
aircraft to be used where the concepts
assessed were:
Fixed Wing
Helicopter
Osprey
Multi-Rotor
Figure 1 - Initial Concepts for Stage 1 convergence(UAVClub, 2015)

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Design Rationale

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The results from the Stage-1 convergence demonstrated that a multi-rotor would be the best option
to meet the product design specification.

2.1.2 Stage 2 Convergence


Stage-2 design convergence was to determine which multi-rotor system would best meet the UAS
requirements. Criteria used in stage-2 included redundancy (motor failure), manufacturing
complexity, power consumption, noise, payload capacity, structural integrity and costs to name a
few. The concepts considered during the stage-2 design convergence were:

Quad-Copter
Hex-rotor
Octacopter
3 arm 6 rotors

Figure 2 - Concepts considered in the stage-2 convergence (UAVClub, 2015)


Upon comparison between the multi rotors under the above criteria, the Hex-rotor was found to be
the best concept that would meet the set criteria. Appendix C details the rationale and justification
for this selection.

2.2 Further analysis


Upon initiation of the design, a mass breakdown of all components for this proposed system was
established, it was found that the Hex-rotor would be overweight. The only solution forward was to
lose two arms to reduce its weight hence reducing from a Hex-rotor to a Quad-rotor design. This
allows the design to be approximately 6kg with all possible components and a single payload
accounted. The quad rotor design is 1 kg under the constrained maximum weight of 7 kg, providing
contingency for any miscalculations or any unplanned additional weight.

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Project Management

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3 Project Management

Section by Alfred Dzadey

To achieve the project objectives, effective organisation, planning, budgeting and management
styles were adopted. This section describes the organisational structure and the key management
tasks undertaken to deliver the project successfully. It describes the leadership, organisation
structure and role selection, project planning, budgeting, people and conflict management, finally a
review on both team leads is discussed.

3.1 Role of the Project Manager


The project management role comes with responsibilities involving the following;
Progress ensuring the deliverables are being completed within the set timescale.
Budgeting control the money being spent to ensure the deliverables are being completed
within the baseline cost.
Performance ensuring the team is performing enough to achieve the goals set out.
Reporting scheduling regular meetings with team members and supervisors to report
progress and resolve issues.
Planning/Change handling and resolving any unexpected changes to project without
hugely affecting the outcome of the project or delivery.
Risk to implement any contingencies into the time plan and budget to manage any
unforeseen risks affecting the project delivery.
Leadership and motivation Motivating and maintaining morale during the duration of the
project.
Purchasing dealing with orders being placed, tracking and informing the group of the
delivery progress of the order.
Welfare taking into account the commitment of individuals while setting actions without
jeopardising the progress of the group.
Conflict resolving any disrupt between team members and allowing a good working
environment.
Presenting handling the compilation of all group reports and presentations in terms of
collating, proof reading individual reports and structuring.

3.2 The Team Structure


Project organisation structure needs to be one that facilitates the coordination and implementation
of project activities. The project organisation needs to create an environment in which there are
interactions among team members with minimal conflict, disruption or overlapping. The team
comprises of twelve students; nine studying aerospace, two studying aerospace with space
technology and one studying aerospace systems. With the project being systems related, the team
lacked expertise in that area meaning more work needed to be carried out. Figure 3 shows an
organisational structure to highlight each persons responsibility and tasks carried out.
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Alfred Dzadey
Project Manager

Zuber Khan
(Chief Signatory - Quality)

Jonathan Ebhota
Systems Team Leader

Structural Team Leader

System Engineer

Structural / Stress / Cost /


Weights / Assembly Engineer

Osman Sibanda
Marketing/Bussiness
Specialist

Amit Ramji
(Chief Engineer)
Structural / Stress / Design /
Hardware & Electrics
Integration and Assembly
Engineer

Mozammel
Manufacturing Engineer

Mohammed Mohinuddin

Micky Ngouani

Reyad Mohammed Ullah

Servo Selection Engineer

Stability and Control Engineer

Kasun Malwenna

Hassan Turabi

Safety / Stability and Control


engineer

Performance and Propulsion


engineer

Structural and Testing


Engineer
Tarek Kherbouche
Camera / Imaging Systems
Engineer

Figure 3 - Project Organization Chart


As with any large project it is advisable to split project team into sub teams to enable the project to
be manageable. This allows deliverables to be split into smaller tasks with clear objectives within
sub teams. It enables the team members in the sub teams to know exactly what actions are
required for an effective contribution. Another advantage of this set up is that there is a clear line of
authority and also team members will become familiar with each other since they work together in
the same area. Effective communication channels allow for the project manager and team leaders
to effortlessly interact and report back any difficulties or progress updates. Zuber and Jonathan
were appointed sub team leader due to both of them being extraverts and possession leadership
qualities as assessed using MBTI results. The structural team handles tasks relating to the design,
quality control, compliance, manufacture, assembly, test and certification of the UAS. The systems
team handles tasks relating to performance and propulsion, stability, control systems, flight and
navigation, imaging system, mission control, safety and payload deployment system.

3.3 Project Planning


The key to a successful project is in the planning, hence continual involvement and forward
planning must be carried out prior to project initiation. It involves the use of schedules such as
Gantt charts for planning and subsequently to report project progress. Initially, the project scope
was defined and the suitable method of successful delivery of this project was determined. The
following step was working out the durations and having contingency for all the various tasked
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needed to complete the project. Major objectives were subsequently listed and implemented into a
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) as shown in Table 1 below.
The WBS details the main steps that are required to complete this project. Stages involving design,
manufacture, purchasing and delivery of products may involve several delays that creates
difficulties and hence prevents the scheduled delivery. Strict time management and contingencies
such as overestimating time frames for completion of such tasks have been implemented into the
project plan to account for these delays.
Work Breakdown Structure
1 Scope
4.3 Structural material and sizing ready for purchase
1.1 Determine project scope
4.4 Design purchase readiness
1.2 Define resources
5 Order parts
1.3 Scope complete
5.1 Send out order list for components and delivery
2 Design Specification/System Requirements
6 Manufacturing & Assembly
2.1 Create Design specification for a UAV
6.1 Machine structural frame
2.2 Review system specifications
6.2 Integrate systems components
2.3 Create system requirements
6.3 Integrate structural frame, system and propulsion
components
2.4 Obtain approvals to proceed (concept, timeline, 7 Testing and Validation
budget)
2.5 Analysis complete
7.1 Develop unit test plans using design specifications
3 Preliminary Design
7.2 Develop integration test plans using design
specifications
3.1 Review specifications
8 Integration Testing
3.2 Payload Delivery System
8.1 Test system integration
3.3 Propulsion System design
8.2 Integration testing complete
3.4 Systems design
9 Critical Design Review (CDR) and Flight Readiness
Review (FRR)
3.5 Concept Structural design
9.1 Draft CDR report
3.6 Preliminary Safety Case consideration
9.2 Deliver CDR report
3.7 Preliminary Weights estimation
9.3 Draft FRR report
3.8 Obtain approval to proceed
9.4 Deliver FRR report
3.9 Preliminary Design complete
10 Competition
3.10 Deliver PDR to IMeche
10.1 Design Presentation
4 Final Design ready for purchase
10.2 Flight Readiness Review
4.1 System components finalised ready for
10.3 Competition day
purchase
4.2 Propulsion components ready for purchase
10.5 UAS CHALLENGE FINISH
Table 1- Work Breakdown Outline
Once the work breakdown structure was established, the project schedule was created and is used
as a baseline schedule for the whole duration of the project life. Using the project plan, a graph
representation of the current progress has been created and is shown in Figure 4. This is a
simplified overview of the progress made so far which is detailed in the project plan shown in
Appendix A.2. The progress made so far and completion of tasks can be seen in more detail in the
project plan.
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Project Progress to date


Scope
Design Specification/System Requirements
Preliminary Design
Final Design ready for purchase
Critical Design Review (CDR)
Order parts
Manufacturing & Assembly
Testing and Validation
Integration Testing
Flight Readiness Review (FRR)
Competition
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Progress (%)

Figure 4 - Progress (to date) of the project

3.3.1 Milestones
The major milestones set for this project are as follows:
30 October - Defining scope of project
16 November - Complete Design Analysis
05 December Deliver PDR to IMechE
16 December Design ready for purchase
1 April Deliver CDR report
30 May - Integration testing complete
12 June Deliver FRR report
1 July Design presentation
July Competition Day and End of UAS Challenge

3.4 Leadership
Leadership involves creating an inspiring vision and managing the delivery of the vision.
Leadership brings together the skills needed to achieve this vision. Therefore, it is vital that the
style of leadership is rightly chosen for team performance and effective quality. The style of
leadership may vary during the duration of the project. The three circle model is a concept that is
used to represent the dynamics of a group displaying the percentage of effort in terms of team,
task and individual. (Adair, 2012) It is critical for the leader to monitor these areas to ensure that
one area doesnt needlessly become dominant. An example is where the group may take long to
make decisions due to the size of the group and differences of opinions. This is mitigated by
creating a cut of point whereby the group is no longer being effective in the decision making
process.

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Consequently, the leader will conclude what has been discussed and make the final decision. In
Figure 5 the three circle diagrams depicts in which area leadership was stressed during the
academic year.

TASK
TASK

TEAM

INDIVIDUAL

TEAM

INDIVIDUAL

Figure 5 - Leadership area of priority Semester A (Left), Semester B (Right)


During the academic year the leadership style varied between a democratic and an authoritarian
style. Semester A involved initial stages of the project whereby there were a lot of group
discussions. It involved the development of the design concept hence a democratic style was
chosen to allow everyones input in decision making. This method allows members to feel free to
express their opinion. For people who were intrinsic it was encouraged for them to voice their
opinion in all decision making by actually asking what their thoughts were. This allowed team
members to grow in confidence and voice their opinion, which was good for the group dynamics. At
times, it made decision making problematic but its the responsibility of the leader to step in and
make the final decision based on the majority vote.
In semester B, the approach of leadership changed. It required a leader of a more authoritarian
style. This is due the fact that the project had shifted from a design phase to a development and
manufacturing stage. This stage is on a critical path hence an authoritarian style of leadership was
needed to help mitigate any delays. This involved a lot of communication on a daily basis to
establish what was set out to achieve and what was actually accomplished at the end of the day.
Furthermore, constant checking up on individuals was needed to ensure progress and also to deal
with unforeseen circumstances. For example, a time came when there was an issue with the
machining of the main plates for the airframe. The team required more material but there was none
left. As the leader, it was essential to step in and resolve the solution. This circumstance was
handled immediately by contacting the supplier and explaining the situation at hand and how
urgent the material was needed. As a result, the supplier Ensinger was able to send out an order
as a free sample for next day delivery.

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3.5 Team Communication


Throughout the project, weekly meetings with team members were undertaken to discuss any
updates, complications and actions required. Also during semester A, we had weekly meetings on
Tuesday noon with our supervisors to discuss the updates, complications and new actions set for
the week coming and where a register of attendance is taken. Ours meetings are made effective,
by using agendas and minutes. Minutes are used to record the discussions, conclusions and
actions set whereas the agenda was used to structure our meetings by having a schedule stating
exactly what topics are to be discussed and who is presenting the topic of discussion. An example
of the minutes, agenda can be seen in Appendix A.3 and A.4. Communication is essential for the
progression and success of a group. Without effective means of communication the group
production comes to a standstill. Communication methods used in the project are as follows. A
breakdown of the various group communications methods are presented in Table 2
Communication Aids

Types/Techniques

Description

Email

Agendas are always sent out 24 hours before our official meetings
with our supervisors and also minutes are also sent out 24 hours
after the meeting as a follow up of what was discussed and agreed
in the meeting.
WhatsApp
It is used a form communication where all group members can
discuss about findings or issues
Google drive
An account was made for sharing files between members in the
group. Each individual in the group has a folder with their name and
hence can share their work to the group
Text messages and phone
For contacting individuals in the group privately for any needs
calls
regarding the project
Group meetings
Its used as a way to meet up face to face to discuss and updates or
issues and to check progress of work and make decision.
Table 2 - Forms of communication used in project

3.6 Project Budgeting


For this project, there was a need for managing the funds to stay within the financial range of
1390. A budget was used to project the costs and also to track the funds. A comparison of the
actual funds and the budget estimation has been made to see how much has been spent. Table 3
shows the operational budget. On the left are the projections for the budget as of November 2014.
On the right hand side we have the actual unit prices and quantities purchased. The final column
presents the difference between the two. The budget also includes a contingency factor of 1.2 to
anticipate any failures crashes or even unforeseen costs. A more detailed representation of the
product cost can be found in Appendix. D.

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Budget Estimation as of
01/11/2014
Part

Unit Price

Flight controller
Telemetry kit
GPS Module
ESC
Propellers
Brushless Motors
Camera
OSD
Batteries
RC Transmitter
Air frame including landing
gear and payload box
Extra cable and connectors
Test Rig*
Unplanned Quad Parts
Delivery Costs*
Total:
C. Factor (x1.2)
Current Total:
*Not Part of COTS

Quantity

Actual as of
23/04/2015
Unit Price

Quantity

Difference

150.00
40.00
50.00
30.00
5.00
20.00
50.00
30
90.00
30.00

1
1
1
5
6
5
1
1
2
1

159.98
35.80
53.94
27.16
3.95
19.16
56.41
29.99
60.40
14.99

1
1
1
5
6
5
1
1
3
1

-9.98
4.20
-3.94
-2.84
6.30
0.84
-6.41
0.01
-1.20
15.01

150.00

146.30

3.70

50.00
150.00
0.00
100.00
1,157.63
1389.16

1
1
0
1

20.95
132.08
21.02
125.06

1
1
1
1

29.05
17.92
-21.02
-25.06

Remaining:
Percentage:
Table 3 - UAS Challenge 2015 Budget

1,100.94
231.53
79.252438

3.6.1 Summary of Project Budget


The main outcome of the budget that can be identified is that the project is 231.53 (21%) within
budget. This includes the majority of the UAS components, materials and also a test rig with
minimal additional items left to purchase. The flight controller is the teams most expensive COTS
due to aspiring for a flight controller that was widely used. This will allow us access to open-source
information about autonomous control of the UAS. A complex alternative was to make use of an
Arduino board costing approximately 60 and to program the flight plan manually, hence potentially
saving 100. The team has had to spend some money for items that were not considered initially.
This has accumulated to a total of 210.03 which has been put that as unplanned Quad parts. We
have also gone over budget slightly on delivery cost which was unplanned. A detailed expenditure
of the project to date can be seen in Appendix. D

3.6.2 Source of Funding


There were two main sources funding this project. One was the funding from the university and the
other was from the team members. The university provided the team with 1000 to cover
everything from designing manufacturing, testing and the development of the product. Later, it was
found that this budget was insufficient and that it would only cover the purchase of materials and all
the components required for a Quad rotor design that would achieved good results for the
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competition. The team decided to invest in the project extending the budget to 1500 with the aims
of winning an award and being reimbursed.

3.7 Risk Management


Due to a team member previously dealing with the safety case, the task of risk management was
delegated to that member. The rationale behind this decision was that the safety case and risk
management interlink so it was logical to delegate these tasks to an individual. The risk
management can be found in Appendix J.3.

3.8 Conflict management


Conflict is a common phenomenon in group projects. Its inevitable and hence important as a
leader to understand the various conflict resolution techniques. Conflict isnt always a bad thing
because it can present opportunities for improvement. Teams usually try to avoid or ignore
conflicts rather than addressing it. It can also have an effect on the team performance, as a leader
it is my duty to prepare for conflicts by creating an atmosphere that allows for dealing with conflicts
without relationship and emotional problems, for instance forming an atmosphere that supports
constructive criticism so that discrepancies can be expressed. Conflicts in the group were resolved
mostly using the following steps: Firstly, the people were separated from the problem by
diagnosing what was causing the issue and then various options were developed in order to
resolve the problem at hand. Secondly, the options were evaluated and the unimportant issues
were distinguished from the vital problems. Additionally, a common ground between each side was
found and a solution for both sides was mutually agreed upon.

Finally, the agreement was

monitored to ensure that it was kept.


An example whereby this process was exercised was a situation involving to members in the team.
The issue sparked during a previous report submission where Micky had made a copied CAD
version of the payload box design. Amit had previously made a design for the payload housing due
to severe schedule delays in the project and was not happy about Mickys contribution and
informed me that for the MEng report he doesnt want Micky to present that design because he did
not design the payload box and was not involved during the decision making. To resolve this, a
conference call was made between the leader and the two team members. Both sides of the
argument was requested, Micky said that the only reason he had made a new CAD file was to
show how the servo mechanism was going to be applied to the box. It was clear that it was a lack
of communication between the group and absentee Micky had led to this confusion. It was
concluded that Amit would discuss the payload box design itself and its structural analysis whereas
Micky would discuss the servo mechanism and how it interacts with Pixhawk. The conversation
was concluded by further asking if both team members were happy with the decision made and
they were both were pleased with the outcome.
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3.9 Performance Review


Performance management allows a business, or in this case, allows the project manager to
determine the strengths and weaknesses of each member in the team. It provides feedback back
to the person being performance managed in areas where they need to develop their skills and
knowledge which they can apply to improve the project in either project delivery or team dynamics.
A performance review of each team member was made to see their strengths and weaknesses
which are broken down into seven different categories; Enthusiasm, Team value, Planning,
Execution, Delivery, and Contribution.

As the team itself is quite large, two members were

appointed as team leaders to overlook specific sections; structural and systems. For these two,
three further criterias were included; Coaching, Managerial skills and Motivational skill. The
breakdowns of each criterion are as follows:
Enthusiasm: passion and interest for the role and subject
Coaching: training and guiding other team members through their work performance and
subject knowledge
Managerial skills: ability to plan and delegate workload, communicate between team
members, and solving issues between members fairly and objectively
Motivational skills: being able to understand what motivates each member and keeping
them motivated
Team value: quality and information being passed on, insight in topics, availability for help
when asked and general team sportsmanship
Planning: time management, planning for delays and possibly additional workload
Execution: method of execution, holding up other members
Delivery: quality of final work produced for individual role
Contribution: overall workload taken, experience and insight provided and contribution to
the team

Zuber Khan

Jonathon Ebhota
5

Figure 6 Performance Charts for Jonathan (a) and Zuber (b)

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Figure 6 presents the performance chart of the two sub team leaders. It describes on a scale from
0 to 5 how they are rated against each category, where 5 is classed as the best and 0 is classed
as the worst. On average it can be seen that Zuber was excellent in most of these categories
whereas Jonathan mostly was good all round and both lacked in motivating team members. A
more detailed individual performance review of each team members can be seen in Appendix A.5.

3.10 Evaluation
Self-evaluation allows one to reflect on how effective their performance was during the project.
During this process, the performance of the leader can be assessed to see how effective it was,
noting areas that need improvement. It should also list the skills developed and what skills need to
be worked on in order to be a better leader if they were to do the project the second time round.
Using the Project manager evaluation form in the Appendix A.6, it was possible for me to evaluate
my performance. It was found that the team scored me 5 in regards to management of the
team/project, having the ability to work with others, ability to present options and reach decisions
and the ability to locate and utilize resources effectively. As a leader of the team and project these
were my strongest areas. An area in which I was marked to be average was the ability to anticipate
and analyse problems. It seems like this is an area in which I need to focus on if I were to manage
a project again. Moreover, as part of the evaluation there were phrases regarding the likelihood to
work again with the project manager on another project. It was reported back that they would be
willing to work with me again on another project with some changes applied.
Further points were asked for regarding any specific strong points/ weak points about my
performance. The positives were: Firstly, I had good form of communication skills and
persuasiveness. Secondly, I was always going the extra mile and continuously standing up for the
team in front of supervisors and I was very supportive. Evidently, it is clear that I possess essential
skills such as good communication, persuasiveness and Im very supportive of the team member
because I believe as the leader of the team it is my duty to be the voice of the team and the person
held accountable for the team. The negatives were: primarily, I need to keep within deadlines and
secondly, I am far too lenient. These are areas that need to be worked if Im to manage another
project. Im apparently too lenient when it comes to deadlines. During the period of the project, we
have had team members that have had personal issues outside the academic work. It meant that if
I had set deadlines for work to be completed and a team member said they couldnt complete the
task due to personal problems, I would be reluctant to give them more time. This could potentially
cause delays in the initial time plan and hence maybe keeping to a strict deadline regardless of the
personal background situation might be necessary and something I could consider next time.
Overall, I would say I have done a good job in managing this group so far and I have learnt some
vital lessons regarding what to do and what not to do as a project manager.
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4 Quad-Rotor Design

Section by Amit Ramji

A Hex-Rotor had been considered during the early stage of the design convergence process,
however during the detail design stage this had been changed to a Quad-rotor design. The reason
for such a dramatic design change is due to mass and cost constraints and is detailed in Appendix.
C and Appendix. D respectively.

Upon detailed consideration of the mass and materials involved with the Hex-rotor, it had been
decided to significantly modify the design and produce a Quad-rotor. As detailed in Appendix. C,
the reduction in mass by alterations in geometry, reduction of parts and optimising the use of
materials results in a very lightweight structure as shown in Figure 7 below. The use of extruded
Nylon 6 main body plates (Appendix B.7) allows for a lightweight structure that is fastened together
into a sandwich design to provide a significantly rigid structure. The use of Carbon Fibre has been
entirely eliminated due to financial constraints; hence a suitable strengthened alternative is
selected. The use of M3 bolts and Nylon 66 blocks (Appendix B.7) allows for a rigid main structure
with multiple load paths. Using the machined Nylon 66 blocks in compression allows for the
majority of the loads to remain in-plane of the main body plates and allows the fasteners to take up
most of the load.

Details of the design architecture and in-depth features are found in Figure 7 through Figure 9 and
Appendix B.7.

Figure 7 - Quad-rotor design

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4.1 Design Rationale - Quad-Rotor


Remove Quick Release pins
(2-Off) for compact stowage.
Rotating Nylon
Mount with
Spacers and
Through Bolt
Fixed Nylon
bracket in
compression
Moving Nylon
tube position
support
bracket

Sandwich Design to
minimise bending effect
with rigid links (M3 bolts)

In-Plane Shear for


plates

Figure 8 - Stowage Instructions

Figure 9 - Quad-rotor in Stowed Configuration

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4.2 Payload Box Design and Mechanism

Section by Amit Ramji

Figure 10 through Figure 13 show the design of the payload housing with a simple trap-door type
design activated by gravity with release of a servo. The design can be adapted to use either rotary
servo motors or linear actuators. The structural analysis of the payload compartment and its
development is carried out in Appendix G.15 and G.16. Dimensions of the payload compartment,
component parts and BOM can be found in Appendix B.7.

Figure 10 Removable Lightweight Payload Box

Figure 11 - Removable Lightweight Payload Box

Figure 12 - Payload Box with simple construction and failsafe mechanism

Figure 13 Payload Box with Payload Clearance


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5 UAV Mass Breakdown

Section by Zuber Khan


Initially a Hex-rotor was considered with a structure mass of 1777.5g, an all-up mass of 7371.9g
with a single payload. The mass of the UAV must not exceed 7kg, hence a complete redesign as a
Quad-rotor has been fulfilled.
A detailed Quad-rotor mass calculation (Appendix. C) has been carried out to ensure the UAV is
within CAA certifiable weights limits to enable flight and to ensure the requirements are met
(IMechE, Jan 2015). The total mass of the Quad-rotor is 6026.2g with single payload. An itemised
breakdown shown in Appendix. C.

UAV Structural Mass


The total mass of the structure is calculated to be 1012.5g including all the materials and fixings
depicted in Appendix B.7. The structure mass is well below the target mass of 1.5 Kg, due to the
extensive and detailed stress analysis carried during the detailed design stage. The entire itemised
breakdown can be observed in Appendix. C.
UAV Electrical / Miscellaneous Components Mass
The total mass of the Electrical / Misc. components is calculated to be 5013.7g including all the
motors, batteries and additional wiring and soldered joints. The itemised breakdown can once
again be observed in Appendix. C.

6 UAV Cost Breakdown

Section by Zuber Khan

Initially a Hex-rotor was considered, which would inherently have increased cost compared to a
Quad-rotor due to increased structural, electronic and propulsion components. It was therefore
unequivocal that a Quad-rotor was the tactic forward to achieving a solution within budget
requirements.
A detailed cost calculation for the Quad-rotor (Appendix. D) has been carried out to ensure the
UAV is within IMechE budget limits (IMechE, Jan 2015). The total cost of COTS items within the
Quad-rotor is 824.84, structure cost of 81.34, hence a total cost of 906.18 with an itemised
breakdown provided in Appendix. D. The above cost summary is inclusive of VAT, less delivery
and is accurate to retail prices at the time of purchase.

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7 Structural Analysis
7.1 Load Case Definition and Free Body Diagrams

Figure 14 Free Body Diagram - Flight and Landing Cases

Figure 15 - Free Body Diagram - Landing Cases

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Figure 16 - Free Body Diagram - Flight and Gust Load Cases

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8 UAV Stress Analysis


8.1 Stress Reduction Techniques

Section by Amit Ramji


The following design techniques have been adopted to maximise efficiency of the material and
ensure a lightweight and stress reduced structure at local discontinuities and overall load paths.
Further comprehensive methods of stress reduction and material optimisation can be found in
Appendix G.1, below is a summarised list of methods.
Align known material properties with major load direction where possible. Hence the use of
Nylon 66 Blocks being used in compression (FB-001 & 002) and fasteners being used in
shear and tension (M3s & M5s).
Stiffen or reinforce unsymmetrical features to minimize flexure. An example of this
consideration is the use of the Nylon 66 Fixed Blocks (FB-001 & 002) used in the main
body alongside the M3 Brass spacers which act as rigid links between the main body plates
(BP-001 and 002) to reduce total body deflection.
Encourage smooth transitions in cross section and stress levels, avoiding hard points in the
primary load path. In some cases this could not be avoided (MA-001 contacting FB-002
See Figure 115 through Figure 119), therefore an additional local support (MB-001
Appendix B.7) is incorporated.
Where appropriate, distribute the load pathways between multiple components to avoid
bulky structure and concentrated stress distributions on single components. An example of
such situation is the multiple load paths in the main body, where a sandwich type design is
achieved. The stiffness of the main body structure is greatly increased with rigid links (M3
Fasteners, FB-001, FB-002, MB-001 and M3 spacers).

8.2 Fatigue Awareness

Section by Amit Ramji


A gain in fatigue life can in most situations be achieved without an increase in cost, simply by
attention to design detail. Further comprehensive methods of fatigue resistance with material
optimisation can be found in Appendix G.1, below is a summarised list of methods considered. The
following should be taken into account when considering the Quad-Rotor structure:
Avoiding sharp edges, corners and sudden changes in cross-section can reduce stress
concentrations. Fillet and intersection radii should be as large as possible as such used in
the Lug Bracket (LB-003) and Pivots (AP-001 & LP-001).
The majority of fatigue cracks will start at stress concentrations such as holes, notches, etc.
Any design features or processes that can be applied to reduce the severity of such stress
concentrations should be used.
Ensuring design of joints are such as not to give rise to built-in stresses on assembly, or
load some portions of the joint unduly. The use of M3 and M5 from the same supplier to
avoid mixing fasteners of dissimilar material/strength and those that require differing
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tolerances of fit. Fasteners with tighter tolerances will load the local structure during
repeated flexure more than a loose tolerance fastener due to the miniscule freedom of
movement of the joint.
In fatigue critical areas, interference fit fasteners shall be used whenever possible in
preference to clearance fit. A close tolerance for clearance/transition fit fasteners will
improve the fatigue performance of the joint, as this will minimize the risk of individual holes
being over-loaded. For the current Quad-Rotor design, fasteners are loaded axially hence
introducing a bolt pre-load and reducing the miniscule movement if any existed.

8.3 Fatigue due to induced vibration

Section by Amit Ramji


A gain in fatigue life due to induced vibration can also be achieved simply by attention to design
detail, material selection, edge distances and overall geometry. Further comprehensive methods of
optimisation can be found in Appendix G.1, below is a summarised list of methods considered. The
following should be taken into account when considering the Quad-Rotor structure and rotating
components:
Fatigue damage can often arise from induced vibration from the motors as compared with
fatigue damage arising from directly applied structural stresses. Often this vibration is not
sustained for long periods of time, a modal analysis case has been considered for the
Fixed-arm assembly as shown in section 8.17 and compared to analytical methods as
shown in section 8.16. Such calculated modal frequencies should be avoided or swiftly
passed through the first 3 natural frequencies when powering up the motors to idle and can
be programmed into the ESCs as soft, medium, hard starts.
Avoiding the use of long cantilevered members, as these will experience high inertia forces
in vibration. The modal analysis of the Arm has been the main concentration for the
purpose of frequency response analysis, as the cantilever of the Arms are more susceptible
to vibration than any other components.

8.4 Pressure Loading on Plates

Section by Zuber Khan


A complete structural analysis was carried out on the UAV with the main stresses and loads
summarised below. The first scenario to be analysed was the UAV in flight, flying at maximum
speed allowable with maximum head on gusts off 25knots. The distributed load calculated in
Appendix F.2 approaches to 5.27Kg, which has a 1.5 global load safety applied to it. This was then
used to determine the deflection and stress of a simplified UAV model.

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8.5 Load Transfer

Section by Zuber Khan


Loads are transferred from the arms to the Nylon clamps using a moment balance shown in Figure
108. Reaction loads passing through the clamps could then be calculated, the Fixed-arm clamp
having 65.18N passing through it and the Movable-arm having 63.29N.

D1

F
2
D2

F
1

Figure 17 Fixed Arm Cross Section See also Appendix G.7

8.6 Fixed and Movable Arm Stress Maximum

FEA by Amit Ramji


Analytical by Zuber Khan

The maximum bending stress experienced on the Fixed-arm is 14.42MPa as shown in Appendix
G.7 and the maximum bending stress experienced by the Movable-arm is 15.26MPa as shown in
Appendix G.8. Refer to Appendix B.7 for parts list, Appendix. E for material properties, G.4 for
boundary conditions, G.5 for Finite Element solver method, G.6 for mesh types and properties and
G.7 - G.8 for results of the contact model for bending case of the UAV Arms. A Sample calculation
for the Fixed-arm is shown below:
0.016
25 0.17 2

=
=
= 14.42

(0.0164 0.01154 )
64

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Stress analysis at Fixed-arm FEA Method


Mesh: Values as per section G.6

Section by Amit Ramji

Figure 18 Mesh for Fixed-arm Assembly Values as per Appendix G.6


Results:

Figure 19 - Deflection of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with 7.6mm Deflection

Figure 20 - Stress of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with Stress 15.8MPa (Contact) and
20MPa (Peak)
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Figure 21 Stress (Close-up) of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with Stress 15.8MPa
(Contact) and 20MPa (Peak)
FEM Verification: Tube Stress Comparison
One can observe the results from the above analytical stress calculation being 14.42MPa and the
stress level as seen in the far field stress contour of the tube in Figure 21 (15.8MPa) being very
close. Substantiation of the numerical modelling and contact constraints can be deemed as
accurate as a very small difference is observed between the methods.

8.7 Simplified Plate Deflection

Section by Zuber Khan

Plate deflection has also been calculated analytically to enable comparison to an FEA model,
ensuring the modelling techniques are correct and establishing meshing and connection properties
to be used on the entire UAV FEA model. The analytical method calculated a deflection of
4.555mm, whereas the FEA package calculated 4.54mm (Appendix G.11). These results are in the
same order of magnitude and are marginally different; therefore the modelling technique is deemed
correct and usable throughout.

8.7.1 Simply Supported Plate Representation

Section by Zuber Khan

A simple plate deflection was determined of a 2mm thick Nylon plate with dimensions of 315mm by
280mm. This was the largest the plate would go to on the UAV if necessary therefore was used for
the purpose of this analysis. The reason for this was to compare the analytical results with the
results produced by the FEA model. If the results were similar or close to the analytical method, the
modelling method could be applied to the whole UAV model where the plates are used.

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X = a = 315mm

Y = b = 280mm

Youngs Modulus, E = 3300MPa


Thickness, t = 0.002m
Poissons Ratio, v =0.3
Distributed Force = 33.8445N
Area = 88200 x 10e-6 m2

Figure 22 - Simplified Plate Representations


All edges simply supported for this analysis.

8.7.2 Analytical Method


Below are the Navier stokes equations used to work out the plate deflection at the centre, where
the maximum deflection will take place.
=

3
12(1 2 )

Equation 1 - Flexural Rigidity of the Plate (Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001)

(, ) = sin
=1 =1

= 11 sin

sin

2
2

sin
+ 12 sin sin
+ 21 sin
sin
+

Equation 2 Navier solution (Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001)


=

160
2

Equation 3 - Navier stokes coefficient 1 (Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001)


=

1
4

2
2
[( 2 ) + ( 2 )]

Equation 4 - Navier Stokes coefficient 2(Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001)


First the pressure distributed on the whole plate surface was calculated.

33.8445

=
=
383.72

88200 106
2
Followed by calculating the flexural rigidity
=

3300 106 0.0023


= 2.61905
12(1 0.42 )

The Navier coefficients 1 and 2 could be calculated for when mn = 1 1, 1 3, 3 1, 3 3


11 =

16383.72
112

= 622.063

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13 = 207.35

31 = 207.35

33 = 69.12

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w11 =

w13 =

w31 =

33 =

1
2.61905

1
2.61905

1
2.61905

1
2.61905

622.063
12
12
)+(
)]
[(
2
0.315
0.282

= 4.67689 103

= 5.21215 105

= 7.59333 105

= 6.41566 106

207.35
12
32
)+(
)]
[(
2
0.315
0.282
207.35
32
12
)+(
)]
[(
2
0.315
0.282
69.12
32

32
)
+
(
)]
[(
0.3152
0.282

The coefficients were then input into the Navier solution equation to calculate the deflection at the
centre.
0.1575
0.14
0.1575
(, ) = 4.67689 103 sin (
) sin (
) + 5.21215 105 sin (
)
0.315
0.28
0.315
3 0.14
3 0.1575
sin (
) + 7.59333 105 sin (
)
0.28
0.315
0.14
3 0.1575
3 0.14
sin (
) + 6.41566 106 sin (
) sin (
)
0.28
0.315
0.28
w(x, y) = 4.67689 103 5.21215 105 7.59333 105 + 6.41566 106
w(x, y) = 4.555 103 m = 4.555mm

8.7.3 FEA Simplified Rectangular Approximation


Using Catia the same plate was modelled with the same constraints and loads to see the deflection
it would cause.

Figure 23 - Simple Plate Deflection Carried out on CATIA showing 4.54mm deflection
From the FEA model (Figure 23) it was found that the deflection has been calculated to be
4.54mm.
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The mesh used was set to a size of 2mm with absolute sag of 1.5mm. Therefore any further plate
bending analysis carried out on CATIA, should be set to the same mesh size and constraints as it
has been substantiated to provide accurate answers.
Method
Deflection
Analytical (Rectangular Plate)
4.555mm
FEA CATIA (Rectangular Plate)
4.54mm
Table 4 Comparison of Simplified Plate Deflection for Model Substantiation

8.8 Plate Deflection - Assembly Contact Model as Built


Section by Amit Ramji
To enable an accurate understanding of plate deflection as an assembly, a non-linear contact
model has been modelled in Ansys and shows a very small deflection of 0.13mm. The reason for
such a reduction in deflection compared to the simplified substantiation is due to the presence of
rigid bodies (Fasteners and FB/MB
series blocks). Refer to Appendix B.7
for parts list, Appendix. E for material
properties,

G.4

for

boundary

conditions, G.5 for Finite Element


solver method, G.6 for mesh types
and properties and G.12 for results of
the contact model for in-flight case of
the Quad-rotor.
Figure 24 - Flight and Gust condition of Main Body with 0.13mm Deflection

8.9 Undercarriage Buckling Calculation

Section by Zuber Khan


The undercarriage is also analysed to check whether it is suitable for heavy landings and repeated
loadings. The critical load was calculated in Appendix G.13 which was 393.7N = 40.13Kg. Meaning
the UAV could land on a single undercarriage and be able to withstand a load of 40Kg before
buckling. A sample calculation from G.13 is shown below:

2
2 2
( )

2 3100 106 9.7193 105

8.10 Undercarriage Bending

2
2 0.18
(
)
4.926 103

= 556.78

Section by Zuber Khan

Analysis on pure bending has also been carried out in Appendix G.13, to represent a pivot jam or
lateral sideward landing on a single undercarriage leg. With the applied 1.5 global load safety
factor the stress experienced by the undercarriage leg was in the region of 62.2MPa, being higher
than the yielding properties of the PVC material (Appendix. E). However this analysis has assumed
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a worst-case scenario with the UAV landing on a single leg, which can now be avoided. The UAV
would also share multiple load paths if a misbalanced landing were experienced therefore reducing
the stress. Additionally, the entire Quad-rotor structure would deflect as a result of such bending
impact, highlighting that a parent non-linearity has not been considered. To further analyse such
parent non-linearity on a single undercarriage leg, spring constraints at the Lug bracket (LB-003)
bolt holes with the stiffness of the main body structure can be modelled

8.11 Undercarriage Bending - Assembly Contact Model


Section by Amit Ramji
In order to obtain an accurate understanding of landing conditions, a 1-second impact case has
been created on Ansys to highlight potential failure points. It is worth noting the analytical
technique described above in section 8.10 with a stress of 62.2 MPa is very close to that shown in

Figure 25 (60.63MPa). From this similarity in analytical and numerical methods, it is conclusive that
the analytical modelling techniques are substantiated and can be relied upon for further analysis if
required. Refer to Appendix B.7 for parts list, Appendix. E for material properties, G.4 for boundary
conditions, G.5 for Finite Element solver method, G.6 for mesh types and properties and G.13 for
results of the contact model for bending case of the undercarriage.

Figure 25 - Lateral Impact Case on Single Leg - 60.6MPa Stress


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Section by Zuber Khan

8.12 Undercarriage Torsion

Torsional analysis has also been carried out to determine the twist the undercarriage would
experience if the UAV landed on the tip of one horizontal leg (UH-001 - Appendix B.7). Appendix
G.13 calculates a pure torsion case to be used for a combined loading effect in section 8.13 and
8.14. The calculated twist angle is 0.6257rad or 35.85, the twist angle being of such high
magnitude indicates a high stiffness constraint at the boundary condition or a significantly high load
due to single leg impact assumptions. However the assumption of a single leg impact is a rare
occasion and can now be avoided. The shear experienced by the undercarriage due to the twist is
calculated to be 30.57MPa which is significantly low compared to the PVC yielding properties in
shear being 1099.3MPa (Appendix. E).

8.13 Undercarriage Combined Loading - Torsion and Bending


Section by Zuber Khan
A combined loading analytical method is also carried out on the undercarriage leg representing 3
loads being applied at the same time including a torsion, buckling and bending loads as shown in
Analytical Undercarriage Combined Loading Bending, Buckling and Torsion of Appendix
G.13. The principle stress is calculated as 27.1MPa and -34.5MPa, which is acceptable due to the
yielding strength of the PVC being 55MPa (Appendix. E). The loads were calculated with an
applied 1.5 global load safety factor and the over engineered assumption of a single leg impact.
The principle angle of the stresses were -41.55 and 48.45 respectively and a sample calculation
is shown below:
1 =

1.059798 6.34 1
+ (1.059798 6.34)2 + 4 30.5722 = 27.1
2
2

The maximum shear caused by the

-34.495

combined loading is calculated to be


30.795MPa, which is also well within
the capabilities of the material.

27.095

Figure 26 Stress Element A with Principal Stress for - Analytical Undercarriage


Combined Loading Bending, Buckling and Torsion (G.13)

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8.14 Undercarriage Combined Loading - Assembly Contact Model


Section by Amit Ramji
An FEA method with combined torsion, bending and shear loads have been applied to a single
undercarriage leg in Appendix G.13 titled FEA Results Combined Torsion and Bending Tip
Contact. Refer to Appendix B.7 for parts list, Appendix. E for material properties, G.4 for boundary
conditions, G.5 for Finite Element solver method, G.6 for mesh types and properties and G.13 for
results of the contact model for combined tip loading of a single undercarriage.

8.15 FEM Verification Summary of Undercarriage Results


Section by Amit Ramji
Case

Description

Deflection (mm) or
(deg)

Buckling Analytical Axial loading of UV-001


N/A
Bending Analytical
N/A
Bending of UV-001
Bending FEA
53.6 mm
Torsion Analytical
Torsion of UV-001
35.85 deg
Combined
Combined Bending and N/A
Analytical
Torsion of UV-001
Combined FEA
66.76mm
Table 5 Summary of Undercarriage Results See G.13

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Equivalent Load
(N) or Stress
(MPa)
393.7N
62.2MPa
60.63MPa
30.57MPa
34.495MPa
71.76MPa

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8.16 Modal Analysis of Fixed-arm Simplified Case


Parts: As per Appendix B.7
Materials: As per Appendix. E

8.16.1

Analytical Modal Analysis Simplified

Section by Zuber Khan

Modal analysis was carried out to determine the natural frequency of the UAV arm with the full
assembly of parts with their corresponding weights. Once the natural frequency is known, one can
program the autopilot system (Pixhawk) and ESCs to ramp through the primary natural
frequencies to ensure excessive vibration is not encountered. The ESCs can control the motors to
have a soft/ medium/hard start to idle for this reason and the modal frequencies can be avoided
to protect the structure (loosening fasteners, fatigue and instability during flight).
m = 0.36846Kg

L = X = 0.234m

Figure 27 - Arm and Mass for Rayleigh Method


To determine the natural frequency of the arm with the weight of all attached components, the
following equations were used.
1 () = 1 (3 2 3 )
Equation 5 -Static Deflection Curve (MEGSON, 1999)
2

2
2
0 ( 2 ) +
=1 ( )

2
=

0 2 + =1 2 ( )

Equation 6 - Rayleigh's Natural Frequency Equation (MEGSON, 1999)

To be able to calculate the natural frequency using Equation 6, the static deflection equation
requires to be differentiated twice.
1 ()
= 1 (6 3 2 )

2 1 ()
= 61 ( )
2

The deflection where the concentrated mass is attached:


1 ( = 0.231) = 1 (3 2 3 ) = 0.025625808
Using that and inputting some of the values the equation becomes:
123

2 =

92 2 6 6 7
256
6 + 7 ] + 64
5
0

2
=

12 3100 106 2.35845 109 0.2343


9 0.2342 0.2342 6 0.234 0.2346 0.2347
25 0.36846 0.2346
1.4 9.7 105 [

+ 7 ]+
6
64
5

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2 =

(1.4

9.7 105

1.124131676
1.124131676
=
3
5
5.361854627 10 ) + 2.362901004 10
2.43571499 105

1.124131676
=
= 214.83/ = 34.19 = 2041.93
2.43571499 105
From this it can be concluded that the natural frequency of the simplified arm is 34.19Hz.
Rayleighs method usually always over predicts, therefore in reality the natural frequency will be
slightly lower.

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8.16.2

Finite Element Modal Analysis Simplified

Section by Amit Ramji

Parts: As per Appendix B.7


Materials: As per Appendix. E
Mesh: Values as per section G.6
Results:

Figure 28 Mass Representation of Motors, Blocks, Plates, Fasteners and ESC

Figure 29 Simplified FE analysis with 1st Nat freq as 19.64Hz 69.3mm Deflection (Left)
and 164MPa Stress (Right)

Figure 30 Simplified FE with 2nd Nat freq as 20.06 Hz (Left) and 3rd Nat freq as 134.6 Hz
(Right)

Figure 31 Simplified FE with 4th Nat freq as 224.1 Hz (Left) and 5th Nat freq as 411.9 Hz
(Right)

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8.17 Modal Analysis of Fixed-arm Actual Parts (As Built)


Parts: As per Appendix B.7
Materials: As per Appendix. E
Mesh: Values as per section G.6
Results:

Section by Amit Ramji

Figure 32 As Built FE Analysis - Mass Representation of Motors, Fasteners, Cables and


ESC

Figure 33 As Built FE analysis with 1st Nat freq as 451 Hz 69.0mm Deflection (Left) and
Stress (Right)

Figure 34 - As Built FE analysis with 2nd Nat freq as 736 Hz (Left) and 3rd Nat freq as 1707 Hz
(Right)

Figure 35 - As Built FE analysis with 4th Nat freq as 2 KHz (Left) and 5th Nat freq as 4.1 KHz
(Right)
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8.18 Summary of Modal Frequency Results


1st Nat Freq
(Hz)
34.19

2nd Nat
Freq (Hz)
N/A

3rd Nat
Freq (Hz)
N/A

Simplified
Analytical (8.16)
Simplified FEA
19.64
20.06
134.6
(8.16)
As-built FEA
451
736
1707
(8.17)
Table 6 Summary of Modal Frequencies for Fixed Motor Arm

Section by Amit Ramji


4th Nat
5th Nat Freq
Freq (Hz)
(Hz)
N/A
N/A
224.1

411.9

2000

4100

As predicted from the Rayleigh method in Section 8.16, the actual natural frequency will be slightly
lower between the 34.19 Hz Vs the 19.64 Hz. From this simplified analysis, one can substantiate
the modelling techniques used in the FEA for more complex assemblies. The As-built cases have
significantly higher modal frequencies and was also predicted due to the increased stiffness when
considering fastened motor plates and blocks. Additionally it is worth noting that the higher less
important frequencies have modal excitation closer to the motor mount plates, hence the reason
for selecting Aluminium Alloy plate as a mounting material for the motors (Appendix B.7 and
Appendix. E). Aluminium Alloy compared to the cast mild-steel motor brackets which are supplied
with the motors are less susceptible to fatigue damage due to repetitive vibration.

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8.19 Summarised Margin of Safety Table

Section by Zuber Khan

Below is a margin of safety table which has maximum loads and stresses which could be applied
onto the Quad-rotor and also the maximum allowable loads and stresses. Using the maximum and
allowable loads and stresses, safety factors were obtained.

Part No.
(Appendix
B.7)

Case /
Calculation /
Section

FA-001
Case 1 (G.7)
MA-001
Case 1 (G.8)
UV-001
Case 2 (G.13)

UV-001

BP-001 &
BP-002
Assembly.

Maximum
Thrust from
Motors
Maximum
Thrust from
Motors
Undercarriage
Pipe Under
Buckling

Safety
Factor,
SF=
Allowable
/Applied

14.42MPa

55MPa

3.81

15.26MPa

55MPa

3.60

10.5Kg

56.76Kg

5.41

Undercarriage
Pipe Under
30.57MPa
1099.3MPa
Torsion
(G.9)
Undercarriage
Lug Under
72.84N
1765.15N
Maximum
Loading
Analytical
Combined
Undercarriage
Loading
Combined
27.09MPa
55MPa
1 on
Loading
Undercarriage
Bending,
Vertical Leg
Buckling and
Combined
Torsion (G.13)
Loading
34.5MPa
55MPa
2 on
Undercarriage
Vertical Leg
Appendix G.12 Main Body
Deflection due
to Maximum
5.83MPa
55MPa
Thrust and
Gusts
Table 7 - Summarised Margin of Safety Table
Case 4 (G.13)

LB-003

Loading
Description

Maximum
Maximum
Allowable
Applied
Load/Stress
Load/Stress
Appendix. E

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35.96

24.23

2.03

1.59

9.43

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37

Section by Hassan
Dzadey

As a practicing performance and propulsion engineer the key parameters that were vital within this
report was to investigate and identify possible propeller, motor, esc (electronic speed controllers)
and power supply combinations that are efficient and also cost effective with the ability to achieve
the mission objectives set by the IMechE UAS challenge. It is also within the interest of this report
to point out the work that has been conducted as a systems engineer to improve the navigation of
the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) and target tracking.
At the start of the MEng project IMechE had set specific limitations to which partly involved the
performance of the UAS along with mission details. These specifications are identified below which
were strictly followed:
Maximum Take-Off Mass (MTOM) must be equal to, or less than 7kg
Must have the capability to fly under 20knots wind and 25knots gust conditions
Maximum airspeed of 60knots (IAS) must not be exceeded
Must be capable of operating within altitude range of 100ft-400ft
Must have the ability to complete 2km round mission
On top of the IMechE specification there were specifications set by the MEng group, which are
listed below and also strictly adhered to.
Initial cost limitation of 550 after taking into account structural other electrical components
Initial propulsion and power supply weight limitation of 3.7kg was set after taking into
account structural, payload and electrical components weights
At the start of the MEng project various design concepts such as aeroplane, helicopter, Quad-rotor,
Hex-rotor, octocopter and osprey tilt rotor were put forward and analysed and after careful
alliteration the Hex-rotor was chosen as the design that the group would like to construct and put
thought to the IMechE UAS Challenge. Hence for the PDR the performance and propulsion
calculations were based on Hex-rotor as shown in appendix A. During mid-January it was identified
that while the cost would be under the 1000 limit set by the IMechE, the maximum take-off mass
of 7kg would be exceeded by 500g. From this point it was decided to change the design to Quadrotor, hence from Appendix H.2 onwards the calculations will be based on and around the Quadrotor design.
Most of components that are investigated in this report involves two unknown variables that are
required e.g. a propellers two variables involves its diameter and pitch, the RC motor has KV and
power, and the power supply requires voltage and capacity calculations. For this reason this report
has been split into sections which address one variable per component at a time by process of
elimination.

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9.1 Propeller Diameter Selection


To perform any type of performance and propulsion calculations the MTOM is vital, for this initially
7kg is used which was the estimated mass and also the maximum permissible mass from IMechE
specifications. Also 7kg is used as it would be easier to down grade the performance at a later
stage in the project if it is required than to do it the other way around. Having initialised the MTOM,
the lift required to hover per motor can be calculated using Equation 7.
MTOM 9.81
(
) = 17.18N/motor
Number of motors
Equation 7 - Lift Required
Using the same principle as helicopter the Quad-rotor must sustain lift and also move forward by
changing pitch, therefore the propellers must have the capability to sustain lift required and also
thrust for forward movement which results in Equation 7 being insufficient and it has to be
modified. The modification can be seen in Equation 8 to account for lift and thrust. Equation 8 has
been obtained and validated of its use from different Quad-rotor builders and hobbyists alike.
MTOM 2 9.81
(
) = 34.34N/motor
Number of motors
Equation 8 - Modified Lift Equation
Although propellers are the one of the cheapest components that will be integrated onto the Quadrotor they are single handily the most vital components to achieving efficient performance. There
are 11 different companies that produce propellers from different material properties for the RC
enthusiasts, but there is only 5 companies (Aeronaut, APC, DJI, EMax and Graupner) that
manufacture multicopter props which are in the orientation of CCW (Counter Clock Wise) and CW
(Clock Wise-normally referred to as pusher). Using Equation 7, (Staples, 2014) the lift that each
propeller can produce at different RPM (Revolutions Per Minute), in this case between 0
20,000RPM will be analysed and a plot of Lift Vs RPM will be produced. A sample of this equation
at work can be seen in Appendix H.2 figure: 1.1. Other investigated propellers are documented in
appendix B
L = 4.392399*10-8*RPM*

3.5 ()
()

*(4.23333 104 ())

Equation 9 - Length of Propeller


From figure 1.2, in Appendix H.2 shows that as the propeller diameter increases the lift required
which in this case is 34.34N can be achieved at a lower RPM value of 6,200RPM therefore making
the system more efficient as the current draw will be lower but although having a larger propeller
would be more efficient the velocity will be effected as higher RPM results in faster flying. In this
case the ideal propeller will be in the top right hand corner of the black box below which
corresponds to propeller dimensions of 9*4.7 at 20,000RPM that can also achieve lift required.

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Now that a RPM range 6,200 to 20,000 is identified in Appendix H.2 1.2, the power versus RPM
graph can be produced to identify the power required from a specific RC brushless motor. Equation
10 (S, 2014) is used to establish the power vs RPM graph:
() = 4 () () 3 (1 109 )

Equation 10 - Power Produced by Propeller


Where Kp = Propeller constant listed in 221 H.2table 1.1 as each propeller manufacturer has its
own propeller constant.

From figure: 1.3 in Appendix H.2 it identifies that a propeller with dimensions 7*6 rotating at
20,000RPM is an appropriate match for having the lowest power consumption of 473W for
efficiency coupled with highest RPM value for high speed. But now looking at figure 1.2 lift vs RPM
it can be seen that a propeller with dimensions of 7*6 will not produce the required lift of 34.34N
but only attain 17.34N. Although this propeller would be great for speed and efficiency it would not
have the required lifting capability to sustain flight. This process is repeated for every propeller and
the results are shown in Appendix H.2 table 1.2 shows the results for different propeller dimensions
together with RPM, power consumed and lift produced which is obtained from figures 1.2 and 1.3.

The maximum RPM used for each propeller to calculate its lift capability is 20,000RPM as
mentioned earlier, but even though the propeller is spinning at 20,000RPM there are still certain
propellers that cannot achieve the minimum lift required per motor of 34.34N and therefore
assigned with the letter N in the acceptability section of the table. This represents that the propeller
performance is not acceptable, this range falls from propellers 7*6 to 9*3.8.in Appendix H.2 Table
1.2 also shows the some propellers at 20,000RPM can produce in excess of 34.34N of lift and
therefore it was required to reduce the RPM to obtain the required lift, one example of this would
be propeller 9*6 at 20,000RPM produced 39.84N of lift and required 1265W to achieve this. As
there this no need to have the excess 4.82N of thrust the RPM can be reduced down to 18,750
which in turn makes the whole system run more efficiently and the power consumption reduces
down to 1042W which in turn results in reduced current draw. The results can be seen on table 1.3
in Appendix H.2

This type of analysis can be seen in larger propeller dimensions such as 17*10, table 1.4 in
Appendix H.2 has the results for this propeller size and it can be seen that a propeller of this size
would achieve well in excess of the 34.34N lift required, 476.45N with 20,000RPM while requiring
2685.2W. This would results in excess thrust of 442.11N which is not required, therefore the RPM
can be reduced down to 5,450 which in turn produces the lift required of just over 34.34N, hence
less current draw making the whole system more efficient.

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Looking at the two propellers sizes in tables 1.3 and 1.4 in Appendix H.2 it can be clearly seen that
having a larger propeller definitely increases the endurance time of the Quad-rotor because the
power consumption required is reduced by half from 1042W to 543W which in turn means lower
current draw for the same amount of lift produced. Lower current draw results in longer flight time.
One of the disadvantages of increased propeller diameter is the fact that the RPM is reduced
therefore effecting the velocity of the Quad-rotor. Finding the best propeller combination between
these two propellers that would give the lowest current draw with the highest velocity while
maintaining the lift required of 34.34N was the key engineering challenge that was faced though
out this project.

9.2 RC Motor Selection Maximum RPM


Now that a range of different propeller dimensions are identified in 9.1 we will now look into the
motors that are available for use that can be matched to the identified propellers to achieve the
best combination in terms of performance.
Looking back at table 1.2 in Appendix H.2 it can be identified that the investigated motors must
have an RPM range between 5,450RPM to 20,000RPM and also capable of supplying power
between the range of 543W to 1195W so that the Quad-rotors performance abilities can be
achieved. To achieve the best performing RC motor for this project different motors are researched
and investigated from different manufactures, the results are shown in Appendix H.3, table 1.5
Table 1.5 shows the performance details of each motor stated by the manufacturers at the time of
build. One of the details that is not give is the maximum RPM of the motor once a propeller is
attached to it. To calculate this Equation 11 (Bernhard, 2009) is used.

RPM= KV*maximum cell voltage*reducing factor


Equation 11 - Determining RPM
The KV of a motor is specified by the manufacturer and it represents revs per minute per voltage
e.g. taking the details specified in table 1.6 located in Appendix H.3. It show that this specific motor
EMax GT2820/07 has an RPM rating of 850 per voltage supplied. And again from table 1.6 in
Appendix H.3 it can be seen that the manufacturer has stated that a cell range of between 3s and
4s is permissible where 1s is the equivalent of 3.7V therefore 4s (4*3.7V = 14.8V). The reducing
factor in Equation 11 represents the drop in motor maximum RPM capability when a propeller is
attached which is in the region of 0.83. An example of how the maximum RPM is calculation can
be seen below.
850*(4*3.7)*0.83 = 10064RPM

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By analysing the data obtained from table 1.5 in Appendix H.3 the maximum RPM that these RC
motors can achieve is identified, therefore any propeller that requires higher RPM than what the
motors can achieve is eliminated, this is certainly true for propellers have small diameters and
require high RPM to attain the lift required. From table 1.5 in Appendix H.3 it can also be seen that
the maximum RPM that can be achieved is 14,800, therefore by looking at Appendix H.3 in table
1.2 it can be seen that propellers that are in dimension range of 7*6 to 10*7 and 11*3 can be
eliminated as they require higher than 14800 RPM. Therefore table 1.2 can be reduced down to
1.2.1 in Appendix H.3

9.3 Propeller Pitch Selection


To eliminate more propellers from table 1.2.1 in Appendix H.3 we now look at the velocity that the
Quad-rotor will be designed for. At the start of the project a specification was written that stated,
Maximum airspeed of 60knots (IAS) must not be exceeded and also Must have the capability to
fly under 20knots wind and 25knots gust conditions. In this analysis the decision to assume that
the Quad-rotor would be traveling under the most extreme case scenario was taken throughout the
2km course.
Initial calculation can be performed to evaluate the velocity required to complete the course in the 2
minute time frame using speed equation stated in Equation 12 (Anon, 2014). (Although 2 minutes
is stated here the Quad-rotor will have the capacity to fly for 5 minutes as a contingency)

()
2000 ()
( ) =
=
= 16.6/

()
120 ()

Equation 12 - Determining Speed


From Equation 12 - Determining Speed it can been seen that under ideal conditions (zero wind)
the Quad-rotor is required to fly at a velocity of 16.6m/s to achieve the 2km in 2 minutes, but the
above equation has not considered wind speeds and gust conditions of up to 25 knots and
therefore will be considered below.
20knots wind speed = 10.28m/s
25knots gust speed = 12.86m/s
To complete the course within the time frame stated of 2 minutes the Quad-rotor must be capable
of travelling at velocity of between 26.88m/s (52.25knots) under maximum wind speed and at
29.46m/s (57.27knots) under maximum gust conditions.
To calculate the maximum velocity that can be obtained requires the maximum tilt angle, this can
be achieved by using Equation 13 (Anon, 2014).
F*cos() = Weight
Equation 13 - Force Produced at Maximum Tilt
Where:
F = Force (N)
W = Quad-rotor weight (N)
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= Maximum tilt angle (degrees)


The total force that the Quad-rotor will produce is obtained by the propellers lifting capabilities in
this case each of the four propeller chosen produces 34.34N, 137N in total. By rearranging
Equation 13, the force required at a particular angle can be calculated, and by trial and error (as
long as it doesnt exceed 137N *0.7 = 95.9N because we need excess thrust for sudden gusts) we
can find the maximum tilt angle.
() =

()
cos()

Using trial and error When = 10; F= 69.7N = 20; F=73.0N = 30; F=79.29N = 40; F=89.6N =
44; F=95.4N
From this trial and error section it can be seen that a maximum angle of 44 degrees can be
achieved, but if this angle is exceed than there is the possibility that the Quad-rotor will stall
therefore it is advisable to use an angle setting of less than 44 degrees, in this case 32 degrees is
used.
Now that the maximum flight angle is obtained Quad-rotor maximum speed in straight flight can be
calculated using Equation 14 (Andy, 2014).
max & = 0.000954 0.44704
Equation 14 - Quad Rotor Maximum Speed
Equation 14 assumes that the Quad-rotor will be travelling parallel with the x-axis like an aircraft,
but for a Quad-rotor Equation 14 has to be modified to take into account the angle setting that the
Quad-rotor will be travelling at. Equation 15 shows this modification.
=max & * Cos( )
=( 0.000954*0.44704) * Cos( )
Equation 15 - Quad Rotor Maximum Speed at Angle Setting
Where

( ) = , 29.46/

=
() = 3.8 13
Equation 15 must be rearranged to calculate the maximum RPM required at different pitch to
achieve 20.46m/s

(
)
0.000954 0.44704
=
Cos( )
From table 2.0 in Appendix H.4 it can be seen that as propeller pitch increases, RPM required
reduces to obtain 29.46m/s. As calculated earlier the maximum RPM that can be obtained from the
brushless motors is 14,800RPM, this shows that any propeller that has a propeller pitch setting that
is under 6 inches can be eliminated. Table 1.2.1 in Appendix H.4 can now be modified to table
1.2.2 in Appendix H.4
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9.4 Power Supply Voltage Selection


From Appendix H.3 table 1.5 it can be seen that each brushless motor has an operating power
supply cell range generally the higher the cell count the more efficient the system will be and also
the higher the RPM will be. In this section different power supplies will be investigated to determine
the ideal power source that can be used in this project. From table 1.5 it can be seen that the
power supply cells range from 2s to 9s, but 2s cells will not provide the RPM required and it will not
be considered in this analysis, therefore 3s to 9s will be the main point of the research. The
investigation will give importance to cost, weight and coulomb rating, the full range of power
supplies analysis can be seen in table 1.7 in Appendix H.5
From table 1.8 in Appendix H.5it can be concluded that as the number of cells increases so does
the cost and the weight. Although a 3s cell is desirable because of its low cost and weight the
system will be inefficient due to Equation 16 (Anon, 2015).
() =

()
()

Equation 16 - Current Draw


Detailed analysis can be obtained from table 2.1 in Appendix H.5which shows the RPM required to
sustain lift and RPM required to achieve forward velocity of 29.46m/s coupled with current draw
using different lithium ion cells. Using a propeller that requires 1000W a sample calculation can be
conducted, the results are shown in table 1.9, Appendix H.5. This table also represents power
consumption required by propeller dimension of 10*8 to achieve the RPM required for lift of 35N
which is obtained from table 1.2.2 in Appendix H.4 also the RPM to obtain the forward velocity of
29.46m/s that was obtained from table 2.0 in Appendix H.4. There are propellers that cannot
acquire the RPM required for forward velocity but has sufficient RPM to sustain lift a case of this
can be seen in table 2.2, Appendix H.5 this case the RPM to sustain lift of 35N has to be increased
to match the same RPM to achieve forward velocity. The result of increasing RPM means that
power consumption and current draw required is increased as it can be seen in table 2.3, Appendix
H.5. Table 2.1 in Appendix H.5 can now be updated to take into account the increase in RPM on
certain propellers, the new data in presented in table 3.9, Appendix H.5. From table 3.9 certain low
current propellers can be identified, these propellers are also seen in table 2.4, Appendix H.5
The propellers identified in table 2.4 are bought from a local hobby store and tested on the test rig
that was build. From testing it was identified that propeller dimensions of 12*6 is the most efficient
propeller, the justification for this is shown in Appendix H.10

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9.5 Power Supply Capacity Selection


The current draw, flight time and weight will be the deciding factor in choosing the battery. But
firstly the current draw is discussed, because RC wiring that are available for sale are from turnigy
where each cable has its own rating based on maximum current that is permissible the listing is
provided in table 2.5 Appendix H.6. From this it can be identified when all the motors are working
at its full capability that the current draw per motor cannot exceed 50Amps at any point as it could
cause the cables to burn up and this would result in catastrophic failure. Figure 1.4 identifies the
locations were 200Amp cannot be exceeded. Therefore by this method it can be identified from
table 2.4 in appendix H.5 that lithium-ion cells 3s and 4s cannot be used.

Figure 36 - Prototype Quad Rotor


Using the 50A current limit per motor battery capacity required can be calculated using flight time
of 5 minutes. Equation 17 can be used to calculate battery capacity required.
()
60 = ()
()
Equation 17 - Battery Capacity Required
() ()
60
5 200
() =
60
Battery capacity required = 16.6Ah

() =

Table 1.7 in appendix H.5 has been updated and documented as table 1.7.1 in appendix H.6 to
show addition information such as total cost and total weight that the battery capacity required is
known. Also as mention earlier 3s and 4s lithium-ion cells has been disregard due to high current
draw. From table 2.6 in appendix H.6 it can be seen that 5s lithium-ion power supply will be ideal
for this project were its lowest is weight and also the cost is one of the lowest.

9.6 RC Motor Selection Power


When selecting the motor all the analysis that has been conducted up to now has to be
considered. Information to consider involves power consumption has to be greater than 811W,
RPM has to be greater than 11,270, must be capable of working with 5s, and also must able to
work with the propellers identified in table 2.4, appendix H.5 Other important data to be considered
will be weight and cost. The required criteria is applied to table 1.5 in Appendix H.3 which reduces
the number of RC motors that can be used for this project, these available motors are identified in
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table 2.7, appendix H.7. Table 2.7 can be further reduced to table 2.8 in appendix H.7 when only
5s lithium-ion power supplies are considered.
From table 2.8 it can be seen that there are three closely matched motors that can be used for this
project, power 46, Quantum MT 3510 V2 and EMax GT2826-06. Power 46 although has some of
the specs that are required it cannot be considered for this project because the maximum RPM
while using 5s lithium-ion power supply is too lower to consider. Quantum MT 3510 V2 has very
attractive specs such as lowest cost out of the three and also the lowest weight but one of the main
issues any the reason for why it cannot be considered for this project is the fact that the power
consumption value if very low. EMax GT2826-06 is a motor that has most of the specs that are
required for this project, power consumption is perfect, 5s lithium-ion cell and propeller range from
10-14 can be used without a problem, cost and weight are ideal when compared to others that
weigh 200-290g. The only issue with this motor is that the maximum RPM cannot be used when
flying and the thrust setting will be based on 83% therefore the RPM will drop from 12987RPM to
11168RPM. Which in this case a shortage of RPM will occur (12,901RPM-11,168RPM =
1,733RPM) therefore recalculating based on 11,168RPM new maximum thrust and velocity
obtained. Results are presented in table 2.9, appendix H.7by using equation 1.3 maximum thrust is
calculated as 34N per motor As the maximum thrust has changed so does the maximum angle
using equation 1.7, 43. Using equation 1.9 maximum velocity can be calculated 20.9 m/s. Power
consumption using equation 1.4 696W, with power consumption 15% extra has to be added 800W.
Using equation 1.6 current draw can be calculated 43A. Finally by using equation 1.7 flight time
can also be calculated 5.6 minutes which more than the expected 5 minutes.

9.7 Electronic Speed Controller Selection


ESC (Electronic Speed Controller) is the next component to be selected for this project. Escs are
used to vary the RPM of the motors, as seen in earlier stages that vary RPM would mean that
thrust, velocity and pitch angle can all change just by varying the RPM. Escs are the only way in
which the Quad-rotor can be controlled autonomously as they will be connected up into pixhawk
directly which is the autopilot chosen for this project by other team members.
When it comes to selecting escs the general rule used by hobbies is to know the maximum current
draw that the motor can handle, in this case 52A then to add 15% to obtain the esc current
required. In this case its 59.8A, therefore escs that are rated at 60A will suffice for this project. As
with everything in this project there are other factors such as weight and cost that needs to be
taken into account, an analysis of this is shown in table 4.0, appendix H.8
From table 4.0 two escs are identified and presented in table 3.0, appendix H.8, one which is
lowest in weight and another that is lowest in cost. Both of the escs would have been ideal for this
project but as the motors were being bought from the same company that sells the robotbirds pro it
was decided that to save further cost on postage and packaging the 3g difference in weight will not
affect the project, therefore robotbirds pro 60A escs were ordered.
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10 Unmanned Aircraft System - Subsystems

46

Section by Jonathan

10.1 Introduction
This chapter would discuss the different systems on board the UAS such as navigation and
communication systems as well as schematics showing detailed information on how the system
components are integrated with each and with other systems. A detailed specification sheet is also
provided in the chapter below. A list of systems aboard the UAS is shown below:

Navigation control system

Mission control system

Image recognition system

Flight control system

Communication system

Details on how to configure and operate all systems on-board the UAS through the autopilot
system are shown in Appendix. J.

10.2 Navigation Systems


The navigation system comprises of the following components:
Global Positioning System
Telemetry Kit
Radio Controller
Autopilot flight control system
Ground Control Station
Camera
On Screen Display

The function of the navigation system of the UAS is to provide the information need for the flight
controller to control the UAS to its mission destination. In this case, the mission is to deliver a
payload at a particular spot at pre-specified GPS coordinates. The GPS unit on board is used to
get the GPS lock on the co-ordinates, the on board compass gets the direction of the co-ordinates
and the gyro on board the flight controller determines motion on the relevant axis and then this
information is fed to the motors through the ESCs which regulate the voltage supply to the motors
to control the attitude of the UAS by either reducing or increasing the RPM of the motor. The GPS
coordinates are programmed into the navigation system with the use of waypoint files. The
navigation commands can be entered into the notepad and then loaded to the autopilot system as
shown in Figure 37: Waypoint Command File.

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Figure 37: Waypoint Command File


The ground control station is used to input the commands GPS coordinates and payload release
mechanism in the form of a mission plan. This mission plan can be saved and edited if there is a
need to change the mission parameters for the UAS. The ground station is also used to monitor
the data generated by the sensors on board the UAS and it is transmitted back via the telemetry
kit. The ground control station consists of a laptop, telemetry transmission antenna and mission
planner software.

10.2.1

Potential Issues with the Navigation systems


An issue with the GPS unit is the HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision) which
reduces the accuracy of the horizontal position of the UAS and this poses a problem for
mission deployment. The HDOP continuously varies depending on a number of factors
such as number of satellite count picked up by the GPS unit and weather conditions.

Another issue that can affect the performance of the navigation system is the
transmission rate and range of the telemetry kit as there may be a lag in the
transmission of data between the UAS and the ground control station.

Electromagnetic

interference

(EMI)

from

electrical

components

affecting

the

performance of the compass on board the flight controller.

10.2.2

Solutions
To correct the flight condition for the HDOP accuracy of the UAS, the UAS flight control
can be switched from automatic flight control to manual flight control and the UAS can
be flown to the exact position where the payload is to be deployed.

The compass and the GPS unit that would be affected by EMI would be placed away
from components that generated magnetic fields.

10.3 Mission Control System


The mission control system comprises of the following components:
Autopilot flight controller
Payload Release mechanism
Ground control Station
Camera
The function of the mission control system is to deliver the payload at a particular position. The
payload is delivered when the autopilot control system determines the UAV is at the correct
position (correct altitude, correct GPS coordinates). A command inputted into the mission plan
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would then be sent to the servo and the payload release mechanism would then be activated and
the payload released.
The main issue with the mission control system is the accuracy of the navigation control system
and also the autopilot where the command to deploy is stored. If any problem is encountered, the
UAS can be flown manually and the payload can also be deployed manually with the use of a radio
controller.

10.4 Flight Control System


The flight control system consists of the following components:
Autopilot control systems
Electronic Speed Controller
Batteries (Avionics and propulsion)
Motors and propellers
The flight control system is used to control the UAS attitude and altitude. It comprises of the
propulsion system and the autopilot system working in conjunction from the data received from the
navigation system. To control the altitude or attitude of the UAS, a command is sent from the
ground control station to the autopilot. The autopilot then calculates the voltage output from the
battery that would be required to carry the command. The autopilot then regulates the voltage
supply from the battery to the motors with the use of ESCs. Yaw, pitch and roll are carried out due
to differential RPM of the motors on the Quad-rotor.
The flight control system also carries out the stability and control function for the UAV. The
autopilot system has an in built controller which has been reprogrammed to correct errors and
make adjustments in flight control. The controller is the PID (Proportional Integral and Derivative)
variant and this is done using the auto tune function when flying the UAV with the use of the radio
controller. The PID values have to be calculated before being inputted into the UAV before its initial
flight and the methods used to get the PID are:

Matlab Model to simulate flight conditions of the Quad-rotor

Selecting the right PID values for the different flight conditions.

When the simulation is run, the Matlab model is then put through a series of different
flight conditions and data is collected from these simulations.

The PID gain values are changed constantly in order get the control system to respond
the right way to disturbances in flight conditions, Table 8 shows the guiding principles for
choosing PID Values.

The simulations are monitored in forms of graphs and hence the values can be changed
when they are needed to be.

Testing the UAV system using a test rig

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Set the Quad-rotor inside the test rig and make sure everything is correctly bolted and
connected for safety and all the propellers are fixed and not within the reach of the test rig
arms

Input the PID values gotten from simulations using MATLAB

Test the Quad-rotor under multiple conditions

Use a high airflow fan to replicate strong gusts to see how well the Quad-rotor responds
to extreme flight conditions.

Test fly the Quad-rotor

Take the Quad-rotor to an open area for test flying

Start with simply manoeuvres before moving onto more extreme manoeuvres

The autopilot control system on board the Quad-rotor is capable of learning and during
the first flight test which would also be used for auto-tuning the control board, the Quadrotor would learn the appropriate response time and record it.

This method is used to program in the PID values for flight readiness.

Controller

Rise time

Overshoot

Settling time

S-S error

Kp

Decreases

increases

No change

decreases

Ki

Decreases

Increases

Increases

Eliminates

Kd

No change

Decreases

decreases

No change

Response

Table 8 Effects on the close loop response from PID (University of Michigan, 1996)
To create the MATLAB model, the physics behind Quad-rotor behaviour is modelled such as the
torque and forces produced by the motors, the Quad-rotors inertial frame in relation to non-linear
dynamics. With the above information equations of motion can be generated by using a rotation
matrix to simulate the motion of the Quad-rotor. An appropriate controller can then be designed to
reduce any error produced by the Quad-rotor system. The model is not a 100 percent accurate
representation of the Quad-rotor due to different assumptions made in the course of modelling the
Quad-rotor. For this reason, a test rig will be used to improve the PID gain values as a simulation
on MATLAB will only take us so far without. The test rig will be used to fine-tune our close-to-final
PID values before we can actually test the Quad-rotor in actual flight.
An integral part of the flight control system is the autopilot system. The autopilot system comprises
of three layers of ware:
Firmware
Software
Hardware
To fully utilise the capability of the autopilot system, the firmware and software aspects are edited
to make the application flexible in terms of navigation and mission control. The autopilot system
used is Pixhawk which is built on the open source px4 platform. The autopilot system is capable of
carrying out functions such as autonomous flight, computer vision operations and robotic functions.
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The autopilot system has enough processing power to carry out the above mentioned functions at
the same time.
The autopilot systems also has on board sensors which generate and provide information about
different systems on board the UAV and also data about flight performance, this information
(Figure 37) is transmitted to the ground station for observation and control with a telemetry kit
operating at 433Hz. To improve flight conditions of future flights, telemetry data is logged by the
autopilot system and the data gathered can be analysed to make adjustments to any system to
raise the performance of the UAS.

Figure 38: Telemetry Information transmitted to ground control station

10.5 Communication System


The communication system for the UAS consists of:
Radio Controller
Telemetry Kit
Minim OSD
Autopilot System

The communication system is used to transmit telemetry data from all components on the UAS to
the ground station for observation and control. There are three methods of connecting the UAS to
the ground control station:
Serial Connection
Telemetry Kit Connection
Radio Connection
The different connection methods have different transmission rate and therefore different functions.
The UAV and the ground control station communicate using a protocol called MAVLINK. This
communication protocol is the main protocol for the Pixhawk unit and this determines the
transmission rate for different types of transmission methods and format of data transmitted.

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Serial Connection

The serial connection is used to connect the Pixhawk autopilot to a ground control station through
a Universal Serial Bus connection. The baud rate for the transmission is 115200 bits per second
and this connection is used to configure the autopilot system for the first time. The extremely fast
connection is used to load the firmware and software needed to run the autopilot system and also
to calibrate all on board sensors for the first time. Other components of the UAV can be connected
and also configured through the serial connection. The serial connection is also useful when
running diagnostics on the autopilot or any connected component as the transmission rate and
quality would prevent loss of data or useful information through data packet loss in transmission.
The transmission rate can be monitored by the link statistics as shown in Figure 39.

Figure 39: Transmission Link Statistics (Serial Connection)

10.5.2

Telemetry Kit Connection

The telemetry kit is used to connect the Pixhawk autopilot to a ground control station through a
radio connection over a frequency of 433Hz. The baud rate for the transmission is 57600 bits per
second. This is the primary method of connecting to the autopilot for flight purposes and any other
secondary purpose of the UAV. The connection can also be used to configure the autopilot system
to calibrate on board sensors but due to the connection speed, it is advisable to use the serial
connection for that. For autonomous flight, the flight plan is uploaded to the autopilot through this
connection and with the use of a ground control station. During flight, any secondary mission plans
for the UAV are also sent through the telemetry kit connection; this can range from servo activation
to camera functions. The strength in telemetry connection would decrease as the UAV moves
further away from the ground control station. During flight, all the telemetry generated from all
components is sent to the ground control station through the telemetry kit. The transmission rate
can be monitored by the link statistics as shown in Figure 40.

Figure 40: Transmission Link Statistics (Telemetry Kit)

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10.5.3

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52

Radio Connection

The radio controller is used to connect to the Pixhawk autopilot and the UAV through a frequency
of 2.4 GHz. The radio controller is used to fly the UAV manually without the need for a ground
control station or GPS based command input to the autopilot system. The radio controller is also
used to configure some stability and control criteria such as PID through a method known as autotune. The radio controller has a number of channels that are used to carry a number of secondary
UAV functions such as servo control, camera control etc. The radio controller also acts as a
backup flight controller when the autonomous flight system fails or acts as a safety flight measure
when the UAV flies out of range of telemetry range of the ground control station.

10.6 Systems Integration


To make sure that all the systems to be used on the UAV can work together and can also
accomplish the primary and secondary objectives of the UAS and that the components to be used
are also compatible, a series of tests are carried out on the each system and its respective
components. Some examples of the tests are:

Communication systems test

Servo test

Propulsion system test

Image recognition system test

Post Assembly Design Checks

Post Assembly Systems calibration

Some of the tests listed above are discussed in different chapters such as the propulsion test in the
chapter dealing with propulsion and performance and the servo test in the chapter dealing with
UAS mission delivery. Every other test is explained below:

10.6.1

Communications Systems Test

The tests carried out on the communication systems are of the following types:
Interference tests
Range tests
Altitude Tests

10.6.2

Interference test

To carry out the interference test, the UAS communication systems are operated near areas or
devices of high magnetic interference, near devices that give off radio waves such as Wi-Fi
devices and TV antennas. The UAS communication systems also tested indoors and outdoors but
in close proximity to a building. The result of these tests is shown below:

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Test

System Component

Magnetic
Interference
Near
Buildings

Radio Waves

53

Result

Telemetry kit
Radio Controller

The rate of transmission is reduced and also


the number of bits (information transmitted)
lost is increased.
Telemetry kit
Operation in a building has little or no effect
Radio Controller
on the radio controller. The telemetry loses
range and quality of transmission especially
when there is a wall between the transmitter
and receiver.
Telemetry kit
There are severe consequences due to the
Radio Controller
difference in the transmitting frequencies
telemetry kit and the radio controller.
Table 9 - UAS Interference Tests

The UAS is designed for open field flight and as such the tests carried out above do not affect the
objectives of the UAS mission, the reason for the test is for future use of similar UAVs used for
different purposes as stated in the business case. These tests were done to show the durability of
the UAS control systems and its adaptability to different operating environments.

10.6.3

Range Test and Altitude Test

The telemetry kit to be used on the UAS is designed to be used at ranges of about 1.5 kilometres;
the farthest point on the UAS is approximately 500 metres from the ground control station. The
range of the UAS telemetry was tested in an open field as well as during the interference tests. The
largest open field used for the test was 600m at its farthest point and the UAS remained in contact
with the ground control station during the test. The antennas for the telemetry kit are Omnidirectional and thereby transmit data in all directions and also upwards.
The altitude test for the UAS was carried out by taking the UAS receiver to the fourth floor of a
multi-storey building of approximately 60 feet. The communication system worked well even with
interference with the Wi-Fi in the building. The radio controller was also tested for both range and
altitude and the tests results show that the radio controller is capable at operating distances of the
UAS mission.

10.6.4

Post Manufacture and Assembly Design Checks

The post assembly design checks were carried out after the UAV had been built, assembled and
the electronic components are connected and ready for testing. The post assembly design checks
include the following:

Inspect structure of UAV to make sure that there is adequate space and protection for
electronic components.

Inspect assembly to make sure components are assembled neatly and safely.

Inspect assembly to make sure electronic components are connected to their proper ports
or power sources.

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Inspect health of all propulsion system components (motors, propellers, Escs, batteries).

Inspect wiring and make sure that wiring on the assembly match the wiring diagrams.

Inspect Assembly to make sure that the design specifications were met by comparing the
UAV to the design specification sheet.

Inspect assembly to make sure that all safety precautions were taken into consideration
during the assembly and manufacture of the UAV

10.6.5

Post Assembly Control System Calibration

The electronic components were configured when they were bought in order to carry out various
tests but after assembly the memories of the autopilot system and all other components are
deleted. The main reason for reconfiguring the control system equipment is that sensor error as a
result of being calibrated before the component is assembled on the frame. When the assembly is
done and all the components and their sensors recalibrated, such error is reduced. The UAS
recalibration was done with the use of the 3 axis test rig and the following sensors were calibrated.

Accelerometer

Compass

Radio Controller

Joystick

Gyroscope

Fail-safe systems

Arming Checks

After all the calibration was done and all other system integration checks carried out, the UAV was
then set-up to tune its PID values for flight.

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11 Stability and Control I

Section by Malwenna

Quad-rotors can be regarded naturally stable compared to fixed wing aircraft by the nature of their
design. That is mainly due to the thrust being generated by all four corners where the resultant will
act on the meeting point of three main axes. However, natural stability is only achieved if the CG of
the quad is designed to be on above mentioned intersecting point, so that the vertical forces on the
quad will originate from the same point with no moments about the CG when it's stable. Even if the
CG is not at the intersecting point, quad can be stabilized by simply changing the RPM of the
motors so the moments will be balanced. Therefore, the first step of making a Quad-rotor stable is
the placement of CG. Stability about yaw is achieved by having counter rotating propellers to zero
the resultant torque created by rotating propellers.
Controllability on the other hand did require more attention. There are four rotating parts indicating
more control is needed. Only control input will be the thrust change by changing the RPM of the
motors. But the problem lies within the accuracy of the input due to various factors such as human
error, mechanical error and disturbances by outside forces. This is where the control board
(Pixhawk) takes over to minimize the errors and aid the copters controllability in achieving the
desired output. This is done by a system of three independent Proportional Integral Derivatives
also referred to as PID controllers. As shown in Figure 41, it is a closed loop system where the
error is corrected by subtracting the output from input to identify the error and running the error
through three PID gains. This is a very quick process which will be repeated until the error is
corrected.

Figure 41 PID System (Oscar, 2013)


P (Proportional gain coefficient) This controls the sensitivity of the quad to the angular
change being input and therefor, most important controller.

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I (Integral gain coefficient) controls the precision of the angular input, especially when
outside disturbances are present such as gust. This controller will identify the disturbance
and minimize the effect caused by it.
D (Derivative Gain coefficient) By having an input on the quad, there can be accelerations
towards the desired output and this gain will dampen if they are unwanted or amplified if
they helps in achieving the output. Therefore, it helps in predicting errors and mitigates
them (Hove, 2013).
Although PID controllers seem simple, the mathematics behind these is complex to grasp. PID
gains will depend on the weight, size and purpose of the Quad-rotor. Therefore, the main
responsibility of Stability and Control role is to obtain correct PID values for particular quad using
mathematical models, MATLAB simulation or PID tuning. Later is regarded as the most reliable
method.
As stability was a joint role between Mohammed and Malwenna, the work was split between these
two and so was the report. Please refer to 14 Stability and Control II for CG placement and
MATLAB model.

11.1 PID Tuning


Refer to section 15 Flight modes and tuning for information on test rig.

11.1.1

Loiter mode

The main purpose of tuning for loiter mode is for Pixhawk to automatically keep the current
heading and altitude, especially at payload deployment until character recognition identifies the
target. During loiter tuning, the pilot would fly the quad manually as in stabilize mode, but releasing
the stick would keep the Quad-rotor in the same position. However, in order to achieve good loiter
characteristics, there are three main requirements to be fulfilled
GPS positioning GPS is normally positioned elevated from the Pixhawk and other electrical
components. This is to lower the magnetic interference caused by
other components so that GPS positioning hold will be accurate.
Ideal position for the GPS will be decided when the GPS protective
case and the mast have arrived.

Magnetic interference on the compass Original GPS unit

decided for the quad was 3DR uBlox GPS which also includes the
LEA-6H compass. Since it will be mounted high, magnetic
interference will be minimized. However, given the availability,
timeliness and budget restraints, GPS Crius CN-06 v2 was
purchased which does not have a compass and Pixhawk inbuilt
compass
Figure 42 Loiter PID
values
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Vibration Analysis has been done by the structural team to minimize the vibrations and
therefore, lower vibrations will help in loiter.
The Loiter PID P value at the top of the Figure 42 refers to the conversion of difference between
desired and actual position as a speed towards the targeted position. Rate Loiter PID values will
then convert the desired speed to desired acceleration towards the targeted position and desired
acceleration would result in quad obtaining a lean angle to correct the position. These values do
not require changing as advised in the Ardupilot tuning guide (Copter.ardupilot.com, 2015), but will
be changed just to observe in later testing.
Loiter speed refers to the maximum horizontal speed achieved by the quad in loiter mode and is in
the units of cm/s. Therefore 500 refers to 5m/s. Max acceleration at loiter mode is limited to half the
loiter speed by Mission Planner.

11.1.2

Altitude Hold Mode (AltHold)

Engaging in this mode will enable Pixhawk to take control of the throttle and automatically maintain
the altitude present at engaging moment. The pilot will still be keying pitch, roll and yaw to stabilize
the quad. This mode will be useful when hovering to deploy the payload. Correct AltHols tuning
was not possible to obtain so far in the current test rig since the altitude is fixed. Pixhawk uses the
inbuilt barometer to measure the pressure difference in order to correct the altitude. Therefore, its
important to take the Quad out from the test rig and test AltHold in a secured and open area,
according to rules of regulatory bodies and also not on whether sensitive days which can cause
pressure readings to fluctuate. Therefore, this will be conducted in later test stages when Stabalize
mode is properly tuned. When AltHold is engaged, the throttle would be automatically set between
40% -60%. The pilot can take control of the throttle anytime and throttle input over 60% will cause
to ascend and below 40% will cause to descend. However, if the landing is performed in AltHold
mode, it would take a few more seconds than normally to disarm the motors after a touchdown.
Maximum climb and descent rates are set to a lower value of 2.5 m/s during testing since it
requires practice and experience to control the quad manually without causing any damage.

Figure 43 AltHold mode PID values


Purpose of Altitude Hold P is to convert altitude error into a climb/descent rate. The higher rate is
suitable to correct altitude aggressively, but too high can cause oscillations. Throttle rate PD
converts earlier rates to accelerations. Throttle acceleration will feed the acceleration error back
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into system to further reduce the altitude error. It is notable that in this setting, D value is kept at
zero. D gain dampens the unwanted acceleration toward desired variable and in this particular
case, acceleration is required. Therefore, it will be kept at zero. Further P to I will have a 1:2 ratio
(3DRobotics, Altitude Hold Mode, 2015), which will be maintained during testing. Built quad is more
powerful than a normal therefore, reducing PI values by 50% will be a good starting point to initiate
testing. Hence, better performance is expected at P = 0.5000 and I = 1.0000. See sections 15.2.1
Pitch and Roll tuning, 15.2.2 Yaw tuning and 15.2.3 Waypoint navigation tuning for other flight
modes.

11.2 Verifying the performance of PID values


Primarily this would be done by observation and there are two stability engineers to confirm the
result. Since there is still a human element involved, preferable method would be to use flight
record.
In Mission Planner, there are two ways to record the flight data. Through Dataflash logs which
uses on-board flash memory and can be downloaded using MAVLink and through telemetry logs
which is recorded in the mission planners since we are using the 3DR Radio telemetry. Dataflash
logs will be used to verify the performance of the PIDs by opening log in the mission planner which
will open value graph as shown in Figure 44 depending on the flight mode.

Figure 44 Dataflash log in Stabalized mode opened in Mission planner


(3DRobotics, Verifying performance with dataflash logs, 2015)
Figure 44 is the graph from the stabilizer mode where major concern is to achieve good roll and
pitch. So in order to evaluate performance, we need a comparison between desired role and actual
roll, desired pitch and obtained Pitch. It is clear that the units of X and Y axes are the same and the
shape of the two lines are similar and track well. It is obvious that if PIDs are not good, the shapes
of the graphs would not be similar. Therefore, achieved PID values are good. A similar process will
be used in other flight modes as well. For an example, in Alt Hold mode, Barometric altitude (Baro
ALT), Waypoint altitude (desired altitude) and the GPS altitude (inertial nav at estimate) will be
compared see if they track well.

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12 Safety Case

Section by Malwenna

12.1 Overview
The UAS can possibly cause property and individual damage to its Pilots, spectators and parts of
the overall population and surroundings. The harm may be brought on by the UAS's contact with
the ground or due to equipment falling out. Therefore, UAS is only allowed to fly in UK airspace if
they are considered safe in operation. UAS in this particular competition being less than 7Kg
MTOM, they will fall under SUA (Small Unmanned Aircraft) category and should comply with UK
Air Navigation Order 2009 articles 138, 166, 167 and CAA CAP 722, and CAP 393. (UK CAA
Safety and Airspace Regulation Group, 2014) (Civil Aviation Authority, 2012)
The main requirements extracted from those articles are as bellow;
The UAS should not operate above 400 feet (122 m)
The UAS should always be in Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) since collision avoidance is
primarily based on this
Maintain a "pilot in control", which is to take control and fly the UAS in case of failure of
autonomy
Operate 150m away from congested areas
Should not operate within 50m of person, vehicle or structure except 30m at takeoff and
landing
Apart from this, it is made sure that team is referring to the University UAS Challenge 2015
competition rule book while designing, manufacturing, testing and demonstration of UAS.

12.2 Flight Controller Safety Mechanism


The Pixhawks flight controller we have chosen has a number of safety mechanisms; It includes a
motor arming safety feature when manually controlling the copter. At take-off, throttle stick should
be held up for several seconds to safely arm the motors and vice-versa at landing. It also includes
safety modes such as RTL (Return to Launch), Failsafe and GeoFence. In the event of a signal
lose to the UAS, it can be programmed to return to launch location using RTL while Failsafe will
ensure its safety and GeoFence will transmit its current location. Stabilize or Stabilize plus modes
can be triggered to land the Quad-rotor safely in case of a motor failure.
Please see section 16 Flight Termination Case for more information.

12.2.1

Safety Measurements for Flight Testing

Ensuring no personnel are near propellers when they are powered, especially when
performing PID tests.
Terminating the flight before batterys safety capacity is reached.
After landing, ensure battery power to the components has been stopped either by
removing cables or using a switch before handling the UAV.
Prior testing, ensuring the home location shown in the mission planner software is correct.
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Using a staggered flight test approach, increasing speed and height with each test.
Use of checklists for mechanical and electrical components, systems and assembly before
every flight test to ensure they are connected correctly and working.

12.3 Hazardous Components


1) High speed propellers detachment of propellers in flight can cause serious injuries to
people and animals. Therefor it is suited to avoid composite made props and use breakable
and flexible props. The downside to this is it will reduce the performance of the propeller.
However, given the reliability and safety, plastic props were ultimately chosen which will
break in an event of a crash without serious damage to personnel or structures
2) Batteries lithium polymer batteries are often seen exploding due to misuse, which can
cause serious structural damage to the aircraft. Use of high build quality batteries and
monitoring

their

charging

and

temperature

regularly

can

avoid

such

failure

(Rogershobbycenter.com, n.d.). Purchased batteries will be made brighter in colour to


identify them in a crash and they are mounted using Velcro Straps for easy removal.

12.4 Battery Fail Safe


Battery Fail Safe mode in
Mission Planner is to land
the Quad-rotor or return to
launch if battery voltages
drop

down

percentage.

certain

But

the

requirement for this fail safe


to activate is that the battery
should
Pixhawk
Figure 45 Battery fail safe settings chosen in Mission Planner

be

connected to

power

module.

Three 5s batteries are being

used to power the motors and ESCs which are not connected to Pixhawk since Pixhawk can only
support up to 4s batteries. Therefore, this fail safe is used only for the system battery which is a
2200MAH 4s Lipo.
Fail safe will trigger at two occasions
1)

If the 4s battery voltages goosed below 12volts Minimum safe voltage for a 4s battery to
operate is assumed to be 3 volts per cell.

2) If the 4s battery remaining capacity goes below 440MAH This is 20% of the capacity of
the battery which is 2200MAH and 440MAH is being set as the configurable Reserved MAH
(reserved for land or RTL)

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Battery Fail safe can be


disabled

anytime,

however,

there

separate

low

is

battery

warning option being set


up. Low battery massege
will

appear

ground
Figure 46 Battery monitor settings chosen in Mission Planner

control

on

the

station

following a loud beep if


the battery percentage

goes below 23%. Having 23% will give sufficient time for ground control to prepare for the fail safe
method selected since failsafe will initiate at 20%

12.5 Radio Fail Safe


This fail safe is used if communication between RC transmitter and receiver is broken. Given the
nature of the mission to be fully autonomous, it is highly unlikely that this will be in use. The RC will
only be used if autonomy fails and if decided to continue with the mission without triggering other
Fail safes. However, this can be very useful in testing stages especially in AltHold and auto tuning
if quad becomes unresponsive or uncontrollable.
There are four occasions where Radio Fail Safe is possible
If the RC transmitter is switched off accidentally
If quad exceeds the maximum RC range
Malfunction in RC receiver wiring or PPM encoder
If the RC transmitter runs out of power (Turnigy 9x RC is powered by eight AA batteries)
When the Fail safe is triggered, motors will automatically disarm if Quad-rotor is on the ground. It
will return to launch (RTL) if it has a GPS fix and more than 2m away from launch location or if has
no GPS fix and within 2m, it will land. Even if the communication link is restored prior to landing, it
will still continue with the fail safe unless the flight mode is changed using Mission Planner or RC
switches. It will continue with the mission if the mode is on Auto.

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13 Environmental Impact

Section by Malwenna

In order to UAS design to be a success, it is important to assess the environmental impact it has
from the initial concept of the design. One of the aims in the design process was to have minimum
impact on the environment without compromising the performance. This report covers the main
Environmental factors affected by the use of UAS and proposes action taken and will be taken to
lessen them.

13.1 Hazardous Material


1) High speed propellers
2) Batteries
3) Plastic material most of the Quad-rotor structure will be built using plastics such as Nylon
6.6, Nylon 6 and PVC. Reason for choosing these were presented in the section. The
environmental impact of using these materials is high and there are three conceivable
ecological issues to be considered. Plastics are generally produced using natural resources
which must be conserved, such as oil, gas or coal and increasing the use will drain the
natural resources. As a by-product of the manufacture of plastics, various pollutants will be
created which have to be dealt with properly by manufacturing companies.

13.2 Air Quality


13.2.1

Emissions

Air pollution due to UAV usage is primarily from gas emissions during flight. Therefore, Reduction
in emissions was considered in the initial planning of the power plant. The end result was to
discard the use of any fuel and use battery powered motors which will not only minimize air
pollution, but eliminate it. Therefore, this Quad-rotor design will have zero air pollution due to
emissions.

13.2.2

Noise

There are two types of noise originating from a UAS. Aerodynamic noise is the noise due to
vortices at the blade tips. Higher blade loading and speed will result in a higher noise. But the most
significant noise is the noise from the power plant. Specially noise from a fuel engine airplane
where noise arouses due to combustion and exhaust compared with a similar set up electrical
engine, is higher. However, in this case we are using four motors powered by 5s batteries and
provides a lift to carry 2kg payload. Therefore, power requirement and work done is higher, so is
the noise than in a normal Quad-rotor. However the noise is being minimized by proper weight
distribution and propeller balancing to reduce the vibrations causing the noise. In this particular
competition, high noise can be advantageous as well since UAS has to remain at VLOS always
and noise will aid in locating the vehicle. However UAV would be under the permitted noise level of
Elvington Airfield area and would not significantly affect the air quality.
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13.3

Infrastructure

Quad-rotor is a small UAS system and therefore, does not require major infrastructure changes.
But upon impact, it can cause serious damage to infrastructures. Also, uncontrolled radio
frequencies can cause interferences for civil operations. To prevent such incidents, the quad will
be operated 50m away from structure, personnel and 150m away from congested areas as
required by the CAA regulations.

13.4 Disposal of Material


Plastic material - The most common method of disposing these materials is by burying in landfill
sites, but since they have a low decay rate, increasing use of plastics will create a build-up in
landfills. The materials that have been used in the design are high quality materials manufactured
using the correct method which means they are not degraded. Therefore, burying them in landfill
sites will not produce harmful gasses such as methane, which are normally produced by low
quality materials. Alternative way of disposal is to incinerate it. Burning plastic can reverse the
process to obtain raw materials such as crude oil, gasses and coal. These gassed can also be
recycled separately after. However, this process will also generate some harmful gasses.
Incinerating Nylon will produce carbon monoxide, ammonia, aliphatic amines, ketones, nitriles and
hydrogen cyanide and later in exceeding room temperature is a highly poisonous gas
(schoolworkhelper.net, 2014)Therefore, this process should be carried out in a controlled
environment. Another way of recycling them is by reprocessing, which will produce materials which
are inferior from previous quality, but can be used for products such as bags and dust bin bags
where quality is not that important. At the end of the lifetime, Quad-rotor can be disassembled and
plastic material can be taken to the numerous plastic recycling companies available in the UK for
them to be properly reprocessed.
Lithium Polymer batteries Since Lipos are the most hazardous equipment used, they have to be
disposed in a responsible manner. Earlier method of disposal was dumping the Lipos in a saltwater bucket and letting it to degrade and disposal though drainage system. This started causing
problems to Water Authorities since they use lithium to trace the water leaks and degrading Lipo in
salt-water will add lithium salts to the drainage system (Smith, n.d.)Therefore the best ways to
dispose Lipos are the procedures via local authority Environment Waste Department where they
have a special used battery collection system on going. But prior to handing over the Lipos,
following steps should be carried out.
Lipos should be discharged to a minimum voltage Suitable resistance should be used to
avoid overheating of both the battery and resistor and battery should be drained as closes
to zero volts.
Discharging the battery using shorting the leads should not be attempted.

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Once discharging is completed, they should be secured in a stout cardboard box or similar
and clearly labelled with "SPENT LITHIUM BATTERIES FOR RECYCLING" (Smith, n.d.).
Also batteries can be returned to the battery retailers whom are obligated to accept spent batteries
under the National Battery Back Scheme.
Environmental

No Impact

No Significant Impact

Factor

Impact

Hazardous Materials
Emissions

X
X

Noise
Infrastructure
Waste

X
X
X
Table 10 Impact of Quad-rotor on environment

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14 Stability and Control II

Section by Reyad
Due to the complexity of the Quad-rotor stability, joint roles were required in order to carry out the
complex tasks. The stability testing sections are split, along with the reporting.
Refer to Section 11 Stability and Control and 11.1 PID Tuning for more information on the
introduction of Quad-rotor stability.

14.1 Ideal CG location


The Centre of Gravity (CG) placement on a Quad-rotor needs to be taken into consideration early
on as it affects the flight performance, speed and stability. Ideally, the CG should be at the centre
point of the multi-copter, at 0 on the x and y axis. As this may not be feasible depending on the
size and weight of the systems and batteries, the CG may be off centre by up to 1-2cm. If the CG
is at the aft of the Quad-rotor then it will naturally try to pitch back, increasing the time it takes for
the quad to pitch forward, therefore sacrificing forward speed and forward acceleration, although it
will be very effective at reducing forward speed. The same principle also applies if the CG
placement is closer to the front of the Quad-rotor. However, unlike an aft CG, a fore CG placement
can be beneficial as unless the Quad-rotor is hovering, it will be always at forward flight during the
main event of the IMechE competition, which will allow the Quad-rotor to accelerate faster, improve
forward speed and reduce the thrust required from the motors to remain at the desired pitch which
will help increase the flight time. If, however, the CG is too far in front the motors will require
additional thrust from stopping the Quad-rotor from pitching too much. These same rules apply to
roll, if the CG is on the left or right side, it would allow the Quad-rotor to roll to that specific side
faster but react slower if it was to roll to the other side. On top of this, the Quad-rotor will need to
provide additional thrust so that it does not roll to one side continuously.
As previously mentioned, the Quad-rotor might be able to get away if the CG placement is no
greater than 1-2cm away from the centre, any more and the additional thrust required to
compensate for the stability will reduce the flight performance by a large amount. Unless major
changes are made to the Quad-rotor, from here on, which is highly unlikely, for each cm the CG is
off by; the motors will need to provide an additional 155g of thrust to compensate.

Figure 47 Side view of the Quad-rotor

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The z-axis is far less black and white, compared to the x and y-axis. The lower the CG on the zaxis the more stable the Quad-rotor becomes, on the other hand, the more stable the Quad-rotor
becomes, the more thrust will be required to manoeuvre the Quad-rotor. Assuming that the top
plate is the datum (see Figure 47), the CG is at 0.9 cm with one payload and two batteries and -1.7
cm after payload has been deployed. As these points are below the propeller, they should allow for
some level of stability with very little compromise to the manoeuvrability.

15 Flight modes and tuning

Section by Reyad

15.1 Simulink model


Initially there was a plan to create a mathematical model on Simulink to simulate the behaviour of
the Quad-rotor while its flying, or at the least; hovering. The reason for this is that it allows for safe
testing without any crashes since the test can simply be restarted. However, later on it was
decided that this may not be needed as a simply test rig will allow for tuning of the Quad-rotor
without the requirement of a mathematical model and certain changes to the Quad-rotor will allow
the group to test the Quad-rotor in relative safety. Nevertheless, a ready made Simulink model
(Figure 48), (full model in Appendix. J) was found which was previously made by the winning
students at Drexel University for the Mathworks MATLAB and Simulink Student Design Challenge
2014 (Mathworks, 2014). While the model the group has created has the possibility of not being
perfectly accurate, they have verified it with Mathworks using a real Quad-rotor, making this small
model somewhat credible. Still, the purpose of the model was to check the changes in PID values
and their effect on stability, before the Quad-rotor and test rig was built, and get their ratio of PID
numbers for testing on the test rig once it has been made.

Figure 48 Simulink model used

To get started on MATLAB, an m-file of all size and weight of the main components will be required
as well as the thrust and torque coefficients of the motor. These will be used to create a transfer
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function for the PID values (full model in Appendix. J). Another m-file will be required for the initial
starting conditions.
Once the Quad-rotor parameter and initial conditions file have been created, the files will be loaded
onto the altitude control file on Simulink. At first the PID values will all be set to zero before being
adjusted one at a time, first for the throttle command and then followed by the Roll and Pitch on the
Position Control Simulink file. The test was done in the same fashion as one would do for the
physical test, by pushing the P value (in throttle command) until the throttle response is deemed
acceptable. Without an I or D value this would cause the Quad-rotor to oscillate with little to no
damping, as seen in Figure 49. To introduce damping, the D gain must be increased, and as
Figure 49 once again indicates, after multiple iterations, the D gain allows the Quad-rotor to
stabilise at 100ft, the minimum height for the UAS Challenge, at a reasonable amount of time.

Figure 49 Quad-rotor oscillating with only the P gain (left), with P and D gain (right)

Pitch and Roll should be theoretically be the same as a Quad-rotor in a + or x shape, so should
ideally be symmetrical and therefore the PID values for one mode should be very same for the
other. However, at the time of Simulink testing the Quad-rotor had not been manufactured for
validation but for the test it was assumed that the CG was at the centre for the x, y and z-axis and
all moments were the same for all the arms. For the roll and pitch the P value were increased until
there were oscillations before the D and I values were increased one at a time for the Quad-rotor to
fly with a good response. Full test data can be found in full model in full model in Appendix. J and
also for Throttle/altitude and for pitch and roll .
When it was time to do the yaw tuning, it appeared that regardless of what value the PID were,
even 0, the Quad-rotor would still yaw on the Simulink model and therefore no further attempt was
made on yaw. Fortunately, yaw is less of a concern on a Quad-rotor as it can be manually
controlled without any issues to the Quad-rotors flight path.
After extensive testing on Simulink, the final values for Throttle, Pitch and Roll are shown on the
figure below, Figure 50.

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Figure 50 PID values on Simulink

15.2 Test rig PID Testing


To test all the PID values from the test rig, the test rig itself must be able to move freely in all axes.
However, to achieve the values for only the pitch, roll and yaw, each axis must be tied down, so
not to interfere. Having said this, the placement of the test rig may be of an issue, as the Quadrotor flies through the air, it should pivot around its CG, but while it is on the test rig, the CG will be
slightly above the pivot point which means that PID values we get from the test rig would be great
while the Quad-rotor is on the test rig, their effectivity will be greatly reduced once the Quad-rotor is
removed from the test rig. What this means is that once the Quad-rotor is removed from the test
rig, the must be further fine-tuned to make it suitable for the UAS challenge.
The test rig was not made in time for comprehensive testing, a plan was created which involved
the PID values on Pixhawk being slowing increased, same as with the MATLAB model, one at a
time until satisfactory results. While Pixhawk comes with their own values for PID, theyre designed
for 3DRs own Quad-rotor (3DR Robotics, 2015). For this reason, the teams Quad-rotor requires
its own set, calibrated through Mission Planner. The PID numbers will need to be adjusted for the
typical Roll/Pitch (yellow), as seen below, yaw (orange)(Figure 51), altitude hold (green), loiter
(pink), and waypoint navigation (blue).

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Figure 51 Values that require change (3DR Robotics, 2015)

Stabilise mode, one of the initial recommended modes for tuning the Quad-rotor, as it handles
some level of control over the Quad-rotor over the pilot such as maximum roll and pitch. In acro
mode, the pilot has full control and could therefore push the Quad-rotor to overturn itself and if the
pilot was tuning the Quad-rotor without a test rig then the pilot could cause some serious damages
to the Quad-rotor and if the propellers snap off, damage to anyone nearby like the pilot. In stabilise
modem, the Quad-rotor will automatically try to stabilise itself once the pilot releases the stick,
making it the ideal starting point for tuning. As progress was made, more and more control would
be taken back from Pixhawk before testing it under acro mode.
As its a Quad-rotor, the pitch and roll values can remain the same since it can also be flown
sideways in the same way for forward flight. However, this will be tested later on if they require a
different set of PID values. As Pixhawk does not allow for a P value below 0.08, that will be what
the test will start with. I and D will be set to zero to minimise their effect and will be incorporated
once the P value is satisfactory.

15.2.1 Pitch and Roll tuning


To tune the pitch and roll PID values, the process follows a similar process as the one for
MATLAB:
1. Set the Quad-rotor up on the test rig, as seen on Figure 52, and make sure all arms are
fastened, all loose cables are tied and the batteries are well charged
2. Make sure that the batteries are well placed and not causing the Quad-rotor to tilt to one
side from the misaligned CG
3. Test the Quad-rotor with the given PID values for 3DRs own Quad-rotor (3DR Robotics,
2015) to see how it handles
4. Test with the values from MATLAB to see if the Quad-rotor response time are the same
5. Test with minimal PID values to see how stable it may be naturally
6. Start increasing the P value to improve the response time to that close to which ever it was
most stable to (IRIS+ or MATLAB version)
7. Increase the P, I, and D values until the Quad-rotor stabilises whilst in the test rig
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Figure 52 Quad-rotor on the test rig

For a more detailed version of the test plan, please see full model in Appendix. J.
The test rig was finally completed approximately one week before the submission date which gave
the group two days to do some quick testing. During these two testing days the Quad-rotor
managed to pitch and return to level within a very good time frame, approximately 2.3 seconds,
however, due to the placement of the batteries, the roll took much longer than expected to stabilise
(just over 6 seconds). This is due to the Quad-rotor not being fully assembled as it was designed to
be but put together for testing purposes and the batteries were not closely placed at the centre to
minimise the moments and the placement of the CG. After some realignment, the pitch, roll and
yaw results were much improved and better than expected in some cases. However, Pixhawk has
its own method of providing data on how the Quad-rotor should stabilise, see Figure 53, and
unfortunately there wasnt enough time to improve the result nor could the data be extracted (at the
time) for further analysis.

Figure 53 Results of what Pixhawk should output (Copter.Ardupilot, 2015)

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15.2.2

Yaw tuning

The Yaw tuning will involve a similar procedure to the pitch and roll tuning, although unlike the
pitch and roll values, it wont require fine-tuning as yaw has less of an impact on stability. Having
said that, there are still good reasons for improving the yaw PID values to improve the response
(start and stop), reduce the overshoot and add a damping to the yaw acceleration.
Please see section 11.1.1 Loiter mode and 11.1.2 Altitude Hold Mode (AltHold) for other flight
modes.

15.2.3

Waypoint navigation tuning

In auto mode, the Quad-rotor will follow a pre-set path, from Mission Planner, and is capable of
doing certain tasks, such as deploy payload, taking video of flight path and pictures of current
locations. Tuning auto mode includes altitude and position from AltHold and loiter modes and as a
result should only be tuned after those two have been tuned. In the configuration menu the
maximum horizontal and vertical up/down speed can be changed in 10mm/s, so 25m/s will be
written as 2500. There is an issue where Pixhawk cannot maintain control of both altitude and
horizontal speed simultaneously whilst going over certain speeds, which can vary from Quad-rotor
to Quad-rotor. For this to be checked, the groups Quad-rotor must be flown in auto mode to see
how much of a compromise this may be before steps are taken to overcome this issue.
Auto mode can be setup so that the Quad-rotor starts the mission from the ground or whilst flying.
If the Quad-rotor is set on the ground, then the throttle must be set to zero as the moment the
throttle is increased, the Quad-rotor will be set to auto mode and make its way to the first waypoint.
If the Quad-rotor is starting whilst in the air, it will start moving towards its first waypoint once the
controller has been set to auto. If, after it has been to auto, the first command is take-off, it will
recognise that command as completed and move to the next one. While the Quad-rotor is set to
auto mode, Pixhawk will overlook all inputs from the pilot as long as not disable auto mode and
yaw. As some pilots may decide to take pictures of the location, the pilot still has some control over
the yaw control, although Pixhawk will try to regain control once it has reached its next waypoint.
Waypoints can be set up as fast waypoints (Ardupilot, 2015), which operate in the same way as
regular waypoints but without any delay or loitering at that waypoint. For both cases, a radius must
be inputted into Pixhawk, so that Pixhawk can recognise that way point as complete once it is
within a certain range.

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15.3 Tuning during flight


Once all PID values have been gathered for pitch, roll, yaw, stabilize mode, altitude hold, loiter,
and waypoint navigation, the Quad-rotor will be removed from the Quad-rotor and taken to a
controlled environment for flight testing. If required, the all the PID values for all modes will be
further fine-tuned during flight to check the response, stability and how well it handles disturbances
such as mild wind. Once it can fly well with a pilot, the Quad-rotor will be set in auto mode and
made to fly through waypoints, up to 2km in length, slow at first before increasing speed to
maximise the thrust from the motors and minimise the time taken. Once the above has been
completed, the same process will be continued but with payload deployment until satisfied.

15.4 Future Work


As the test rig has been made in the final week leading up to the submission, no successful testing
was done. Now that the test rig and Quad-rotor has been built, from here on out, it will solely be
testing and fine-tuning the PID values for maximum performance and response time and ideally
without losing too much stability during the process. The Quad-rotor will fly up to 2km during the
UAS Challenge and after the changes in the latest briefing from IMechE, the Quad-rotor has a
large advantage due the quick acceleration and stoppage of a Quad-rotor over a fixed wing
aircraft.

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16 Flight Termination Case

Section by Reyad

The core functionality of the Pixhawk software Mission Planner is to return to launch (RTL) if it
loses contact with the ground station or manual control. If more advanced options are required
then Pixhawk has an on-board Advanced Failsafe (AFS) system. The pilot can setup for failsafe
conditions so that the multi-copter can loiter for a short period of time before RTL, automatic
landing or termination (Plane.Ardupilot, 2014). If termination is chosen, then this will apply to all
modes of flight termination cases, whether that is GPS loss, communication loss, Geofence breach
or altitude breach. Once the aircraft has entered termination mode, it is no longer recoverable so
for this purpose the Quad-rotor will not be set on termination but land as a last resort.

16.1 GPS Loss


The AFS system monitors the strength of the GPS receivers throughout the flight. If both GPS, onboard and external, lose position lock for over 3 seconds, then the Pixhawk AFS initiates
(Plane.Ardupilot, 2014). This involves the system looking into one of the parameters called
AFS_WP_GPS_LOSS which instructs the multi-copter on its next action, ranging from loiter for a
period of time, disarming the motors and landing, or in a sequence of two or more of these actions.
It is also possible to specify a mission waypoint number which Pixhawk will use as a reference
point for where it should head to next if it loses GPS signal, similar to RTL. If the GPS regains
positioning then the multi-copter will continue its mission from where it left off.

16.2 Communication loss from Ground Station


The AFS system constantly monitors the strength of the data-link between the Quad-rotor and the
ground station using the HEARTBEAT MAVlink (Plane.Ardupilot, 2014) messages being
transmitted by the ground station. If for a period of 10 seconds or greater the multi-copter does not
receive a HEARTBEAT message then it enters AFS state. During AFS state, it looks for the
AFS_WP_COMMS parameter, which will contain a waypoint number to navigate to on
communication loss (APM Plane, 2014). The MAVlink messages are purely for Pixhawk, which
gets informed that it is receiving communication from the ground station. The ground station itself
will not see these messages from Pixhawk
If the multi-copter loses GPS positioning and connection with the ground station then this is
considered dual loss and the multi-copter will immediately terminate. The user can, however,
override Pixhawk and enable manual mode and take control regardless of GPS loss, ground
station loss or both as long as Pixhawk has not already started flight termination. If all connections
are lost, including manual control then the multi-copter will terminate flight after a specified time in
milliseconds, in our case for 30,000 milliseconds or 30 seconds.

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16.3 Geofence Breach


Geofence allows the user to set boundaries of where the multi-copter can operate in terms of
distance and height. If the multi-copter goes outside the set boundaries it will switch to guided
mode and fly back to a pre-defined location (Plane.Ardupilot, 2014) or a failsafe condition such as
report back as seen in Figure 54.

Figure 54 Geofence configuration on Mission Planner

16.4 Maximum Pressure Altitude Breach


When the airspace is being shared by multiple UASs, the flight altitude will be measured by a
common reference pressure, typically the QNH, defined as barometric pressure adjusted to sea
level. The AFS system can force a pressure altitude limit, as a value in millibars in the
AFS_AMSL_PRESSURE parameter, while the pilot can set the pressure altitude limit in the
AFS_AMSL_LIMIT (Plane.Ardupilot, 2014) in metres. If both parameters are set and are exceeded
then the AFS will initiate a termination process.
The AFS system will also monitor the barometer, and if it shows to be unhealthy for 5 seconds then
the AFS system will look at the AFS_AMSL_ERR_GPS (Plane.Ardupilot, 2014) parameter. The
multi-copter will enter flight termination immediately if it is set at the default value of -1 otherwise it
will continue flight and use the value as a margin to add to the GPS height and allow the flight to
continue if the GPS altitude plus the AFS_AMSL_ERR_GPS value, in meters, is below the
AFS_AMSL_LIMIT value. This margin value is to account for the inaccuracies of GPS altitudes and
according to APM, a value of 200 is reasonable for safety to ensure AFS_AMSL_LIMIT pressure
altitude is not breached (Plane.Ardupilot, 2014).
See full model in Appendix. J for more information on the safety case.

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17 Systems Layout

Section by Tarek

17.1 System block diagram


The over view of the operation and systems of the Quad-rotor are shown in the following two
diagrams. The first diagram shows the hardware and how the subsystems interact with each other,
while the second focuses on the operation of the software subsystems operation with the Quadrotor. The schematics of the systems are in Appendix K.3(ardupilot) (S@M, 2014).

17.1.1

Hardware Systems

The following block diagram is off the hardware of the Quad-rotor, the diagram has two sections
which operate in their own unique way. The first section is the ground control station which has
two subsystems, the controller and the ground control station computer with the communication
system. The base station computer is what stores the Mission planner, this software allows for the
control of the flight path and the operation of the Quad-rotor. The communication system linked to
the computer communicates with the Quad-rotor which allows for transmitting and receiving data.
The radio control allow for manual control of the Quad-rotor by the pilot.
The second section is of the Quad-rotor consists of motors, flight controller, power distribution,
camera, GPS Module, and video graphics processing unit (VGPU) or the minimOSD along with
pixhawk. The motors flight controller and power distribution resample the systems that of
propulsion systems. The GPS module is for pinpointing the location of the Quad-rotor and flight to
the desired location. Finally the camera and the minimOSD with pixhawk are part of the
transmission of the video and data feed to the ground control station.

Figure 55 Overall System Hardware Block Diagram

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Signal name

Description

User input

The user input is to turn the Quad-rotor on/off, toggle on/off video stream, activate/
deactivate the autopilot and arm/disarm the Quad-rotor. This is achieved through
ground control station Mission Planner and using the radio controller allows for
manual flight of the Quad-rotor.

Power

The power supply of the Ground Control Station is from the laptop, where it must
have the battery fully charged before the mission. At the ground station a portable
power supply will be available for the computer to be connected to for recharging.

GPS Satellite
Signal

The GPS system on the Quad-rotor receives a GPS signal from global orbiting
satellites and on the ground station it is connected to WIFI where it updates its
mapping and positioning.

RC Control
Signal

The manual control is through the transmitter and receiver of the radio controller.

Telemetry
Data

The communication between the Quad-rotor and Ground Control Station is through
the 3DR telemetry kit operating at 433MHz.

Video Data

The video data is sent through the video transmitter and receiver kit which is
connected to the minimOSD which includes extra video data such as altitude,
attitude and direction.

Motor Thrust

The motors function is provide thrust in order to lift the Quad-rotor and travel
around the course.

Sensor Data

The flight sensors record various data such as accelerometer, magnetometer and
gyroscope which there information is sent to pixhawk which are then processed to
meet the flight conditions.

Table 11 Overall System Hardware Block Diagram Description

17.1.2

Software Systems

The following diagram and table are of the software block diagram of the Quad-rotor systems. This
section also has two subsystems, as there is software running on the ground control station and on
the Quad-rotor. The ground control has two main subsystems and some have further subsystems.
The first subsystem is the Radio Controller (RC) transmitter, which transmits manual pilot control
commands to the receiver on the Quad-rotor to control the flight conditions on the Quad-rotor. The
second subsystem contains the ground control station computer, running operating windows 7
using the Mission Planner for the mission planning. The Mission planner receives video and data
information from the Quad-rotor, the Mission planner then displays that information and stream for
the user. On the Quad-rotor there are three main subsystems. The first is the RC receiver which
receives signal from the radio controller on ground which operates on a tuned frequency for the
receiver and transmitter to operate coherently. The second subsystem is Pixhawk, it receives
signal from RC receiver with command to control the Quad-rotor. The second is the video graphics
processing unit (VGPU), the minimOSD receives data from Pixhawk such as the altitude, attitude,
and heading etc which are processed with the video feed and transmitted to the ground control
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station. Pixhawk is the main computer or brain on board the Quad-rotor, Pixhawk receives data
through the telemetry kit which contains flight commands such as GPS coordinates or signal when
to release the payload. The table below contains more descriptions on individual systems.

Figure 56 Overall Software Block Diagram


Signal name

Description

Video
Commands

Video command will be sent through the video link which makes the camera take a
photo of the target for it to then be processed. This will read the alphanumeric
information at the target and display it at the ground control station.

Video Data

The video data is transmitted from the camera on bored the Quad-rotor, with
information from the minimOSD. The video will be displayed on the ground station
Mission planner. The video is transmitted through video transmitter which will be
operating in the same frequency as the video receiver on the ground station.

Telemetry
Command

The telemetry command is sent from the Ground Control Station Mission planner
through the telemetry transmitter to the receiver which then sends the information
to pixhawk to be processed.

Telemetry
Data

The telemetry data sends data from the Quad-rotor with pixhawk data to ground
station. The data from pixhawk includes information such altitude, attitude, location
and speed which are displayed on the Mission planner page.

User Data

The user data is the collection of the flight information which is displayed on the
Mission planner with information regarding current flight conditions.

RC
Commands

The RC commands are the commands transmitted by the transmitter to the


receiver with flight control commands to control the flight conditions of the Quadrotor

Table 12- Overall Software Block Diagram Description

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17.2 Communication
The range and performance of the radio frequency (RF) link are critically dependent on the
antenna used. The radiation pattern of a quarter wave monopole antenna is heavily dependent on
the design and layout. Therefore selecting the correct antenna and placing in the most efficient
location on the Quad-rotor is crucial. The mounting of the telemetry and the video transmitter, must
take into account of the possibilities of shadowing, as this can be a factor when mounted in an
obstructed area for example between the two structural plates of the Quad-rotor. The effects of
shadowing will hinder the range and coverage of the transmission range. For this reason the most
common set up on a UAV or aircraft is the vertical polarization. As the advantage of a vertical
polarization, waves propagate much more effectively in this orientation near the earth, whereas
horizontal polarized the waves will be cancelled out by the reflection from the earth.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is common issue that occurs with electronic devices as they
might interfere or interrupt the performance of a device, due to radiation and the source could be
from nature or manmade devices. If the EMI intervenes with the aircraft systems it could turn out to
be a very serious issue during flight, especially if a system such as navigation are disrupted this
would lead to a loss of signal and would lead to missing the flight path hence increasing flight time.
Therefore, on the Quad-rotor the mounting of the GPS will be placed on most elevated location on
the Quad-rotor, and the telemetry and video transmitter will be placed some distance away from
each other to avoid interference (Wyatt & Tooley, 2008).
When testing the GPS and telemetry kit loss of performance was identified, and the reason for this
was that the operating frequency of the laptop is up to 400MHz and the telemetry operates at
frequency of 433MHz. During testing the laptop was used as the power source for the GPS and
telemetry kit. This could also be due to path loss as the test was carried out on a long narrow field
with trees obstructing the line of sight signal. Nonetheless a range of more than 400metters was
achieved as this was down to the maximum length of the field. To protect signal strength aluminum
shielded wires are used to protect against EMF to help reduce cable loss. Cable loss is the amount
of signal lost due to the cable, another measure taken to reduce this effect it to have long enough
cables to reach each connection point because the longer the cable the higher signal loss (Bailey,
2003).

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18 Image Processing

Section by Tarek

18.1 Image Recognition


18.1.1

The Requirements

Image recognition code will be used to read the letter at the target and displayed letter on the
ground station screen. Earlier competition requirements stated that there would be a mixture of
alphanumeric characters at the target which should be recognized and displayed at the ground
station (Barragan, 2014). However the march 2015 rules state that there will only be one letter at
the target in a target area of 2m by 2m.

18.1.2

Testing

For testing purpose the target has been scaled down to resemble real life operation. The
parameter of the square target is 2m by 2m and the Quad-rotor cruise altitude is at 100ft. To verify
the code ability to recognize the target letter, tests were carried out at different altitudes to compare
the results. The reason for testing at different altitudes is because for payload deployment the
Quad-rotor would need to descend to an altitude to safely deploy the payload at the target. The
altitudes that have been selected for testing are at 100ft, 50ft and 20ft. The target will be elevated
at 1.5 m above the ground.
Scaling
As the delivery box is elevated above ground at 1.5m = 150cm, taking scale at 1/20 therefore
testing is as follows:
For 100ft:
100ft = 3048cm 3048 150 = 2898 cm
2898

= 144.9
20
For 50ft:
50ft = 1524cm 1524 150 = 1374 cm
1374

= 68.7
20
For 20ft:
20ft = 609.6cm 609.6 150 = 459.6 cm
459.6
= 22.98
20
As the altitude was scaled down the target character should also be scaled down. The target is 2m
by 2m.
200
2 = 200
= 10
20
Therefore the target will be 10cm by 10cm with the letter in the middle of the square target.

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18.1.3

Results

To represent the altitude of 100ft, 50ft and 20ft, the test will be carried out at 144.9cm, 68.7cm and 22.98cm.
For testing only two letters where tested, H and Z.

Altitude (cm)
144.9
144.9
68.7
68.7
22.98
22.98

Alphanumeric Letter
H

Result
1317 characters where
displayed
Z
1400 characters where
displayed
H
2489 characters where
displayed
Z
1568 characters where
displayed
H
H
Z
Z
Table 13 - Alphanumeric processing at different height

Figure 57 Matlab alphanumeric code processing letter at 22.98cm

18.1.4

Analysis

From the result obtained in Table 13, it shows that when taking a picture above 50ft the results are
not consistent and hence the Quad-rotor is required to descend to an altitude of lower then 20ft to
achieve a more accurate result. Descending to altitude lower than 20ft is beneficiary for the
payload deployment because it allows for greater possibility of a safer deployment.

18.1.5

Shape recognation

The shape recognation code was planned to be used to identify the target during flight, when the
Quad-rotor reaches the coordinate set at the ground station using the Mission planner the program
would be able to identify the target and center itself ontop of it. The code measures the properties
of image regions and will scalar the actual number of pixels in the region of the image, which then
can be identified as a shape, in the figure bellow it demontraights its operation. The setback of
running the code during the mission is its time to process the image, in this case it took more then
30mins as the code removes any connected components pixels that have fewer then 60 pixels.
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Normally it is running at a minimum of 20-30 pixels which takes 2-5 minutes, however as the test
will be in an open field the grass causes a lot of interferance during processing hence a higher
pixel setting is required (Samieh, 2007).
The figure below is taken from a height of 22.95cm to resemble 20ft and the size of the box is
10cm by 10 cm to resemble the target of 2m by 2m:

Figure 58 Shape recognition

18.2 Video
The camera model selected for the live feed video to the ground station is through Mobius
ActionCam. The Mobius camera is commonly used on such UAVs, the camera provides a high
quality video feed and the quality can be altered from three possible choices. This can be useful if
needed to transmit over a long range but operating at its highest resolution of 1080p-30fps will be
needed as the ground station is within a reasonable distance and it would need to process the feed
to determine the alphanumeric at the target. The camera is needed to provide a still image of the
target from the Quad-rotor and transmitted to ground station (Mobius, 2015).
The camera has the ability to record while streaming, this would allow for playback of the flight at
another time. However this feature is not crucial but it may be used to analyze the flight condition
of the Quad-rotor. The camera has five video recording cycles time settings they are 3, 5, 10,
15mins or Max. The max will record until the 4GB memory has reached its limit and if recording at
1080p-30fps that would equate to 30mins of footage this can be increased by the use of an
additional memory card.
Initially Boscam TR1 was going to be used as the FPV camera but this was dismissed as the
camera is not compatible with the minimOSD. The camera would require an additional transmitter
for it to transmit video data from the minimOSD. Mobius ActionCam was then selected for its video
quality its size and weight.

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18.3 On Screen Display Board (OSD)


The Quad-rotor will be fitted with On Screen Display bored to view the flight data at the ground
station. The model chosen is the MinimOSD due its compatibility with Pixhawk, configuration ease
and the error indication and warning system (lost GPS fix, over speed, battery voltage and
percentage and the received signal strength indication). The MinimOSD also will display the
direction, altitude, attitude, current waypoint and heading. The displays can be changed by using
MinimOSD-extra Firmware to reprogram the OSD to display additional features such as vertical
speed and way point distance. The OSD must be connected through a FTDI Breakout board which
can then be connected to a computer for programming. The video feed must be connected to the
MinimOSD for it to contain the additional video data provided from pixhawk, the OSD will then
need to be connected to the video transmitter to transmit the video full diagram in (S@M, 2014).
The minimOSD will display the battery life remaining of the Pixhawk, the battery connected to the
Pixhawk will also be supplying power to the video transmitter and servomotor. The setback of this
setup is that at the ground station the user will not be able to observe the battery life of the motors
as they are not connected to pixhwak. The reason for the motors having a separate power source
is due to the fact that the motors are powered by a 5s battery where as Pixhawk can only operate
with a maximum sized battery of 4s.

18.4 Video transmitter


The video transmitter Boscam TS351 operates at a frequency of 5.8GHz and transmission range
of 500m with a standard antenna. The transmitter will be mounted on the Quad-rotor legs to reduce
interference with other signal transmitters and receivers. The video transmitter will also be
operating in a vertical polarization position. Transmitter will be powered through the pixhawk
battery however the transmitter will require a voltage regulator to reduce the voltage provided from
the 4s battery to 12v from 14.8v.

18.5 Video Receiver


The ground station will receive its video feed through the Boscam RC305 which contains 8
channels that similar to the transmitter, also the frequency band is 5.8GHz. The video receiver will
be connected to an external USB video capture card which will then display the video on the
laptop. The capture card contains its own software where its able to play video or toggle the video
stream to capture the image. The benefits this setup is that it allows for the image processing to be
done on one laptop and the mission management on a separate laptop. This will allow for a
delegation of reasonability distributing the work load between two users and will reduce the
possibilities of reduction in laptop performance. The video receiver contains two output pins, this
also allows for an optional additional FPV screen for the pilot, the output of the receiver is an AV
cable for that reason it can easily be connected to an FPV screen but it requires an adapter to
stream video on a laptop.
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19 Verification and Validation

Section by Tarek

The validation and verification stage is from the V model, which is used in all forms of engineering
projects. The V model operates from a hierarchical perspective starting from requirements,
standards to testing. The benefit of the V model allows for easy tracking of the phase where the
product is currently held, for example when the product reaches the verification stage it measures
how the system was built to the system requirements (Monhem, 2010). The flow direction of the V
model is all interchangeable as after one stage is complete one can check if the outcome suite the
previous stage requirements as its a good method of defect tracking. Also its a cost effective
method of making sure the right product is built as once the product reaches the validation or
operation stage and spot that it does not match the requirements or regulations this will hinder the
progress of the project.

19.1 Verification Matrix


The verification stages starts off with verifying the systems requirements document and analyzing
the requirements and verify if they satisfied every shall, may, or should statements. The
statements are collected and in a document called Verification Matrix. The document will define
each requirement and the verification method it will show the type of test methods to be carried to
verify the product matches the requirements. The following key terms are used in the Verification
Matrix in Appendix K.1.
Inspection: Visually verify form and configuration of the hardware or software. Inspection involves
the use of measuring tools to retrieve values such as mass, dimensions and other physical
characteristics.
Analysis: includes computation or comparison to previous or experimental data. It verifies the
conformance by the use of analytical tools, modelling or simulations which will allow for a
predication of performance with use of calculation or subsystem testing.
Demonstration: Is to verify the required operability of a software or hardware that does not require
qualitative measurement or the aid of a test device. Test device can be used to contribute to
demonstration of the function.
Test: to verify the conformance of the performance, physical characteristics and characteristics to
requirements with use of technical operates to retrieve detailed quantification of the performance.

19.2 Validation test


The validation tests require relating the results of the verification back to the requirements in
evidence to show the compliance of the product to the requirements and to meet the rules
specified by IMechE. Some of the validation tests are yet to be completed but all the specified
validations in the table will be tested before the competition. The validation table contains the dates
when each test should be carried out are in Appendix K.2. Some of the tests that were carried out
did not meet the requirements and they are rescheduled for testing at a different date after further
development.
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20 Future work

Section by Tarek
The following concepts where considered but where not investigated or developed further because
of complexity, time and mainly due to the limitation of remaining funding. The main reason for not
proceeding with these concepts is due to cost, as the spending on the Quad-rotor is very close to
the maximum value of COTS which is set at 1,000. If the component list goes above the
maximum COTS the Quad-rotor will not be allowed to enter the competition, hence these where
not established or expanded on further due to the cost issue.

20.1 Partial control of Quad-rotor positioning


For partial control of the Quad-rotor during the deployment of the payload, it would require an
additional two small motors that allow for the maneuverability of the Quad-rotor in the +x,-x,+y and
y axis. It was planned for the two motors to be controlled through a Bluetooth connection as the
deployment area to the ground control station is within a 60meters distance. The Bluetooth module
allows for transmission range of up to 60 meters. The motors can be controlled using a mobile
phone or tablets. The Bluetooth module would be connected to an ardunio bored which will allow
for the control of the motors. Pixhawk will still be controlling the altitude and attitude of the Quadrotor, this is only possible when the GPS is deactivated allowing for the manual control of the
motors to adjust the positioning of the Quad-rotor (Santos, 2013).

20.2 Full Autonomy


To achieve full autonomy the shape recognition code must be used to detect the square target.
The camera can be mounted on a gimbal, which allows for the camera to adjust the target on the
screen by centralizing the target. Then as the gimbal aims towards the target and laser will be
mounted on to the gimbal with another sensor which will pick the laser and that would then operate
the two motors similar to section 20.1but without the need of the Bluetooth receiver. Therefore as
the camera tilt to centralize the target the laser will be pointing at an angle, the laser sensor would
then detect the laser and operate the motors until the Quad-rotor is directly above the target and
the laser is pointing vertically down in the z axis. This would also require deactivating the GPS for a
set time so pixhawk will not correct its positional hold (techbitar, 2013).

Figure 59 Circuit Diagram of Ardunio


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21 Preliminary Payload Box Concept & Servo Integration


Section by Micky
As part of the UAS design challenge, it has been given out to design a payload delivery system
and mechanism. Initially, 3 methods were considered to in the delivery of the payload which is the
hinge-clamps system, the electro-magnet method and the hinge-pin method. However, following a
radical change in the design of the Hex-rotor with a box capable to accommodate 2 bags, it was
concluded to fit the new Quad-rotor with a box able to accommodate only 1 bag to flour.

21.1 Initial designs


21.1.1 The Hinge-clamp Method
In this concept the bags of flour are to be put in pre-designed cases which have small holes in
which the clamps tooth will integrate. In addition, the cases of different sizes would be superposed,
with the bottom case slightly wider than the top one.
Then, the system would be coupled to a set of 4
clamps actuated by 2 servo motors.
The advantage of the system would be no variation
of the C.G in the XOY plane. In addition, the
structure is robust in case of turbulences, vibrations
or sudden movements
The disadvantage of this method is that the hingeclamp and servo motor can be tedious to implement
Figure 60: Hinge clamp

21.1.2 The electro-magnet method


In this second concept, the pre-designed cases
come with metallic bars placed at precise
places in the 2 cases that is to say; the top case
would have a metallic rod at its bottom top face.
The second case would have 2 metal rods
located at the corners of its top face. The metal
rods would interact with 3 electro-magnet
placed at specific locations on the airframe.
Figure 61: electro-magnet
The advantage is that the C.G will not vary in the XOY plane
The main disadvantages of this method are first of all, once the electro-magnet are on, the
magnetic field might interfere with the overall electronics on board. Secondly, the electro-magnet
will drain the power greatly. Finally, the additional rods will add more weight on the UAV and the
structure might not be appropriately robust in turbulence and vibration scenarios.
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21.1.3

86

The Hinge-pin method

This last concept relies upon a set of pins


coupled to hinges to release the payload. In
this scenario, the loads are placed beside
each other and one after the other are
released once the UAV arrive at

their

respective drop-off point.


The advantage of this system is that it is a
Figure 62: Hinge-pin
relatively simple system to operate
The disadvantage of this method is that, once a load has been released, it would cause an offset of
the initial centre of gravity point which the UAV would have to adjust and thus, will use the power
greatly.

21.1.4

Others

This design came as the quad was still meant to carry 2 payloads and a set of linear servos.
However, the linear servos was found to be too big, heavy and very expensive. Moreover due to to
weigh restricted it was decided to use only 1 payload at the time.

Figure 63: Other concept

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Figure 64: CAD

21.1.5

Payload box mechanism integration

Section by Micky
Conceptual design by Zuber Khan
Actual design by Amit Ramji

A representation of the payload box final designs is as show in Appendix B.7. Once the servo is
powered, it actuates the horn that rotates of an angle of 90 degrees. Subsequently, the movement
release the movable door which lets the bag of flour fall. The detailed design can be found in
section 4.2 and structural analysis in Appendix G.15 to G.16.
Figure 65 to Figure 69 is an illustrative reproduction of the final design carried out in section 4.2,
these aim to show the servo integration.

Figure 65: Overall payload box

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Figure 66: Horn and door connection

Figure 67: Start up release

Figure 68: Fully Unlocked door

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Figure 69: Complete release

21.2 Servo
It was decided to choose the MG90S servo, Metal gear with one bearing for relevant reason
towards the UAV specifications. Tiny and lightweight with high output power, this tiny servo is
perfect for RC airplane, helicopter, Quad-rotor or robot. This servo has metal gears for added
strength and durability. The servo can rotate approximately 180 degree (90 in each direction), and
works just like the standard kinds but smaller. This servo is controllable with any code, hardware or
library to control; these servos. This servo is appropriate to make part moves without building a
motor controller with feedback and gear box, especially since it will fit in small places

21.2.1

Specifications

Weight: 13.4 g
Dimension: 22.5 x 12 x 35.5 mm approx.
Stall torque: 1.8 kgf.cm (4.8V), 2.2 kgf.cm (6V)
Operating voltage: 4.8 V 6.0 V

Figure 70 - MG90S servo

21.2.2

Rational

This digital servo uses switched mode power which is considerably more efficient than the
analogue power alternative. A small microprocessor inside the servo analyses the receiver signals
and processes these into very high frequency voltage pulses to the servo motor. Instead of 50
pulses per second, the motor will now receive upwards of 300 pulses per second. The pulses will
be shorter in length of course, but with so many voltage pulses occurring, the motor will speed up
much quicker and provide constant torque.
The result is a servo that has a much smaller dead band, faster response, quicker and smoother
acceleration, and better holding power. In order for the servo to operate smoothly, the force it
generates should have be greater that the friction force Ffrict-sliding as its horn slide along the
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payload box door. Thus it should be greater that Ffs = 0.013 Kgf. The calculation can be found in
Appendix M.1

21.3 BEC
They require +5V to power the opto-isolator and while the Pixhawk can be powered from the servo
rail, it does not provide +5V to the servo rail. The ESCs must be powered by a BEC or with a
jumper from an unused connector on the board. In this case, it was decided to use an SBEC to
power the electronic rather than a jumper.
Turnigy 5A SBEC is an advanced switching DC-DC regulator which will supply a constant 5A. It
works with 2 - 7 Cell Lipoly pack and supplies a constant 5 or 6v to your receiver and is
interference-free, perfect for confined spaces

21.3.1

Specification

Type: Switching
Input protection: Reverse polarity protection
Output (Constant): 5v/5A or 6v/5A
Input: 8v-26v (2-7cell lipo)
Weight: 18g
Figure 71 - SBEC26 Turnigy

21.3.2

Rational

There are 3 main types of power regulator or battery elimition circuit which are BEC, UBEC and
sBEC.
The BEC and the UBEC are good power regulator for small specifications such as those involving
curreent bellow 10A and voltage difference across the BEC less than 5V otherwise there is a risk
of short circuit or melting circuit thus damaging the flight control.
In this case the Swicthing sBEC26 has been chosen because it design make it prone for hight
voltage discharge with considerably less heat emanation thus less waste of power. Moreover, it
can a providd more power throught the intensity of curent it supports. The crucial importance of a
voltage regulator for the system is that the high voltage supplied by the batteries (26 - 18V) would
damage the flight control components which opperates below 6V.

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21.4 Schematics of connections from battery to servo through pixhawk

Figure 72: Schematics of connections

The Quad-rotor will run with 2 batteries. The battery pack 1 (18.5V, 16Ah, 3s LiPo) will only run the
motors whereas the RC receiver and the payload servo will be run by the battery pack 2 (11.1V,
2.2Ah, 2s cell LiPo). The reason for this arrangement is that once the motors are switched off, the
flight control system Pixhawk is still reading its mission.
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The battery pack 2 will power the servo and other receiver through the SBEC which will drop its
voltage to 5V-6V. The SBEC is connected on the AUX OUT pin 6 and the servo will be connected
on the AUX OUT pins from 1~4 since the platform is Arducopter. The RC receiver is connected at
the RC pin.

21.5 Controlling the servo as a servo


Firstly, the Quad-rotor will perform a loiter in a figure of 8 before engaging into releasing the loads.
As the servo will be used to operate the payload box door during the delivery phase, it will be set
as servo in the mission planner of Pixhawk. The way to control a servo under this type only works
as part of the mission that is to say autonomously. To do so, the Pixhawk should be connected to
the mission planner as follow:

On the Config/Tuning > Full Parameter List page, ensure that the RCXX_FUNCTION is set
to zero for the servo thats to say RC9_FUNCTION as the servo is connected to the
Pixhawks AUX OUT 1).

Then Press the Write Params button

09

Figure 73: Configuration of the servo on Pixhawk

Following Create the mission to be fly and add a DO_SET_SERVO command and include the
servo number ( 10) in the Ser No field and with the PWM value (usually between 1000 ~
2000) in the PWM field.

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Preliminary Payload Box Concept &


Servo Integration

93

Figure 74: Mission with GPS dropping points

The DO_SET_SERVO command is a do command which means that it can only be run between
waypoints so it must not be the first or last command in the mission. It will be executed
immediately after the waypoint that precedes it. After the first payload is dropped, the Quad-rotor
will return to the ground station location to be fitted with the 2nd payload and perhaps a new battery.

21.6 Testing with the Mission Planner


This verification phase involve testing whether the servo are moving as expected. The mission
planners Flight Data screen includes a Servo tab on the bottom right that can be used to test that
the servos are moving correctly.

Figure 75: Verification of the performance of the Servo

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22 Other Involvements

Section by Micky

22.1 Telemetry Kit


The telemetry kit provides and ground-to-air data link between the auto pilot and your station
laptop or tablet. There are mainly 2 wireless telemetry kits which are a radio set kit and a Bluetooth
data link set. The latter is certainly cheap, however, it is only intended for pre-flight ground use
only, and it is not a replacement for a RC transmitter and receiver. The main disadvantages of the
Bluetooth set are its limited range of around 50m and its overall weight of 9.5 g. Therefore, it would
be appropriate to use a radio set telemetry kit. The 3DR radio set has been chosen for the purpose
of this project and details of the prices of the parts are included below in the Appendix. M The
range of the radio set could be increased by replacing the ducted original antenna with a high gain.

22.2 Design Convergence


At the start of the project, we had to go through a design convergence method in order to choose
the right vehicle. I was responsible to look into an osprey design with titling rotors. It was found that
the mechanical design has a high complexity level. Furthermore, my involvement was noted on the
choice of the autopilots which were Ardupilot-Mega and Pixhawk.

22.3 Challenges
It was particularly challenging to find information related to the system integration for many
reasons. First of all, the use of Pixhawk has made it particularly difficult to find and integrate other
system component because it is relatively new. The majority of information available online are
related to APM (ardupilot Mega) which is the earlier version.

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Section written by Mozammel


Material, design and manufacturing decisions by Amit Ramji
In order to achieve an efficient structure, manufacturing methods were identified at a primary stage

23 Manufacturing

of the project. The manufacturing plan included materials to be used, joining methods, machines to
be used and the best possible way to carry out the tasks on time. Initially composite laminates and
tubes were intended to be used however the complexity in manufacturing and cost restrictions did
not allow this.

23.1 Machining Selection

Section by Mozammel

Acknowledging the weight and budget limit for the project, the manufacturing process includes
milling, lathe, laser cutting and CNC machining which are available within the lab facility of the
university.

23.1.1

Machines

The following machines are used to manufacture the parts depending on their operating functions.
Machine Type

Functions
Use end mills to obtain precise dimensions

Milling machine
(Bridgeport Series 2)

Use centre/slot drill to do holes


Use fly cutter to obtain smooth surface
Use high speed steel tooling to obtain smooth surface

XYZ 1330 Lathe

on the nylon 6.6 rod


Use high speed steel tooling to machine centre holes
on the nylon 6.6 rod
Use laser to cut the Nylon 2mm thick plate for main

Trotec Laser Cutter

body plate
Vertical Bandsaws machine

Use to cut raw materials into required dimensions

Denford Router 2600 Pro


Milling Machine
Denford VMC 1300 Milling Machine

Use to obtain components directly from CAD model


Use to obtain components directly from CAD model

Table 14: List of Machines

23.1.2

Tools

Tools

Functions

1 High Speed Steel Tooling

For precise cutting in XYZ 1330 Lathe

2 End mills

For precise cutting in milling machine

3 Centre drill

For accuracy in drilling holes

4 Slot drills

For drilling holes in milling machine

5 Fly cutter(single point)

For precise cutting in Bridgeport series 2 milling machine

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7 Metric slip gauges

To setup the datum (X,Y,Z directions) in XYZ 1330 lathe,


Bridgeport series 2 milling machine
To obtain accurate measurements

8 Precision Parallel Set

For accurate setup

9 Micrometre

To measure dimensions

6 Centre Finder Complete

Table 15: List of tools and their functions

23.2 Manufacturing process of Quad-rotors components


The machining of the components includes different machines but identifying the most simple yet
better finishing quality was preferred. Due to the limitation of technical facilities and knowledge
components are marginally modified. All the sharp edges are smoothened to obtain edge fillets and
radii features by using sandpaper machine; by doing so the possibility of cracks and fatigues in the
structures is reduced.

23.2.1

Fixed Bracket

The fixed brackets are made of nylon 6.6, which has the favourable
characteristics to hold the arms in place. Also bearing in mind, the
finishing quality is more emphasised and that is why using the milling
machine, the brackets are manufactured. Figure 76: Machined fixed
bracket shows the fixed bracket machined in milling machine.

Figure 76: Machined


fixed bracket

Due to some limitations in CNC machining, smooth edges were not


obtained as shown in Appendix. N

23.2.2

Motor arm end bracket

The compressive characteristics of nylon 6.6, makes it an ideal


material to be used to securely hold the motors into the motor mount
plates. The brackets are drilled by using end mills of 13 mm diameter Figure 77: Machined
followed by 16 mm diameter. The 3mm diameter holes are drilled end bracket
through to be fastened with motor mount plates.

23.2.3
Movable arm vertical fixed bracket
/support bracket
From nylon 6.6, the brackets are machined in milling machine as per
the technical drawings. All dimensions are carefully machined
according to the technical drawings but the edge fillets of radii of 12.5

Figure 78: Machined


Fixed bracket

mm were comprised due to complexity and availability of appropriate tools.

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23.2.4

Landing gear top/bottom support bracket

Considering the impact of the landing gear, nylon 6.6 (16mm cast sheet)
is used to manufacture the brackets which makes it more reliable to
support the landing gear. The bottom support bracket has a 2 mm
counter bored of 8 mm diameter to attach a spring which has
compression stiffness of 300 N/mm and the damping of 0 N.s/mm. The Figure 79: Machined
spring is considered to withstand the impact from the landing gear which bottom support
bracket
is bridged between landing gear bottom support bracket and the landing
gear pivot.

23.2.5

Top/Bottom half T-joints

Evidently these parts were the most challenging to manufacture


considering the design detailing. Since the joints are designed to hold
the landing gear strut and stabilizer, the dimensions are critically
important. The parts could have been 3D printed but the materials
properties would have been different since the 3D printer at the
University of Hertfordshire only uses Acrylic.

23.2.6

Figure 80:T-joint on foam

Landing Gear Lug Bracket/ Pivot

From a 30 mm cast sheet of nylon 6.6, the part is machined to the


designed dimensions by the milling machine. The edge fillets and the
radii were achieved by using the sand paper through visual
inspection.
The landing gear pivot was machined by the lathe machine followed

Figure 81: Lug


bracket

by the milling machine to get the diameter of 25 mm from 30 mm cast sheet

of nylon 6.6 and the pivotal section respectively. The groove for the spring
was modified by making a counter bored of 2 mm depth.
Refer to 308Appendix. N for the landing gear lug bracket with the landing
gear pivot.

23.2.7

Arm pivot

The arm pivot required two types of machining; centre lathe and milling. The
nylon 6.6 rod was clamped into the four-jaw chuck and the desired length

Figure 82: Landing


gear pivot

and diameter was cut by high speed steel tooling; then the rod was
bored 22mm deep and milled 5.5 mm from both sides on the other end.
The remaining flat part was then drilled to make it suitable for pivotal
function for the movable arm.

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Figure 83: Arm pivot


for movable arm

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23.2.8

Main Body Plate

Due to ease of use in Trotec Laser machine setup, laser cutting was
attempted. Even though accurate dimensions were obtained but during
machining the heat of the laser melted the edges and clear smoke was
observed.
To overcome the challenge of heat damaged edges, the main body
plates were machined in Denford Router 2600 Pro. The advantage of Figure 84: Cutting nylon plate
in Laser machine
such machining has high accuracy and the material properties are not
affected as much by any thermal energy; deburr and polishing of sharp
edges was carried out using hand file.

Figure 85: Melted edges

Figure 86: Plate after cutting

23.2.9

PVCs tubes

All the tubes were roughly cut down by hand and then by lathe machine precise dimensions were
achieved.

23.2.10

Motor mount plate

Section by Mozammel
Motor Mounts Manufactured and Assembled by Zuber Khan
The positions of the holes are really important as to align with the motors accordingly. The
machining of motor mounts plates were attempted on the CNC machine but since the thickness of
the aluminium plate is 1mm so clamping was not achieved properly with current tool constraints.
Therefore the holes positions were carefully marked by hand and piloted by a 1.5 mm drill and
finished off by a 3 mm drill. Figure 16 shows the brackets are screwed in with the motor mount
plates.

Figure 88: Motor mount plate

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Figure 87: Assembled motor mount

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23.2.11
1.

Overview of Machining

Milling Machines (Bridgestone Series 2)

Mostly milling machine is used to obtain precise cutting (by end mills), smooth surface (by fly
cutter), and holes (by centre drill and slot drills). Centre finder complete, precision parallel sets,
micro-meter and metric slip gauges are the usual tools that are used while milling the components.
Refer to Appendix. N for figures of some machined components by milling.

2.

XYZ 1330 Lathe

Arms (fixed and movable), arm pivots, landing gear pivot, landing gear strut and stabilizers are
machined in lathe machine. The arms were drilled in 20 mm by a 13mm slot drill on one side to
install the LED lights. The nylon 6.6 rod (diameter of 25mm) was machined to diameter 22 mm by
high speed steel tooling and then bored into 22 mm at the centre of the rod with a diameter of
16mm.Refer Appendix. N for figures regarding lathe machine.

3.

Tortec Laser cutter

The laser cutter is used to machine the main body plates but it has been identified that the heat
has melted the edges of the plates so subsequently it is decided to machine on CNC machine
Refer Appendix. N for figures on laser machining set up.

4.

Vertical Bandsaws Machine

Vertical bandsaws machine is used to cut the purchased block or sheet (aluminium alloy) into
required dimensions for the components Refer to Appendix. N

5.

CNC Machines (Router 2600 Pro and VMC 1300)

CNC machines are used for machining the main body plate and the turn button for payload box
after several practise sessions. Although simulations were carried out to obtain motor mount
plates, brackets and T-joints but unfortunately due to lack of knowledge at that point of time,
machining was countered with many known and unknown errors. Since the building of the Quadrotor solely depends on the manufacturing timeline so with the supervision of the technicians
majority of the parts are machined in the milling and lathe machines.

Figure 89.1-3: CNC practice sessions


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23.3 Challenges
Compared to acrylic and wood foam which are mainly used in practise session, nylon and
aluminium are proven to be hard to machine. Alongside desired tools for clamping, machine
planning and drill sizes were not available during manufacturing. Hence manufacturing of the parts
were mostly dependent on milling and lathe machines and as a result constrained some desired
features of the parts. Pace of manufacturing was also affected as supervision was required while
using the milling and lathe machine in the machine lab.
Below show failed attempts on motor mount when tried on VMC 1300 and router 2600 Pro.

Figure 90.1-3: Failed attempts

23.4 Manufacturing Plan


After the hand calculations and numerical analysis (Finite Element Analysis) carried out by, the
materials were purchased. As shown on the Gantt chart below, practise session is the longest due
to the limited availability of machining lab and lack of hands on experience with the machines. As
per the manufacturing plan the assembly is scheduled to be done on the first week of April.

23.5 Machining Cost


All the components were machined at the university labs thus eliminating any labour and
operational cost for the machines.

23.6 Other involvements in the project


In course of this project and due to the necessity of the project progression, the following
contributions we made.

Design Convergence Manufacturing techniques for multi-rotors (3-8)

Initial estimation of Cost Pre-PDR

Conceptual Payload CAD model Using dimensions of 1 kg flour bag to propose potential
designs

Assisting on Test rig building

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24 Test Rig

Section by Mohammed Mohinuddin

This section comprises intensive testing and manufacture of a 3-axis gimbal test rig. As with any
project of this type, practical testing is vital to collaborate with the theoretical data determined for
the designed product. In general, testing during design of a new product is mandatory to reflect its
key performance factors and capabilities. It is most commonly known that manoeuvrability of a
multi-copter predominantly affects the flight performance. Therefore controlled flight during
manoeuvrability is a major factor to be achieved. In real world applications, achieving a stable
multi-copter during its flight regime is an issue of concern. Design of a test rig would aid in the
demonstration of multi-copter flight within a controlled environment and significantly add advantage
during the testing phase of this project. The test rig will be adopted to demonstrate safe control of
the UAV functions. Hence the design stage of the test rig began with rigorous brainstorming
activities bearing its effectiveness in mind.
To solely rely on systems to operate as efficiently as possible is not good practice, hence testing
the operation of individual system components and post integration would validate the testing
processes. The gimbal test rig would be a beneficial tool for the verification of sub-system tests in
controlled conditions. As part of the competition requirement, the chosen Quad-rotor design is
required to be able to carry two payloads (1kg each bags of flour) and deploy each payload
independently. This independent deployment of payloads at any given time could cause instability
post deployment and hence would affect the weight distribution on the UAS. The stability of the
multi-rotor after imbalance can be verified during testing within the gimbal design discussed later
on. It is anticipated that the test rig will aid to define PID control numbers which will hugely benefit
in the monitoring system and stability side of the project. Although the UAS design specification
does not require building a test rig, it was noted that fabricating a gimbal test rig would be
worthwhile as manoeuvrability and stability of a Quad-rotor is tremendously complex. Therefore a
safe testing method would have to be implemented to avoid damage on such a costly design. The
initial phase of testing using the gimbal test rig aided in the calibration of various sub systems such
as compass, magnetometer, Pixhawk, RC controller, GPS, etc.

24.1 Initial Conceptual Design of Gimbal Test Rig


The initial brainstorming for designing a gimbal test rig began with a simplified design that would
establish the gyroscopic motion of the Quad-rotor. The general arrangement with bill of materials
(BOM) for initial conceptual design of the gimbal test rig assembly and further technical drawings
can be found in appendix O.1. However it was brought under notice that this design would be very
heavy and would occupy huge amount of space, therefore to overcome the consequences a more
robust and design specific based on actual Quad-rotor has been designed and is discussed
hereafter.

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24.2 Octagonal Gimbal Test Rig


In order to overcome a few challenges encountered through initial test rig design mentioned above,
a more compact and robust design has been established as shown below in Figure 91. The
principle aim during redesign of the test rig was to reduce the overall space it would require for
storage and also the cost of manufacture. However it was figured out that the test rig would allow
the model to perform movement about all six degrees of freedom i.e. a similar approach like a
gyroscope. (Experimental Aircraft Info, 2006)

Figure 91 - Gyroscope Test Rigs


Majority of aircraft instruments use the basic principle of gyroscopes to control attitude, compass
and turn coordinates. In course of this project construction wise the gyro is fixed in the instrument
by octagonal rings or gimbals as shown in Figure 91and these rings give the gyro certain motions
of freedom. It is these motions or movement in a plane which allow for the features used in these
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instruments. (Project, 2015) The gimbal test rig would utilise gyroscopic motion and is a device that
would be used to measure, maintain orientation and most importantly stabilise the Quad-rotor
under investigation.
Moreover the gimbal test rigs operation is mainly based on the principle of preserving angular
momentum. The outer gimbal or ring (green coloured frame in Figure 91 which is the gyroscope
frame, is mounted so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane determined by the support from the
stand. This outer gimbal possesses one degree of rotational freedom and its axis possesses none.
The middle gimbal or ring (red coloured frame in Figure 91) is mounted to the outer gimbal so as to
pivot about an axis in its own plane that is always perpendicular to the pivotal axis of the gyroscope
frame (outer gimbal). This middle gimbal has two degrees of rotational freedom. The axle of the
spinning inner most gimbal (blue coloured frame in Figure 91) defines the spin axis. The motors
mounted on the Quad-rotor are coupled to spin about an axis, which is perpendicular to the axis of
the middle gimbal. Overall the entire gimbal test rig is meant to allow freedom of movement in all
yaw, roll and pitch axis. (Turner, 2015) See appendix O.2 for the general arrangement for the
updated octagonal gimbal test rig assembly with its bill of materials.

24.2.1

Octagonal Model Mount Frame


The figure alongside represents the general
arrangement for the model mount frame with
an inner spacing of 1000mm and shows the
necessary components used to construct the
frame. Refer appendix O.3 for detailed
technical drawing of the model mount frame.

The figure shown above validates the required inner length of each of the boxes used to construct
the model mount frame. An internet based octagon edge length calculator was used to obtain the
dimensions during the entire design.
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The

figure

dimension

alongside
of

the

shows

Quad-rotor

the

final

between

propeller tip to tip on either side of the arm.


The specific dimension worked out to be
995mm, which clearly justifies a minimal
clearance of 2.5mm between the inner side of
the model mount frame and the propeller tip.
Regardless of the 2.5mm clearance, the
propellers would be located slightly above the
frame level which is due to the mounting of
the Quad-rotor. Therefore it can be concluded
that a choice of 1000mm inner distance would
be sufficient enough to accommodate the
Figure 92 - CAD Drawing of the Quad-rotor

24.2.2

entire Quad-rotor.

Octagonal Mid Frame


The mid frame figure shown on the left had to
be constructed such that it would freely
accommodate the model mount frame, hence
it was observed that an inner distance of
1139mm would allow the model mount frame
to rotate and spin easily about its designated
axis. A clearance of 44.1mm on either side is
estimated between mid and outer frame.
Refer appendix O.4 for detailed technical

drawing of the mid frame.

The figure shown above validates the required inner length of each of the boxes used to construct
the mid frame.

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24.2.3

Octagonal Outer Frame


The outer frame figure shown alongside had to be
constructed such that it would freely accommodate
the mid frame, hence it was observed that an inner
distance of 1249mm would allow the mid frame to
rotate and spin easily about its designated axis.
Refer appendix O.5 for detailed technical drawing of
the outer frame.

The figure shown above validates the required inner length of each of the boxes used to construct
the outer frame.

24.3 Weight Estimation for Octagonal Test Rig


The spreadsheet in appendix O.7 represents the weight estimation for the entire gimbal test rig
conducted analytically, through CATIA estimation and from supplier data sheet. The entire test rig
frames and stand will be fabricated using 1x1 aluminium box sections with the brackets
manufactured from 1.2mm aluminium sheet.

24.4 Cost Breakdown for Octagonal Test Rig


The overall cost for manufacturing the gimbal test rig was estimated to be 132.08 inc. VAT and
based on sourcing materials from one supplier named Metals4U. However the cost incurred for
materials purchase was raised through collective funding. The spreadsheet detailing the costing
can be found in appendix O.8.

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24.5 Manufacturing Stage of the Octagonal Test Rig


The entire test rig was fabricated using facilities provided at the university and tools brought from
colleagues. Conversely the initial design for the joint bracket was rectified to produce a much
simpler design to manufacture reducing the costs of water jet cutting. The figures shown below
illustrate the fabricated parts and the entire gimbal test rig assembly. The final test rig was
fabricated under the assistance of almost all the members in the group.

Figure 93 - Test Rig Components

Figure 94 - Test Rig Assembly

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25

Structural Testing

Section by Mohammed Mohinuddin


In addition to stability checks on the test rig, other tests such as static material tests, impact/ crash
tests are proposed to be conducted. The selected material used as the base plates were tested to
validate its bending capabilities withholding its structural integrity. However further tests were also
proposed to be conducted to improve the performance of the Quad-rotor and to meet the
conformance.

25.1 Material Testing


It was collectively decided in the group that the material to be used for manufacturing the base
plates would be nylon 6. The figures in this section
represent the exact material used Figure 95 and the
manufactured base plate after cut-outs Figure 95

Figure 95 - Nylon Material and Main Body


Plate
A compression test, using the Hounsfield 1kN Tensometer, was carried out on the base plate
material as seen in Figure 96 This test simulates the dominant load type experienced by the plates.
It was observed through this analysis that the plate would survive tremendous load and would not
deform permanently which is a justification to the stress analysis carried out in the structural
loading and analysis chapter. The nylon plate sample was tested in two different orientations and
provided reasonable understanding in the plate bending behaviour.

25.2 Component Testing


On receipt of various components such as motors, pixhawk, telemetry kit, GPS and servos, each
component

was

individually

quality

checked and tested for conformance by


the relevant personnel. The motors were
tested to check the amount of current
drawn and to reflect their performance.
The other components were also tested
to check whether they would perform the
tasks they were purchased for.
Figure 96 - Compression Test conducted on Hounsfield Tensometer
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25.3 Payload Drop Testing


It is anticipated that when an object hits the ground with a speed of 2-5 m/s, it would not cause any
substantial damage to the object withholding its structural integrity. Conversely a simple drop test
was used to replicate that the payload would remain intact after impact. To create the same
amount of energy dissipation in the test as there will be at full load the following calculations were
used. A trial drop test with 1Kg bag of flour was conducted and the following schematic represents
this.

Considering the conservation of energy, the potential energy possessed by the bag of flour will be
converted to kinetic energy on impact neglecting air resistance and heat. The following calculations
denote the possible results to be anticipated.
mgh = 0.5mv2
1x9.81x0.98 = 0.5x1xv2, therefore v= 4.4m/s
Hence it can be concluded through above calculation that the payload remains intact and free from
any substantial damage.
Section by Osman Sibanda

25.4 Initial Ball socket test rig


Initially the group had intended to use two test rigs for testing and calibrating the systems in the
multi-copter prior to flying it. The idea of using test rigs was dismissed as the gimbal test rig was
enough to carry out all the testing and calibration
needed. Figure 97 below shows the proposed ball socket
test rig at that stage.

Figure 97 - Initial ball socket test rig

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25.5 Manufacturing assistance


Due to the amount of work and time needed for manufacturing the Quad-rotor components and
test rig, I was assigned to assist the manufacturing engineer and the testing engineer with the
manufacturing of the UAV and test rig. Refer to manufacturing report for details.

26 Business Case

Section by Osman Sibanda

The main part of this report is the business case of our UAS with accordance to the iMechE
requirements. The rest of this report will focus on the business case of our Quad-rotor the
Odonata-XV. Our company name is Autoquads Inspection Ltd.

Figure 98 - Autoquads Inspection Ltd Logo

26.1 Executive Summary


Inspections of structures are paramount for the safety of the users and the public on all
infrastructures. Some may have long intervals of inspections but some critical infrastructures
require regular inspections depending on the criticality. The current methods of inspections have
proved expensive and very risky for the inspectors that carry them out.
Autoquads Inspections Ltd proposes using our UAS, the Odonata XV to carry out inspections
autonomously for wind turbines, bridges, rail lines and overhead power lines in the UK with a future
plan of expanding to Europe. The ability for small UASs to manoeuvre in confined spaces, hover,
fly at low speeds and altitudes and to perform various manoeuvres at any given time makes them
ideal for inspections tasks. They can provide images in real time and also obtain high resolution
images which can be recorded at the same time for reviewing later on.
The business case will cover the key design features of the UAS and how these features can be
used to our advantage for different inspection purposes. The market research is covered in section
6 of this report and highlights the potential markets that could have been chosen. Also the market
size and predicted market growth by industry experts, regulations involved with this UAS category
and it also covers some of the competition that exists in the market already. The financial forecast
of this project can be found on chapter 26.6. It covers the key assumptions made in calculating the
related costs of this project and how long it would take for the company to break even.

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26.2 Business overview


Inspections of hard to reach areas (etc. power lines, bridges, wind turbines, roofs) using the
traditional methods has proved to be time consuming, expensive and dangerous in most situations
for the inspectors. Structures exposed to the environmental elements will suffer deterioration over
time and therefore require regular inspection to avoid any serious complications occurring and
interrupting the services being provided.
For power lines the current methods being used are by using helicopters, manually controlled
UAVs or by line inspectors. The line inspectors usually work from the ground using binoculars and
are sometimes required to climb up the power lines to manually inspect them. This causes major
risks on the line inspectors if the power lines are live and this method is not very reliable. For
example the Killmore bushfire that occurred in Victoria, Australia as a result of poor inspection by
one of the inspectors caused casualties of around 119 people in 2009 (ABC NEWS, 2014). For the
business case of our UAS, Autoquads Inspection Ltd is hoping to enter into the inspection market
which will consist of different infrastructural inspections, which will include overhead power line
inspection, train paths, bridges and wind turbines. The UAS was designed to be able to carry a 1kg
payload and be able to drop it at designated targets autonomously. For the UAS to be used for
inspections, some minor changes will have to made in order to carry our inspections autonomously
this will include adding electro-optic and thermal imaging camera in order to inspect insulations on
power lines.

26.3 Mission statement


Currently the inspection market uses manually controlled crafts (helicopters) or linemen on foot.
The existing usage of helicopters with crewmen using binoculars for inspections in some cases is
much more expensive and its unlikely to get any cheaper unless new technologies are introduced.
The use of helicopters has also caused a lot of damage to landowners around the power lines
especially to the farmers and their domestic animals. Some farmers have been compensated large
sums of money because of disturbances to the livestock by premature births or because of
stampedes leading to property damage (European Commission, 2014) .The use of linemen on the
ground is time consuming, very risky and very expensive since well qualified personnel have to do
the inspections and are usually paid by the hour. An introduction of autonomous UAS should
significantly cut down costs and at the same time cut down on the time taken to inspect structures.
Autonomous inspections will;
Ensure efficient use of experts by using them only when they are needed
Allow for targeted maintenance by prioritizing maintenance where its needed the most
therefore cutting down shutdown times. Longer shutdown of services leads to dissatisfied
customers/clients therefore a possibility for the companies to lose out on competitive
advantage
Reduce labour costs by having less staff to monitor the UAS during inspections
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There is less risk involved with the crew and the surrounding environment including animals
Lesser environmental disturbances etc. noise pollution
A costs analysis carried out by Europa that using UASs for inspections compared to the other
methods can significantly reduce the costs involved by about a third. (European Commission,
2014)

26.4 UAS key design features


The OXV has been designed to be collapsible by allowing 4 of the arms and landing gear to
rotate about pivots. This allows the OXV to fold into linear and compact configuration allowing
for easy transportation and storage as shown in Appendix B.7. The payload housing is
designed to be removable for ease of transport, increased functionality and the ability to attach
various devices as a payload or for this business case an electro optic and thermal imaging
camera would added on for high resolution images and for insulation inspection. The design of
the OXV was a well thought out process in consideration of the maintenance of the UAS. The
UAS is designed with quick release pins to allow the arms of the quad to fold up and also
allows the UAV to be stored in tighter spaces.
The UAS can also be set up for a perch and stare function. This function will allow the UAS to
land somewhere for an extended time for observation and re-launch itself after observing.

26.5 Market Assessment


The growing interest/use of autonomous flying has allowed for opportunities in the inspection
sector. Inspections of structures is a growing market with the introduction of UASs as it is vital
for inspections of damaged components/parts, insulations, deteriorating parts and overhanging
trees. Rather than using manually controlled drones or using helicopters, the use of UASs has
a promise to be more efficient, less costly and less dangerous in this sector. Autoquads
Inspection Ltd aims to provide the best quality of service to its customers. This UAS will greatly
benefit entities that provide Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) for bridges, power lines, train
paths and wind turbines.

26.5.1

Potential market Emergency Service

Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) - is a condition where the heart suddenly stops beating and
blood to the brain and other organs stops flowing. Abnormal heart beat rhythms are called
arrhythmias; this is when a heart beats too fast, too slow or at irregular rhythms. 95% of people
who suffer Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) die within minutes and for every 1 minute a persona
suffers cardiac arrest their chance of survival is decreased by 10%. (NIH, 2011)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be performed on individuals experiencing SCA but
they are not as effective as AEDs. Automatic external defibrillators (AED) are lightweight,
battery operated; portable devices used to measure heart rhythm and can send electric shocks
to restore the heart to normal rhythm.
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instructions as well as voice commands to alert the user when to send electric shocks. Using
our UAS AEDs can be transported to the patients quickly to deliver the services before the
medics arrive to the scene.
Product

Size (H x W x D) (cm)

Weight (kg)

Average Cost ()

Zoll AED plus

13.3 x 24.1 x 29.2

3.1

1194

Phillips Heartstart Onsite

19 x 21 x 7

1.5

1199

HeartSine Samaritan PAD 350

20 x 18.4 x 4.8

1.1 kg

1175

22 x 30 x 7

1245

AED
Defibtech Lifeline AED

Table 16 Table showing potential AED's

Table 16 shows the potential AED products with the dimensions, weights and the average
costs. This option was not chosen for various reasons including the prices of the AEDs
themselves which are very expensive. The other reason was the time it would take to reach the
patients, the Odonata XV would have been able to reach some patients a little time before the
emergency staff get there but in most cases the emergency staff are improving their response
time therefore this market would not have proved to be profitable over time.

26.5.2

Market size and growth

The emerging UAV technology is to become key in the future competitiveness of the European
aerospace industry compared to other parts of the world. According to (European Commission,
2014) the common European market will offer a solid base to compete globally with other
leading competitors in the world e.g. USA, Israel, Brazil, China and Russia. It is predicted that if
an enabling legal framework is adopted it will furthermore allow the operations and the
manufacturing of the UAVs to grow from simple operations to more complicated operations
thus allowing the current businesses to gain valuable practical expertise while developing their
businesses. For example in France the number of approved operators rose from 86 to 400
after the introduction of an initial regulation.UK and Sweden has also seen similar growths in
different markets because of an enabling regulation (QinetiQ, 2013).
Industry experts believe it is really difficult to predict the potential UASs have globally but it is
currently predicted to be worth about $5.2 billion and it is expected to grow to about $11.6
billion per year in 2023 (QinetiQ, 2013). Further to boosting businesses across Europe the UAV
market is set to increase jobs globally as well. In Europe around 150,000 jobs are forecasted
by 2050 (European Commission, 2014). According to the Scottish Enterprise, the UK has the
most ambitious project for wind farm plans. This therefore means more market for inspection
since operations and maintenance accounts for over a quarter of the lifetime cost of a wind
farm. Analysis by UK Government predicted that the number of wind turbines will increase to
over 5500 by year 2025 with the operations and maintenance claiming 2bn per year from this
business boost.
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26.5.3

Regulation restriction

Since this UAS is less than 7Kg MTOM, they will be categorised as a SUA (Small Unmanned
Aircraft) category and should comply with UK Air Navigation Order 2009 articles 138, 166, 167
and CAA CAP 722, and CAP 393. (CAA, 1995)
The following chapter summarizes the UK legal requirements for flying UAVs in the UK
(Austin, 2010):
The craft should not endanger anyone or anything, including the pilot of the UAV. The pilot
holds the responsibility for the operations to be conducted safely.
The UAV must be in VLOS (visual line of sight taken to be at 122m vertically and 500m
horizontally) of the pilot at all times. For any uses beyond these distances, the pilot must
seek CAA permission and prove the craft can be flown safely at that distance.
CAA permission is required for any aerial work
Should not be flown within restricted airspace
The craft should not be flown;
Above or around 150m of any congested area
Above or around 150m of an assembly of more 1000 people
Around 50m of any vessel, vehicle or structure which is not under the pilots control
Within 50m of any person during take-off or landing and within 30m of any persons
during flight except for the pilot

Figure 99 - Permissions required for different UAS sizes


Figure 99 (Austin, 2010) shows the permissions required from the CAA for the different sized
aircrafts. In our case the aircraft is under the 20kg limit therefore the registration and the
airworthiness approval is not required but an operating permission and pilot qualification would
be required.

26.5.4

Challenges for market entry

A lot of factors will heavily affect entering the inspection sector. The biggest challenge would be
the initial capital that would have to be invested in mass production of the Odonata XV. The
subsequent chapters give some details into technological challenges that the organisation
could face;
Safe operation
EU aviation policy defines safety as the paramount objective. The current regulatory system for
UAS based on fragmented rules for ad hoc operational authorizations is an administrative
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bottleneck and hampers the development of the European UAS market (Austin, 2010). Either
to produce or to operate UAS national authorizations do not benefit from mutual recognition
and do not allow for European wide activities. The principle that safety will not be compromised
is hugely followed by the European aviation system for the integration of UAS. UAS operations
must demonstrate an equivalent level of safety in contrast to manned aviation.
Security
UAS is not resistant to probable unlawful actions. The potential uses of the UAS could be for
military purposes, the navigation or communication system signals of other UAS could be
jammed or ground control stations hijacked. Any identified security requirements needs to be
translated into legal obligations for all relevant players, such as the air navigation service
provider, UAS operator or telecom service provider, under the oversight of the competent
authorities. (Austin, 2010)
Data protection
Fundamental rights must not be trespassed by the UAS operations, including the respect for
the right to family and private life, and the production of personal data. Amongst the wide range
of potential civil UAS applications a number may involve collection of personal data and raise
ethical, privacy or data protection concerns, in particular in the area of the surveillance,
monitoring mapping or video recording.
UAS operators would need to comply with the applicable data protection provisions, notably
those sets out in the national measures established pursuant to the sat protection Directive
95/46/EC and the Framework Decision 2008/977. (Austin, 2010)

26.5.5

Competition

Knowing your competition is a crucial process of a successful product, therefore this chapter
will look into present competitors strengths and weaknesses and how the Odanata XV can
gain a competitive advantage.
Existing competitors
Product: Aibot X6 UAS
Aibot uses the X6 UAS to carry out inspections on power lines, wind turbines, bridges, train
paths and oil and gas pipelines. Our company will respond to Aibot by having a much smaller
UAV and providing the service much cheaper than them. (Aibotix, 2015)
Product: Md4-200
Micro drones uses the Md4-200to carry out inspections on oil pipelines, power cables, cooling
towers, forestry, radiation and wind turbines . The Md-200UAS has a very good flight time of
about 30 minutes but our company will respond to MicroDrones by having a heavier payload
capability since the Falcon can only carry 200g. (Micro Drones, 2015)
Product: Asctec Falcon 8
Asctec uses the Asctec Falcon 8 to carry out inspections solar parks, offshore/onshore
turbines, structural integrity and wind parks. Autoquads inspection Ltd will respond to this
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competitor by having thermal imaging cameras and by providing our service cheaper because
of the cost of the Odonata XV. (AscTec, 2015)

26.6 Financial Forecasts


The financial forecast section will aim to estimate the predictable cost of this project for the next
5 years. The section will cover the assumptions to be made in order to predict some costs,
thee pro-forma income statement, cash flow statement, mass manufacturing costs for the
whole UAS and break-even analysis to predict how long it will take until the company makes
enough money to break even.

26.7 Key assumptions


In order to make financial forecasts possible to calculate, a number of assumptions had to be
made. For the company to stay privatised the capital will come from a combination of
sponsorship and bank loans. Assuming 20 Quad-rotors and 1 controller in charge of 4
computers therefore only 5 controllers are needed. These controllers will also be in charge of
system maintenance. Inflation will be assumed to be 3% in the second year and will rise by 1%
yearly. Currently 500MW wind farms cost 50,000 to 100,000 averagely a year, we will
assume the cost to be 50,000 as were using a cheaper method (UAS) and to attract
customers (National Grid, 2013).The price of power line inspections is 15.46 per mile
(Network Rail, 2015).
Table 17 below shows the amount of wind farms, overhead power lines, bridges and rail lines
in the UK and how much of the market share Autoquads hopes to take over yearly. Autoquads
Inspection Ltd will aim to acquire 2% of the market share the first year and rising by 2% yearly
onwards except for the windfarms. The windfarms will take time to inspect because each
windfarm will contain several wind turbines that need inspecting, therefore for windfarms an
assumption of 20 (0.5% of market) windfarms for the first year and increasing by 30 yearly.
Amount

2% share
st

1 year
Wind farms
Overhead
power lines
Rail
Bridges

4%
nd

share

6%
rd

year

share

8%

share

th

year

10% share
th

4 year

year

()

4338 (+3000)
4470 miles
(National Grid)

20

50

80

110

140

89

178

268

357

447

9788 miles
1000

195
20

391
40

587
60

783
80

978
100

1063450

2627100

4190800

5754450

7317950

Cost

Cost

50000
50
200
1000

Table 17 UK market estimation and AIL market share

26.8 Costs
Autoquads Inspection Ltd hopes to start with 5 crafts for each infrastructure inspection (20 in
total) to start with for the first year and use them to find efficient ways to undertake tasks. This
plan of introducing a few Quad-rotors for the first year will ensure the company establishes
itself and gets used to the way of working in this sector. This period will also ensure that
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whatever challenges that are encountered can be solved and recorded down for future
reference. After the first year the company hopes to introduce 20 more Quad-rotors yearly for
the next four years, this will largely depend on the business growth so when the time comes it
could be more or less than planned. The table below shows the expected costs for the first 5
years;
Fixed Costs

Cost ()

Quantity

Total ()

Manufacturing (materials)

1500

20

30000

Machines and tools

10000

10000

Infrastructure Equipment (Ground station.)

50,000

50000

Marketing campaign

10000

10000

Administrative costs

30000

30000

Infrastructure

3000000

3000000

Total

3130000
Table 18 Fixed Cost

Running Costs

Monthly Cost ()

Yearly Cost ()

5 year cost

Building Repairs/maintenance

1000

12000

60000

Utility Bills

3000

36000

180000

Controller/Inspectors/Monitors

10000

120000

600000

Maintenance costs

1000

12000

60000

Labour
Training
Miscellaneous (transportation,

7000
2000
1000

84000
24000
12000

420000
120000
60000

Total

25000

300000

1500000

Table 19 Running Costs


Year

Cost ()

Addition of new

Extra Labour

crafts ()

()

Inflation

Total ()

Information

3430000

Fixed,
infrastructure

3%

463500

Pay, maintenance
Pay, maintenance

3430000

300000

30000

300000

30000

120000

4%

468000

300000

30000

120000

5%

472500

Pay, maintenance

300000

30000

120000

6%

477000

Pay, maintenance

120000

Total

5311000
Table 20 Yearly Costs

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26.8.1

Financial statements

Pro-forma statement
The pro-forma statement table below shows the costs and revenues anticipated for the next 5
years.
Cost/Revenue

Year 1 ()

Year 2 ()

Year 3 ()

Year 4 ()

Year 5 ()

Services revenue

1063450

2627100

4190800

5754450

7317950

Variable cost of services provided

120000

240000

480000

960000

1920000

Fixed cost of services

12000

12000

12000

12000

12000

Gross margin

931450

2375100

3698800

4782450

5385950

Variable operating costs

3130000

270000

510000

990000

1950000

Fixed operating costs

300000

300000

300000

300000

300000

Untaxed income

-2498550

1805100

2888800

3492450

3135950

Income tax (40%)

722040

1155520

1396980

1254380

Net Income

-2498550

1083060

1733280

2095470

1881570

Table 21 Pro-forma statement

Cash Flow
The cash flow statement table shows the key costs in and out. The key values in the cash flow
statement are the beginning cash balance and the ending cash balance.
Item

Year 1 ()

Year 2 ()

Year 3 ()

Year 4 ()

Year 5 ()

Beginning
Cash
balance
Net income after tax

-2504796.375

-1424444.025

304502.775

2394734.1

-2498550

1083060

1733280

2095470

1881570

Depreciation expense

6246.375

2707.65

4333.2

5238.675

4703.925

Ending Cash balance

-2504796.375

-1424444.025

304502.775

2394734.1

4271600.175

Table 22 Cash flow statement

Break even
As shown from the cash flow statement Auto quads Inspection Ltd starts off with nothing (not
including sponsorship and loans) and the ending cash balance is a negative 2.5m, for the
second year the ending cash balance is still negative meaning the company hasnt started
making profit yet but the value is decreasing. By the end of the third year the ending cash
balance is 304000, this is the break-even point. It will be at this point that the company will
start making profit in this sector, so it will take 3 years for the company to break even.

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26.8.2

Profitability
5

4.27

Profit Millions

4
2.39

3
2
1

0.30

-1

-2
-3

-1.42

Years

-2.50

Figure 100 - Break Even Graph


As the graph above shows, the profitability of this business looks promising if everything goes
according to plan. Although the capital is a huge amount it should pay off at the end of the third
year with a profit of 300000 after the capital is paid. Beyond the third year the profit will be
expected to rise steadily for a couple of years then the rise will depend on the market growth at
that time. For the time being though the market looks promising so therefore it can be concluded
that this project will be very profitable.

Business risk assessment


The business risk assessment can be found in Appendix N.1.

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Conclusion
As part of the Universitys academic curriculum, engineering projects at Masters Level have both a
documentation aspect (Dissertation or Report) and a physical aspect (product development and
testing); both aspects of the UAS Challenge project were carried out successfully under the
guidance of supervisors and technicians. The UAS challenge is a 1st generation IMechE
competition for Unmanned Aircraft Systems making this project the first of its kind in the University
of Hertfordshire. The UAS was designed and built to have real-world applications and this was
quantified through numerous validation and verification tests as well as quality control processes.

The UAS challenge project was carried out by a team of 12 aerospace engineers who worked
industriously in order to meet the project deadlines and objectives over a course of seven months
to deliver a top-tier product. In order to successfully deliver this project, product development
processes were integrated into the project phases through the creation of the design specification
which was used to keep engineering design process in line with rules from CAA and IMechE.

The management of the project was very professional as the meetings were held with supervisors
to discuss potential project pitfalls and solutions. The project manager also created a project plan
and budget plan to keep the project on schedule and on budget. Project management processes
such as QFD and WBS was used in the requirement analysis carried out on the design
specification in order to determine the right aerial vehicle to use for meeting the requirements.
Frequent requirement analysis were carried out in order to make sure that the product being
development meets the requirements and the management model used is a form of the V model.
An example is the change from a quadcopter to a hexacopter after the results of a structural
analysis showed that the weight limit set by IMechE would be exceeded. Another example is the
switch from Arducopter Autopilot System to Pixhawk Autopilot System after critical analysis
showed that processing capacity, safeguard measures and competency of the Pixhawk Autopilot
System was significantly higher than the Pixhawk Autopilot System.

The technical approach to the project was very professional and conservative as every process is
documented properly for analysis and this is shown in the level of testing carried out on electronic
components and the structural analysis of the UAS materials and components (Finite Element
Analysis and Bending Tests). The selection of materials used for manufacture was done after
meticulously analysing different materials and comparing them in areas such as strength and price,
this resulted in the manufacture of a structure below the weight limit. Catia and Ansys were used to
design the UAV structural components and Mission Planner software was used to program the
Autopilot System and every other programmable component. A control system operating manual
was created to enable non-system group members would be able to use the UAS control systems.
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Safety regulations were followed in the course of the project such as following all laboratory
regulations when using the facilities for manufacturing, assembly and testing and also designing
the UAS according to regulations set by IMechE and CAA. Failsafe have been programmed into
the UAS for safe operation and recovery when failsafe conditions such as loss of GPS, loss of
communication are activated.
The projects objective has been met as the UAV is below the weight limit set by the IMechE and
can also be certified by the CAA. The UAS is also capable of a number of flight modes such as
autonomous flight, semi-manual and manual flight. The project budget was also not exceeded and
the UAS has been built and tested a couple of times. This project would serve as a foundation and
legacy to future generations of aerospace engineers that would partake in the UAS challenge from
University of Hertfordshire in the hope of reaching and surpassing the levels reached in the course
of this project.

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http://www.mytempfiles.info/mobius/MobiusManual.pdf
UAS CHALLENGE 2015

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Monhem, R. (2010). The V Model in Service Management. Retrieved March 28, 2015, from
http://rmonhem.blog.com/2010/11/23/the-v-model-in-services-management/
National Grid. (2013). Striving to meet customer needs while reducing costs and maintaining reliability.
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Network Rail. (2015). Display Report : National rail trends. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from
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NIH. (2011, December 2). What is an AED? Retrieved March 30, 2015, from nhlbi.nih.gov:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aed
Norris, D. (2012). In r. stewart (Ed.), Build your own Quad-rotor (pp. 95-128). New york: Mc Graw Hill.
Oscar. (2013, 10 13). Quad-rotor PID Explained and Tuning. Retrieved 01 24, 2015, from
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Project, W. D. (2015). Gyroscope. Retrieved 03 23, 2015, from demonstrations.wolfram.com:
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QinetiQ. (2013). Civil Commercial UAV market. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from uas.qinetiq.com:
http://www.uas.qinetiq.com/Documents/civil-commercial-uav-market.pdf
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Appendix. A

A.1. Initial Project Plan

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UAS CHALLENGE 2015

ID

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish 25 Aug '14


T

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

UAS Challenge Project Plan


Scope
Determine project scope
Define resources
Scope complete
Sponsorship
Secure project sponsorship
Design Specification/System
Requirements
Create Design specification for a UAV
Review system specifications
Create system requirements
Obtain approvals to proceed (concept,
timeline, budget)
Analysis complete
Preliminary Design
Review specifications
Payload Delivery System
Propulsion System design
Systems design
Concept Structural design
Preliminary Safety Case consideration
Preliminary Weights estimation
Obtain approval to proceed
Preliminary Design complete
Deliver PDR to IMeche
Final Design ready for purchase
System compents finalised ready for
purchase
Propulsion components ready for
purchase
Structrual material and sizing ready for
purchase
Design purchase readyness

191 days

Fri 10/10/14 Sun 05/07/15

15 days
3 days
12 days
0 days
97 days
97 days
12 days

Fri 10/10/14
Fri 10/10/14
Wed 15/10/14
Thu 30/10/14
Fri 10/10/14
Fri 10/10/14
Fri 31/10/14

Thu 30/10/14
Tue 14/10/14
Thu 30/10/14
Thu 30/10/14
Sun 22/02/15
Sun 22/02/15
Sun 16/11/14

7 days

Fri 31/10/14

Sun 09/11/14

7 days
12 days
12 days

Sun 09/11/14 Sun 16/11/14


Fri 31/10/14 Sun 16/11/14
Fri 31/10/14 Sun 16/11/14

0 days
16 days
15 days
15 days
15 days
15 days
15 days
15 days
15 days
15 days
0 days
0 days
8 days
7 days

Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Thu 04/12/14
Fri 05/12/14
Fri 05/12/14
Fri 05/12/14

Sun 16/11/14
Fri 05/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14
Fri 05/12/14
Tue 16/12/14
Mon 15/12/14

7 days

Fri 05/12/14

Mon 15/12/14

7 days

Fri 05/12/14

Mon 15/12/14

0 days
30 days
Send out order list for components and 30 days

Order parts

delivery
Manufacturing & Assembly
Machine structural frame

Integrate systems components


Integrate structural frame, system and
propulsion components
Testing and Validation
Develop unit test plans using design
specifications
Develop integration test plans using
design specifications
Integration Testing
Test system integration
Integration testing complete
Critical Design Review (CDR) and
Flight Readiness Review (FRR)
Draft CDR report
Draft FRR report
Deliver CDR report
Deliver FRR report
Pre-Competition
Design Presentation
Flight Readiness Review
Certification Test Flight
Competition day

Project: UAS Challenge Project Pla


Date: Wed 03/12/14

Tue 16/12/14 Tue 16/12/14


Tue 16/12/14 Mon 26/01/15
Tue 16/12/14 Mon 26/01/15

47 days
26 days
26 days
23 days

Mon 26/01/15
Mon 26/01/15
Mon 26/01/15
Sun 01/03/15

47 days
47 days

Mon 26/01/15 Tue 31/03/15


Mon 26/01/15 Tue 31/03/15

47 days

Mon 26/01/15 Tue 31/03/15

67 days
23 days
0 days
40 days

Sun 01/03/15
Sun 01/03/15
Sun 31/05/15
Mon 09/03/15

Sun 31/05/15
Tue 31/03/15
Sun 31/05/15
Fri 01/05/15

0 days
0 days
0 days
0 days
26 days
6 days
6 days
11 days
3 days

Mon 09/03/15
Mon 09/03/15
Mon 06/04/15
Fri 01/05/15
Mon 01/06/15
Mon 01/06/15
Mon 08/06/15
Mon 15/06/15
Wed 01/07/15

Mon 09/03/15
Mon 09/03/15
Mon 06/04/15
Fri 01/05/15
Sun 05/07/15
Sun 07/06/15
Sun 14/06/15
Mon 29/06/15
Fri 03/07/15

15 Sep '14
W
T

06 Oct '14
F
S
S

27 Oct '14
M
T

Scope complete

17 Nov '14
T
F

08 Dec '14
29 Dec '14
S
S
M
T
W

19 Jan '15
F
S

09 Feb '15
S
M

02 Mar '15
W
T

23 Mar '15
F
S
S

13 Apr '15
M
T

04 May '15
T
F

Scope
30/10complete

Analysis complete

16/11

Preliminary Design complete


Deliver PDR to IMeche

04/12
05/12

Design purchase readyness

16/12

Tue 31/03/15
Sat 28/02/15
Sat 28/02/15
Tue 31/03/15

Draft CDR report


Draft FRR report

09/03
09/03
Deliver CDR report
06/04
Deliver FRR report

01/05

Task

Summary

External Milestone

Inactive Summary

Manual Summary Rollup

Finish-only

Split

Project Summary

Inactive Task

Manual Task

Manual Summary

Deadline

Milestone

External Tasks

Inactive Milestone

Duration-only

Start-only

Progress

Page 1

25 May '15
15 Jun '15
S
S
M
T
W

06 Jul '15
F

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A.2. Up to date Project plan

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UAS CHALLENGE 2015

ID

Task
Mode
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Task Name

Duration

Start

FinishSep '14
15

Scope
Determine project scope
Define resources
Scope complete
Sponsorship
Secure project sponsorship
Design Specification/System
Requirements

15 days
3 days
12 days
0 days
97 days
97 days
12 days

Create Design specification for7a days


UAV
Review system specifications
Create system requirements
Obtain approvals to proceed
(concept, timeline, budget)

7 days
12 days
12 days

Analysis complete

0 days
16 days
Review specifications
15 days
Payload Delivery System
15 days
Propulsion System design
15 days
Systems design
15 days
Concept Structural design
15 days
Preliminary Safety Case consideration
15 days
Preliminary Weights estimation15 days
Obtain approval to proceed 15 days
Preliminary Design complete 0 days
Deliver PDR to IMeche
0 days
Final Design ready for purchase8 days
System compents finalised
7 days
Preliminary Design

ready for purchase

Fri 10/10/14
Fri 10/10/14
Wed 15/10/14
Thu 30/10/14
Fri 10/10/14
Fri 10/10/14
Fri 31/10/14

Thu 30/10/14
Tue 14/10/14
Thu 30/10/14
Thu 30/10/14
Sun 22/02/15
Sun 22/02/15
Sun 16/11/14

Fri 31/10/14
Sun 09/11/14
Fri 31/10/14
Fri 31/10/14

Sun 09/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14
Sun 16/11/14

22

Oct '14
29
06

13

20

27

Nov '14
03
0%

10

17

24

Dec '14
01
08

15

Scope complete

Analysis complete

Sun 16/11/14 Sun 16/11/14


Sun 16/11/14
Fri 05/12/14
Sun 16/11/14 Thu 04/12/14
Sun 16/11/14 Thu 04/12/14
Sun 16/11/14 Thu 04/12/14
Sun 16/11/14 Thu 04/12/14
Sun 16/11/14 Thu 04/12/14
Sun 16/11/14 Thu 04/12/14
Sun 16/11/14 Thu 04/12/14
Sun 16/11/14 Thu 04/12/14
Thu 04/12/14 Thu 04/12/14
Fri 05/12/14
Fri 05/12/14
Fri 05/12/14 Tue 16/12/14
Fri 05/12/14 Mon 15/12/14

100%

28
29
30

Design purchase readyness

0 days
30 days
55 days

Tue 16/12/14 Tue 16/12/14


Tue 16/12/14 Mon 26/01/15
Tue 16/12/14 Mon 02/03/15

47 days
26 days
26 days

Mon 26/01/15 Tue 31/03/15


Mon 09/03/15 Mon 13/04/15
Mon Mon 13/04/15
09/03/15
Mon Wed 08/04/15
09/03/15

35
36
37

38
39
40
41
42

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Testing and Validation


Develop unit test plans using
design specifications
Develop integration test
plans using design
specifications
Integration Testing
Test system integration
Integration testing complete
configure PID for Quad
Critical Design Review (CDR)
and Flight Readiness Review
(FRR)
Draft CDR report
Deliver CDR report
Draft FRR report
Deliver FRR report
Pre-Competition
Design Presentation
Flight Readiness Review
Certification Test Flight
Competition day
UAS CHALLENGE FINISH

Project: Updated UAS Challenge P


Date: Thu 23/04/15

16

Design purchase readyness

13

20

May '15
27
04

11

18

25

Jun '15
01
08

15

22

Jul '15
29
06

100%
100%

100%

0%
0%
0%
0%

Tue 31/03/15
Tue 17/03/15

0%
50%

Tue 17/03/15

50%

37 days
23 days
0 days
67 days
71 days

Sun 01/03/15
Mon 09/03/15
Mon 20/04/15
Sun 01/03/15
Mon
09/03/15

Mon 20/04/15
Wed 08/04/15
Mon 20/04/15
Mon 01/06/15
Mon 15/06/15

0 days
0 days
11 days
0 days
15 days
0 days
0 days
11 days
3 days
0 days

Mon 09/03/15
Wed 01/04/15
Mon 18/05/15
Mon 15/06/15
Mon 15/06/15
Wed 01/07/15
Wed 01/07/15
Mon 15/06/15
Tue 30/06/15
Fri 03/07/15

Mon 09/03/15
Wed 01/04/15
Sun 31/05/15
Mon 15/06/15
Fri 03/07/15
Wed 01/07/15
Wed 01/07/15
Mon 29/06/15
Thu 02/07/15
Fri 03/07/15

37 days

Apr '15
30
06

100%

Mon 26/01/15
Mon
26/01/15
Mon
26/01/15

47 days
37 days

23

100%
100%

Fri 05/12/14 Mon 15/12/14

23 days

Mar '15
02
09

100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Preliminary Design complete
100%
Deliver PDR to IMeche
100%

7 days

Integrate structural frame,


system and propulsion
components

23

100%

Structrual material and sizing


ready for purchase

34

16

100%
100%
100%

27

Integrate systems
components

Feb '15
02
09

100%

100%

Machine structural frame

26

100%

Fri 05/12/14 Mon 15/12/14

Manufacturing & Assembly

19

0%
0%

7 days

31
32
33

12

100%
Scope
0% complete

Propulsion components ready


for purchase

Send out order list for


components and delivery

Jan '15
29
05

100%

26

Order parts

22

0%
0%
Integration testing complete

75%
0%

Draft CDR report

0%
Deliver CDR report

0%
15/06
Design Presentation
Flight Readiness Review

UAS CHALLENGE FINISH

Task

Summary

External Milestone

Inactive Summary

Manual Summary Rollup

Finish-only

Split

Project Summary

Inactive Task

Manual Task

Manual Summary

Deadline

Milestone

External Tasks

Inactive Milestone

Duration-only

Start-only

Progress

Page 1

0%
01/07
01/07
0%
03/07

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A.3. Example of Minutes

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

Supervisors meeting |MINUTES


Meeting date | time 10/28/2014 12:00 AM | Meeting location Sim Laboratory
Meeting called by

Alfred

Attendees

Type of meeting

Progress check

Note taker

Johnathan

Alfred, Mohin, Zuber, Tarek, Johnathan, Micky, Reyad,


Kasun, Osman, Zee, Hassan , Amit

Timekeeper

Zuber

AGENDA TOPICS
Time allotted | 50 mins | Agenda topic PDS and design convergence | Presenter Alfred
Discussion Presenting the product design specification and the design convergence to Johanna to update the
supervisors on decision and conclusion has been made by the group.
Conclusion: we still need to validate some criterias with numbers and not just use assumptions
Time allotted | 10 mins | Agenda topic |Ordering products | Presenter Alfred
Discussion We asked if it was possible to order products from eBay seen as it would be a lot cheaper ordering
product of their manufacture website itself. A list of product was also shown to Johanna specifying what products
we want
Conclusion Johanna proposed that she would as Howard ash if he could purchase some of the products we want
seen as the aerospace department dont allow purchases from eBay
Time allotted | 10 mins | Agenda topic The need for sponsors | Presenter Alfred
Discussion We was considering if there was a need for sponsors because seen as we are getting a budget of 1000
from the university, there wouldnt really be a need because we believe the can easily be made with a budget of
1000
Conclusion we probably wont need a sponsorship but the option is still open if need but we need to act soon if we
want a sponsor rather than later
Time allotted | 30 mins | Agenda topic multi rotor concept | Presenter Alfred
Discussion For our final concept of a multi rotor, we need to decide if we are going for a 3, 4, 6 or 8 rotor system as
our finalized concept
Conclusion to come up with another design convergence which has a list of criteria for multi rotor which will
compare different types of multi rotors and hence the win concept will be our final design.
Action items

Person responsible

Deadline

To improve the numbering system on the Product design spec

Alfred

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Research on manufacturing techniques for 3 to 8 rotor system

Zee

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

For one motor failing research the stability for 3 to 8 rotor system
and maneuverability of multi rotor systems

Kasun

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

The power requirements ie the thrust produced, time and the


speed

Hassan

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Research into the costs and strength of material for multi rotors

Ozy

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Research Potential Payload capacity for a series of multi rotor


system

Mohin

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Look into the Noise levels at which 3 to 8 rotor systems of the


same size produce noise

Amit

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Look into root sizing and complexity and spacing for a series of
multi rotor system

Zuber

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Research into Criticality of payload, CofG, stability during flight


and how they differ for 3 to 8 rotor systems

Mo

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Research optical recognition system to see if an extra board is


required and the potential of using matlab

Tarek

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Look into systems required for a multi rotor system and present a Jonathan and micky
list to the group

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

Send an email with updated PDS and Design convergence to


supervisors

Alfred

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

MEng meeting times invitations

Johanna

10/11/2014 12:00 PM

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A.4. Example of Agenda

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

AGENDA
Finalizing Design Concept
October 28, 2014
12:00PM 2:30 PM
Meeting called by Alfred Dzadey
Attendees:

Alfred, Mohin, Zuber, Tarek, Jonathan, Micky, Reyad, Kasun, Osman, Mozammel, Hassan,
Amit

Note taker:

Jonathan

Please bring:

List of ideas/ sketches/ brainstorm for multi-rotor to the table

Location:

The Simulation Laboratory

Objective:

Discussion of multi rotor concept, finalizing roles of groups and ideas of having sponsors

Introduction
Taking register of attendees and general updates

Schedule

Presenter

Present design Specification and Design


convergence

Alfred

Discuss ideas and brainstorm multi rotor idea and


structure

Alfred

Appoint areas to research for each individual with


regards to multi-rotor discussed

Alfred

To get a sponsor or not to get a sponsor

Additional Instructions:
DONT BE LATE PLEASE!!!

Alfred

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A.5. Team members Performance review

Jonathon Ebhota
5
4
3
2
1
0

Jonathan has from the very beginning, been very enthusiastic about the project, even though he had been
moved around quite a few times from one role to another. Though his enthusiasm had led to great results,
it took some work getting there as the systems group had not properly managed their time. Having said
this, he has guided the group through many hurdles, some of which may have been daunting, and helped
speed up certain processes. Jonathon has on multiple occasions tried to stick to the plan to allow for ample
amount of time for testing, and while there have been delays, the planning for of all the systems
integration has allowed for little room for error. Even though there is room for improvement in managing
the team, Jonathon took great pride in both, his team and work, and this has led to a great contribution on
his part.

Tarek Kherbouche
5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

Tareks strong point, coming into this project, was his experience in electronics and has provided his
knowledge in getting some of the systems up and running quickly. His importance to the team was noted
fairly quickly as he could simply put his head down and make good headway. Nevertheless, there were
times where he was slowed down by delays in purchasing which meant he had to wait. While he had
planned for contingency, he never expected certain things to take as long as it did delaying thing further.
UAS CHALLENGE 2015

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His knowledge was still valued to the team and his never wavering enthusiasm and support allowed him to
work well with all members of the group very well and help make a large contribution overall.

Malwenna Malwenna
5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

While Malwenna has not shown as much enthusiasm in the beginning, although this could be attributed to
him being an introvert, it did grow as the group started to become much more comfortable with each
other. Malwenna had constantly researched for a large part of semester one, making sure the rest of the
systems team was going the simplest and most effective route to a successful project. While Malwenna was
a great team player and a great asset to the team, by taking up more workload to help out, he ended up
pausing his own role for a short while, but on the other hand, had he not, the rest of the systems would
have been delayed anyhow making this a no win situation. Nevertheless, he has delivered his role
effectively and made a great contribution to the team.

Mohammed Rayad Ullah


5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

While Mohammed showed some good levels of enthusiasm, his lack of planning led to rushing and some
late nights to get the task done on time. He initially started to help the propulsion engineer to make sure
that the motors that were chosen were right for the task. While this led to a more objective choice for the
motors, his actual role as a stability engineer had to take a back seat. However, he has since focused on his
role as the stability engineer alongside Malwenna and has made great progress in simulation and testing in
the short time he had. Overall, he started on the right path before getting side-tracked but has come to and
has made some great contribution to the team.

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Hassan Turabi
5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

Hassan has continuously worked very hard on his role as the propulsion engineer and has continuously
delivered, driven by his enthusiasm. Hassan has spent a large amount of time making sure that the parts he
chose were the right ones. From an extensive number of calculations through to testing; he has worked
very hard throughout the entire project. However, all this came at the cost of time management, although
he has pulled off all the stops and has completed his work on time to great results.

Amit Ramji
5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

Amit has consistently pushed for more throughout the entire project, not only from himself but from
others as well. He brought in great level of experience and insight to almost all issues for the Quad-rotor.
His enthusiasm has never wavered and motivated some of the other team members to compete on who
can produce the most quality work. He regularly put his team in front and tried to help out where he could,
and though it may occasionally come as unneeded, and sometimes overbearing, he never let it bother him
and continued forward. His delivery to the project was invaluable and his overall contribution was
exceptional.

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Zuber Khan
5
4
3
2
1
0

Zuber has been consistently enthusiastic about the project, and while this enthusiasm has led to good
results, the ability to get the structural side of the group to work within deadlines has been good. Having
said this, he has guided the group through certain objectives which had helped speed things up the process,
else would have been hampered by unnecessary delays. Zuber has on multiple occasions stuck to plan and
delivered products on time as promised. While there is still room for improvements in managing the team,
he has executed and delivered his role as a structural team leader very well and has made large
contributions as a whole.

Micky Ngouani
5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

Micky had a lot of personally issues during the duration of the project by has tried to manage this with his
academic work. He has some been unable to attend meeting for various reason but when work is asked of
him he delivers good quality work. Weakness I would say is need from contribution from him but his
strength are he works had when he commits to doing so.

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Mohammed Mohinuddin
5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

While Mohin showed some good levels of enthusiasm, his lack of planning led to rushing and some late
nights to get the task done on time. He generally isnt a morning person and means that he usually is only
available during the day and late evening. During semester B he has become more involved with the group
and has made some great contribution to the team. His work was mostly of good standard and but
struggled to meet deadlines at times due to various reasons. Mohin is team player and is by far his best
attribute.

Osman Sibanda
5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

Osman has contributed greatly with his all-round support to everyone. He is always willing to help out in
any task and go the extra mile. He completes task in reasonable and expected time and has a good amount
of contribution to the team. He is definitely a team player and has shown some levels of enthusiasm during
the period of the project.

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Mozammel
5
4
3
2
1
0
Enthusiasm

Team value

Planning

Delivery

Contribution

Mozammel has not shown as much enthusiasm in the beginning, although this could be attributed to him
being an introvert. He grew in confidence and began to take responsibility for his role and contribution to
the team. His time management wasnt great due to personal problems outside academic work but
nevertheless he has produced reasonably standard work. He had put in the extra hours to complete tasks
when asked to and hence has had great contribution to the team progression so far.

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A.6. Project manager performance review


PROJECT MANAGER EVALUATION FORM
City Project Name:
UAS Challenge
Name of Project Manager: Alfred Dzadey
Code
5
4
3
2
1
0

Dates Evaluated Beginning: September 2014 To: May 2015


Type of Evaluation: MEng Project Final

Scale -- Please use the rating code below to appraise the project managers work
The Absolute Best Project Manager that we have knowledge of and experience with anywhere. Very
Exceptional and Far Superior to others. Value added to the project / Achieved on almost always /
Above Average -- Noticeably competent / capable / proficient / adept / knowledgeable / skilled / High
Quality / Achieved on a consistent basis /
Average: (satisfactory / acceptable / suitable / reasonable / no major problems / potential is there /
dependable / meets the stands of the job
Marginal (Fair: improvement is necessary / deficient in certain area, but potential may be there)
Below Average (Needs significant or substantial improvement / really lacking / unsatisfactory)
Not observed or applicable

Project Managers Rating


5 Management of Team / Project

4 Dependability (can be counted on, return calls/email,

4 Understanding of other PMs needs

3 Ability to anticipate and analyze problems

4 Professionalism
4 Achieved project goals

4 Timeliness (attendance, punctuality, fulfillment of


obligations)
5 Ability to locate & utilize resources effectively

4 Written communications ability

5 Ability to work with others

4 Oral communications ability

5 Ability to present options and/or reach decisions

OVERALL PROJECT PERFORMANCE OR END PRODUCT (use 1 to 5 scale again on project basis)

4 Adherence to Budget

3 Adherence to Schedule

5 Good Public / Private Team Relationship

4 High Quality Results

Overall Rating 5 in terms of public / private time, resources, and money required to work with them
Circle One:
Definitely looking forward to working with this Project Manager again on another project.
Willing to work with this Project Manager again on another project without any changes
Willing to work with this Project Manager again on another project with some changes
Prefer not to work with this Project Manager again or Project Manager needs significant
improvements
Please note any specific comments here or on a separate sheet (weak points needing improvement, strong
points, instances of going the extra mile.)
+
+
+

Needs to be kept within the deadlines, you are far too lenient.
Good communication skills, and persuasiveness
Always going the extra mile
Always stands up for teams in front of supervisors and very supportive

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Appendix. B UAV Design


B.1. Weight Reduction - Quad-Rotor

Section by Amit Ramji

In order to eliminate excess mass, design considerations such as those discussed in Appendix G.1
have been used. The main focus was to achieve a high strength to weight ratio with a fairly high
stiffness; hence the use of thin plates in a sandwich design justifies the decision rationale. Using
an initial arm bending calculation and iterative process, the best tube diameter was converged to
be 16mm x 11.5mm with a wall thickness of 2.25. The Outside diameter of the tube now needs a
support to sandwich the plates, a high strength Nylon 66 material is selected for the compression
blocks (FB-001, FB-002, EB-001 Appendix B.7). Decreasing the plate spacing to 25mm proves a
challenge for incorporating systems and mechanical pivots, however this reduced the overall
weight significantly.
Furthermore the Nylon 6 plates (BP-001 & 002 Appendix B.7) incorporates cut-outs and holes to
reduce weight further and allow for a reduced cross section during flight. The gust pressure loading
of such cross section has been calculated in 8.4 and added to the maximum flight forces however
assuming an opposed direction in order to satisfy worst-case flight conditions. The isolated plate
deflection is modelled in Appendix G.11 as an infinite plate assembly. Compared with the analytical
technique, the error between results is minimal as is discussed in section 8.7.
Main Body Plate sizes (BP-001 & 002) have been sized to be the minimal thickness to allow for
stress distribution and maintain a stiffened root structure. Reducing the thickness of these plate
further without changing materials would mean the plates would be subject to localised bending
and shear deflections (similar to ladder/truss design with weak rail supports). Additionally the
planar dimensions consider the contact positions of the Arm support brackets and every attempt
has been made to reduce the overall root size of the main body plates.
Further cut-outs and weight reduction on most components is still possible however due to time
and resource constraints, further material optimisation is not considered. Further mass can be
removed from the Undercarriage components (UV-001 & UH-001), along with increased cut-outs
on the Main Body plates (BP-001 & 002) and tapering of out-board structures. A further study into
the use of Short Fibre Reinforces Composite (SFRC) blocks can also be carried out, however this
would be mass produced injection moulded components as detail and finer machining is time
consuming and costly.

B.2. Detailed Design and CAD Modelling

Section by Amit Ramji

The design of the Quad-rotor has been carried out while considering manufacturability and
precision of machinability. The overall geometry of the Quad-Rotor is controlled by positions of the
Main Body plates (BP-001 & 002), where the CNC process is accurate of 0.2mm. If the Fixed or
Movable blocks (FB and MB series) are not accurate to nominal values, the through bolts being
used in compression will take up the tolerance as Nyloc Nuts are also being used to ensure no
assembly is loosened during flight. The 16mm diameter hole in the blocks for the Arms is also
considered at the manufacturing stage during component design; if the manufactured component
is loose fit, the gap can be closed by the O-rings and hand finishing of mating half-block surfaces
(sandwich of FB-001 x 2 to FA-001 - Appendix B.7). Compression and bolt preload of the fasteners
holding this local sandwich together will allow the Arm to be secure during assembly and in flight.

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Figure 101 - Overall View of Quad-Rotor

Figure 102 - Motor Mount Design (Left) & Undercarriage T-Joint (Right)

Figure 103 - Undercarriage Pivot Design (Left) & Main Body Sandwich Design (Right)

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Figure 104 - Movable Arm Pivot Design

B.3. Payload Housing Design

Section by Amit Ramji


The payload housing is designed to be removable for ease of transport, increased functionality and
the ability to attach various devices as a payload (eg, Camera and gimbal on a quick release turn
button). Parts PB-009 and PB-010 (Appendix B.7) allow the Quad-rotor to be multi-functional and
allow for a sleek appearance for mounting accessories. The payload housing is a key component
in the design, a hollow truss type design has been converged upon to enable the structure to be
lightweight and have high stiffness. Multiple design iterations had been considered during the
design stage where Appendix G.15 and G.16 show the changes made to PB-006 and PB-008
(Appendix B.7) to increase the stiffness of the housing during flight conditions to avoid pre-mature
deployment of payloads. Rendered views of the payload housing can be observed in Figure 10
though Figure 13.

B.4. Supplier Discount and Advertising Opportunities

Section by Amit Ramji

The value of structural components such as raw Nylon (PA6 & PA66) blocks / sheets have been
demonstrated in Appendix. D where the usage costs have been calculated. The usage cost of
materials is equivalent to a buy-back scheme used in industry where off-cuts and machining swarf
is sold back to the supplier for recycling. Ensinger Ltd (Watford Plastics division) is one of the
largest suppliers globally and has agreed to provide the raw materials at a cost equivalent to
supply costs in exchange for advertisement. Buy-back schemes are usually used for long term and
large volume purchases, however advertisement has been offered in place of a large contractual
order. Costing of plastics is non-standard and a retail price is differing between suppliers, many
suppliers can afford to offer the same materials at a fraction of the cost depending on their
commercial footprint.

B.5. BOM Assembly Techniques

Section by Amit Ramji


To save time on assembly level modelling in CATIA, the use of repeated parts is key to a quick
design and manufacture. Complexity is also reduced as modifications to single parts can be
projected to its upstream parent products. Kits have been arranged in the CATIA model comprising
of various repeat components. Such kits include; fixed brackets kits, motor mount kits, fastener kits
and overall allows for reduction in possibility of clashes and configuration errors.

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Section by Amit Ramji

B.6. Configuration Control

In order to avoid having multiple versions of the same components with little changes in geometry,
a single group member had carried out all modelling. This ensures there is one main CAD model
with no chance of duplication of parts and introducing variants. An industry equivalent to this
restriction would be a check-in/check-out database such as Siemens Teamcentre or CATIA
Enovia, however this could not be possible during the timescales involved in the project for
integration.
The entire model has undergone a 4-step manufacturing readiness level; where level 1 is
conceptual design, level 2 being detail design of components, level 3 being further product level
design and manufacturing readiness and level 4 being systems 3D modelling and cable routing.
Part Numbering Scheme

XY - 00Z

Location / Description Letters


Location Identifiers:
FB = Fixed Bracket
EB = End Bracket
AP = Arm Pivot
LP = Landing Pivot
BP = Body Plates
MP = Motor Plates
MA = Movable Arm
FA = Fixed-arm
UH = Undercarriage Horizontal

Part Number Identifier

MB = Movable Bracket
LB = Landing Bracket
TJ = T-Joint
UV = Undercarriage Vertical

Revision Control:
Revisions of parts are a possibility to introduce under configuration control when the Fit, Form or
Function of the part does not change. Due to the constant update of design parts and releasing in
a 4 level time-line, revision numbers are not required. Additionally the fact that a single entity is in
control of the entire CAD model and configuration control, the potential to introduce part and
assembly revisions is unnecessary.
Part and Drawing Release for Manufacture:
Real engineering projects involving a multitude of parts would require a release process, however
as the same team member models the Design and carried out the Stress analysis of the structural
components, the need for internal release is non-essential. Only one working copy of the entire
Quad-Rotor design exists, hence part release and freezing of the design is carried out at internal
stage reviews (Levels 1 - 4). Release for manufacture and configuration control again is simplified
as a single member is in control of the design and drawing release that also inputs into selecting
materials and purchasing. For this reason, drawing release uses the same part-numbering scheme
as above and all drawings are deemed as Work-In-Progress until the drawing is assigned a
number. An industry equivalent would involve a workflow process where each part and assembly
along with material cards and instructions are released at separate departments, however due to
project integration constraints, tools such as Teamcentre have not been used.

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B.7. Production Support and Drawings

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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Appendix. C UAV Detailed Mass Breakdown

Section by Zuber Khan

A detailed mass breakdown was carried out of the whole UAV to ensure that it is within specifications. The itemised breakdown of components
and their quantities are shown below.
Material
Part No.
Length/
Structural
Density Area
Volume Mass
Total
Picture
(Appendix.
(Appendix
Thickness
Qty
Part Name
(g/cm3)
cm2
(cm3)
(g)
Mass (g)
(Appendix B.7)
B.7)
(cm)
E)
Tubular Arms

MA-001,
FA-001

PVC

1.4

0.97

29

28.18

39.46

157.84

Fixed-arm
Nylon clamps

LB-001

Nylon

1.14

5.2

3.56

4.06

16

65.00

Moveable arm
half block
clamp

FB-002

Nylon

1.14

4.52

3.14

3.58

7.16

Moveable arm
full block
clamp

MB-001

Nylon

1.14

8.92

5.52

6.29

12.59

Moveable arm
pivot

AP-001

Nylon

1.14

6.25

13.11

14.95

29.90

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Motor clamp
full block (end)

EB-001

Nylon

1.14

10.2

7.77

8.86

35.45

Motor block
plate

MP-001

Aluminium

2.7

20

0.1

1.81

4.90

39.24

Plates

BP-001, BP002

Nylon

1.14

351.
58

0.2

70.25

80.09

160.19

Undercarriage
pivot
assembly

LP-001, LB003

Nylon

1.14

7.37

21.67

24.70

49.41

Undercarriage
tube

UV-001

PVC

1.4

0.97

20

19.43

27.21

54.42

Horizontal
undercarriage
tube

UH-001

PVC

1.4

0.97

35

34.01

47.62

95.24

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Undercarriage
T Joint

TJ-001, TJ002

Nylon

1.14

Payload box

PB-000

Nylon

1.14

M3 x 35
Button Head

M3 x 35 x 0.5

Stainless
Steel

7.2

M3 Nyloc Nut

Nyloc M3 x 0.5

Stainless
Steel

7.2

M5 x 30
Button Head

M5 x 30 x 0.8

Stainless
Steel

7.2

M5 Nyloc Nut

Nyloc M5 x 0.8

Stainless
Steel

7.2

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13.1
2

16.06

18.31

101.924

35

30

36.63

116.19

0.28

1.7

34

57.8

0.09

0.4

34

13.6

0.4123

4.4

8.8

0.176

1.4

2.8

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25mm M3 Hex
standoff (F/F)

Hexagonal
Standoff

Brass

8.45

25

M3 Nylon
Spacer

Nylon

1.14

M5 Nylon
Spacer

Nylon

M6 Nylon
Spacer

M3 x 10
Button Head,
pitch 0.5mm

O-Rings
16mm
internal,

M3 Nylon
Spacer
3.2mm
Internal, Outer
6mm, length
25mm
M5 Nylon
Spacer
5.3mm
Internal, Outer
10mm, length
10mm
M6 Nylon
Spacer
6.4mm
Internal, Outer
12.5mm,
length 10mm

3.7

14.8

25

0.7

1.4

1.14

10

0.7

1.4

Nylon

1.14

10

M3 x 10 Button

Stainless
Steel

7.2

10

0.6

24

14.4

O-Rings

Rubber

30

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18mm
External, c/s
1mm
Quick Release
0.50
Quick Release
Aluminium
2.7
4.5
Pin
3
Springs
Springs
Steel
7.2
Total
(Structural)
Table 23 Itemised Mass Breakdown of all Structural UAV Components

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2.26

6.11

12.21

10

20
1012.5
(g)

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Mass for Electronic / Misc


Components
Pixhawk
GPS
OSD
Telemetry kit
Batteries
Motors
Propeller Blades
Esc's
Camera
Lights
Lights control board
Servos
Payload* (Single per trip)
Cable ties/ additional
cables
Power regulator
Buzzer
Power cable for power
module df13
Power switch
Competition GPS Tracker
(IMechE, Jan 2015)
XT60 Connectors and
Velcro
Motor Extension cable
Additional Systems battery
BEC for servo

80
40
50
50
194
52.5

Width
(mm)
49
40
18
30
45
35

Thickness
(mm)
15
9
10
10
47
0

80
61

30
35

17
18

46
35.5
140

28
22.5
105

13
12
70

Height (mm)

Mass
(g)
40
14.4
4
50
1848
187.4
40
75.2
50
150
73.2
13.4
1000

Qty
1
1
1
1
2
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
1

Total
Mass (g)
40
17.1
4
50
1848
749.6
160
300.8
50
150
73.2
13.4
1000
100

10
30d

10

7
5

21.5
4.8

1
1

21.5
4.8

20

15

10

1.5

1.5

25

1.8

1.8

59

38

50

50

85

85

120
118
55

1
1
1

18

120
102
15
35
118
50
30
15
55
5013.7(g
Total (Electronics / Misc)
)
From the summation of all the masses for the electronic and miscellaneous components in
Table 24, a total mass of 5013.7 grams was calculated. Total Mass of the UAV 6026.2 grams.
Table 24 - Electronics and Misc Component Masses

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Appendix. D UAV Detailed Cost Breakdown


Material /
Component

PVC Tube
10mm Nylon 6.6
Block
16mm Nylon 6.6
Block
30mm Nylon 6.6
Block
25mm Solid
Circular Bar
2mm Nylon 6
Black Plate
1mm Nylon 6
Black Plate
Rigid Angle
Sections

Used for
(Appendix B.7 for
Structural Parts
and Section 10 for
Systems)
MA-001, FA-001,
UV-001, UH-001.

Section by Zuber Khan

Raw Cost for


Total
Material
( inc Vat
and Delivery)

Usage cost
for Parts
( inc Vat and
Delivery)

Usage cost
for Parts
Excluding
Delivery
( inc Vat)

50.34

37.92

31.67

FB-001, FB-002,
MB-001, EB-001
LB-001, LB-002
PB-009, PB-010

4.40

2.25

1.25

TJ-001, TJ-002

4.40

1.01

0.51

LB-003, LP-001

6.60

1.33

0.67

AP-001

4.40

2.29

1.145

BP-001, BP-002,
PB-005

8.80

7.44

3.72

PB-004

4.40

3.04

1.52

PB-001, PB-002,
PB-003, PB-006,
PB-007, PB-008

39.54

18.56

12.31

Aluminium 1mm
Plate
Pixhawk
GPS & Telemetry
Kit
OSD

MP-001

9.08

7.26

7.26

Pixhawk
GPS & Telemetry
Kit
OSD

159.98

159.98

159.98

89.77

89.77

89.77

44.95

44.95

43.45

Batteries

Batteries

188.76

188.76

182.74*

Motors

Motors

91.80

91.80

91.80

Propeller Blades

Blades

12.00

12.00

12.00

ESCs
Lights & LED
panel Board
Servo

ESCs
Lights & LED panel
Board
Servo

141.75

141.75

135.80

14.13

14.13

14.13

13.69

3.42

3.42

Camera
M3 x 35mm x
0.5mm Pitch Bolt
M3 Nyloc Nuts
M5 x 30mm x
0.8mm Pitch
Bolts

Camera

52.43

52.43

47.01

Fasteners

3.95

2.37

2.37

Fasteners

1.78

1.21

1.21

Fasteners

2.79

0.56

0.56

Fasteners

1.19

0.24

0.24

M5 Nyloc Nuts

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M3 Nylon Spacer
3.2mm internal,
outside 6mm,
length 25mm
M5 Nylon Spacer
5.3mm internal,
outside 10mm,
length 10mm
M6 Nylon Spacer
6.4mm internal,
outside 12.5mm,
length 10mm
M3 Brass
Hexagonal F/F Standoff
M3 x 10mm x
0.5mm Pitch
Cable Ties
2.5x100mm
O-Rings 16mm
Internal, 18mm
External, c/s 1mm
Nylon Hinges 20
x 20mm for
Payload Box
Heat Shrink
Tubing Set
Braided Sleeve
Cable Protection
Strobe controller
Black Rubber
Washers
M3 x 40mm x
0.5mm Pitch Bolt
XT60 Connectors
and Velcro
Motor Extension
Cable
ESC for servo
Additional
Systems Battery
Springs
LEDs x20,
Require 4
Total

Spacer

4.09

0.68

0.68

Spacer

3.39

0.57

0.57

Spacer

3.59

1.20

1.20

Spacer

3.09

2.06

1.07

Fasteners

1.39

1.11

1.11

Cable Ties

0.99

0.99

0.99

O-Rings

4.24

3.60

3.60

Hinge

2.90

0.97

0.97

Tubing

5.28

2.53

0.65

Cable Protection

19.35

1.55

1.55

Strobe controller
Black Rubber
Washers

4.49

4.49

4.49

4.39

4.39

4.39

Fasteners

1.79

0.72

0.72

Connectors and
Fasteners

14.29

14.29

8.87

Wires

15.80

9.88

9.88

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.50

8.50

8.50

1.60

11.98

2.40

2.40

1062.48

954.80

906.18

Batteries

Lights

Table 25 UAV Itemised Cost Breakdown


*Conversion rate accurate as of 26/03/15 - $1 = 0.6678
Total Cost of COTS 824.84
Total Cost of Structure 81.34

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Material Properties

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Appendix. E Material Properties


Components
(Appendix B.7)
MP-001

1 - Al Alloy
(MIL-HDBK-5H)

Material ID

4 - Nylon 6
[TECAMID-6-MOBlack]
(Ensinger, 2015a)

3 - Nylon 66
2 - Brass
[TECAMID-66-MO- (Diehl, 2015)
Black]
(Ensinger, 2015b)

Brass M3x25
F/F Spacers.

FB, MB, AP, LP,


LB, EB & TJ
Series.
PB-009 & PB010.

BP-001,
BP-002,
PB-004 &
PB-005

5 - PVC H707 Equiv


(Direct_Plastics, 2015)

FA-001,
MA-001,
UV-001 & UH001

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Property

Value

Density
Youngs Modulus
Poissons Ratio
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Tensile Yield Strength
Compressive Yield Strength
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Density
Youngs Modulus
Poissons Ratio
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Tensile Yield Strength
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Density
Modulus of Elasticity (Flexural)
Poissons Ratio
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Tensile Yield Strength
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Density
Modulus of Elasticity (Flexural)
Poissons Ratio
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Tensile Yield Strength
Ultimate Tensile Strength

= 2770 kg/m3
= 7.1E10 Pa = 71 GPa
= 0.33
K= 6.9608E10 Pa = 69.6 GPa
G= 2.6692E10 Pa = 26.6 GPa
TYS= 280 MPa
CTS= 280 MPa
UTS= 310 MPa
= 8450 kg/m3
= 1.15E11 Pa = 115 GPa
= 0.331
K= 1.1341E11 Pa = 113.4 GPa
G= 4.3201E10 Pa = 432 GPa
TYS= 160 MPa
UTS= 270 MPa
= 1150 kg/m3
= 3100 MPa
= 0.4
K= 4.1667E9 Pa = 4.1667 GPa
G= 8.9286E10 Pa = 89.28 GPa
TYS= 83 MPa
UTS= 84 MPa
= 1140 kg/m3
= 3100 MPa
= 0.4
K= 4.1667E9 Pa = 4.1667 GPa
G= 8.9286E10 Pa = 89.28 GPa
TYS= 82 MPa
UTS= 84 MPa

Density
Modulus of Elasticity (Flexural)
Poissons Ratio
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Tensile Yield Strength
Ultimate Tensile Strength

= 1800 kg/m3
= 3100 MPa
= 0.41
K= 5.7407E9 Pa = 5.7407 GPa
G= 1.0993E9 Pa = 1.0993 GPa
TYS= 55 MPa
UTS= 56 MPa

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7 PVC Rigid
Angle
(Direct_Plastics,
2015)

6 - Austinitic Stainless
Steel - (Class 70, 304
grade - cold drawn)
(BSSA, 2015)

School of Engineering and Technology

M3 & M5
Fasteners and
Nyloc Nuts.

PB-001,
PB-002,
PB-003,
PB-006,
PB-007 &
PB-008

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Density

= 8030 kg/m3

Modulus of Elasticity
Poissons Ratio
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Tensile Proof Strength (0.2% R1, P0.2)
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Density
Modulus of Elasticity (Flexural)
Poissons Ratio
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Tensile Yield Strength
Ultimate Tensile Strength

= 193 GPa
= 0.29
K= 134 GPa
G= 86 GPa
= 450 Mpa
UTS= 700 Mpa
= 1800 kg/m3
= 3100 MPa
= 0.41
K= 5.7407E9 Pa = 5.7407 GPa
G= 1.0993E9 Pa = 1.0993 GPa
TYS= 55 MPa
UTS= 56 MPa

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Appendix. F

Load Cases and Load Transfer

(Supplement to section 7.1)

F.1.

Section by Zuber Khan

Steady Flight Case

A steady flight case scenario during which the UAV would be under maximum flight loads. This
would include: the motors producing the maximum amount of thrust, the UAV flying at maximum
velocity and maximum gust being applied in the opposite direction of flight. The steady flight case
analysis covers various conditions which the UAV will be put under such as, take-off, manoeuvres
during flight and hover.
Section by Zuber Khan

F.2.

Drag on the Main Plates

Maximum flight speed would be achieved when the UAV is at a maximum tilt angle of 54 degrees
(Section 7.1) to the vertical. Using this along with the total surface area of the main body plates,
the Drag force could be calculated.

Total Surface Area


= 35129.71mm2

54
Total Projected
Area

Figure 105 - Project Main Body Area


(54) =

()
= 28420.532
35129.71
Equation 18 - Projected Area

For steady flight the motors produce enough thrust to balance the weight. Therefore the mass was
7
is by 4. 4 = 1.75. However this would not be the thrust when in flight due to the UAV being at
an angle of 54 degrees. Therefore a component was taken as shown below.
()

1.75Kg

(54) = 1.75 = 1.0286


Equation 19 - Thrust at 54 Degrees

54

T
To calculate the drag force, the following equation is used:

1
= 2
2
Equation 20 - Drag Equation (R. H. Barnard, 2010)
Where: D = Drag Force, p = Density, V = Velocity, S = Area, Cd = Coefficient of Drag
The maximum gust the UAV has to fly in is 25knots and the maximum allowable flight speed of the
UAV is restricted to 60knots. Therefore the maximum wind on the UAV would be 85Knots.
A Cd value for the plate was worked out using, (1.28 x sin(angle)) (NASA, 2014).
1
1.28 sin(54) = 1.0355
= 2 1.226 (85 0.5144)2 28420.53 106 1.0355
= 34.491
= 3.516 is the drag force equivalent distributed on the main plate. To this a
global load safety factor of 1.5 was added for the purpose of working out the Maximum stresses
and deflections. 1.5 3.516 = 5.274

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Appendix. G Stress Analysis


Section by Amit Ramji

G.1. Stress Reduction Techniques


The following design techniques have been adopted to maximise efficiency of the material and
ensure a lightweight and stress reduced structure at local discontinuities and overall load paths.
Align known material properties with major load direction where possible. Hence the use of
Nylon 66 Blocks being used in compression (FB-001 & 002) and fasteners being used in
shear and tension (M3s & M5s).
Use of flexible joints to avoid excessive stress load transfer (70 Shore Rubber O-Rings and
Landing Springs See Appendix B.7).
Stiffen or reinforce unsymmetrical features to minimize flexure. An example of this
consideration is the use of the Nylon 66 Fixed Blocks (FB-001 & 002) used in the main
body alongside the M3 Brass spacers which act as rigid links between the main body
plates (BP-001 and 002) to reduce total body deflection.
Encourage smooth transitions in cross section and stress levels, avoiding hard points in the
primary load path. In some cases this could not be avoided (MA-001 contacting FB-002
See Figure 115 through Figure 119), therefore an additional local support (MB-001
Appendix B.7) is incorporated.
Accounting for structural deflections and considering specific threats (Heavy Landing)
where compromised integrity of the structure and/or the integrity of the systems installed in
the structure could be a cause for concern.
Where appropriate, distribute the load pathways between multiple components to avoid
bulky structure and concentrated stress distributions on single components. An example of
such situation is the multiple load paths in the main body, where a sandwich type design is
achieved. The stiffness of the main body structure is greatly increased with rigid links (M3
Fasteners, FB-001, FB-002, MB-001 and M3 spacers).

G.2. Fatigue Awareness

Section by Amit Ramji

A gain in fatigue life can in most situations be achieved without an increase in cost, simply by
attention to design detail. The following should be taken into account when considering the QuadRotor structure:
Avoiding sharp edges, corners and sudden changes in cross-section can reduce stress
concentrations. Fillet and intersection radii should be as large as possible as such used in
the Lug Bracket (LB-003) and Pivots (AP-001 & LP-001).
Avoiding joggles in the load line or catering for joggles by additional stiffening to bridge the
joggles. Considering the combined loading effect of cut outs and holes in close proximity as
those used in the Main Body Plates and Motor Mount Plates (BP-001, BP-002 and MP001). A detail hand calculation using Petersons Stress Concentration Factors (Pilkey and
Pilkey, 2008) has not been carried out as this complex geometry and cut-outs are
previously considered in the Finite Element Model with mesh refinement, inflation and
pinch controls.
The majority of fatigue cracks will start at stress concentrations such as holes, notches, etc.
Any design features or processes that can be applied to reduce the severity of such stress
concentrations should be used.
Ensuring design of joints are such as not to give rise to built-in stresses on assembly, or
load some portions of the joint unduly. The use of M3 and M5 from the same supplier to
avoid mixing fasteners of dissimilar material/strength and those that require differing
tolerances of fit. Fasteners with tighter tolerances will load the local structure during
repeated flexure more than a loose tolerance fastener due to the miniscule freedom of
movement of the joint.
In fatigue critical areas, interference fit fasteners shall be used whenever possible in
preference to clearance fit. A close tolerance for clearance/transition fit fasteners will
improve the fatigue performance of the joint, as this will minimize the risk of individual holes
being over-loaded. For the current Quad-Rotor design, fasteners are loaded axially hence
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introducing a bolt pre-load and reducing the miniscule movement if any existed.
Pre-tensioning of the bolt can reduce alternating stresses in the bolt and improve its fatigue
performance. The correct seating of the fastener head and nut along with use of the correct
installation torque is therefore essential to avoid local bending.

G.3. Fatigue due to induced vibration

Section by Amit Ramji

Fatigue damage can often arise from induced vibration from the motors as compared with
fatigue damage arising from directly applied structural stresses. Often this vibration is not
sustained for long periods of time, a modal analysis case has been considered for the
Fixed-arm assembly as shown in Appendix 8.17 and compared to analytical methods as
shown in Appendix 8.16. Such calculated modal frequencies should be avoided or swiftly
passed through the first 3 natural frequencies when powering up the motors to idle and can
be programmed into the ESCs as soft, medium, hard starts.
Avoiding the use of long cantilevered members, as these will experience high inertia forces
in vibration. The modal analysis of the Arm has been the main concentration for the
purpose of frequency response analysis, as the cantilever of the Arms are more
susceptible to vibration than any other components.
Rigidly mounted equipment may be vibrated by the structure to which it is attached, hence
the use of O-Rings at the motor mounts and dampening foam being used on all sensitive
components such as Pixhawk due to its susceptibility to compass excitation during
vibration.

G.4. Boundary Conditions - Connection Type and Contact Element Type


Section by Amit Ramji
Bonded
The bonded connection applies to all contact regions (surfaces, solids, lines, faces, edges). With
this connection type there is no sliding or separation between faces or edges (Ansys, November
2013a). This type of contact was used for a quick initial analysis of all assemblies as the solution
time and model could be checked. Bonded contact allows for a linear solution since the contact
length/area will not change during the application of the loads. Using the bonded contact elements,
the contact is determined on the mathematical model where any gaps will be closed and any initial
penetration will be ignored (Ansys, November 2013b, Ansys, November 2013e). Correct
refinement was carried out once the models were deemed correct and the calculated
displacements or stress match analytical methods in sampled areas. The contact types in most
regions had been refined to rough or frictionless where appropriate, bonded contact was
maintained between LP-001 and UV-001, alongside MA-001 and AP-001 (Appendix B.7).
Frictionless
The Frictionless contact connection is a standard unilateral contact where normal pressure is zero
is separation occurs (Ansys, November 2013a). With frictionless connections, gaps can form in the
model between bodies depending on the loading criteria and directions. Hence this solution is
nonlinear due to the area of contact prone to changing as the load is applied. A zero coefficient of
friction is assumed, thus allowing free sliding and is used in the model where pivot regions and
open surfaces exist. Such frictionless areas modelled in specific load cases (e.g. landing and
entire quad flight cases (Appendix G.14) is associated with parts AP-001, LP-001 and FB-002
(Appendix B.7). For the analysis to converge, all surrounding geometry is well constrained by
using bolted connections at bolt surfaces and rough connections at relevant arm brackets. Weak
springs are added to the assembly by default during the iterative process to help stabilize the
DOFs in order to achieve a reasonable solution. In many cases the solution processing time was
reduced by enabling parallel processing and post compilation of solutions, up to 8-cores had been
programmed in some solution cases (Ansys, November 2013f).

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Rough
The rough connection is similar to the frictionless type however models perfectly rough frictional
contact where there is no sliding. Alternative connection types are also possible where friction
factors can be modelled, however increases solution time significantly and for the purpose of this
analysis is deemed unnecessary. Rough connections apply to regions of faces or edges of plates,
brackets and O-ring locations (Appendix B.7). By default, no automatic closing of gaps is
performed and corresponds to an infinite friction coefficient between the contacting bodies (Ansys,
November 2013a).
The rough connection had been replaced by No Separation connections in motor plate regions
(MP-001 to EB-001 & FB-001) for the entire quad analysis and landing cases (Appendix G.14).
Using this method, the solution time is reduced and allows for accurate stress solutions at the root
of the quad-rotor as non-linearity is previously demonstrated in the arm stress analysis (Appendix
G.7 and G.8)
No Separation Rigid Body
The No Separation contact setting is similar to the bonded case and only applies to regions of
faces or edges. Separation of the geometries in this contact connection is not permitted (Ansys,
November 2013a). The No Separation connection is used in the motor plate regions (MP-001 to
EB-001 & FB-001) for the entire quad analysis and landing cases (Appendix G.14). Once again,
solution time is reduced and allows for accurate stress solutions at the root of the quad-rotor as
non-linearity and friction contact has previously been demonstrated in the arm stress analysis
(Appendix G.7 and G.8).
Bolted Rigid Body
For modelling bolted connections in Ansys Workbench an MPC184 Revolute Joint Element is used
instead of Rigid Body Elements (RBE2 or RBE3) used in Ansys Mechanical APDL or NASTRAN.
The MPC184 revolute joint is a two-node element that has only one primary degree of freedom,
the relative rotation about the revolute (hinge) axis. The Revolute joint is similar to modelling a
Beam Line Element at the bolt location alongside using RBEs to average the bearing pressure
loading at hole contact surfaces. This element imposes kinematic constraints such that the nodes
forming the element have the same displacements. Additionally, only a relative rotation is allowed
about the revolute axis, while the rotations about the other two directions are fixed (Ansys,
November 2013a, Ansys, November 2013c).
Spring
For the landing consideration a compression spring has been modelled between components (LB002 and LP-001 (Appendix B.7)). The compression stiffness was set to 300 N/mm and the
damping was set to 0 N.s/mm for an initial deflection analysis. The solution is yet to converge due
the increased DOF solution from the Ansys modeller.

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G.5. Solver Formulation

Section by Amit Ramji

Augmented Lagrange solver method has been used for the majority of contact models involving
Bonded and No separation contact, as it is a penalty-based method. In comparison to the Pure
Penalty method, this method usually leads to The Augmented Lagrange method requiring
additional iterations, especially if the deformed mesh becomes too distorted (Ansys, November
2013g). In some analysis cases, Program Controlled or the Pure Penalty method is used for
decreasing the solution time and iterations. Such cases include the landing case where solution
time is significant due to the Degrees of Freedom of the Undercarriage components.

G.6. Mesh
Element Types Used

Section by Amit Ramji

SOLID187
The SOLID187 element used as per Table 26 is a high order 3 dimensional, 10-node element. The
SOLID187 has a quadratic displacement behaviour and is well suited to modelling irregular
meshes (Ansys, November 2013c).
The element allows for having 3 DOF
at each node: translations x, y, and z
directions. The element has large
deflection and strain capabilities;
alongside plasticity, hyperelasticity,
stress stiffening and creep capabilities.

Figure 106 SOLID187 Element


(Ansys, November 2013c)
PLANE182
The PLANE182 element used as per Table 26 is also known as a QUAD182 [PATRAN
Conversion: WEDGE15, HEX20] depending on its use in 2D or 3D configuration. The PLANE182
element can be used for 2D representation of a solid 3D structure.
The element is a 4 node type
which has 2 DOF at each
node. The element has large
deflection
and
strain
capabilities;
alongside
plasticity,
hyperelasticity,
stress stiffening and limited
2D creep capabilities (Ansys,
November 2013c).
Figure 107 PLANE182
Element (Ansys, November
2013c)

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Mesh Refinement
The process of mesh refinement is a post mesh generation step in which elements on the selected
parts are split and refined. The process of mesh refinement has only been used for small subassemblies where the local features are to be studied, for example in the arm stress cases and
motor mount plates. Local mesh refinement has been used on main body plates for entire quadrotor flight analysis cases at the hole and cut-out locations and has been removed at the arms and
motor plate regions to decrease computing time. Mesh refinement being removed from such
regions is no longer important as the parts have been justified in another upstream analysis case.
Contact Pinch Controls and Inflation
Pinch controls have been used at contact positions where removal of small features (such as short
edges and narrow regions) at the mesh level. Pinch control helps to generate better quality
elements around such contact positions as the nodes are aligned and shared between mating
components. The Pinch control provides an alternative to Virtual Topology modeling used at
geometry level. Both Virtual Topology and Pinch Controls work together to simplify meshing
constraints due to small features such as edge chamfers and corner radii and grooves. To further
ensure the mesh and analysis was efficient, such small features had been removed in a separate
simplified CAD model, which also removed fasteners and small non-structural components.
Inflation is used in certain locations where high stress concentrations exist and involves additional
layers or elements surrounding the feature under question. An example of where inflation has
been used is at the Motor plate fastener positions (Table 26).

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Mesh attributes used in Quad-Rotor Analysis


The following mesh properties have been used to identify the localised stress on individual
components, for larger assemblies these values have been changed suited to their location within
the load path. e.g. Motor Mounting Plates (MP-001) in the entire quad assembly or Arm assembly
has had refinement, inflation and contact pinch controls removed to save on computing time and
simultaneously provide accurate results of the global assembly (Ansys, November 2013h, Ansys,
November 2013d). The cases where detail analysis of failure points is to be considered, pinch
controls, inflation and refinement mesh elements have been used in each analysis case where
appropriate. The table below is for reference values of mesh values that should be used for such
detail analysis.
Part No.
(Appendix B.7)
MP-001

Material ID
(Appendix. E)
1

Property

Value

Element
Type
Type of
Mesh
Size (Aspect
Ratio)

Solid Tet 10 node

Refinement
Inflation

FB-001
FB-002
MB-001
EB-001
LB-001
LB-002
PB-009
PB-010

FA-001
MA-001
UV-001
UH-001

Pinch
Controls
Element
Type
Type of
Mesh
Size (Aspect
Ratio)
Refinement
Inflation
Pinch
Controls
Element
Type
Types of
Mesh

Size (Aspect
Ratio)
Refinement
Inflation
Pinch
Controls

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TET10 SOLID187
1.15 (Min)
9.5 (Max)
2.5 (Ave)
Level 2 @ 40 Hole
and Slot Faces
3 Layers at Bolt
Interface Positions Growth Rate 1.2
Default at Bolt
Locations
Solid Tet 10 node
TET10 SOLID187
1.3 (Min)
26 (Max)
2.8 (Ave)
None
None
None
Plane Quad 4 Node
PLANE182 /
QUAD182, [PATRAN
Conversion:
WEDGE15, HEX20]
1.28 (Min)
26.4 (Max)
2.82 (Ave)
None
None
None

Image

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LB-003

LP-001
AP-001

Element
Type
Types of
Mesh
Size (Aspect
Ratio)
Refinement
Inflation
Pinch
Controls
Element
Type
Types of
Mesh
Size (Aspect
Ratio)
Refinement
Inflation
Pinch
Controls

TJ-001
TJ-002

Element
Type
Types of
Mesh
Size (Aspect
Ratio)
Refinement
Inflation
Pinch
Controls

BP-001,
BP-002,
PB-004 &
PB-005

Element
Type
Types of
Mesh
Size (Aspect
Ratio)

Refinement
Inflation

Pinch
Controls

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Solid Tet 10 node


TET10 SOLID187
1.21 (Min)
52 (Max)
2.84 (Ave)
None
None
None
Solid Tet 10 node
TET10 SOLID187
1.28 (Min)
26.4 (Max)
2.82 (Ave)
None
None
None

Solid Tet 10 node


TET10 SOLID187
1.236 (Min)
44.1 (Max)
3.213 (Ave)
None
None
None
Solid Tet 10 node
TET10 SOLID187
5mm (Body Size)
1.2 (Min)
15.2 (Max)
3.0 (Ave)
Level 1 @ 44 Hole
and Slot Faces
3 Layers at Bolt
Interface Positions Growth Rate 1.2
Default at Bolt
Locations

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PB-001,
PB-002,
PB-003,
PB-006,
PB-007 &
PB-008

Element
Type
Types of
Mesh

Size (Aspect
Ratio)
Refinement
Inflation
Pinch
Controls
Table 26 Mesh Attributes for Components

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Plane Quad 4 Node


PLANE182 /
QUAD182, [PATRAN
Conversion:
WEDGE15, HEX20]
1.19 (Min)
63.3 (Max)
5.20 (Ave)
None
None
None

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G.7. Stationary Motor Arm Stress Analysis

Section by Zuber Khan

Materials: As per Appendix. E

D1 = 0.06m & 0.067m


D2 = 0.23m & 0.247m

F2

F1

D
1
D
2
Transferring loads from F1 to F2 required a moment transfer using:
=
Equation 21 Moment Calculation
Fixed-arm
Full Arm length of 0.23m
1 = (1.75 9.81) 0.23 = 3.9485
Equation 22 - Moment for Fixed Arm
The moment can then be transferred to the first Nylon clamp where D1 =0.06m. Which can then be
used to find out the force that will be applied on the Nylon clamps.
3.9485 = 2 0.06
2 = 65.81
Maximum Fixed Arm Stress
Maximum force was applied to represent maximum thrust produced by the motor. The thrust was
then multiplied by the global load safety factor of 1.5.
0.17m
D1=0.016
Reaction
m

Moment
0.23m
Force

D2=0.0115
m

Figure 108 - Arm Cross-section for Stress Calculation


To work out the stress in the arm the following equation was used.

21

=
=
4
4

64 (1 2 )
Equation 23 - Stress in a Cylindrical Pipe (Warren C. Young)
Compression

Tension

When the motors are on full thrust the arm will be under
maximum compression on the top surface and under
maximum tension on the bottom surface as shown in Figure
109.

Figure 109 - Tension & Compression Stress in Arm

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Stress analysis at Fixed-arm Analytical Solution


Section by Zuber Khan
7 9.81
=
=
25
4
4
0.016
25 0.17 2

=
= 14416251.37 2

(0.0164 0.01154 )
64
= 14.42 () & 14.42 ()
Stress analysis at Fixed-arm FEA Method
Mesh: Values as per section G.6

Section by Amit Ramji

Figure 110 Mesh for Fixed-arm Assembly Values as per Appendix G.6
Results:

Figure 111 - Deflection of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with 7.6mm Deflection

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Figure 112 - Stress of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with Stress 15.8MPa (Contact)
and 20MPa (Peak)

Figure 113 Stress (Close-up) of Fixed-arm Assembly (Flight Loads) with Stress 15.8MPa
(Contact) and 20MPa (Peak)
FEM Verification: Tube Stress Comparison
One can observe the results from the above analytical stress calculation being 14.42MPa and the
stress level as seen in the far field stress contour of the tube in Figure 109 (15.8MPa) being very
close. Substantiation of the numerical modelling and contact constraints can be deemed as
accurate as a very small difference is observed between the methods.

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G.8. Movable Arm Stress Concentration at Contact Points


Materials: As per Appendix. E
Section by Zuber Khan
Movable-arm
Full Arm length of 0.247m
1 = (1.75 9.81) 0.247 = 4.2404
Equation 24 - Moment for Movable-arm
The moment can then be transferred to the first Nylon clamp where D1 =0.067m. This can then be
used to find out the force which will be applied on the Nylon clamps.
4.2404 = 2 0.067 2 = 63.29
Analytical Stress at Movable-arm
0.016

2
=
= 15264266.16 2

(0.0164 0.01154 )
64
= 15.26 () & 15.26 ()
25 0.18

The yield strength of the material used for the arms is 55MPa (Appendix. E). One can observe that
the arms have a minimum of 3.6 reserve factor remaining, in addition to the added factor of 1.5 for
the global safety. From this analysis, it can be justified that the arms at this size and with the
properties defined in Appendix. E are suitable for the UAV.
FEA Method for Movable-arm
Mesh: Values as per section G.6

Section by Amit Ramji

Figure 114 Mesh for Arm Assembly (With additional Tab) Mesh Values as per G.6

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Results:

mOrange = rV = 1.15g / cm3 3.142cm3 = 3.6133g


mBlue = rV = 1.15g / cm3 3.501cm3 = 4.0262g
\Dm = +0.4129g
An additional 0.4129g results in slightly lower stress
levels (see Figure 116 & Figure 118). However the
main reason for introducing this modification is to
eliminate the possibility of piercing MA-001 during
repeated loading. By increasing the contact surface
area allows for a more distributed loading edge
during deflection.

Figure 115 - Modified FB-002 for reduction in


point contact stress concentration

Figure 116 - Stress Concentration at Arm (without addition) Contact (a) & Close-up (b)
Modified FB-002 Bracket with Tab Addition
Benefits Increased fatigue resistance and larger Non-Linear contact area, which is important for
repetitive loading and general contact stress reduction. Point contact is now a Line contact (for
Non-Linear Flexure) and Line contact is now a Surface Contact (for Linear Flexure).

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Figure 117 - Deflection of Modified Movable Motor Arm of 7.88mm for flight loads with SF

Figure 118 - Stress of Modified Movable Motor Arm of 20.8MPa for flight loads with SF

Figure 119 - Modified Movable Motor Arm with Stress of 20.8MPa for flight loads with SF (a)
& Close-up (b)

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G.9. Undercarriage Lug Bracket Flange Addition


Materials: As per Appendix. E
Section by Zuber Khan
Lug Analysis Using Analytical Methods
Lug analysis was carried out to calculate if the lug design would
be able to cope with the loads put upon it.

Figure 120 - Load on the Lug (Niu, 1988)


To carry out the analysis the load was split into components as shown in Figure 121.

PA
W

Thickness of Lug (t) = 4.5mm


Width (W) = 25mm
Diameter (D) = 5mm
( ) = 7 1.5 9.81 cos 45 = 72.84
( ) = 7 1.5 9.81 cos 45 = 72.84
Ultimate strength of the material (Ftu) = 85MPa

PT

Figure 121 - Components of the Load (Niu, 1988)


The Areas on the lug were determined to be able to calculate the maximum allowable load.

A2

A4

0.707
1 = ((
)(
))
2
2
25
0.707 5
1 = (( ) (
)) 4.5 = 48.292
2
2
Equation 25 - Area A1 on Lug (Niu, 1988)

45'
A1
A3
PT

) AreaA2

Thickness = ( ) . =

= (
Width-Diameter
(
)
2

Figure 122 - Areas on the Lug


Equation 26 Area A2 on Lug (Niu, 1988)
3 = 2
Equation 27 - Area A3 on Lug (Niu, 1988)
4 = 1
Equation 28 - Area A4 on Lug (Niu, 1988)
6
6
() =
=
= 47.1452
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1 + 2 + 3 + 4
48.296 + 45 + 45 + 48.296
Equation 29 - Average Area of Lug (Niu, 1988)

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() = = 4.5 5 = 22.52
Equation 30 - Bearing Area on Lug (Niu, 1988)

= 2.095
Using 2.095 and the tension efficiency graph a Ktu & Kty value of 0.923 was
determined.
Therefore the allowable traverse load = Ktu x Abr x Ftu = 1765.15
1765.15
Therefore the reserve factor for the lug is: . = 72.84 = 24.23
From this one can conclude that the lug is more than sufficient for the purpose of this UAV.
Lug Analysis Using FEA Methods with Flange addition
Section by Amit Ramji
Mesh: Values as per section G.6
Results:
Previous Lug Bracket without Flange
To improve the stress distribution within the Lug bracket (LB-003) for the Undercarriage, additional
flanges have been incorporated to distribute the load evenly to the fastened plate face. It proves
beneficial to repeated heavy landings and side impact cases.

Figure 123 - Lug Bracket Without Flange (Left) & with additional Flange (Right)

mLeft = rV =1.15g / cm3 8.833cm3 =10.1579g


mRight = rV =1.15g / cm3 9.415cm3 =10.8272g
\Dm = +0.67g
An additional 0.67g results in lower stress levels (see Figure 124) and is also beneficial for
repeated loading and impact consideration during a side impact landing as demonstrated in
Appendix G.13.
Although the Lug Bracket (LB-003) in Figure 123 (Right) is more complex to machine, the design is
a one-off and if a series production part was to be introduced, an injection moulded equivalent
would take its place and be simpler and quicker to manufacture. The additional flange
demonstrates that the small addition of material can improve the structural performance and
repeated loading capability of parts significantly.

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Figure 124 Lateral Unit Load Deflection (Left) & Stress (Right) of Lug Bracket Without
Flange
Modified Lug Bracket with Flange Addition
Benefits Increased fatigue resistance and multiple load paths which is important with repetitive
heavy landing and sideward crash cases.

Figure 125 Lateral Unit Load Deflection (Left) & Stress (Right) of Lug Bracket With Flange

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G.10. Motor Plate Stress Analysis

Section by Amit Ramji

Materials: As per Appendix. E


Mesh: Values as per section G.6
25N Flight Case at 4 RBE3s
10 Nm of Torque*
*(Translated to 4 RBE3s as
in-plane Loads)

Figure 126 - Mesh for MP-001 (Appendix B.7) with values as per Appendix G.6
Results:

Figure 127 Motor Plate Deflection (0.038 mm) and Stress (41.7 MPa) for flight case with SF
at start-up

Figure 128 - Error Elements in Model - Due to Separation at FB-001 and EB-001

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G.11. Main Body Plate Stress Analysis


Materials: As per Appendix. E
Section by Zuber Khan
Simply Supported Plate Deflection
A simple plate deflection was determined of a 2mm thick Nylon plate with dimensions of 315mm by
280mm. This was the largest the plate would go to on the UAV if necessary therefore was used for
the purpose of this analysis. The reason for doing this was to compare the analytical results with
the results produced by the FEA model. If the results were similar or close to the analytical
method, the method could be applied to the whole UAV model.
=

Y = b
280mm

X = a
315mm

Youngs Modulus, E = 3300MPa


Thickness, t = 0.002m
Poissons Ratio, v =0.3
Distributed Force = 33.8445N
Area = 88200 x 10e-6 m2

Figure 129 - Simplified Plate Representations


All the edges are simply supported for this analysis.
Section by Zuber Khan
Analytical Method
Below are the Navier stokes equations used to work out the plate deflection at the centre, where
the maximum deflection will take place from engineering judgement.
3
=
12(1 2 )
Equation 31 - Flexural Rigidity of the Plate (Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001)

(, ) = sin
sin

=1 =1

2
2

= 11 sin sin
+ 12 sin sin
+ 21 sin
sin
+

Equation 32 Navier solution (Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001)


160
=
2
Equation 33 - Navier stokes coefficient 1 (Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001)
1

= 4
2
2

2
[( 2 ) + ( 2 )]

Equation 34 - Navier Stokes coefficient 2(Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001)


First the pressure distributed on the whole plate surface was calculated.

33.8445

=
= 383.72 2
6

88200 10

Followed by calculating the flexural rigidity


3300 106 0.0023
=
= 2.61905
12(1 0.42 )
The Navier coefficients 1 and 2 could be calculated for when mn = 1 1, 1 3, 3 1, 3 3
16383.72
11 = 112 = 622.063
13 = 207.35
31 = 207.35
33 = 69.12

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w11 =
w13 =
w31 =
33 =

1
2.61905

1
2.61905

1
4 2.61905
4

1
2.61905

622.063
12

12
)
+
(
)]
[(
0.3152
0.282
207.35
12

32

= 4.67689 103

= 5.21215 105

= 7.59333 105

= 6.41566 106

)+(
)]
[(
0.3152
0.282
207.35
32
12
)+(
)]
[(
2
0.315
0.282
69.12
32
32
)
+
(
)]
[(
0.3152
0.282

The coefficients were then input into the Navier solution equation to calculate the deflection at the
centre.
0.1575
0.14
0.1575
(, ) = 4.67689 103 sin (
) sin (
) + 5.21215 105 sin (
)
0.315
0.28
0.315
3 0.14
3 0.1575
sin (
) + 7.59333 105 sin (
)
0.28
0.315
0.14
3 0.1575
3 0.14
sin (
) + 6.41566 106 sin (
) sin (
)
0.28
0.315
0.28
w(x, y) = 4.67689 103 5.21215 105 7.59333 105 + 6.41566 106
w(x, y) = 4.555 103 m = 4.555mm
Section by Zuber Khan
FEA Simplified Rectangular Approximation
Using Catia the same plate was modelled with the same constraints and loads to see the
deflection it would cause.

Figure 130 - Simple Plate Deflection Carried out on CATIA structural analysis

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From the FEA model it can be observed that the deflection has been calculated to be 4.54mm.
The mesh used was set to a size of 2mm with absolute sag of 1.5mm. Therefore any further plate
bending analysis carried out on CATIA, should be set to the same mesh size and constraints as it
has been substantiated to provide accurate answers.
Method
Deflection
Analytical (Rectangular Plate)
4.555mm
FEA CATIA (Rectangular Plate)
4.54mm
Table 27 Comparison of Simplified Plate Deflection for Model Substantiation
FEA As Built (Single Plate) Ansys Results
Mesh: Values as per section G.6

Section by Amit Ramji

Figure 131 - Mesh of Main Body Plate - Values as per Appendix G.6
Results:

Figure 132 Single Main Body Plate Analysis with 17.8MPa Stress at contact holes for
flight case with pressure load

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G.12. Main Body Plate Stress Analysis as Built Ansys Results


Materials: As per Appendix. E

Section by Amit Ramji

Representation: In order to carry out a quick analysis of the main body assembly, point masses
for the payload, systems and batteries had been added to the structure with the masses defined in
Appendix. C.

Figure 133 Mass Representation of components and payloads as per Appendix. C


Mesh: Values as per section G.6

Figure 134 - Mesh of Main body assembly with Values as per Appendix G.6
Results:

Figure 135 Contact model Flight Case for Main body assembly Deflection (left) and
Equivalent Stress (right)

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Figure 136 - Contact model Flight Case for Main body assembly - Equivalent Stress with
predicted locations

G.13. Undercarriage Buckling and Torsion Cases


Materials: As per Appendix. E
Undercarriage Stress Analysis
For carrying out the undercarriage stress analysis the leg was treated as a single entity. The loads
were first applied individually to see how the material would react and if it would be able to cope for
the initial sizing stage. For all the cases the worst-case scenario would be the full weight of the
UAV landing on one leg.
Section by Zuber Khan
Analytical Undercarriage Leg Buckling Without Spring
To calculate the leg buckling stress and critical load, the following equations were used.

Equation 35 Slenderness Ratio (Warren C. Young)

Equation 36 - Radius of Gyration (Warren C. Young)


2
=
()2
Equation 37 - Critical Load to Cause Buckling (Warren C. Young)
2
=
2
()
Equation 38 - Critical Stress to Cause Buckling (Warren C. Young)
The assumption was made whilst calculating the buckling load and stress that 1 end was fixed due
to a jam and one end free resulting in the equivalent length n value to be 2.
Working out the second moment of area of the tube.

( 4 4 ) =
(0.0164 0.01154 ) = 2.35845 109 4
=
64
64
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Cross-sectional area of the tube, = 2 = ( 0.0082 ) ( 0.005752 ) = 9.7193 105 2


2.35845109
9.7193105

Radius of Gyration, =

Slenderness Ratio,

20.18
4.926103

= 4.926 103

2 3100106
55106

73.082 23.586 Therefore the buckling formula can be used for this scenario.
The critical load which would cause the leg to buckle is shown below.
=

2 3100 106 9.7193 105


2
2 0.18
(
)
3
4.926 10

= 556.78

This demonstrates that approximately 56.76Kg landing on one leg would cause the leg to buckle, if
the leg was pointing vertically down.
To get a more accurate buckling load, the component of that was taken.
556.78N
A

45

cos 45 =

= 393.7 = 40.13
556.78

Figure 137 - Resolving Component to Determine Vertical Load


Analytical Undercarriage Leg Bending

Section by Zuber Khan

D=178mm
F
F
Figure 138 - Undercarriage Leg Under Pure Bending
Stress caused on the undercarriage leg due to pure bending has been calculated below. The
assumptions made for the calculation was that the pivot was treated as fixed which considered a
jam or lateral crashing load. Another assumption made was that the t-joint at the bottom of the leg
was also treated as rigid. The force applied on the leg was the full weight of the craft, which was
multiplied by 1.5 (Global load safety factor).

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Equation 23 is used to determine the stress in the tube.

21

=
=
4
4

64 (1 2 )
0.016
7 1.5 9.81 0.178 2
0.14668
=
=
= 62193016.6 = 62.2

2.35845 109
(0.0164 0.01154 )
64
62.2MPa is the maximum stress the leg would undergo under pure bending if the UAV were to
land on one leg. This would cause the leg to yield however the load applied is excessive and it is
applied only to one leg, which would not occur repeatedly. Additionally this analysis does not
consider the entire body deflection that would dramatically reduce the stress levels. In this
calculation, the pivot is assumed to be fixed with infinite stiffness, however in reality this cannot be
true, as the main assembly would also deflect.
Working backwards using Equation 23 the max force could be found out which would cause the
undercarriage leg to yield.
55 106 =

0.178 0.008
= 91.0918 = 9.29
2.35845 109

9.29Kg is the force required in pure bending to cause the leg to yield. This is a significantly low
load, however in reality the UAV would land on both legs repeatedly therefore this force could be
doubled. The undercarriage design proposes to incorporate springs to help reduce the impact
force on the structure and provide some give by allowing for a designed deflection.
Analytical Undercarriage leg Torsion

Section by Zuber Khan


Stress caused on the undercarriage leg due
to pure torsion has been calculated below.
The assumptions made for the calculation
was that the pivot was treated as fixed
which considered a jam in the pivot
mechanism. Another assumption made was
that the t-joint at the bottom of the leg was
also treated as rigid. The force applied on
the leg was the full weight of the craft which
was multiplied by 1.5 (Global load safety
factor).
Figure 139 - Undercarriage Leg Under
Pure Torsion

Equation 39 - Angle of Twist (Warren C. Young)


=

G = Shear Modulus = 1.0993 x 109Pa (Appendix. E)


4 (164 11.54 )
=
=
= 4716.8994
32
32
Equation 40 - Polar Moment (Warren C. Young)

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T=Torque Applied = 7 1.5 175 9.81 = 18025.9


L= Length = 0.175m
Therefore the twist angle was calculated to be:
18025.9 180
=
= 0.6257 = 35.85
1.0993 103 4716.899

Equation 41 - Shear Stress (Warren C. Young)


For shear stress to be maximum, r (radius) needs to be maximum.
18025.9 8
=
= 30.57
4716.899
Yield in shear = 1099.3MPa (Appendix. E)
Therefore the material is suitable to withstand maximum torque which could be applied on it with
an RF=35 in this loading condition.
Analytical Undercarriage Combined Loading Bending, Buckling and Torsion
Section by Zuber Khan
A combined loading analysis was carried out in which 3 different forces are applied to the
undercarriage at the same time to see if the material can withstand the loads. The loads which
were applied were a bending load, buckling force and a torque at the bottom of the leg with an
applied 1.5 global load safety factor. If the material can withstand the loads without yielding it can
be assumed that the material is suitable, and can withstand the worst loads the UAV shall face.
T = Torque

Buckling
Load

Bending
Figure 140 - StressLoad
Element A (Warren C. Young)
Using the stress element A as shown in Figure 140, the equations of combined load can be used.
A plan view of element A has been shown below.

Figure 141 - Plan View of Stress Element A

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The formulas used to work out the combined stress and their principle angles have been shown
below.

Equation 42 - Compression Stress on Pipe (Warren C. Young)

21

=
=
4

2 4 )
64 (1
Equation 23 - Stress in a Cylindrical Pipe (Warren C. Young)

Equation 41 - Shear Stress (Warren C. Young)


+ 1
2
1 =
( ) + 4 2
2
2
Equation 43 - Principle Stress 1 and 2 (Warren C. Young)
71.59.81

The compression stress on the leg using Equation 42: = (162


= 1.059798 2
2)
4

11.5

0.016

71.50.178

2
= (0.0164
= 6.34

0.01154 )
64
71.50.1759.818
= 30.572
4716.878884

Bending stress on the leg using Equation 23: =

Shear stress on the leg using Equation 41: =


Using the above stresses the principle stress could be worked out using Equation 43:
1.059798 6.34 1
1 =
+ (1.059798 6.34)2 + 4 30.5722 = 27.095
2
2
1.059798 6.34 1
2 =
(1.059798 6.34)2 + 4 30.5722 = 34.495
2
2
Using the stresses above the principle angles were determined to show the direction they were in.
2
230.572
tan 2 = = 1.0597986.34 = 8.2629
1 = 41.55 & 2 = 48.45

Equation 44 - Principle Stress Angles (Warren C. Young)


The principle stresses and their angles could then be applied to
Figure 141.

-34.495

Figure 142 - Stress Element A with Principle Stresses

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The maximum shear caused by the combined loadings has been calculated below using Equation
45.
1
2
= ( ) + 4 2
2
Equation 45 - Shear Due to Combined Loadings
1

= 2 (1.059798 6.34)2 + 4 30.5722 = 30.795


It can be concluded that the material would be able to withstand the maximum shear cause by the
combined loadings.
FEA Solutions
Mesh: Values as per Appendix G.6

Section by Amit Ramji

Figure 143 - Undercarriage Mesh for Contact Model with values as per G.6
FEA Results Bending Lateral Crash Landing

Figure 144 Lateral Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 53.6mm Deflection

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Figure 145 - Lateral Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 60MPa Bending Stress
Figure 145 and Figure 146 show the results of the bending analysis to be 60MPa. The analytical
bending calculation from above also results in a similar bending stress of 62.2MPa. The
justifications on yielding in the above section still hold true for this analysis.
As above, the entire
structure will deform and
reduce
stress
hence
60MPa is not a realistic
situation.
This
infinite
stiffness constraint can be
solved by finer mesh and
adding
a
spring
(Deformable support) with
the stiffness of Nylon at
the Lug bracket holt-holes.

Figure 146 Landing


on
Undercarriage Leg with 60MPa Bending Stress (Close-up)

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FEA Results Tip Landing


As with the Lateral bending case above, the entire structure will deform and reduce stress, hence
60MPa is not a realistic situation. This infinite stiffness constraint can be solved by finer mesh and
adding a spring (Deformable support) with the stiffness of Nylon at the Lug bracket holt-holes.
Additionally the T-Joint in this analysis is considered as a rigid body, however there will be some
deflection at the T-Joint, which will reduce the stress upstream. The reason for regarding the TJoint as rigid in the analysis is to reduce computing time as such a non-linear solution is very
lengthy to set-up and run.

Figure 147 - Tip Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 60MPa Bending Stress
FEA Results Combined Torsion and Bending Tip Contact

Figure 148 -Tip Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 66mm Combined bending and
torsion deflection

As with the Lateral bending and Tip landing cases above, the entire structure will deform and
reduce stress, hence 71MPa is not a realistic situation. This infinite stiffness constraint can be
solved by finer mesh and adding a spring (Deformable support) with the stiffness of Nylon at the
Lug bracket holt-holes. Additionally the T-Joint in this analysis is considered as a rigid body,
however there will be some deflection at the T-Joint, which will reduce the stress upstream. The
reason for regarding the T-Joint as rigid in the analysis is to reduce computing time as such a nonlinear solution is very lengthy to set-up and run

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Figure 149 - Tip Landing on Single Undercarriage Leg with 71MPa Combined bending and
torsion stress
FEM Verification Summary or Undercarriage Results
Case
Description
Deflection (mm) or
(deg)
Buckling Analytical Axial loading of UV-001
N/A
Bending Analytical
N/A
Bending of UV-001
Bending FEA
53.6 mm
Torsion Analytical
Torsion of UV-001
35.85 deg
Combined
Combined Bending and N/A
Analytical
Torsion of UV-001
Combined FEA
66.76mm
Table 28 Summary of Undercarriage Results

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Equivalent Load
(N) or Stress
(MPa)
393.7N
62.2MPa
60.63MPa
30.57MPa
34.495MPa
71.76MPa

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G.14. Entire Quad Non-Liner Contact Model Flight Case


Parts: As per Appendix B.7

Section by Amit Ramji

Materials: As per Appendix. E


Mesh: Values as per section G.6
Results:

Figure 150 Entire Quad-Rotor Flight Deflection of 7.9mm at Motor Arm Tips

Figure 151 - Entire Quad-Rotor Flight Deflection of 7.9mm at Motor Arm Tips (Close-up)

Figure 152 - Entire Quad-Rotor Flight Stress of 28.8 MPa at Motor mount plates

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Figure 153 - Entire Quad-Rotor Flight Stress with Plate Stress peak at 14.42Mpa

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G.15. Payload Housing Non-Liner Contact Model Old Design


Parts: As per Appendix B.7

Section by Amit Ramji

Materials: As per Appendix. E


Mesh: Values as per section G.6
Results:

Figure 154 Downward Load - 1kg Payload and 10N Additional Load onto PB-005 Plate

Figure 155 - Side Load - 1kg Payload and 10N Additional Load onto Hinge Plate at 45deg to
horizontal

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Figure 156 - Side Load - 1kg Payload and 10N Additional Load onto short edge 45deg to
horizontal

Figure 157 - Side Load as per Figure 156 - Showing Pre-mature Release due to global
deflection

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G.16. Payload Housing Non-Liner Contact Model New Design


Section by Amit Ramji
Modification of PB-006 and PB-008 to result in a more rigid design to avoid pre-mature deployment
of payload and incorporation of two smaller hinge positions.
Parts: As per Appendix B.7
Materials: As per Appendix. E
Mesh: Values as per section G.6
Results:

Figure 158 Downward Load as per Figure 154 - new design showing 0.73mm Deflection

Figure 159 - Side Load as per Figure 155 new rigid design and Deflection of 1.56mm

*No pre-mature deployment


during manoeuvres as seen
in the previous design from
Figure 156 and Figure 157

Figure 160 Side Load as


per Figure 156 and Figure
157 with new design and
deflection of 0.41mm*

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G.17. Finite Element Model Checking


Section by Amit Ramji
For the majority of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modelling used in industry, a sample analytical
calculation should be carried out on a simplified load case or geometry or by correlation with a
physical test. However for the majority of cases, usage of material is required and modal response
is not possible in most laboratories due to costly test equipment and resources. The simplified
geometry cases show substantiation is possible by using the same modelling techniques and
contact types.
As a result, FEA techniques with guidance from NAFEMS and by reference to Ansys
guides*shows good correlation for the analytical solutions and complex non-linear contact models.
Model checks have been carried out at various stages which include material properties, geometry
checks, mesh sizes, boundary conditions and preliminary validation checks such as free modal
analysis in the static workbench, resulting in a zero displacements in all DOF at 0 Hz. Additional
quick model checks as those described in Appendix G.4 make use of initial bonded contacts to
check if all parts of assemblies have been well constrained and later refined before investing
further computing time.

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Appendix. H Performance & Propulsion


H.1. Propulsion
This section investigates the possible inrunner and outrunner electric motors, propellers, and power sources
that are capable of producing the thrust required to firstly lift the Hex-rotor, and secondly attain the velocity
required to complete the challenge on time before the batteries are exhausted.
1. To calculate Hex-rotors performance the MTOW weight is vital, and for this initially 7kg was used
based on 2kg payload, 1.5kg power source, 1.2kg propeller, motors and attachment, the frame and
all other electronics components adding to 2kg plus another 5% for possible unexpected weight
addition.
2. Identified Hover thrust Using MTOW of 7kg it was identified that for the Hex-rotor to hover it would
require each of the six motors to produced 1.167kg of thrust to hover in 1g
3. Identified thrust for manoeuvrability Using an equation provided by leading multicopter builders just
as DJI, thrust required for improved manoeuvrability was calculated
(

MTOW 2 1.2
) = 2.8kg of thrust/motor
Number of motors

4. Identified performance criteria to complete the mission in 2minutes The mission consists of a
range of 2km, taking into account 2 minutes the velocity that the Hex-rotor requires to travel at is
16.67m/s (32knots) taking into account 12.8m/s (25knot) gust and 10.2m/s (20knot) wind the Hexrotor would require to travel at relative speed of 29.7m/s (57knots)
5. Propeller, Motor, ESC and Battery selection- It was very quickly identified that a low rpm/V brushless
electric motor was required so that it can use a large propeller with high pitch so that it can produce
the lift and thrust required but also not too larger of a propeller so the velocity isnt sacrificed. The
selection of these important components required the use of a sophisticated website called
ecalc.com and theoretical calculations, which identified 20 different combination of producing the
thrust required, velocity required and battery life that can last greater than 2 minutes. By performing
these calculations it helped to narrow down from countless number of propeller, motor, ECS and
battery combinations that would achieve the specification required. Specification of these
components can be found in Apendix E
6. Calculations using xcalc.com
As it can be seen from Appendix C the Turnigy G32-770kv motor has a maximum of 1000Watts. The
1000W is based on no load condition were a propeller is not attached to the motor, but these
conditions change when a propeller is added to the motors, the effect is that the added load reduces
the motors capability to 791.9W. The motor itself also has an efficiency factor of 0.882 which is
specified by the manufacturer that further reduces the motors capability to 698.2W
Performance Calculations
The flight profile for the Hex-rotor has been calculated using the flight path specified in Appendix C and the
performance calculations has been based on using the Turnigy G32-770 motor, APC-E 11x7 composite
propellers, 60A ESC and 16000mAh lipo batteries options include using 5S but cost constraints may result in
using multiple 3S or 4S. Results of the flight profile, velocity, time, distance covered and battery status are
presented below table 1.1.1

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Table 1.1.1 shows Realistic Calculation Under Windy Condition

Location

Velocity (m/s)

Time (s)

Battery Status (%)

Distance Covered (m)

[Runway]

100

[Runway]-[30.5m Altitude]

6.77

3.85

98.7

26.2

[30.5m Altitude]-[1]

15.932

16

92.5

(282-26)=255.8

At [1] half loiter performed

0.875

92.2

[1]-[2]

15.932

50.78

66.5

(842-7-26)=809

[30.5m Altitude]-[descend to
1m]

6.77

3.85

65.3

26.2

Hover

N/A

64.5

N/A

From 1m to 30.5m

6.77

3.85

63.3

26.2

[30.5m]-[3]

15.932

24.6

51.8

(418-26.2)=391.8

At [3] half loiter performed

0.875

51.5

[3]-[Target]

15.932

18.9

42.7

(334-7-26)=301

[30m Altitude]-[descend to
1m]

6.77

3.85

41.3

26.2

Hover

N/A

40.5

N/A

From 1m to 30.5m

6.77

3.85

39.1

26.2

[30.5m]-[Runway]

15.932

6.13

36.2

(124-26.2)=97.8

Hover

N/A

35

N/A

Total

N/A

152.41
(2.54
minutes)

N/A

2000

Sample Calculation
Max velocity calculation
Total Thrust = Max thrust per motor*number of motors*9.81
2

Total thrust = 2.8kg*6*9.81m/s = 164.8N


Total thrust produced at 49degree tilt angle = Total thrust*Cos()
Total thrust produced at 49degree tilt angle = 164.8Cos(49) = 108N
Max velocity (m/s) =
Max velocity (m/s) =

49
2 2
108
21.226 2

= 26.22m/s

Taking into account 10.288m/s wind condition Velocity = 15.932m/s


Google maps was used to measure the distance from runway to point [1] = 255.8m
From this time(s) taken is calculated = T=distance/velocity = 16s

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Calculating battery percentage remaining


Battery charge state at runway = 16000mAh (16Ah)
Current (I) = 44.77A*number of motors = 44.77A*6 = 268.62A
Time (s) = 16s = 0.267minutes
()
60 = 0.267()
268.62 ()
Battery Capacity (Ah) =

0.267268.62
60

= 1.193Ah

Battery capacity remaining = 16Ah-1.193Ah = 14.8Ah


Battery percentage % =

14.8
16

100 = 92.5%

H.2. DATA
Figure: 1.1 shows lift (N) of 11*8 propeller at different RPM

Figure 1.2 shows Lift Vs RPM graph

Lift (N)

Lift Vs RPM
Graph

Velocity Increases with


RPM

RPM
Range

RPM

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Figure: 1.3 shows power vs rpm graph

Power Vs RPM
Graph

Power (W)

RPM

Power required
line for
propeller 7*6

Table 1.1 showing propeller constant values for different manufacturers.

Propeller Manufacturer

APC

1.11

Graunper

1.18

Aeronaut

1.31

Table 1.2 showing propeller dimensions and acceptability

Propeller Dimensions (in)


7*6
7*9
7*8.25
7.8*6
7.8*7
8*3.8
8*4
8*5
8*6
8*7
8*8
8*9
8*10
9*3.8
9*4.7
9*6
UAS CHALLENGE 2015

Rpm Power (W) Lift (N) Acceptable propeller Y/N


20,000
463
16.53
N
20,000
694
20.24
N
20,000
637
19.38
N
20,000
714
24.15
N
20,000
833
27.88
N
20,000
500
21.00
N
20,000
526
21.50
N
20,000
658
24.08
N
20,000
790
26.38
N
20,000
617
19.09
N
20,000
619
30.46
N
20,000
1185
32.31
N
20,000
1316
34.06
N
20,000
801
31.71
N
20,000
991
35.26
Y
20,000
1265
39.84
Y

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9*7
9*7.5
9*8
9*9
9*10
10*3
10*4
10*4.7
10*5
10*6
10*7
10*8
10*9
10*10
11*3
11*3.8
11*5
11*6
11*7
11*8
11*9

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

18,750
20,000
18,100
20,000
17,800
20,000
17,500
20,000
17,000
20,000
16,550
20,000
18,550
20,000
17,000
20,000
16,570
20,000
16,400
20,000
15,600
20,000
15,000
20,000
14,600
20,000
14,100
20,000
13,750
20,000
15,700
20,000
14,800
20,000
13,900
20,000
13,200
20,000
12,700
20,000
12,300
20,000
12,000

1042
1476
1094
1582
1115
1130
930
1898
1165
2109
1195
965
770
1286
832
1511
859
1608
886
1929
915
2250
949
2572
1000
2893
1013
3215
1044
1412
683
1788
724
2353
790
2824
811
3295
843
3765
875
4236
915

35.02
43.04
35.24
44.55
35.28
46.01
35.22
48.80
35.26
51.43
35.22
40.73
35.05
47.04
35.20
50.99
35.00
52.59
35.36
57.62
35.05
62.22
35.00
66.52
35.45
70.56
35.07
74.37
35.15
56.87
35.04
64.00
35.05
73.41
35.46
80.42
35.03
86.87
35.02
92.86
35.12
98.50
35.46

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

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11*10
12*6
12*8
13*4
13*6
13*8
13*10
14*13
15*6
17*10

20,000
11,700
20,000
11,350
20,000
10,600
20,000
10,900
20,000
9,900
20,000
9,200
20,000
8,700
20,000
7,150
20,000
7,700
20,000
5,450

4707
942
4000
731
5333
764
3672
594
5509
668
7345
715
9182
755
16056
733
9765
557
26852
543

103.82
35.53
109.06
35.12
125.93
35.37
117.83
35.00
144
35.36
166.70
35.26
186.31
35.25
275.33
35.19
238.14
35.29
476.45
35.37

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Table: 1.3 shows a section of table 1.2 with propeller dimensions 9*6

Propeller Dimensions (in)

Rpm

Power (W) Lift (N) Acceptable propeller Y/N

9*6

20,000

1265

39.84

18,750

1042

35.02

Table: 1.4 shows a section of table 1.2 with propeller dimensions 17*10

Propeller Dimensions (in)

Rpm

17*10

20,000

26852

476.45

5,450

543

35.37

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

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H.3. Motor Specfication and maxium RPM values


Table: 1.5 showing rc motor specifications, and maximum rpm values

Manufacturer Power KV
Max
/Model
(W) (rpm/V) Current
(I)

Working
Current
(I)

Power
Supply
Cell
Range
(s)

Propeller
Dimension
Range (in)

Weight
(g)

Cost
()

Max
RPM

BRC HOBBIES
PRODUCTS
EMax
GT2820/07

600

850

54

48

3-4

9*4.7 12*6

140

20.95

10064

A2826-5T

645

840

45

37.6

12*6 13*6.7

175

27.70

9945

Emax
BL2820-07

740

919

59

33.5

3-4

10*5 13*6

145

17.95

10880

Emax
GT2826-06

962

710

52

42

4-5

10*5-14-7

175

23.95

12987

Emax
GT3526-04

875

870

69

55

3-4

12*6-13*6.5

265

32.95

10300

Boost 0.50

800

600

55

45

3-5

12-13

295

62.95

8880

Boost 0.60

900

490

60

50

4-6

13-14

345

69.95

8702

Boost 0.80

950

340

60

52

5-7

14-15

395

79.95

7044

Boost 0.90

1000

300

65

55

6-9

16-17

455

79.95

7992

12-15

303

34.43

8140

159

13.30

13024

HOBBY KING
PRODUCTS
Turnigy G46

925

550

55

46

4-5

Turnigy
D3548/4

910

1100

50

45

3-4

Turnigy
D3542/4

690

1450

48

42

2-3

10-12

130

13.60

12876

Turnigy
2834-800

660

800

45

40

2-4

10-12

195

22.38

9472

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Turnigy
3508-640

550

640

30

25

2-5

10-13

98

20.05

9472

Turnigy
3639

800

1100

45

38

2-3

11-13

136

17.39

9768

Turnigy SK3
3542

670

1000

45

40

3-4

11-12

141

18.63

11840

Turnigy
L3020B

800

600

54

48

3-4

10-12

146

14.59

5328

Turnigy
4250

900

540

60

55

3-5

9-12

236

13.80

7992

NTM 35-30

560

1400

37

32

9-13

88.3

12.23

12432

NTM 35-36

722

800

43

34

3-4

9-15

130

16.84

9472

NTM 35-42

600

1250

56

42

3-4

10-11

142

18.64

14800

NTM 35-48

640

1100

70

62

3-4

11-13

173

14.61

13024

Scorpion SII3026

1000

710

60

55

4-5

12-15

205

83.74

10508

Scorpion SII3014 V2

600

1040

40

35

3-4

11-14

129

67

12313

Scorpion SII3014

550

830

30

25

4-5

10-15

129

61.63

12284

Scorpion SII3020

780

890

45

40

4-5

10-14

166

73.69

13172

Quanum MT
4010

548.3

580

24.7

20

4-6

9-12

127

23.818 10300

Quanum MT
3510

568.3

630

25.6

18

3-6

9-11

100

16.52

11188

Quanum MT
3510 V2

672.7

700

30.3

24

3-6

10-12

100

16.52

12432

4-MAX
Professional
Series
3542-1000

605

1000

60

55

2-4

12-14

142

33.49

11840

Professional
Series

590

1250

60

55

2-4

11-14

142

33.49

14800

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3542-1250
Professional
Series
3548-790

850

790

50

45

3-4

11-12

171

35.99

9353

Professional
Series
3548-900

840

900

50

45

3-4

11-13

171

35.99

10656

Professional
Series
3548-1100

850

1100

50

45

3-4

11-12

171

35.99

13024

Professional
Series
4250-650

1150

650

60

55

3-4

12-14

230

48.95

13616

E-FLITE
Power 32

800

770

60

45

4-5

11-14

200

50.27

11396

Power 15

575

950

42

34

3-4

10-13

152

43.57

11248

Power 60

1000

470

80

65

5-6

15-17

230

73.73

8347

Power 46

925

670

55

40

5-6

12-14

290

60.32

11899

Power 25

600

870

44

32

3-4

11-14

190

46.92

10300

Power 25BL

850

1250

58

50

3-4

8-10

183

46.92

14800

Table: 1.6 shows a section of table 1.5 for motor model EMax GT2820/07
Manufacturer Power
KV
Max
/Model
(W) (rpm/V) Current
(I)

EMax
GT2820/07

600

850

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

54

Working
Current
(I)

Power
Supply
Cell
Range
(s)

Propeller
Dimension
Range (in)

Weight
(g)

Cost
()

Max
RPM

48

3-4

9*4.7 12*6

140

20.95

10064

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Table: 1.6 shows a section of table 1.5 for motor model EMax GT2820/07

Manufacturer Power
KV
Max
/Model
(W) (rpm/V) Current
(I)

EMax
GT2820/07

600

850

Working
Current
(I)

Power
Supply
Cell
Range
(s)

Propeller
Dimension
Range (in)

Weight
(g)

Cost
()

Max
RPM

48

3-4

9*4.7 12*6

140

20.95

10064

54

Table 1.2.1 shows updated version of table 1.2 taking into account motor capabilities

Propeller Dimensions (in)

Rpm

10*8

20,000

2572

66.52

14,600

1000

35.45

20,000

2893

70.56

14,100

1013

35.07

20,000

3215

74.37

13,750

1044

35.15

20,000

1788

64.00

14,800

724

35.05

20,000

2353

73.41

13,900

790

35.46

20,000

2824

80.42

13,200

811

35.03

20,000

3295

86.87

12,700

843

35.02

20,000

3765

92.86

12,300

875

35.12

20,000

4236

98.50

12,000

915

35.46

20,000

4707

103.82

11,700

942

35.53

20,000

4000

109.06

10*9
10*10
11*3.8
11*5
11*6
11*7
11*8
11*9
11*10
12*6
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12*8
13*4
13*6
13*8
13*10
14*13
15*6
17*10

11,350

731

35.12

20,000

5333

125.93

10,600

764

35.37

20,000

3672

117.83

10,900

594

35.00

20,000

5509

144

9,900

668

35.36

20,000

7345

166.70

9,200

715

35.26

20,000

9182

186.31

8,700

755

35.25

20,000

16056

275.33

7,150

733

35.19

20,000

9765

238.14

7,700

557

35.29

20,000

26852

476.45

5,450

543

35.37

H.4. Propeller data

Table: 2.0 shows maximum rpm required at different propeller pitch setting to achieve 29.46m/s

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

(degrees)

29.46

32

20,371

29.46

32

19,352

29.46

32

15,481

29.46

32

12,901

29.46

32

11,058

29.46

32

9,676

29.46

32

8601

10

29.46

32

7740

13

29.46

32

5954

Propeller Pitch
(in)

(m/s)

3.8

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Table 1.2.2 shows updated version of table 1.2.1 taking into account motor capabilities

Propeller Dimensions (in) Rpm Power (W)


10*8
20,000
2572
14,600
1000
10*9
20,000
2893
14,100
1013
10*10
20,000
3215
11*6
20,000
2824
13,200
811
11*7
20,000
3295
12,700
843
13,750
1044
11*8
20,000
3765
12,300
875
11*9
20,000
4236
12,000
915
11*10
20,000
4707
11,700
942
12*6
20,000
4000
11,350
731
12*8
20,000
5333
10,600
764
13*6
20,000
5509
9,900
668
13*8
20,000
7345
9,200
715
13*10
20,000
9182
8,700
755
14*13
20,000 16056
7,150
733
15*6
20,000
9765
7,700
557
17*10
20,000 26852
5,450
543
H.5.

Lift (N) Acceptable propeller Y/N


66.52
Y
35.45
Y
70.56
Y
35.07
Y
74.37
Y
80.42
Y
35.03
Y
86.87
Y
35.02
Y
35.15
Y
92.86
Y
35.12
Y
98.50
Y
35.46
Y
103.82
Y
35.53
Y
109.06
Y
35.12
Y
125.93
Y
35.37
Y
144
Y
35.36
Y
166.70
Y
35.26
Y
186.31
Y
35.25
Y
275.33
Y
35.19
Y
238.14
Y
35.29
Y
476.45
Y
35.37
Y

Power supply data


Table: 1.7 showing the different power supply analysis

Manufacturer
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Multistar
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy power
Turnigy nano-tech
UAS CHALLENGE 2015

No.Cells Capacity (mAH) Coulomb Weight Cost


(s)
(C)
(g)
()
3
4000
25/50
333 19.26
3
5000
35/70
409 30.88
3
5200
10/20
325 20.39
3
6400
40/80
506 41.51
3
8400
30/40
772 40.19
3
8400
40/80
641 55.72
4
4000
40/50
476 32.68
4
4000
25/50
433 26.00

230

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Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-the
Turnigy power
Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Turnigy power
Turnigy power
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy power
Turnigy power
Zippy
Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy power
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Turnigy power
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Turnigy power
Zippy

4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
9

4000
4500
5000
6000
7200
8000
4000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
8000
8000
4000
4500
5000
5000
5000
5000
5800
6000
8000
4500
5000
5000
5000
4400
4500
5000
5000
5800
5800
5000

20/30
25/50
65/130
25/50
40/80
30/40
25/50
45/55
25/30
30/40
35/70
20/30
30/40
25/50
25/50
30/40
35/45
20/30
30/40
25/50
25/35
25/50
25/50
65/130
65/130
25/35
60/120
65/130
35/45
25/35
65/130
25/35
25/35
25/35

399
467
576
623
840
845
525
732
677
695
659
640
1054
924
623
745
812
754
784
769
914
908
1105
895
978
818
1025
1012
911
937
1106
1025
1216
1021

19.98
31.00
53.71
46.08
48.36
42.83
31.99
46.57
33.12
39.53
47.73
29.19
53.65
63.87
38.36
51.84
44.52
35.60
41.30
51.66
55.58
57.48
78.56
66.99
66.99
46.79
50.46
90.03
67.19
53.59
110.03
60.68
66.99
69.12

Table: 1.8 shows a section of table 1.7 which investigates different power supplies

Manufacturer
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Zippy
Zippy

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

Number of Lithium polymer cells Capacity (mAH) Coulomb Weight Cost


(s)
(C)
(g)
()
3
4000
25/50
333 19.26
4
4000
25/50
433 26.00
5
4000
25/50
525 31.99
6
4000
25/50
623 38.36
7
5000
25/35
818 46.79
8
4500
35/45
911 67.19
9
5000
25/35
1021 69.12

231

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Table 1.9 showing increasing number of lithium cells for a calculated power consumption, current draw will
decrease

Lithium-Ion Cells (s) & Current Draw


(I)
Propeller
Dimensions (in)

Rpm to sustain
lift of 35N

Power
(W)

Rpm to sustain forward


velocity (29.46m/s)

3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s

10*8

14,600

1000

9,676

90 67 54 45 38 33 30

Table 2.1 shows the rpm required to sustain lift and rpm required to achieve forward velocity of 29.46m/s
coupled with current draw using different lithium ion cells

Lithium-Ion Cells (s) & Current Draw (I)


Propeller Rpm Power Rpm to
Dimensions to
(W)
sustain
(in)
sustain
forward
lift of
velocity
35N
(29.46m/s)

10*8

14,600 1000

9,676

90

67

54

45

38

33

30

10*9

14,100 1013

8,601

91

68

55

46

39

34

30

10*10

13,750 1044

7,740

94

70

56

47

40

35

31

11*6

13,200

811

12,901

73

54

43

36

31

27

24

11*8

14,088 1316

9,676

118 88

71

59

50

44

39

11*9

12,522 1039

8,601

93

70

56

46

40

35

31

11*10

11,700

942

7,740

84

63

50

42

36

31

28

12*6

11,350

731

12,901

65

49

39

32

28

24

21

12*8

14,088 1864

9,676

167 125 100 83

71

62

55

13*6

9,900

668

12,901

60

25

22

20

13*8

14,088 2567

14088

231 173 138 115 99

86

77

13*10

11,270 1643

11270

148 111 89

74

63

55

49

14*13

8,670

1307

5,954

117 88

70

58

50

44

39

15*6

7,700

557

12,901

50

30

25

21

18

16

17*10

11270

4804

11270

432 324 259 216 185 162 144

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

45

37

36 30

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Table 2.2 shows the rpm required to sustain forward velocity of 29.46m/s exceeds the rpm to sustain 35N of
lift

Lithium-Ion Cells (s) & Current Draw


(I)
Propeller
Dimensions (in)

Rpm to sustain
lift of 35N

Power
(W)

Rpm to sustain forward


velocity (29.46m/s)

3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s

13*6

9,900

668

12,901

60 45 36 30 25 22 20

Table 2.3 shows that by increasing the rpm power consumption increases along with current draw

Lithium-Ion Cells (s) & Current Draw


(I)
Propeller
Dimensions (in)

Rpm to sustain
lift of 35N

Power
(W)

Rpm to sustain forward


velocity (29.46m/s)

13*6

12,901

1478

12,901

3s

4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s

133 99 79 67 57 49 44

Table 3.9 shows updated version of table 2.1

Propeller Rpm
Dimensions to
(in)
sustain
lift of
35N
10*8
14,600
10*9
14,100
10*10
13,750
11*6
13,200
11*8
14,088
11*9
12,522
11*10
11,700
12*6
12,901
12*8
14,088
13*6
12901
13*8
14,088
13*10
11,270
14*13
8,670
15*6
12901
17*10
11270

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

Power
(W)

1000
1013
1044
811
1316
1039
942
1073
1864
1478
2567
1643
1307
2621
4804

Rpm to
sustain
forward
velocity
(29.46m/s)
9,676
8,601
7,740
12,901
9,676
8,601
7,740
12,901
9,676
12,901
14088
11270
5,954
12,901
11270

Lithium-Ion Cells (s) & Current Draw (I)


3 4 5 6 7 8 9

90
91
94
73
118
93
84
97
167
133
231
148
117
236
432

67
68
70
54
88
70
63
72
125
99
173
111
88
177
324

54
55
56
43
71
56
50
58
100
79
138
89
70
141
259

45
46
47
36
59
46
42
48
83
66
115
74
58
118
216

38
39
40
31
50
40
36
41
71
57
99
63
50
101
185

33
34
35
27
44
35
31
36
62
49
86
55
44
88
162

30
30
31
24
39
31
28
32
55
44
77
49
39
79
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Table 2.4 shows propellers with lowest current draw

Propeller Rpm
Dimensions to
(in)
sustain
lift of
35N
10*8
14,600
10*9
14,100
10*10
13,750
11*6
13,200
11*9
12,522
11*10
11,700
12*6
12,901

Power
(W)

1000
1013
1044
811
1039
942
1073

Rpm to
sustain
forward
velocity
(29.46m/s)
9,676
8,601
7,740
12,901
8,601
7,740
12,901

Lithium-Ion Cells (s) & Current Draw (I)


3 4 5 6 7 8 9

90
91
94
73
93
84
97

67
68
70
54
70
63
72

54
55
56
43
56
50
58

45
46
47
36
46
42
48

38
39
40
31
40
36
41

33
34
35
27
35
31
36

30
30
31
24
31
28
32

H.6. Current drawn

Table 2.5 showing the rc wiring rating and maximum current permissible
AWG Maximum current permissible
8

200

10

140

12

90

14

60

16

35

18

16

24

Table 1.7.1 shows updated version of table 1.7 in power supply data

Manufacturer

No.Cells
(s)

Capacity
(mAH)

Coulomb
(C)

Weight
(g)

Cost
()

Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Turnigy power
Turnigy power
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy power

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6

4000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
8000
8000
4000
4500

25/50
45/55
25/30
30/40
35/70
20/30
30/40
25/50
25/50
30/40

525
732
677
695
659
640
1054
924
623
745

31.99
46.57
33.12
39.53
47.73
29.19
53.65
63.87
38.36
51.84

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

Total Total
Weight Cost
(g)
()
2100 128
2196 140
2031
99
2085 119
1977 143
1920
87
2108 107
1848 128
2492 153
2980 207

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Turnigy power
Zippy
Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy power
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Turnigy power
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech
Zippy
Turnigy power
Zippy

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
9

5000
5000
5000
5000
5800
6000
8000
4500
5000
5000
5000
4400
4500
5000
5000
5800
5800
5000

35/45
20/30
30/40
25/50
25/35
25/50
25/50
65/130
65/130
25/35
60/120
65/130
35/45
25/35
65/130
25/35
25/35
25/35

812
754
784
769
989
908
1105
895
978
818
1025
1012
911
937
1106
1025
1216
1021

44.52
35.60
41.30
51.66
55.58
57.48
78.56
66.99
66.99
46.79
50.46
90.03
67.19
53.59
110.03
60.68
66.99
69.12

2436
2262
2352
2307
2967
2724
2210
2685
2934
2454
3075
3036
2733
2811
3318
3075
3648
3063

133
107
124
155
167
172
157
268
201
140
151
360
269
161
330
182
201
207

Table 2.6 shows section of table 1.7.1 which identifies lowest weight and lowest costing power supplies

H.7.

Manufacturer

No.Cells
(s)

Capacity
(mAH)

Coulomb
(C)

Weight
(g)

Cost
()

Zippy
Turnigy nano-tech

5
5

5000
8000

20/30
25/50

640
924

29.19
63.87

Total Total
Weight Cost
(g)
()
1920
87
1848 128

Motor data
Table 2.7 showing updated version of table 1.5

Manufacturer Power KV
Max
/Model
(W) (rpm/V) Current
(I)

EMax
GT2826-06
Boost 0.50
Boost 0.60
Boost 0.80
Boost 0.90
Turnigy G46
Turnigy
3508-640
Turnigy
4250
Scorpion SII-

Working
Current
(I)
BRC HOBBIES
PRODUCTS
42

Power
Supply
Cell
Range
(s)

Propeller
Dimension
Range (in)

Weight
(g)

Cost
()

Max
RPM

4-5

10*5-14-7

175

23.95

12987

3-5
4-6
5-7
6-9

12-13
13-14
14-15
16-17

295
345
395
455

62.95
69.95
79.95
79.95

8880
8702
7044
7992

4-5
2-5

12-15
10-13

303
98

34.43
20.05

8140
9472

962

710

52

800
900
950
1000

600
490
340
300

55
60
60
65

925
550

550
640

55
30

45
50
52
55
HOBBY KING
PRODUCTS
46
25

900

540

60

55

3-5

9-12

236

13.80

7992

1000

710

60

55

4-5

12-15

205

83.74

10508

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3026
Scorpion SII- 550
3014
Scorpion SII- 780
3020
Quanum MT 548.3
4010
Quanum MT 568.3
3510
Quanum MT 672.7
3510 V2
Power 32
Power 60
Power 46

800
1000
925

830

30

25

4-5

10-15

129

61.63

12284

890

45

40

4-5

10-14

166

73.69

13172

580

24.7

20

4-6

9-12

127

23.818 10300

630

25.6

18

3-6

9-11

100

16.52

11188

700

30.3

24

3-6

10-12

100

16.52

12432

770
470
670

60
80
55

E-FLITE
45
65
40

4-5
5-6
5-6

11-14
15-17
12-14

200
230
290

50.27
73.73
60.32

11396
8347
11899

Table 2.8 shows rc brushless motors that can use 5s lithium-ion power supply

Manufacturer Power KV
Max
/Model
(W) (rpm/V) Current
(I)

EMax
GT2826-06
Quanum MT
3510 V2
Power 46

962

672.7
925

710

700
670

Working
Current
(I)

Power
Supply
Cell
Range
(s)

Propeller
Dimension
Range (in)

Weight
(g)

Cost
()

Max
RPM
Based
on 5s

52

BRC HOBBIES
PRODUCTS
42

4-5

10*5-14-7

175

23.95

12987

30.3

HOBBY KING
PRODUCTS
24

3-6

10-12

100

16.52

10360

55

E-FLITE
40

5-6

12-14

290

60.32

9916

Table 2.9 shows maximum thrust, maximum velocity, current draw, power consumption and maximum flight
time based on 83% thrust setting and 11168rpm

Maximum Thrust per


motor
(N)
34

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

Maximum angle
(degrees)
43

Maximum
Velocity
(m/s)
20.9

Power
(W)

Current Draw
(I)

Flight Time
(Minutes)

800

43

5.6

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H.8. ESC data


Table 4.0 shows comparison between different escs

Manufacturer/Model Constant Current (I) Burst Current (I) Weight (g) Cost ()
Platinum Pro

60

90

68

47.95

Robotbirds Pro

60

80

63

33.95

Turnigy Super Brain

60

70

50

33.49

4 max 60A

60

70

62

44.95

SimonK

60

80

63

17.49

Hobbywing

60

80

60

39.97

Table 3.0 show a section of appendix L that has two escs that is lowest in weight and lowest in cost

Manufacturer/Model Constant Current (I) Burst Current (I) Weight (g) Cost ()
Robotbirds Pro

60

80

63

33.95

Hobbywing

60

80

60

39.97

H.9. Cost and weights


In this section the total cost and weight of the four different components will be gathered and transferred on
table 3.1.
Table 3.1 showing total cost and weight of each component

Component

Quantity Cost () Weight (g)

Propeller

15.8

100

Power supply

128

1848

Motor

95.8

700

ESC

135.8

252

375.4

2900

Total

At the start of the project certain limitation as stated below were set. By looking at table 3.1it can be seen
that these initial limitation has been met and even exceeded resulting in extra cost saving of 174.6 and total
weight saving of 800g.
Initial cost limitation of 550 after taking into account structural other electrical components
Initial propulsion and power supply weight limitation of 3.7kg was set after taking into account structural,
payload and electrical components weights

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H.10. Testing data

Test Rigs & Data


In section: D table 2.4 identified seven different propellers that required further testing to identify the most
efficient propeller that would achieve the velocity and lift required for this project. In this section two test rigs
will be presented one for single motor thrust and torque testing and the other wind tunnel test rig used for
testing the velocity of the Quad-rotor. These test rigs were constructed so that an accurate value for current
draw
The first test rig was used to measure six different parameters which are all essential for this project. The
parameters that were measured are listed below:
1. Current draw
2. Power required
3. Thrust
4. Torque
5. RPM
6. Temperature
Figure: 1.7 shows the full set-up of the first test rig

The test rig in figure 1.7 works by applying throttle from the radio controller to the receiver, this then engages
the esc, which then controls the rc motor rotational speed and ultimately the rotation of the propeller. The rc
motor is attached to an aluminium tube and the aluminium tube at the bottom end is wired onto the lift scale.
When the throttle setting is increased the lift also increased which pulled the lift scale and displayed the
result on the digital read out in grams. When the motor and propeller is rotated there is also a torque
component that occurs in the same direction as the rotation, this is measures by the torque scale. The
torque values were particularly important to the stability section when it came to using the Quad-rotor
simulation model. For this testing an ammeter is used for measuring the current draw and power required
illustrated in figure 1.8. These two values were essential as the rc brushless motor and the esc both have a
specific power and current draw values that cannot be exceeded, if these values are exceeded has the
potential to damage the motor and the esc. Current draw was particularly important because this is the
deciding factor for flight time, the higher the current draw the lower the flight time will be for a given power
supply capacity. Another important factor that was tested involved using an infrared temperature sensor, this
is illustrated in figure 1.9. RPM (revolutions per minute) was investigated using an optical rpm reader

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illustrated in figure 2.0, rpm values were particularly important in calculating the maximum velocity of the
Quad-rotor.
Figure 1.8 shows ammeter used for testing

Figure: 1.9 shows infrared temperature sensor

Figure 2.0 shows the rpm reader used for testing

Table 5.3 is used to log the data obtained for propeller with dimensions 11*8

Propeller Dimensions 11*8

Throttle Setting Percentage (%)


0

16.6

33.2

Current drawn (A)

2.35

6.20 11.26 19.51 37.20 49.63

Power required (W)

49.2 128.2 232.0 398.7 747.8 918.1

Lift (N)

0.29

Torque (Q)

0.70

49.8

2.71

66.4

83

99.6

8.45 22.68 23.86

0 0.082 0.193 0.292 0.427 0.794 0.915

RPM

Temperature (0C)

37

1020 3510 5124 7514 9741 1302


39

43

45

52

68

72

From this data the total flight time can be obtained using equation 3.2. In this case we have 4 motors and
reach one can draw up to 49.63A, therefore 198.52A in total. Under these values the Quad-rotor can have a
flight time of up to 4.83 minutes. The Quad-rotor can hover for much longer time than 4.83minutes as the
current draw reduces to around 11.26A, this give a total hover time of up to 21minutes. Take the
temperature of the motor as particularly important because over heating could lead to motor failure during
the competition day. Temperature results was conducted after running the motors at each motor setting to
1minute which allowed for them to heat up to a certain degree presented in table 5.3. Similar analysis as the
one in table 5.3 was conducted for the remaining six propellers and presented below.

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()
()

60 =

Equation 3.2

16 ()
60 = 4.83
49.63 () 4

Table 5.3.1 is used to log the data obtained for propeller with dimensions 10*8

Propeller Dimensions 10*8

Throttle Setting Percentage (%)


0

16.6

33.2

49.8

66.4

83

99.6

Current drawn (A)

2.42

7.21

14.7

22.1

36.4

48.2

Power required (W)

44.7 133.3 271.9 408.8 673.4 891.7

Lift (N)

0.24

Torque (N.m)
RPM
0

Temperature ( C)

0.57

3.71

7.1

17.1

20.2

0 0.074 0.187 0.274 0.421 0.697 0.845


0

795

37

40

3005 4901 7521 8964 12940


42

44

54

65

70

Table 5.3.2 is used to log the data obtained for propeller with dimensions 10*9

Propeller Dimensions 10*9

Throttle Setting Percentage (%)


0

16.6

33.2

49.8

66.4

83

99.6

Current drawn (A)

2.43

7.24

14.9

22.5

37.1

48.9

Power required (W)

44.9 133.9 275.6 416.2 676.3 904.6

Lift (N)

0.22

Torque (N.m)

3.45

6.9

17.0

19.7

0 0.087 0.201 0.312 0.511 0.721 0.874

RPM

841

Temperature (0C)

37

41

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

0.54

3117 5101 7045 9521 12972


43

47

55

67

71

240

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Table 5.3.3 is used to log the data obtained for propeller with dimensions 11*6

Propeller Dimensions 11*6

Throttle Setting Percentage (%)


0

16.6

33.2

49.8

66.4

83

99.6

Current drawn (A)

2.47

8.2

15.4

24.1

38.2

49.4

Power required (W)

45.7 151.7 284.9 445.9 706.7 913.9

Lift (N)

0.25

Torque (N.m)

0.64

5.41

9.41 21.12 22.45

0 0.094 0.297 0.387 0.547 0.799 0.944

RPM

940

Temperature (0C)

37

43

3201 4987 7012 9624 12984


45

48

57

68

74

Table 5.3.4 is used to log the data obtained for propeller with dimensions 11*10

Propeller Dimensions 11*10

Throttle Setting Percentage (%)


0

16.6

33.2

49.8

66.4

83

99.6

Current drawn (A)

3.4

12.0

22.1

34.1

47.2

52.1

Power required (W)

62.9 222.0 408.9 630.8 873.2 963.8

Lift (N)

0.27 0.75

Torque (N.m)

0.97 0.301 0.421 0.687 0.822 0.972

RPM

1074 3521 6210 7742 1045 1308

Temperature (0C)

37 46

49

5.87

54

8.98

67

21.47 23.1

72

78

Table 5.3.5 is used to log the data obtained for propeller with dimensions 12*6

Propeller Dimensions 12*6

Throttle Setting Percentage (%)


0

16.6

33.2

49.8

66.4

83

99.6

Current drawn (A)

2.2

7.1

12.42 31.74

40.3

45.7

Power required (W)

40.7 131.4 229.7 587.2 745.5 845.5

Lift (N)

7.1

12.9

18.2

21.7

29.2

31.2

Torque (N.m)

0.31

0.68

0.94

1.09

1.20

1.31

RPM
Temperature (0C)

0 1558 3766 6623 8051 11168 12987


37

38

30

42

47

55

67

Now that the propeller that will be used on the Quad-rotor has been identified as 12*6, its time to analyse the
performance further. The second test rig was built with the intention to calculating the maximum velocity the
Quad-rotor can achieve under different wind speeds and also the current draw increase due to increased
headwind velocity.

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Figures 2.1 & 2.2 illustrate the full test rig set up in the wind tunnel.
Figure 2.1 shows test rig inside wind tunnel Figure 2.2 shows test rig structure in wind tunnel
For this test
rig to
operate a
prototype
Quad-rotor
was built as
shown in
figure 2.3

Figure 2.3 shows the prototype Quad-rotor built for testing purposes.

KK 2 Board

Figure 2.3 shows the prototype Quad-rotor was built for the purpose of initial propulsion system integration
and performance testing. System integration involved all the components, ecss, motors, and power system
working together harmoniously, this also helped to eliminate any problems before it was wired onto the main
Quad-rotor. Some of the problems encountered involved esc throttle recalibration and esc programming, all
of which would have been difficult to accomplish once the system gets wired onto the main Quad-rotor and
the esc wires will be installed inside the arms of the copter. The prototype also allowed for the positive,
negative and signal wires to be accurately cut to side ready for installation. From the performance side of
things the KK 2 board was an important and a necessary piece of hardware to positioning the Quad-rotor in
correct pitch angle via digital read out.

Operating the test rig


The prototype Quad-rotor is set in place as shown in figure 2.1, pitch angle is set using KK 2 board and
clamped into place. The stopping pin is inserted into the rear of the test rig, this will allow for the Quad-rotor
to be powered up to 83% throttle setting without moving forward. After 5 seconds at 83% throttle setting the
stopping pin is removed. Removing the pin allows for the copter to travel in the x-axis very rapidly. To
calculate forward speed distance travelled and time is required, in figure 2.4 a pre-set distance of 0.185m is
identified. To measure time taken to cover 0.185m a standard camera was used to record the event and
using software called videopad video editor, the recording was slowed down so that time taken can be

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calculated to cover 0.185m. Figure 2.5 to 271 shows how the events video recording was captured. This test
was conducted under different wind speeds from 0m/s to 25.6m/s which was the limit of the wind tunnel.
Table 5.3.6 identifies the velocity that the Quad-rotor can travel at under different headwind velocities.
Figure 2.4 shows pre-set distance of 0.185m

Figures 2.5 shows start of recording

Figure: 2.6 shows motion capture midway at 0.0925m

Figure: 2.7 shows full distance 0.185m

Table 5.3.6 shows wind tunnel velocity and corresponding Quad-rotor velocity

Wind Tunnel Velocity m/s

Quad-rotor velocity achieved


m/s

20.2

10.28

10.4

12.86

8.4

15

5.7

20

1.2

25

Went Backwards

Effect of current draw due to headwind


From the use of the first test rig it was identified that propeller dimension of 12*6 will be used on the Quadrotor therefore further current draw testing was conducted using the wind tunnel. One APC 12*6 propeller
was put into the wind tunnel to investigate the aeroelastic effect on current draw. The testing was conducted
at different wind tunnel head speed of 25.6m/s. The results are shown in table 5.4
Table 5.4 shows the effect of propeller current draw increase at head speed of 25.6m/ s

Propeller Dimensions 12*6

Throttle Setting Percentage (%)


0 16.6 33.2

49.8

66.4

83

99.6

Current drawn (A)

0 2.23

12.8

32.4

42.2

47

Power required (W)

0 41.2 138.7 236.8 599.4 780.7 869.5

Temperature (0C)
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37

38

7.5
30

41

43

51

64

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From table 5.4 and table 5.3.5 the same propeller can be compared to each other, as stated earlier one of
the propeller is tested in ideal conditions with 0m/s head wind and the other in the wind tunnel with 25.6m/s
head wind. The results indicated that the maximum current draw increases from 45.7A to 47A but the overall
temperature of the motors decreased as a result of headwind cooling down the motors. The rpm of the
propellers in this case could not be obtained because the door to the wind tunnel at 25.6m/s was very hard
to open due to suction cause by the wind turbine.

H.11. Prop Performance


Propeller Efficiency
Propeller performance is required to be recalculated to improve accuracy of the calculations. From the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) students performed propeller analysis such as propeller
efficiency for every rc propeller that is available for use as an rc propeller, in this section their data and
graphs will be used to improve the accuracy of the calculations performed in this report.
The aim of this section is to calculate propeller thrust taking into account propeller efficiency obtained from
data that is presented by UIUC students
Engine power = Torque * rpm *

2
60

Equation 1.8

Rc motor torque can be calculated using equation 1.9 (rc groups, 2008)
( ) =

5252

Equation 1.9

Where
HP = horsepower of motor 1.289HP, as 1HP = 746W and the motor that is used has 962W
Revs Per Minute = 10508 rpm, this was calculated earlier
1.289
5252
10508

( ) =

Theoretical Torque Value = 0.6442lb-ft = 0.873N.m


Calculated Experimental Torque Value = 1.21N.m obtained from table 5.3.5
Now the engine power can be calculated using equation 1.8 (Hart, 2013) and data obtained from
experimental data, table 5.3.5 based on 83% thrust setting
Engine power = 1.21 * 11168 *

2
60

Engine power (N) = 1415N


Advance Ratio (J) is calculated using equation 2.0 (mit education, 2012)
J=

Where
V0 = Forward velocity = 20.2m/s obtained from wind tunnel test
D = Propeller diameter = 0.3048m
n=

60

= 186rev/s

Advanced ratio J can now be calculated using equation 2.0


J=

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20.2
1860.3048

= 0.356

Equation 2.0

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Now by using figure below propeller efficiency Vs advanced j ratio provided by UIUC propeller efficiency can
be obtained. Which in this case is 42%.
Figure 3.1 (Ananda, 2015) shows graph of propeller efficiency Vs advanced J ratio for propeller dimension

12*6

To calculate propeller power engine power is required as it can be seen from equation 2.2 (Hart, 2013)
Propeller power = Engine power * Propeller efficiency

Equation 2.2

Propeller power = 1415N * 0.42


Propeller power = 594N
Therefore propeller actual thrust =

594
20.2

= 29.5

Theoretical thrust was calculated using equation 1.3 as 34N per motor at thrust setting of 83% and the
results were shown in table 2.9, appendix G.
Experimental data using the test rig shows that thrust obtained at 83% thrust setting is equal to 29.5N.
As the propeller thrust has changed from 34N as stated in table 5.3.5 to 29.5N so will the maximum angle,
maximum velocity, power current draw and flight time. The new changes has been calculated and stated in
table 3.2

Table 3.2 shows the updated Quad-rotor performance

Maximum Thrust per


motor
(N)

Maximum angle
(degrees)

Maximum Velocity
(m/s)

Power
(W)

Current Draw
(I)

Flight Time
(Minutes)

29.5

32

20.2

800

43

5.6

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H.12. Flight dynamics


In this section Flight Dynamics is referenced to a research paper that was written to investigate a Quadrotors flight ability (Khan, 2014), therefore

flight dynamics will be investigated to further deepen the

capabilities of this copter. The Quad-rotor can be defined under two frames one which moves with its body
called the body frame and the other which is defined with respects to the ground, the layouts of these can be
seen in figure 1.5

Figure 1.5 (Khan, 2014) showing body frame and inertial frame

Each

of

the four motors operate

and produce thrust independently for example if the Quad-rotor is required to hover at any height the thrust
must equal to its MTOW which in this case is 68.67N and reach motor will work independently to produce
one fourth of this value. If the Quad-rotor is to perform any type of manoeuvre such as pitch to move forward
then again each motor would work independently to produce the thrust required but in this case each motors
thrust value will vary. Manoeuvres such as, pitch, roll and climb. Equation 2.3 (Khan, 2014) shows total
thrust required during certain pitch angle and roll angle.
=

Equation 2.3

()()

Where
T = Thrust (N)
mg = MTOW (N)
cos() = pitch angle
() = roll angle
If the Quad-rotor climbs and performs any of the same manoeuvres then equation 2.4 (Khan, 2014) is
considered to calculate the total thrust required.

4( )+

Equation 2.4

()()

Where
= Density kg/m3
A = Total propeller area m
g = 9.81m/s

hf = FInal altitude (m)


h = Initial altitude (m)

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Magnitude of component vectors within the x-y and z axis are calculated using equations 2.5, 2.6 and 2.7
(Khan, 2014).

= 2 cos()2 (1

1
cos()2

Equation 2.5

= () sin()

Equation 2.6

= cos() cos()

Equation 2.7

Table 3.2 (Khan, 2014) shows the pitch and roll angle that the Quad-rotor can operate within

Pitch () Roll ()

Manoeuvre

Hover

+ or -

Pitch Forward

0-90

+ or -

Pitch Backward

-90-0

+ or -

Roll Left

0-90

+ or -

Roll Right

-90-0

+ or -

Pitch Forward and Roll left

0-90

0-90

+ or -

Pitch Backward and Roll Right

-90-0

-90-0

+ or -

The manoeuvre that is required ultimately depends on the angle setting as it can be seen form table 3.2. For
example if the Quad-rotor was required to hover then both pitch and roll is required to be zero as it can be
seen in table 3.2. Another example can be considered when the Quad-rotor moves forward therefore pitch is
required, this results in a pitch forward manoeuvre with angles between 0 and 90, which requires zero roll
angle.

Table 3.3 shows thrust required to sustain hover

x-axis y-axis z-axis Total Thrust


Thrust (N)

68.6

68.8

Table 3.4 (Khan, 2014) shows thrust that is required by each propeller to perform a certain manoeuvre

Propeller Hover

Pitch Forward/Pitch
Backward

Roll left/Roll
right

( ) +

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Pitch Forward and roll left/Pitch backward and roll


right
+

( ) +
2
4

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+( ) +

+( ) +
2
4

Table 3.4 is used to calculate thrust required by individual propellers example for hover can be seen in table
3.5
For hover the very first column will be used and it can be seen that each individual propeller is divided by 4
as its a Quad-rotor. All the values within the x and y axis is identified as zero because no pitching or roll is
required.

Table 3.5 shows thrust required by individual propeller

Propeller x-axis y-axis z-axis Total thrust


1

17.15

17.15

17.15

17.15

17.15

17.15

17.15

17.15

68.6

68.6

Another example can be identified in table 3.6 and 3.7 which shows forward flight with an angle setting of
0

32 .

Table

3.6

shows

thrust

required by each axis and

x-axis y-axis z-axis Total Thrust

total thrust at forward flight

Thrust (N) 42.91

68.67

with angle setting of 32

80.9

From table 3.6 it can be seen that there is a variation of thrust required by different propellers, which is quite
different from hover, table 3.7 also confirms this.

Table 3.7 shows thrust required by individual propeller for forward flight .

Propeller x-axis y-axis z-axis Total thrust

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9.09

14.54

17.15

9.09

14.54

17.15

9.09

14.54

17.15

15.61

24.97

29.45

Thrust (N)

42.9

68.6

80.9

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Calculating variation in thrust for forward flight


To calculate variation in thrust for forward flight table 3.6 must be obtained using equations 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, and
2.7. By using table 3.4 each propeller total thrust is obtained
Calculating Total thrust column
Propeller: 1 =
Propeller: 2 =
Propeller: 3 =

Propeller: 4 = +( ) +

Where
Z = Total thrust in the z-axis which in this case is 68.6N
T = Total thrust which in this case is 80.8N

Now that the total thrust column has been calculated z-axis column can be calculated.
It is known that total z-axis thrust is 68.6N and total thrust is 80.9N, therefore

68.6
80.9

= 0.848. Individual thrust

for each propeller in the z-axis be calculated.


From table 3.7 it can be seen that propeller 1 has total thrust of 17.15N, therefore propeller 1 in the z-axis
can be calculated as 17.1N * 0.848 = 14.54N
Similarly the same method can be applied to propeller 4 in the z- axis, where 29.45N * 0.848 = 24.97N
The same method can be used to calculate thrust required by individual propeller in the x-axis. X-axis total
thrust is calculated as 34.76N.
42.9
80.9

= 0.530

Propeller 1 = 17.15N * 0.530 = 9.09N


Propeller 4 = 29.45N * 0.530= 15.61N
Now that the thrust for individual propeller has been obtained for performing a certain manoeuver, velocity of
each propeller and hence the voltage reduction can be calculated using equations 2.8 and 2.9 (Khan,
2014).
.

. =

. =

60 .

Equation 2.8

Equation 2.9

Taking the example used for forward flight each propellers thrust, velocity and corresponding voltage is
shown in table 3.8

Table 3.8 shows thrust, velocity and voltage for each propeller

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Propeller No Propeller Thrust (N) Velocity using equation 2.8 (m/s) Voltage using equation 2.9 (V) Voltage required per
motor (V)
1

17.15

13.85

1.22

18.5

17.15

13.85

1.22

18.5

17.15

13.85

1.22

18.5

29.45

18.15

1.60

20.9

From table 3.8 it can be seen that for the Quad-rotor to attain an angle of 32 degrees the voltage required
from the batteries is 18.5V for three motors and 20.9V for one motor which can be achieved by the lithiumion batteries chosen for this project.

H.13. Velocity of Quad rotor


Take of velocity for a Quad-rotor can be calculated based on the velocity of the air while the free stream of
the Quad-rotor is equal to zero.
=

Equation 3.0

Where:
T = Thrust
= Density kg/3
= 2

Table 4.0 shows different density setting at certain altitude coupled with Quad-rotor thrust required with and
without payload

Table 4.0

Density at
30.48m

Density at
121.92m

kg/3

kg/3

1.192

1.179

Mass with Thrust required Mass without Thrust required Propeller


Payload
with Payload
Payload
without
Area
(kg)
(N)
(kg)
payload
(2 )
(N)
7

68.67

58.86

Using table 4.0 and equation 3.0 take-off velocity can be calculate:
Take-Off Velocity with payload to 30.48m = 9.9m/s
Take-Off Velocity without payload to 30.48m = 9.1m/s
Take-Off Velocity with payload to 121.92m = 10m/s
Take-Off Velocity without payload to 121.92 = 9.2m/s
Time to reach cruise altitude
Time to cruise altitude of between 100ft and 400ft can now be calculated using equation 3.1 (Physics,
2014)
() = +

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1
2

( 2) 2

Equation 3.1

0.292

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Where:
d = Distance m
= Initial velocity m/s
= Initial time s
=

()

= Acceleration m/ 2

()

t = time taken s

Table 4.1

Distance
(m)

Distance
(m)

Initial
velocity
(m/s)

Initial
time (s)

Force
(N)

Mass
with
payload
(kg)

Mass without
payload (kg)

Acceleration
with payload
(m/ 2 )

Accelerati
on
without
payload

Time
taken (s)

(m/ 2 )
30.48

121.92

86.33

12.33

Using table 4.1 and equation 3.1 can be rearranged to


1

() = ( 2) 2 or to calculate time to height t =


2

()2

( 2 )

Time to height of 30.48m with payload = 2.2s


Time to height of 30.48m without payload = 2.0s
Time to height of 121.92m with payload = 4.45s
Time to height of 121.92 without payload = 4.1s
Stall
0

Stall for a Quad-rotor that weights 7kg will stall if the maximum tilt angle of 32 is exceeded

H.14. Flight performance


Flight performance below is calculated based the flight path that would be undertaken during the
competition. Each leg of the flight path is identify by a number (i.e. [1]). The distance of each leg is
calculated using google earth.
Important Data

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1. Flight performance calculations will be based on a worst case scenario were the Quad-rotor has a
mass 7kg and in full gust conditions throughout the flight path.
2. Having constructed a test rig and performed analysis on the propeller/brushless motor combination it
was obtained that a current draw per motor is identified as 47Amps and power required as
829Watts.
Figure 1.6 (google, 2015) shows example flight course provided by IMECH

Initial starting point: On the runway with no power


Table: 4.2 shows initial starting state of the Quad-rotor

Location Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)
[Runway]

100

First leg: Quad-rotor will take-off to its cruise altitude of 100ft ready to transit to its maximum pitch angle of
0

26.87 . 100ft is used as the cruise altitude so that when it approaches the drop box it can perform a quicker
drop of time. Also a Quad-rotor cannot tilt immediately from the runway position as the propeller will make
contact with the asphalt, therefore it would require a certain height before a manoeuver is performed.
As the time is known to vertically climb to height of 30.46m and also the current draw of 37.26A per motor is
obtained from test rig based on 75% throttle setting, the battery percentage can therefore be calculated
using equation 3.2
()
()

60 =

Equation 3.2

()
60 = 2.2 0.0167()
37.26() 4
Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated
() =

2.2 0.0167
(37.26 4)
60

() = 0.091
Therefore
16 0.091 = 15.91

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Battery Status %
15.91
16

100 = 99.4%

Table 4.3 shows time taken and battery state from runway to cruise altitude

Location

Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)

[Runway] to [30.46m]

2.2

99.4%

0
0

Second Leg: Now that the Quad-rotor is at a safe altitude maximum tilt angle of 26.87 can be applied. Also
using google earth the distance from runway to point [1] is calculated as 282m. Earlier it was calculated that
the Quad-rotor can achieve maximum velocity of 20.2m/s. Taking into account wind condition of 25knots
(12.86m/s) then the Quad-rotor can travel at a maximum velocity of 7.51m/s. Current draw of 47A per motor
was obtained again from the sophisticated test rig
Using the data above calculations for time and battery status can be calculated
()

( )

282
() =
7.51/

() =

() = 37.55
()
60 =
()
()
60 = 37.55 0.0167()
47() 4
Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated
() =

37.55 0.0167
(47 4)
60

() = 1.96

Therefore
15.91 1.96 = 13.95

Battery Status %
13.95
16

100 = 87.2%

Table 4.4 shows time taken and battery state from cruise altitude to point [1]

Location
[30.5m]-[1]

Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)
7.51

37.55

87.2

282

Third Leg: After a quick turn at point [1] the Quad-rotor will travel another 842m which again was measured
from google earth. Again the velocity will be taken as 7.51m/s and current draw of 47A per motor.
() =

842
7.51/

() = 112.12
()
()

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60 =

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()
47()4

60 = 112.12 0.0167()

Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

112.120.0167
60

(47 4)

() = 5.87
Therefore
13.95 5.87 = 8.08
Battery Status %
8.08
16

100 = 50.5%

Table 4.5 shows time taken and battery state from [1] to point [2]

Location Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)
[1]-[2]

7.51

112.12

50.5

842

Fourth Leg: Again at point [2] the Quad-rotor will perform a sharp turn to align itself with point [3] which 418m
away from point [2]. With velocity of 7.51m/s and current draw of 47A per motor
() =

418
7.51/

() = 55.7
()
()
()
47()4

60 =

60 = 55.7 0.0167()

Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

55.70.0167
60

(47 4)

() = 2.91
Therefore
8.08 2.91 = 5.17
Battery Status %
5.17
16

100 = 32.3%

Table 4.6 shows time taken and battery state from [2] to point [3]

Location Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)
[2]-[3]

7.51

55.7

32.3

Fifth Leg: Again for this section same performance criteria can be assumed
() =

334
7.51/

() = 44.47
()
()

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60 =

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()
47()4

60 = 44.47 0.0167()

Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

44.470.0167
60

(47 4)

() = 2.33
Therefore
5.17 2.33 = 2.84
Battery Status %
2.84
16

100 = 17.8%

Table 4.7 shows time taken and battery state from [3] to [Target]

Location

Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)

[3]-[Target]

7.51

44.47

17.8

334

Hover and Navigation Leg: A this point the Quad-rotor will be hovering over the top of the target but also
navigating so that is can precisely on top of the 2x2 red square. It is estimated that it would take 20 seconds
for this to occur with current draw of 17.3A per motor
() = 20
()
()
()
17.3()4

60 =

60 = 20 0.0167()

Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

200.0167
60

(17.3 4)

() = 0.39Ah
Therefore
2.84 0.39 = 2.45
Battery Status %
2.45
16

100 = 15.3%

Table 4.8 shows time taken and battery state at [Target]

Location Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)
[Target]

20

15.3

Final Leg: Final leg of the mission is to return from the target drop off point back to the runway
() =

124
7.51/

() = 16.51
()
()
()
47()4

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

60 =

60 = 16.51 0.0167()

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Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

16.510.0167
60

(47 4)

() = 0.86Ah
Therefore
2.45 0.86 = 1.59
Battery Status %
1.59
16

100 = 9.93%

Table 4.8 shows time taken and battery state from [Target] to [Runway]

Location

Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)

[Target]-[Runway]

7.51

16.51

9.93

124

Time Taken up to this point 288.55s (4.82minutes)


Reload Leg: At this point the Quad-rotor will be on the runway, power supply (8Ah) and
the second payload will be replaced ready for flight the estimated time for this will be 30
seconds. After the reload the same performance criteria as the first leg and can used.
()
()
()
37.26()4

60 =

60 = 2.2 0.0167()

Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

2.20.0167
60

(37.26 4)

() = 0.091

Therefore
8 0.091 = 7.91
Battery Status %
7.91
8

100 = 98.8%

Table 4.9 shows time taken and battery state from [Runway] to [30.46m]

Location
[Runway] to [30.46m]

Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)
0

2.2

98.8%

Final Leg: The Quad-rotor will be at a height of 30.46m and will head towards the target.
() =

124
7.51/

() = 16.51

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()
()
()
47()4

60 =

60 = 16.51 0.0167()

Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

16.510.0167
60

(47 4)

() = 0.86Ah
Therefore
7.91 0.86 = 7.1
Battery Status %
7.1
8

100 = 88.12%

Table 5.0 shows time taken and battery state from [Runway] to [Target]

Location

Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)

[Runway]-[Target]

7.51

16.51

88.12

124

Again we will have the Hover and Navigation Leg: A this point the Quad-rotor will be hovering over the top of
the target but also navigating so that is can precisely on top of the 2x2 red square. It is estimated that it
would take 20 seconds for this to occur with current draw of 17.3A per motor
() = 20
()
()
()
17.3()4

60 =

60 = 20 0.0167()

Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

200.0167
60

(17.3 4)

() = 0.39Ah

Therefore
7.1 0.39 = 6.71
Battery Status %
6.71
8

100 = 83.8%

Table 5.1 shows time taken and battery state at [Target]

Location Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)
[Target]

20

83.8

Lastly we have final leg again: Final leg of the mission is to return from the target drop off point back to the
runway

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Table 5.2 shows time taken and battery state from [Target] to [Runway]

Location

Velocity (m/s) Time (s) Battery Status (%) Distance Covered (m)

[Target]-[Runway]

7.51

16.51
() =

73.1

124

124
7.51/

() = 16.51
()
()
()
47()4

60 =

60 = 16.51 0.0167()

Battery Capacity remaining can be calculated


() =

16.51 0.0167
(47 4)
60

() = 0.86Ah
Therefore
6.71 0.86 = 5.85
Battery Status %
5.86
8

100 = 73.12%

Time taken from reload to landing = 55.22s (0.922 minutes)


Total Time Taken: 5.74minutes

H.15. Target recognition


Target Identification
Due to the usual GPS inaccuracies it was identified that in order for the Quad-rotor to accurately locate the
2x2 square drop zone point that a system had to be implemented. In this section two different target
identification methods are discussed, first method is target identification using a camera which is
programmed to identity target and a motor to crab the Quad-rotor to the target. The second method identifies
GPS inaccuracies and corrects the latitude and longitude coordinate in accordance with the location of the
2x2 target.
Method 1 works on the bases of having two servos attached to each other as shown in fig 1. Each servo has
the capability of rotating within the range of 90 degrees for tracking purposes. To track an object a webcam
is required to optically identify the 2x2 target box, in figure 2 shows the assembly between two servos and a
camera. The camera will identity the 2x2 target and the servos will be used to centre the camera with the
target. These three components will identify and track the target but without propulsion the Quad-rotor will
not move anywhere. Figure 3 shows the final tracking system with a propulsion system for manoeuvrability
The propulsion system has been attached on top of the camera so that the Quad-rotor would move in the
direction that the camera is looking at. When the Quad-rotor is directly underneath the target it would not
move in any direction because the cameras angle will be 90 degrees facing towards the 2x2 target box and
the height will be controlled by pixhawk.
This system will work independently from pixhawk and will require its own software, firmware and hardware.
Some of the hardware has already been discussed such as servos, camera and propulsion system, but

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there are others such as the Arduino Uno were it enables the two servos and the camera to be integrated
together.
To ensure that all the hardware works with each other certain softwares programs are required to ensure
that the firmware is implemented correctly. Codes are available on request.
How the whole system will function

Method 2
The second idea involves calculating the error between google maps and the pixhawk. Firstly a location is
chosen in google maps as seen in figure 2.8 and figure 2.9

Figure 2.8 (google, 2015) shows an easily identifiable location for easy GPS extraction

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Figure 2.9 (google, 2015) show street view of the location in figure 2.8

By identifying a specific point on google earth the coordinates can then be identified pretty accurately, e.g.
0

the location above has coordinates of 51 3847.13N; 0 0429.80W. The next process was to take pixhawk
0

to that exact same location which showed coordinates of 51 3847.28N and 0 0429.88N which is about 3.5
meters in difference. This process is repeated over several days at different locations so that a data base is
built up and the error between the two coordinates can be calculated and inputted back into pixhawk so that
it would have the same coordinate points as google earth.
Competition day scenario
On the competition day when the target location in given, at that point it would be logged into google maps
and the location identified via surrounding structures e.g. runway. From there the coordinates will be
identified and inputted into pixhawk after taking into account the error which has been calculated. From
0

figure 3.0 google maps identifies the target coordinates as 53 55128.83N; 0 5827.94W
Figure 3.0 (google, 2015) shows the target drop point zone

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Appendix. I

UAS System Set Up

Section by Johnathan

H.1. Control Systems Standard Operating Procedures


These procedures are step by step instructions on how to operate, maintain and test control
systems components without the need of the control systems manager. These instructions would
cover the following operations:
Installing the Autopilot firmware and configuring the autopilot main sensors

Implementing a flight plan

Configuring all other necessary parameters for the autopilot system

H.2. Connecting the Autopilot Controller (PIXHAWK)


There are two main ways of connecting Pixhawk to a ground control station (Laptop with a Mission
Planner Software) which are Serial connection and Telemetry kit. The steps are shown below:
Connect Pixhawk to the laptop, the driver necessary to make it connect should be
downloaded automatically or you can download from the PX4 official website. The first form
of connection to a GCS should be done through a USB port.

When Pixhawk is connected to the GCS, the buzzer would play a musical note to alert the
programmer that it has been connected to a power source.

After the first connection, a dedicated port is chosen by the laptop for the serial connection
and this port would show as COM5 on the GCS whenever Pixhawk is connected.

To connect Pixhawk to a GCS through a telemetry kit, the port to be used is COM3. An
easier method is to choose the option of AUTO whenever connecting Pixhawk to the GCS,
it would automatically find the correct port for whatever connection is chosen.

After the correct port is chosen and Pixhawk can then be fully connected. The following
screen would show if Pixhawk is connected properly.

Figure 161: Proof of Connection

H.3. Configuring the Autopilot


Before the autopilot system can be programmed, the firmware must be downloaded to Pixhawk
and this can be done through the Wizard function on Mission Planner. Another way to do this is to
manually create a model of the UAV you want to build by specifying the UAVs properties. The
steps to do this are show below:
Click on the Initial Setup Button on the top menu of mission planner

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Figure 162: Mission Planner top menu

The Initial Setup menu is the environment where the firmware and all hardware are
configured whether they are mandatory or optional.

Figure 163: Initial Setup for all components


Every single component to be connected to Pixhawk is to be configured from here including all the
primary on-board sensors such as the accelerometer and compass. To configure a specific one,
click on it and follow the instructions.

H.4. Implementing a Flight Plan


To implement a flight plan (especially for autonomous flight), GPS coordinates are required to be
inputted into Mission Planner.

Figure 164: Mission Planner Waypoint Entry Point


Before any waypoints are entered, the GPS should be left for a minute or two in order to
get satellite fix and then that first fixed position would be the home or launch position.

At the above shown environment in mission planner, the longitude, the latitude and altitude
of the waypoints for a flight plan. The waypoint radius, loiter radius and default altitude are
set at this environment.

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Other commands for secondary mission purposes such as servo commands or camera
commands for image processing or payload deployment. Flight modes such as loiter is also
set in this environment.

The commands would work at the waypoint altitude before them and as such it is not
necessary to set waypoints for the secondary commands.

Figure 165: Secondary Commands


After all the necessary commands for the flight plan has been inputted into Mission
Planner, the next step is to write it to Pixhawk Memory and start the mission; the
environment to write the at the right side of the mission planner

Figure 166: Area for writing flight plans into Pixhawk's Memory
Another method to enter in commands is to load waypoint files that have been saved in the
form of text files.

The speed of the Quad-rotor flight to waypoints can be also programmed at this
environment with a DO_CHANGE_SPEED command or at the configuration setting area
where PID values are set.

H.5. Stability and Control Procedures for Quad-rotor


For the Quad-rotor to be fully stable in flight, Pixhawk programming has in built controllers that
control the Quad-rotor and stabilises it if it any external disturbances are encountered in the Quadrotor flight path. Although Pixhawk has in built controllers, the controllers need to be programmed
for the different motions. The PID numbers have to be set and there are a variety of methods to
get it.
To input the PID numbers, click on the CONFIG/TUNING button at the top of the Mission
Planner Software.

Click on Extended tuning; in the environment, all PID numbers can be set as well.
Waypoint Speed, radius, ascending and descending speed.

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Figure 167: Stability Tuning for Quad-rotor Control

H.6. Configuring other Autopilot Parameters


The Quad-rotor flight parameters can be changed or fine-tuned in order to improve flight
performance and stability. Such parameters include control systems fail-safes, sensor settings,
monitoring systems settings, radio controller settings, etc.
To get to this area in mission planner, click on the CONFIG/TUNING button at the top
menu on Mission Planner.

After that, click on standard parameters button on the side menu.

A list of parameters would appear and most of them would have been set to default or
disable in order to prevent systems from malfunctioning.

For changed parameters to have effect they have to be written to Pixhawk memory, to do
that, after changing the parameter click write and to be sure it has saved, a progress bar
would appear and then disappear when the parameter is being written.

Figure 168: Mission Plannner environment for changing parameters

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There are a lot of parameters that can be changed and as such in this manual; only a
necessary few would be shown such as GPS failsafes, change of speed and acceleration,
flight modes.

Instead of scrolling to find parameters, click on the find button and type in the parameter
you are looking for and it would show only that parameter and the others would disappear.

Figure 169: Fail Safe parameters


To change any fail safe parameters, click find and type fail safe, the screen should show
parameters that look like those in figure 9. They all have different options of what to do
when the fail safes are activated.

The fail safe parameters in figure 9 are all set to disabled as a default value as they can
vary depending on the type of UAS

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Figure 170: Typical Set Fail Safe Values


Figure 10 shows the appropriate fail safe values to be set for a Quad-rotor; after these
values have been chosen click on the write button to copy them to Pixhawk memory.

These parameters would hold even after a reboot but they would be set to their default
values if Pixhawk is reset (firmware deleted or overwritten on the board).

The monitoring system parameters are shown at their defaults value in figure 11.

The monitoring system parameters include the arming check for the Quad-rotor, GPS
failsafe, throttle failsafe enable.

To be flight ready, the monitoring system should be set as shown in figure 12.

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Figure 171: Monitoring System Values

Figure 172: Flight ready monitoring system


To change the different velocity and different acceleration for different flight modes such as
take-off and land speed, waypoint speed and also respective acceleration.

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Figure 173: Quad-rotor Acceleration and Velocity parameters


The units of velocity and acceleration are in cm/s and cm/s2.

H.7. General remarks and safety warnings


To configure the autopilot system for flight, the most important configurations are all shown above.
To make sure that all configurations are done in a safe way in order to prevent damage, the
following notes should be taken into consideration.
Whenever Pixhawk is to be used, the buzzer and the safety switch must always be plugged
in. The musical tones would sound when Pixhawk is booted up or when important
parameters are saved on Pixhawk hard drive.

Do not change the transmission rate for any connection methods.

Do not turn off Pixhawk without using the safety switch.

Only use Mission Planner to program the Pixhawk.

Before any flight, pre-arm check must be carried out on the components of the control
system.

Do not arm the motors when the batteries are low, if the propellers arent screwed on
properly and if the pre-arm check is failed.

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Appendix. J
J.1.
Test
1

Systems

Section by Malwenna
Malwenna

AltHold Mode Tuning


Changes
values

to

PID Expectations

Altitude Hold P set Keeping the throttle


to zero
stick in the middle
will still cause a
PID at standard 3DR climb with very little
Quad-rotor levels
stability

Changes required
This would be done to primarily observe
the effect of altitude hold P gain on the
system and purpose of AltHold mode
being maintaining the altitude to hover,
Altitude Hold gain P will be never zero.

P -0.7500
I- 1.500
D- 0.000
1.1

Altitude
Hold
P The copter will start Increment in Altitude Hold P is needed
slightly increased
responding to the for a better desired climb or desired
throttle
command decent rate to maintain the altitude
PID at standard 3DR and will be able to
Quad-rotor levels
maintain altitude at
40% -60% throttle
P -0.7500
I- 1.500
D- 0.000

1.2

Altitude
Hold
increased more

P The copter will start


to
aggressively
maintain
altitude
PID at standard 3DR while
having
Quad-rotor levels
considerable amount
of oscillations
P -0.7500
I- 1.500

Altitude Hold P gain will better the


response time to correct however may
need to change by further increasing to
determine the best response time. PID
values will need changing since current
is optimum values for the 3DR Quadrotor which is fairly small compared to
ours.

D- 0.000
1.3

Altitude
Hold
increased
to
higher number

P Controlling
the Altitude Hold P gain should always be
a throttle will result in kept below this value since it can cause
abrupt stops and mechanical failure.
starts of motors
PID at standard 3DR
Quad-rotor levels
P -0.7500
I- 1.500
D- 0.000

Changing
The Has to be observed As advised in the Ardupilot tuning
Throttle Rate P, D since
the guide, The Throttle Rate gains would
expectation is not not require tuning and therefor will be

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gains

clear

PID at standard 3DR


Quad-rotor levels

kept at standard values;


P 6.0000
D 0.0000

P -0.7500
I- 1.500
D- 0.000
3

PI at standard 3DR The


quad
is
Quad-rotor levels
expected to be less
responsive to throttle
P -0.7500
command
I- 1.500

D gain is usually used to damp out or


limit accelerations towards desired
output and since the throttle is required
to archives accelerations, this should
always be kept at zero

Increase D gain
3.1

Decrease
throttle Quad should be For powerful Quad-rotors like ours,
Accel PI gains
more stable with decreasing these values will better the
less
oscillations performance.
To
maximize
the
while
correcting performance, further changing will be
altitude
required. However, while changing
gains, P: I ratio of 1:2 will be
maintained.

3.2

Decrease
throttle Should
be
very
Accel PI gains by stable
while
50%
maintaining altitude
and will have a good
response to throttle
command.

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

As mentioned in the Ardupilot tuning


guide, the best response for a powerful
quad can be achieved by this and might
need slight changes approximating
around these values to obtain the
optimum performance.

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J.2.

Auto Tuning

Ensure the quad is properly tuned at AltHold mode prior Auto Tuning.
Procedure
1. Change one flight mode switch to AltHold.
2. Change Ch7 Opt or Ch8 Opt at Extended parameters to Auto tune.
3. Keep the Auto tune set switch in Low position.
4. Take the cat in a large open area away from the crowd to be tested.
5. Ensure there is no trim been set up in Radio controller.
6. Arm motors and take off to a desired altitude (not too high) and switch to AltHold mode to
hover.
7. Put Auto tune set switch to high position to engage auto tuning.
8. Input roll, pitch and yaw if quad starts drifting away.
9. Use switch to abandon Auto tuning if it seems too destabilized.
10. At the end of the tuning, PID gains will be changed back to original and can be monitored
through mission planner.
11. Switch Auto tune set switch to low position and back to high position to test the new PIDs.
12. Land and disarm the motors while at high position to save the new PIDs.
13. Land and disarm motors at low position to return to original PIDs

J.3.

Risk Assessment

Likelihood definition
1

0-10% probability / Rare

11-40% probability / Unlikely

41-60% probability / Moderate

61-90% probability / Likely

91-100% probability / Very likely

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Severity definition
1

There will be little or no impact and need to review quarterly.

There will be a nominal impact associated with small budgets and lateness impacts and

unlikely to require monitoring.


3

There will be significant effects on the project exceeding the budget by at least 10% with at

least a 10% lateness impact.


4

There will be a significant impact on the outcome of the project exceeding the budget by at

least 25% with at least a 25% lateness impact.


5

The project is likely to fail exceeding the budget by at least 50% with at least a 50%

Likelihood

lateness impact.

10

15

20

25

12

16

20

12

15

10

Severity

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I.D

Risk

Likeli

Seve

Ris

hood

rity

Control/Mitigation

Lev
el
1

Bird Strikes

Cannot be managed.

One motor failure

power of the motor in front of the failed to


counter the rotation about yaw axis and
guide the copter to safety.

Adverse weather conditions

Monitor weather forecast and avoid flying


in hazardous weather conditions.

Take-off and Landing failure

Use a checklist to ensure equipment are


working properly prior to take off.

Incorrect assembly of UAS

components

Use a checklist to be used prior every


flight, use setup guides and manuals
provided by equipment manufacturers.

Radio frequency interference

Keep wire/cable away from transmitters


and antennas, Use of shielding for your
wiring runs, Keep antennas as far apart as
possible, Monitor RC Channel interference
in between flights.

Propeller Injuries

Operate away from congested areas, 50m


away from all personals and structures.

Battery detachment

Use a Velcro Strap to hold the batteries.

Battery combustion

Monitor their temperature and regulate


their charging and discharging.

10

Systems compatibility issues

Research on compatibility and use same


suppliers

11

CAD and analysis work lost

Keep multiple backups

12

Suppliers

Plan ahead and include a contingency in

delivery

delaying
of

the

components/

time plan

material
13

Run out of budget

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10

Accurate cost analysis and good planning

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14

Insufficient time for testing

Stage

testing

earlier

and

include

contingency in time plan


15

Manufacturing

lab

and

Book in advance

procurement

Finalizing

equipment unavailable
16

University
process delays

required

materials

and

components early and communicate with


procurement early

17

UAS overheats

Check for any malfunctions before running


and do not exhaust the system

18

Wind tunnel unavailable

Book

sessions

in

advance,

design

alternative testing methods


19

Stability

and

control

15

algorithms fail
20

Project delays

Use MATLAB to validate obtained PID


values through testing

15

Good

planning

and

including

contingency time
21

Structural failure

Perform FEA test and revalidate

22

Autonomy fails

Designed to be able to manually control

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J.4.

Diposal methods

Component

The process used

Circuit Boards

Open burning

Environmental Hazards

Acid baths

Hazardous gas
emissions

Pollutants such as tin,


lead, glass powder
(brominated dioxin,
beryllium cadmium and
mercury) discharge into
rivers.

Gold plated components

Chemical stripping using nitric

Tin and lead discharged

and hydrochloric acid

directly into rivers

Burning of chips

acidifying fish and flora.

Air emissions of
brominated dioxins,
heavy metals and
hydrocarbons can be
poisonous

Wires

Stripping to remove copper


Open burning

Hydrocarbon residues,
free into water, air and
soil.

Table 29 system component disposal method

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J.5.

OSD Specification

This section is used to justify the purchase of the autopilot equipment explained below.
Scope
The UAS Equipment is the on screen display board (OSD) to view the telemetry data.
Purpose
The On Screen Display is the video output of telemetry data of the UAS and will be
connected to the autopilot control board. The OSD transmits the telemetry ground data to the
ground control station. The module chosen for purchase is the MINIM OSD V1.1.

System Description
Overview

Figure 174 Minim OSD V2.1 (unmannedtechshop, 2015)


Part Name/Number
The UAS Equipment is the on-screen display board (OSD) to view the telemetry data. The
module chosen for purchase is the MINIM OSD V2.
Criteria for Selection
A number of OSD modules were evaluated under the following checklist:

Compatibility for PIXHAWK control board.

Number of telemetry data outputs

Configuration ease

Cost

Power consumption

Size

Error indication and warning system (Lost GPS Fix, stall, over speed, battery voltage
and percentage, RSSI)

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List of Other Choices


1) MAX7456 On Screen Display OSD
2) Remzibi OSD 3DR
3) DJI iOSD Mark II
4) OSD Pro Pkg
5) Skylark Dianmu OSD
Conclusions
After comparing with other OSD modules the MEng control system group have decided that
this is the OSD module that should be bought.
Specifications

ATmega328P with Arduino bootloader

MAX7456 monochrome on-screen display

FTDI cable compatible pinout

Standard 6-pin ISP header

Two independent power sections with an LED indicator on each

Solder jumpers for combining the power sections

+5V 500mA regulator for up to +12V supply input

Solder jumper for PAL video option

Exposed test points for HSYNC and LOS

Dimensions: 0.7"W x 1.7"L (2.4" w/ pins as shown) x 0.3"H

Suppliers
The following are links where the Minim OSD Rev 1.1 can be bought.

http://www.hobbyking.co.uk/hobbyking/store/__36844__Minim_OSD_v1_1.html

http://store.3drobotics.com/products/apm-minimosd-rev-1-1

http://www.buildyourowndrone.co.uk/ardupilot-mega-minim-osd-rev-1-1.html

http://www.unmannedtechshop.co.uk/sample-marc-retro-style-summer-mid-dress/

Prices
Buidyourowndrone - 45.98
Hobby King - 13.63
Unmanned tech shop - 44.95

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J.6.

GPS Specification

This section is used to justify the purchase of the autopilot equipment explained below.
Scope
The UAS Equipment is the external GPS with compass. The GPS with Compass chosen for
purchase is the 3DR uBlox GPS with Compass Kit,
Purpose
The GPS+compass unit will be the primary means navigation and tracking of the UAS and
will be connected to the autopilot control board.
System Description
Overview

Figure 175: 3DR uBlox GPS with Compass Kit (unmannedtechshop, 2015)
Part Name/Number
The UAS Equipment is the external GPS with Compass. The GPS with Compass chosen for
purchase is the 3DR uBlox GPS with Compass Kit.
Criteria for Selection
A number of GPS + Compass modules were evaluated under the following checklist:

Compatibility for PIXHAWK control board.

GPS accuracy

Configuration ease

Cost

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Power consumption

Battery life

Battery rechargerbility

Protectiveness

List of Other Choices


1) Zubax GNSS
2) UBLOX NEO-M8N GPS GNSS
3) MediaTek MT3329 GPS V2.0
4) I2C GPS Shield Rev 2.0
Features and Specifications

ublox LEA-6H module

3-Axis Digital Compass IC HMC5883L

5 Hz update rate

25 x 25 x 4 mm ceramic patch antenna

LNA and SAW filter

Rechargeable 3V lithium backup battery

Low noise 3.3V regulator

I2C EEPROM for configuration storage

Power and fix indicator LEDs

Protective case

APM compatible 6-pin DF13 connector

Exposed RX, TX, 5V and GND pad

38 x 38 x 8.5 mm total size, 16.8 grams.

Conclusion
After comparing with other GPS modules and also considering the recommendation to use
3DR uBlox GPS with Compass Kit on Pixhawk by Pixhawk manufacturer, the MEng control
system group have decided that this is the GPS module that should be bought. However,
given the unavailability, , GPS Crius CN-06 v2 was purchased instead.
Suppliers
The following are links where the uBlox GPS with Compass Kit can be bought.

http://www.buildyourowndrone.co.uk/3dr-ublox-gps-with-compass-lea-6h.html

http://www.hobbyking.co.uk/hobbyking/store/__42833__UBLOX_LEA_6H_GPS_Mod
ule_w_Built_in_Antenna_2_5m_Accuracy_V1_01.html

http://store.3drobotics.com/products/3dr-gps-ublox-with-compass

Prices
Buidyourowndrone - 54.16
Also includes following

DF13 6 Position connector cable

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DF 13 4 Position connector cable.

Hobby King - 35.13

3D Robotics - 57.24
Also includes following

Four-position cable (compass)

Five-position-to-six-position cable (GPS) for APM or PX4

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Section by Reyad
Malwenna

Appendix. K Altitude control

Assuming one motor is doing all the work, it requires


180g of additional thrust to compensate for CG that is
Figure 176 CG calculations for the x and y-axis
off-centre by 2cm. As thrust/power ratio is not linear,
increasing thrust will reduce motor efficiency.

With 1kg of payload, CG is at


0.88 cm and -1.67 cm with no
payload

Figure 177 CG calculations for z-axis

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J.1.

Altitude control on MATLAB

PID Values

Effect on Quad-rotor

Desired effect

Mitigation

P=0
I =0
D=0
P=1
I =0
D=0

Quad-rotor does not move

No expectations

Quad-rotor reaches 100ft at just under 3


seconds
but
continuously
oscillates
between 250ft and ground level due to lack
of dampening
Time to 100ft reduced further to
approximately 2 seconds, with a peak
altitude of hardly changed while the
oscillation amplitude increased with the
peak just over 320ft and no sign of
damping. Throttle continuously hits 100%
for extended periods of time.
Time to reach 100ft increased to a much
more reasonable level of 5 seconds while
the peak altitude reduced to just above
220ft while oscillations also reduced

Quad-rotor to gradually reach 100ft,


from a low P value, although this may be
due to the high power of the motors,
with a much lower levels of oscillation
Small change in going to 100ft

As this is a trial and error method, the PID values


were set to zero to see their effect, before
adjustments can start being made
Increase proportional value to see if a higher
value may increase the time to 100ft and possibly
reduce the oscillation

P = 0.4
I =0
D=0

Very little change from above

Maximum height to fall

P = 0.5
I =0
D = 0.1

Maximum height reduced to just over 200ft


once the derivative value was included.
However, while the oscillations are being
damped, the rate of damping is very low,
taking over 250 seconds to stabilise while
the error margin was about 100% above
the ideal position at 201ft.
Quad-rotor now stabilises at 45 seconds, a
far cry from the previous 250+ seconds

Basic assumption that if the Proportional


value is low, the Derivative value may
also need to be fairly low to be effective
which is not the case

P=2
I =0
D=0

P = 0.5
I =0
D=0

P = 0.5
I =0

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

Amplitude to go down alongside the


number of oscillations

Rapidly damped oscillations

Decrease the P value which will also reduce the


voltage draw

Reduce the P value further, but this time by a


much smaller amount. However, increasing the P
value increases the sensitivity, but oscillations
also increase. Derivative value will need to be
increased to reduce oscillation
0.4 for the P value is far too low, even if the
overshoot is very high. Reducing the P value from
0.5 to 0.4 reduced has very little effect which
means were already at the point of diminishing
returns. The P value will remain at 0.5 for the
meantime while the Derivative value will be
dampen the oscillations and overshoot
D value must be increased by a fairly large
amount to stabilise the Quad-rotor much quicker
otherwise well reduce forward speed whilst
continuously trying to stabilise.

D value will be further increased to reduce the


time to settle

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D = 0.5
P = 0.5
I =0
D=1
P = 0.5
I =0
D=2

while the max altitude is at 155ft


Max amplitude at approximate 120 seconds
with oscillations fully damped by 25
seconds
No overshoot. Settles at 100ft by about 15
seconds

P = 0.5
I =0
D=4
P=1
I =0
D=2
P=1
I =0
D=4

Just as before, no overshoot but settling


time is now 40 seconds

No specific expectation, simply curiosity

Small overshoot, 7% over which is quite


ideal while settling time is about 15
seconds
No overshoot while settling time did not
change

Settling time to reduce with a small


overshoot which was close to what was
desired
Settling time to increase

P=2
I =0
D=4
P=4
I =0
D=4
P=3
I =0
D=4

No overshoot with settling


approximately 7.5 seconds

at

Settling time reduced with a small


overshoot

Very large overshoot, with a maximum


altitude of just over 120ft with no change in
settling time
Overshoot reduced to a much more
tolerable level while settling time reduce to
just about 6 seconds

Overshoot with a reduction in settling


time

time

Improved damping

D value needs to be increased further to reduce


damping time

Small overshoot

D needs to be increased as settling time needs to


reduced further but there is an issue here where
the P value is too low and can cause the settling
time to increase as D is increased
The current D value is too high for the P value,
although both are below what is ideal. D value will
be returned to 2 while P will be increased
D value increased to see its effect as they are
both assumed to be lower than ideal

Reduced overshoot and settling time

Table 30 Attitude control on MATLAB

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

With the D value increased with very little change


in settling time, it seems like the D value can be
increased further. Although not without the P
value first which will most create an overshoot but
reduce the settling time
Seems like the P and D values are close and can
be worked with. However, the P value will be
increased to see for any positive changes
P value will be reduced slightly to reduce the
overshoot and settling time
Seems close to where the PID values should be,
therefore no more changes will be made as of yet.
However, no disturbances were included where
the I value will be needed

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J.2.

Roll and Pitch control on MATLAB

PID Values
P=1
I =0
D=0
P=1
I =0
D=1
P=2
I =0
D=2
P=2
I =0
D=2
P=2
I =1
D=2
P=2
I =2
D=2
P=4
I =2
D=4
P=6
I =2
D=6

Effect on Quad-rotor
Very unstable, but cannot stabilise and
falls out of the sky in less than 20
seconds
Stabilises fairly quickly and continues to
fly

Desired effect
Gradually pitching
becoming unstable

Flight quite stable

Some possible small changes

down

Some form of stabilisation

Mitigation
before D value will be increased to see if It can
stabilise
Double values to see if there are any changes

Seems like any PID numbers in the PD numbers


will not result in a change. Disturbances will be
introduced to see what effect it has
With oncoming wind, the quad gets A small struggle with the oncoming Increase the I value
thrown off initially before flying wind
relatively well
Flight far less smooth and corrects itself A smoother flight
Increase the I value further
a few times
Flight path not followed correctly Better correction
whatsoever with very sharp turns which
are also inaccurate

While it seems like reducing the Integral value


will allow for better flight path, the P and D
values will be increased to check for any
improvements
Flight path much more smoother, small Smoother flight
While the flight path is now much smoother, it
corrections need to be made every now
still made one incorrect adjustment. The P and
and then
D values will be increased to see if they can
rectify this
Smooth flight path without any need for Flight path to be the same as if there No changes required for the PID values but
adjustments
were no disturbances
may require further fine-tuning with the
physical test rig
Table 31 Pitch and Roll control on MATLAB

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Test

Changes to PID
values
P minimised
I set to zero
D set to zero

Expectations

Changes required

Very
little
sensitivity,
gradually moving in the axis
with little recovery from
stabilise mode

P
slightly
increased
I at zero
D at zero
P
moderately
increased
I at zero
D at zero

Much better
sensitivity

While it may not be the case, the P will most


likely required to be higher as this Quad-rotor
will be quite heavy, including payload.
Depending on the level of sensitivity, the P
value may be increased by a large number or
a low number, therefore either 2.1, 2.2 or 2.3
will be followed
If a low value of P allows for a good level of
control then further increasing P may allow for
tighter sensitivity

P value greatly
increased
I at zero
D at zero
P
value
in/decreased
I at zero
D at zero

Very high level of sensitivity


or
possibly oscillations
which may be needed

P set as before
I at zero
D
slightly
increased

Low levels of recovery


when pitched/rolled and
lower to no oscillations

P value from
previous
I at zero
D
slightly
increased
P value from
previous
I at zero
D
slightly
in/decreased

Quad-rotor should have a


smoother flight once the
stick has been removed to
neutral and ideally all forms
of oscillations gone
Quad-rotor may once again
start to oscillate but at a
lower level than when P
was on its own

P increased
I at zero
D set as before
P
value
increased
I at zero
D as before

Quad-rotor should move a


little faster with reduced
oscillations
As the P value is increased,
the responsiveness should
increase until it starts to
oscillate again

P as before
I slight increased
D as before

The quad should no longer


pull back as quickly once
stick is no longer pushed

10

P as before
I
slightly
increased
D as before
P as before

The quad should take a


little longer to pull back

2.1

2.2

2.3

11

UAS CHALLENGE 2015

levels

of

Improved responsiveness
or possibly oscillations

Quad-rotor should show


very
low
levels
of
oscillations

The quad should take a

If the P value required a moderate increase,


then this should either greatly improve the
level of control and a slight improvements
required or cause the Quad-rotor to oscillate
as the P value may have been set too high
As the P value had a major change, the
sensitivity may be there but there is a likely
chance that it will oscillate.
If the P value will be further increased or
decreased to get the Quad-rotor to show very
low levels of oscillations. At this point, the P
value will remain the way it is and the D value
will be increased
The D value at this point will most have a very
small impact on the flight mode, although that
will depend on how high or low the P value is.
However, it will allow the quad to gradually
return to zero and smoothen the flight
D may require a further slight increase to
further improve the stick free movement
although it may reduce the speed of response

The D may be too high and oscillate and


therefore require a slight decrease or slight
increase of it hasnt yet started to oscillate.
Once it starts to oscillate, this will be the
maximum value for D and P must be further
increased to remove the oscillation
Increase the P value further

Once the Quad-rotor starts to oscillate, the P


value needs to be increased to just below
where the oscillations starts which should be
where it will be set. Now the I value needs to
be increased
I being quite low will have very little visible
effect on the Quad-rotor, which should be
further hampered by the fact that it is on a test
rig. The I value should still be increased a
little more
Now the quad should have a much smoother
flight, if it was free of the test rig but a further
increase might be beneficial
At this stage the quad may stay in that

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12

13

14

15

16

I slight increased
D as before
P as before
I
slightly
decreased
D as before
P as before
I as before
D as before
weight added to
one motor

P as before
I as before
D as before
High airflow fan
used
for
controlled
wind
conditions
P as before
I as before
D as before

P as before
I as before
D as before
Flown outside

while longer to stabilise


once again
The Quad-rotor should fly
as intended for its task

position for too long which means reducing it.

With an added weight


added to one motor, it
should no longer fly as
smoothly as before since
the quad should be trying to
rectify the change in CG
and moment
The high airflow should
buffet the Quad-rotor but it
should be able to stabilise
relatively quickly

If the weights are causing too much of an


issue then some of the PID numbers may
require adjustment which will depend on the
level of change in flight the extra weight
causes

Now that the PID values have been gathered


and are effective, they need to be tested
under disturbances

It if struggles then the PID numbers may


require some adjustment

Now that the all the PID values have been


obtained, they need to reduced slightly (1020%) as during flight they will no longer be
attached to the test rig and therefore the extra
force will no longer be needed and could
cause oscillations during flight
Smooth movements and
relatively speedy reactions
when stick is pulled back

If it doesnt fly as well as intended then the


PID may need to be changed. However, this
will always depend on the pilot as not all pilots
prefer one type of setup over another

Table 32 Pitch and Roll tuning on the test rig

Figure 178 Overview of the Simulink model

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Figure 179 Section to change PID values

Figure 180 Quad-rotor control mixing

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Figure 181 Quad-rotor dynamics

Figure 182 GUI of the Quad-rotor general parameters


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Appendix. L

Verification and validation

Section by Tarek

K.1. Verfication Matrix


Requirements
Requiremen

Verification
Requirement

t number
2.3

Inspection

Analysi

Demo

Test

Comments

s
The UAV shall be capable of being controlled manually via radio

Manual control can be demonstrated

control however autonomous control is preferred.

by pilot and autonomous flight will be


demonstrated by setting the flight
conditions using pixhawk.

2.4

2.5

GPS waypoint locations and delivery will be provided on the

Demonstration of the programming of

event day hence the UAS shall be programmable in the field.

the flight setting can be shown.

The UAV shall be designed to remain within the range of 1km of

An analysis will be required to be

the ground station

carried out before testing and


demonstrating the

2.6

2.7

The UAV shall be visible at a distance of 500m* from the ground

Simple visual assessment of the

station safety pilot (0) within the operating altitudes.

Quad-rotor from a set distance.

UAV shall take off from the designated take-off and landing area

Demonstration of the Quad-rotor

(APPENDIX C), remain in steady controlled flight from take-off to

operating at the required conditions

an altitude between 100-400ft AGL (Above Ground Level).

that are taking off from a set take of

Element of ground-based assistance for take-off and landing is

space and land in the same space.

permitted, with transition to automatic control subject to point

Also fly at altitude of up to 400ft AGL.

penalties (APPENDIX A).


2.8

The UAS shall be controllable in forward speed together with 3

Pixhawk will be able to achieve this

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axis control (Roll, Pitch and Yaw).

and it will be demonstrated by setting


the Quad-rotor for autonomous flight.

2.9

The Ground Control Station shall display the following

This can be demonetarised by the

information and be visible to the Operators, Flight Safety Officer

use of the ground station and the

and Judges:

minimOSD which will show the

Current UAV position on a moving map.

required information on screen.

Local Airspace including any No Fly Zones.


Search Area Boundaries.
Height AGL.
Indicated Airspeed (kts).
Information on UAV Health such as remaining fuel/battery,
engine/motor RPM and Orientation.
3.1

The UAS shall have a Maximum Take-Off Mass (MTOM) of 7kg.

Analysis of Quad-rotors weight can


be carried out using a scale.

3.2

The UAV control system shall have adequate sensitivity for

The testing and demonstration of this

corrections during take-off and landing in conditions ranging

will be reviewed by using a testing

from 0kts up to winds of 5kts and gusts of 8kts.

which will be able to rotate freely


demonstrating flight conditions. Part
of the test a weight will be added to
one of the arms and then time
correction until full stability.

3.3

The UAV must be designed to fly in wind conditions up to 20kts

Calculations of wind conditions must

and gusts of 25kts.

be carried out and demonstrated and


re-evaluated using the wind tunnel.
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3.4

3.5

The maximum airspeed of the UAV shall not exceed 60 Kts_IAS)

The testing of the speed of the Quad-

(60.4Kts_(TAS)).

rotor can be tested in the wind tunnel

The UAS shall operate in temperature range of -10C to 35C

This can be analysed using previous

including solar radiation, with an atmospheric humidity of 95%

or experimntal data and running

w/w.

simulation to reprent wather


conidtions effects on the Quad-rotor.

3.6

4.1

The UAV stability* shall be predictable and controllable during

A pilot with the required license will

the mission, including during delivery of payload

shall demonstrate this.

The UAV shall be able to accomplish a flight path of 2km

Wind tunnel can demonstrate the

considering the local conditions described in 3.2-3.5 and

distance that can be flown, by finding

payload configuration described in 4.5, at a working altitude of

the flight speed and time which will

that described in 2.7, in the time frame described in 4.2-4.3.

allow to determining the distance as it


will also allow simulating different
weather conditions.

4.2

A target time for completion of the mission of 120 seconds is

This can be tested phew times in

required for scoring of maximum points. A Penalty (-1

different weather conditions using a

point/5sec) is deductible for the total time of mission going

stop watch to measure time.

above 120 seconds.


4.3

The UAV must be ready to launch within 5 minutes of the

This can be timed using a stop watch.

allocated timeslot.
4.6

The UAV shall be designed to operate from within a 10m x 30m

Test will be carried out to determine

box, orientated within 30 of the wind direction and required to

the flying ability of the Quad-rotor.

stop within the box. Landing includes touchdown and roll-out,

Take-off and landing test at different

with the UAV required to stop within the box.

weather conditions will need to be


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undertaken to satisfy the requirement.


4.7

6.1

Consideration (for maximum accuracy and viability of a system

The simulation of the alphanumeric

to autonomously detect an alphanumeric code shall be studied,

detection will show the program

to compare in real time against the GPS. The ground marker

ability to process the image. After

position for payload delivery is described. where a 2x2m red box

processing a simple test can see

with an alphanumeric code, all placed within a white 8x8m box

weather pixahw triggers the servo for

border.

the payload delivery.

All radio equipment and data links must comply with EEC

When purchasing verification of the

directives, and must be licensed for use in the UK.

spec met the UK requirement and


specification requirement.

6.2

6.3

UAS shall receive (RX) and transmit (TX) data between the

This can be demonetarised by the

ground station and UAV itself. i.e. Global Positioning System

use of the ground station to locate the

(GPS) telemetry and health (0) data from a distance of minimum

Quad-rotor and the minimOSD will

500m of the control station.

show other information on screen.

The UAS shall autonomously fly around selected GPS

Demonstration of the autonomous

waypoints that shall be provided on the mission day, whilst

flight of the Quad-rotor can be verified

remaining inside the designated flying zone, and avoiding no-fly

by programing it to fly in a set area.

zones.
7.1

7.4

7.5

Batteries used in the UAV shall have bright coloured casings to

Can visually analyse by seeing the

facilitate their location in the event of a crash.

battery from a distance.

Batteries used in the UAV shall have bright coloured casings to

Visually inspect the Quad-rotor to see

facilitate their location in the event of a crash.

if the batteries are clearly visible.

The critical UAV components must be protected for water

This can be visually assessed by

ingress by light rain (2mm/hr).

looking at the parts setup.


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7.6

8.1

8.2

8.3

At least 25% of the upper, lower and each side surfaces of the
UAV shall be bright coloured to facilitate visibility (see also 2.2)
in the air and in the event of a crash.

Visually inspect the Quad-rotor to see

The Return Home command shall be capable of activation by

The manual activation can be

the safety pilot from the ground station at any time deemed

demonstrated by manually triggering

necessary.

the return to home function.

The UAV shall automatically return to the take-off / landing zone

This can be demonstrated by

after loss of data-link of more than 30 seconds.

deactivating the Tx.

The UAV shall automatically terminate flight after loss of

This test can be demonstrated by

controllability (auto & manual TX) signal of more than 3 minutes.

working a safe location where the Tx

Termination of the flight to return to ground station is preferred if

is disconnected allowing for a signal

suitable, however a safe landing is priority allowing landing in an

loss, hence allowing the Quad-rotor

open remote location away (150m) from people, trees, traffic,

to return to home.

if the Quad-rotor matches the criteria.

other flying craft, animals and any overhead cable.


9.1

9.2

The UAS shall be able to demonstrate the switch between

This will require a demonstration of

manual and autonomous flight and vice versa for CFT

the required once the Quad-rotor is

demonstration.

built.

The UAS shall be required to demonstrate manoeuvrability by

Demonstration will be required for the

flying a figure of eight as a controllability and manoeuvrability

Quad-rotor to pass the certification.

check for CFT.

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K.2. Validation Test


System

Test

Procedure

Date

Result

Telemeter

Establishing

Plug in the telemetry kit receiver into the laptop using ground

09/03/2015

Setting the ground control station into auto

kit

connection

control software (Mission planner) and establish connection with

it will automatically select the operating

with Tx and

the transmitter connected to the Pixhawk.

frequency allowing for a quick connection.

Rx
Transmission

Tilt pixhawk into different orientation and verify the response of

09/03/2015

After carrying out this test an observation

rate

the orientation on the ground control station software (verify

was made that the ground control station

attitude response)

did see a change of attitude but there was


phew occasions where the response
displayed was lagging as the signal was
weakened.

Test the transmission connection in door

09/03/2015

Due to the massive interference of the


indoor testing the data displayed was not
accurate (especially the GPS data)

Place the receiver indoor and the transmitter outdoor and see the

10/03/2015

connection response along with signal strength

This test established the fact of the indoor


interference of the GPS as when the GPS
was placed outdoors it was able establish a
GPS lock on to location. Hence displaying
accurate data.

Transmission
range

Test the distance of transmission at an open field.

16/03/2015

Testing the maximum transmission range


at an open filed, a distance of 450 meters
was recorded but this was limited due to
the size of the field. Therefore the distance
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connection will be further as the spec state


a distance of more than 500meters is
possible.
Video

Transmission

Transmit the video through pixhawk and receive the live video

transmissio

rate

feed at the ground station (check if there is a lag in the video

11/05/2015

transmission)
Transmission

Test if the distance of transmission is the same as in telemetry kit

range

test.

Video display

Connect the camera to the Minim OSD and verify if the display

11/05/2015

11/05/2015

the live feed with the correct information


Image

Video display

processing

Program the Minim OSD to display the battery life, altitude,

12/05/2015

attitude and direction.


Image

The image processing will need to be able to identify

processing

alphanumeric at the location of the target and translate it to a text

19/01/2015

The program has been tested and it


successfully outputted the right results

file.
Pixhawk will able to take picture when triggered, which will then

14/05/2015

process the image to output a text file.


Pixhawk

Testing

The servo test will try to operate four servo channels connected

pixhawk

on the USART2 pins

14/04/2015

The servo was tested and is fully


operational after realisation that the servo

sensors

only worked with the use of the BEC.


The tone test will allow to play a tune which will indicate that
pixhawk is ready for use

02/03/2015

The test was a simple test as when power


is supplied to pixhawk it would
automatically alert the user thats its ready
for use.
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LED test will show the different conditions of the pixhawk (when

02/03/2015

on, off, connected)

When pixhawk is first switched on the kill


switch will indicate a red light however
before disconnecting pixhawk the kill switch
must be toggled to disconnect it and that
will display a flashing light to indicate its
safe to disconnect.

Calibrating the RC receiver with pixhawk

16/04/2015

The radio control had been calibrated to fly


the Quad-rotor. An additional joypad was
also calibrated to operate the Quad-rotor.

Navigation

Signal

Examine the GPS location test on different weather conditions at

system

strength

different locations, to test its signal triangulation.

23/03/2015

The GPS was able to achieve its global


positioning lock even when tested inside a
building.

Plan a journey using the ground control, and test the navigation

19/03/2015

system GPS response by moving to the destination

The setting of the way point for the Quadrotor is straight forward either by the use of
coordinates or point selection on the map.

Propulsion

performance

Test the voltage usage at full power and the current drain from

19/03/2015

the batteries
Test the current drain from the engines at different wind speeds

27/03/2015

(in wind tunnel).

Safety test

Time how long the battery last at full power

25/03/2015

Test the amount of weights the motors are able to carry

20/05/2015

Drop the final built Quad-rotor from 15 cm from ground to

18/05/2015

represent landing
Test the final model in the wind tunnel to see the structural rigidly

31/03/2015

After testing the Quad-rotor looked staple


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and the arms where able to handle the


conditions
Visually inspect all electrical components and wires to make sure

16/04/2015

After first initial check phew concerns were

there is no loose wires or components that may get effected

raised and a date is rescheduled for

during flight

revisiting the test. New date: 15/05/2015

Physically asses all part and components are secure together

16/04/2015

All components are securely fastened into


the Quad-rotor, however extra mounting
features should be adapted to limit the
change of battery location as CG position
keeps changing every time batteries are
mounted and dismounted.

PID

Controllability

This is carried by creating a mathematical model of the UAS and

controller

of the Quad-

simulating the dynamic behaviour with the use of matlab.

test

rotor

08/04/2015

Test where undertaken on matlab to


simulate the Quad-rotor characteristics.
The values are then applied to Pixhawk.

A test rig is built for the sole purpose of testing the UAS in order

16/04/2015

to set its PID numbers before the initial flight.

Tests have been undertaken using the test


rig. PID values have been narrowed down
and further testing must be carried out from
17/05/2015 - 29/05/2015.

The last method is an auto tune method where the UAS is flown

25/05/2015

with a radio controller and the autopilot then auto-tunes the PID
parameters to its final values.
Payload

Testing the

Connect the pixhak to an oscilloscope and see if there is a signal

deployment

servo

transmitted from pixhawk.

test

20/03/2015

The display on oscilloscope showed that


there was a signal outputted from pixhawk
but was not strong enough to operate the
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servo. Hence we decided to use a BEC as


a signal amplifier.
After connecting the servo to the pixhawk, verify whether the

13/04/2015

The test was carried and the Mission

servo is receiving signal to retract the pin to release the payload

Planner was able to control the servo

using the BEC as signal amplifier.

through pixhawk. Further understanding is


needed on the timing setting of the
deployment. As once the Quad-rotor
reaches target the servo should
automatically deploy the payload.

Deploy the payload at the set destination or target (as the Quad-

24/03/2015

Due to setbacks this was not achieved but

rotor would not be built yet an initial test will be carried out as

a date has been rescheduled for the

when the Quad-rotor reached a destination or target it would emit

18/05/2015

a signal for the servo to deploy the payload.


Flight Test

Checking the

After integrating all the systems together into

Remote

operations of

the final product, test the response of the

controller

the merged

pixhawk and motors when commanded is

from the Quad-rotor but would requires a

systems

sent by:

bit more work to find the ideal PID values.


Ground control

01/04/2015

17/04/2015. There was a good response

01/04/2015

station
Test the return home function after signal is lost, during period

This test was carried out on the

This test is yet to be carried out,


rescheduled for 19/05/2015.

03/06/2015

more than 30sec.


Testing maximum flight time with motors running at full speed.

17/04/2015

Testing the

Plan the journey of the Quad-rotor using the ground control

01/06/2015

ground

software, with a set coordinates.

Rescheduled for 15/05/2015

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control

Change flight settings during flight

18/03/2015

operation

This test was done by connecting pixhawk


to a power source and

Deploy the payload at the set destination or target

02/06/2015

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K.3. Schematics
Transmitter and Receiver with Video Graphics Processing Unit (VGPU) the MinimOSD

Quad-rotor Propulsion setup

Pixhawk hardware connections

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Telemetry kit Specification

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Appendix. M Telemetry kit Specification


1. [3DR Radio telemetry Kit 433 Mhz (UK)

Section by Micky
Malwenna

Price: 82.45 (inc VAT)


68.71 (exc VAT)
Weight: 100 Grams

2. 3DR Radio modules

V2

Price: 45.00 (inc VAT)


37.50 (exc VAT)
Weight: 50 Grams

3. 5.8 GHz High Gain


Antenna (RP-SMA)
Price: 5.45 (inc VAT)
4.54 (exc VAT)
Weight: 30 Grams
Specs:

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Telemetry kit Specification

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Frequency band: 5600-5900MHz,

Polarization: vertical

Gain: 9dbi

Maximum power: 15 W

Interface: RP- SMA

Length: 275 mm

VSWR: <1.5

Range: 1.2 miles

Input impedance: 50 ohms

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

4. DF13 6 positions connector 15 cm or 30cm


Price: 1.75 (inc VAT)
1.46 (exc VAT)
Weight: 2 Grams

RADIOS DESCRIPTION

SPECIFICATION
Processing
100 mW maximum output power

(FHSS)

(adjustable)

Configurable duty cycle

-117 dBm receive sensitivity

Error correction corrects up to 25% of

Based on HopeRFs HM-TRP module

RP-SMA connector

2-way full-duplex communication


through adaptive TDM

UART interface

Transparent serial link

MAVLink protocol framing

bit error

Configuration through mission planner


and & APM planner

Features
2 Interchangeable air and ground
radio modules

433 mHz since it is in UK

Micro-USB port
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6-position DF13 connector (for


Pixhawk)

Power
Supply voltage: 3.7-6 VDC (from USB
or DF13)

Android OTG adapter cable (to


connect radio with your tablet)

Dimensions
26.7cm x 55.5 cm x 13.3 cm (without

Transmit current: 100 mA at 20 dBm

Receive current: 25 mA

Serial interface: 3.3 V UART

antenna)

5. E38 Bluetooth Telmetry Bridge 433mhz


Price: 114.5 (inc VAT)
95.42 (exc VAT)
Weight: 100 Grams
6. DRONCELL
GSM TELEMTRY
Price: 59 (inc VAT)
49.17 (exc VAT)
Weight: 100 Grams
The main advantage of this telemetry link is that it potentialy has much greater range, and can also
be used to send/receive other information like images, or video from your drone

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FEATURES/SPECS:
LED indication for both network status
and power
Small footprint (5cm x 4.5cm)
Breadboard compatible for easy
POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS:
prototyping
UAVs and Balloons - live data reporting
4.5VDC-16VDC power supply input
- GPS, pressure, altitude, streaming
3.3V or 5V UART Interface (voltagevideo
shifting is done on board)
High serial data rate (up to 115200
set waypoints, camera commands, etc.
baud)
Cars- remote start, car alarm
GPRS communication rate (86.5 kbps
notification, GPS tracking
downlink) - cellular to server
communication
Security systems - cars, boards, sheds,
CSD (up to 14.4 kbps) - cellular to
etc.
cellular communication
Home automation - thermostat control,
Software configurable baud rate
lighting
Works with any SIM card
Quad band cellular connectivity
Robots - data transfer, remote
Internal switch to detect SIM card
commands
presence
Processors and computers- data
Dial and receive phone calls
(however, no microphone or speaker
transfer, wireless ssh, telnet
interface setup)
Wireless Industrial Systems - reset
Send and receive text messages
computers, activate pumps
Send and receive Multimedia

Messages
Wireless Asset tracking - GPS track
Send and receive data to any Internet
your car, your spouse, your cat
connected computer
Send and receive data over TCP or
TCP/UDP DATA TRANSFER METHODS:
UDP sockets
iPod server/client socket app
Super long range (anywhere there is
HyperTerminal
cell reception)
High altitude (at least 10,000 feet, up
Custom socket server/client - Perl,
to 30,000 depending on Cell tower)
Python,
Phonebook entries and storage
Software libraries for AVR
Real time clock, synced to cellular
tower time
User set alarms

Previous design before change

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L.1.

Payload box

Figure 183: Other CAD views

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Servo calculation

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M.1. Servo calculation


Calculation for the selection of the servo

Figure 184: schematics for the force calculations


Ffrict-sliding = frict-slinding x Fnorm
W = Fnorm + Fhinge
Thus;

1 = Fnorm + Fhinge

Moment about the horn;


0 = 0.0525x1-Fhx0.105
Fh = 0.5N
Fn = 0.5N
Ffrict-sliding = frict-sliding x Fnorm
Ffrict-sliding = 0.25 x 0.5 = 0.125N
0.125
Ffrict sliding = 9.81 = 0.013kg. f]

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Manufacturing

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Appendix. N Manufacturing

Section by Mozammel
Malwenna

Figure 185: Machined fixed bracket is CNC Router Pro 2600

Figure 186: Dry assemble of landing gear lug, pivot and the vertical landing strut

Figure 187: Slot bracket


motor

Figure 188: Turn button for servo

Figure 189: Support corners machined in CNC Figure 190: Triangle payload support
glued with hinges

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Manufacturing

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N.1. Machining by milling machine

Figure 191: Drilling centre hole in fixed bracket

Figure 192: Milling arm Pivot

Figure 193: Chamfering of movable arm support


by fly cutter

Figure 194: Smoothing surface

Figure 195.1-2: Drilling using slot drills

N.2. Machining by XYZ 1330 Lathe

Figure 196: High speed steel tool

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Figure 197.1-2: Machining arm pivot on lathe

N.3. Laser Cutting by Tortec Laser cutter

Figure 198.1-2 Laser Cutting of Nylon 6 sheet for main body plate

N.4. Cutting blocks by vertical bandsaws machine

Figure 199: Cutting Nylon 6.6 cast block in vertical band saw machine

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Appendix. O

Test Rig

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Appendix. O Test Rig

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Test Rig

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O.1. Initial Gimbal Test Rig Conceptual Design

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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14

13

Side view
4

Top view

26
47.5

101.4

271.4

2nd Pin

36.5

22

11

Stand Pin
Note: All dimensions in mm
unless mentioned otherwise

DRAWN BY

Mohinuddin

CHECKED BY

26

14
27

Mohin

DATE
24/01/2015

Detail A
Scale: 1:3

Gimbal Test Rig


DRAWING TITLE

SIZE

XXX

DESIGNED BY

78

This drawing is our property.


It can't be reproduced
or communicated without
our written agreement.
UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

864.5

76.59

B
Detail B
Scale: 1:3

Gimbal Frames' Assembly

DRAWING NUMBER

A4
SCALE

ONE
1:1 WEIGHT(kg)

XXX

REV

X
SHEET

1/1

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O.2. Updated Octagonal Gimbal Test Rig Assembly

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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B
13

14

Top View

4
26
47.5

Mid/Outter Pin

Stand Pin
36.5

11

121.4

14

DRAWN BY

Mohinuddin

27

DATE
15/03/2015

Gimbal Test Rig


DRAWING TITLE

SIZE

XXX

Mohin

Detail B
Scale: 1:3

Note: All dimensions in mm


unless mentioned otherwise

This drawing is our property.


It can't be reproduced
or communicated without
our written agreement.
UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

DESIGNED BY

2nd Pin

CHECKED BY

26

106.4

Front View

78

22

3
Detail A
Scale: 1:3

41.1

698.3

Gimbal Frames' Assembly

DRAWING NUMBER

A4
SCALE

ONE
1:1 WEIGHT(kg)

XXX

REV

X
SHEET

1/1

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Appendix. O

Test Rig

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O.3. Octagonal Model Mount Frame Technical Drawing

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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3
.
5

436.5

A
1000

60

10 TYP

R5

25.4

4T
YP
20

47

135

DRAWN BY

130
Front View
D

42

1 5 Mohinuddin
CHECKED BY

DESIGNED BY

Mohin

DATE
15/03/2015

Gimbal Test Rig


DRAWING TITLE

SIZE

XXX

Detail B
Scale: 1:4
Note: All dimensions in mm
unless stated otherwise.Debur
and polish all sharp edges.

Front View

This drawing is our property.


It can't be reproduced
or communicated without
our written agreement.
UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

Exploded View
B

10

25

60

Front View

P
Y
T

47.3

127

Detail A
Scale: 1:4

34.6

A4
SCALE

Model Mount Frame Drawing

DRAWING NUMBER

ONE
1:1 WEIGHT(kg)2.51

REV

Exact AL Box Section


Req. 5482.4mm

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Test Rig

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School of Engineering and Technology

O.4. Octagonal Mid Frame Technical Drawing

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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.
5
2

2
.
3
9

P
TY 5
.
67

YP
T
9
4. 493.2

30

30

25.4

Mid Frame Box


Side View

1139

493.2
3

3
246.62

Mid Frame Box


Top View

Front View

Isometric view
Scale: 1:14

Note: All dimensions in mm unless


stated otherwise.Debur and polish
Detail A
Scale: 1:3 sharp edges.

4T
YP
20

47

135

This drawing is our property.


It can't be reproduced
or communicated without
our written agreement.
UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

DRAWN BY

130
Front view
D

42

1 5 Mohinuddin
CHECKED BY

DESIGNED BY

Mohin

Gimbal Test Rig


DRAWING TITLE

SIZE

XXX

DATE
15/03/2015

A4
SCALE

Mid Frame Drawing

DRAWING NUMBER

ONE
1:1 WEIGHT(kg)1.8

REV

Exact AL Box Section


Req. 3946.4mm

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Test Rig

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O.5. Octagonal Outer Frame Technical Drawing

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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YP
4.9 T

30
4

30

.5

TYP

67

7.

Outter Frame Box


Side View

51

53

8.

538.8

12

538.8

49

269.4

Outter Frame Box


Top View

Exploded View
Note: All dimensions in mm unless
stated otherwise.Debur and polish
Detail A
Scale: 1:4 all sharp edges.

Front View

4T
YP
20

47

135

This drawing is our property.


It can't be reproduced
or communicated without
our written agreement.
UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

DRAWN BY

130
Front View
D

42

1 5 Mohinuddin
CHECKED BY

DESIGNED BY

Mohin

Gimbal Test Rig


DRAWING TITLE

SIZE

XXX

DATE
15/03/2015

A4
SCALE

Outer Frame Drawing

DRAWING NUMBER

ONE
1:1 WEIGHT(kg)1.96

REV

Exact AL Box Section


Req. 4310.4mm

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Test Rig

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O.6. Octagonal Gimbal Test Rig Stand Technical Drawing

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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45

Slant Stand Box


Side View

TY

40

R5

0
L Bracket
Side View

4T
47

20

YP

135

130
Front View

42

This drawing is our property.


It can't be reproduced
or communicated without
our written agreement.
UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

DRAWN BY

Mohinuddin

Mohin
G

Note: All dimensions in mm unless stated otherwise.Debur


and polish all sharp edges. All holes on the bars are
positioned at the center of each part.

DESIGNED BY

Slant Base Bracket


Isometric View

Slant Base Bracket


Side View

15

Stand Isometric View

80

25.4

Stand Short Leg Box


Side View

Stand Long Leg Box


Side View

40

87.3

R5

Slant Base Bracket


Top View

Stand Short Leg Box


Top View

20
13

40

31.1

10

25.4

300

137.3

L Bracket
Top View
40

25.4

137.3
40

40

10

60

Stand Short Leg Box


Isometric View

Stand Long Leg Box


Isometric View

Slant Stand Box


Top View

60

Stand Top Box


Side View

20

107.5

30

960

30

1.2

4.

.5

215
30

L Bracket
Isometric View

67

67

30

.5

960

Gimbal Test Rig


DRAWING NUMBER

SIZE
DATE
15/03/2015

Stand Assembly and


Parts' Drawing

A3
WEIGHT(kg) 2.7

1
REV

Exact AL Box Section Req.


6019.2mm

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O.7. Gimbal Test Rig Weight / Cost Estimation

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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Model Mount Frame


COMPONENTS

Material

Item

Box

Auminium

Square Tube (1.626mm thickness/ 16swg)

Brackets

Auminium

Sheet (1.2mm)

Pins
Mid Frame

Stainless Steel

Round bar

Material
Auminium

Item
Square Tube

Exact Length (mm)

Material
Auminium

Item
Square Tube

Exact Length (mm)

Material
Auminium

Item
Square Tube

Exact Length (mm)

Auminium

Square Tube
(5m lengths) 1
TOTAL REQUIRED LENGTH (mm)
19758
TOTAL NO. OF REQUIRED 5m LENGTH BOXES 3.9516

Exact Length (mm)

Qty

Cost () Ex VAT

(5m lengths) 1 NB: Extra 482.4mm taken from mid


5482.4 frame left over

(80mmx80mm) x 48

16.32

(1mx1m) 1

21.1

611.6 (8mm Dia 303) 1m x 1

7.33

Qty
3946 (5m lengths) 1

Cost () Ex VAT

Qty
4310.4 (5m lengths) 1

Cost () Ex VAT

Qty
6019.2 (5m lengths) 1

Cost () Ex VAT

16.32

Outter Frame
16.32

Stand

Extra Material

Total Cost () Ex VAT


Purchase Cost () Inc VAT
Per person

http://www.metals4u.co.uk/stainlesssteel/round/8-mm-diameter303/detail.asp?prd_id=1686

http://www.ascmetals.com/downloads/wholebrochure.pdf
http://www.rapidtables.com/calc/wire/swg-to-mm.htm

16.32

16.32
4

5
110.03
132.08
11.00666667

11.50

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O.8. Gimbal Test Rig Manufacturing Cost


O.9. Qualification test plan
On completion of all manufacturing activities and processes, all aerospace qualification
hardware shall be tested according to and following the order of the qualification test plan
found in Table 1. (Ditom, 2014)
Test Description
Initial Electrical Performance Test
Storage Temperature Cycling
Electrical Performance Test
Thermal Shock
Electrical Performance Test
Sine Vibration
Electrical Performance Test
Random Vibration
Electrical Performance Test
Operational Temperature Cycling
Final Electrical Performance Test
Table 1 Qualification Test Plan

Electrical Performance Tests (Initial, In-Process, Final)


To verify electrical performance of the isolator/circulator, electrical performance
measurements shall be performed. Measured data displaying insertion loss, Voltage Standing
Wave Ratio (VSWR) (every port), and isolation (isolator only) performance over the full
operating bandwidth shall be captured for each test. During the initial and final electrical
performance tests, RF leakage performance shall also be measured at the center frequency
of operation. However all electrical performance tests shall be captured on a calibrated
Vector Network Analyser (VNA) given sufficient time to warm up and kept in ambient
conditions (18-26) for the entire duration of the test.

Storage Temperature Cycling


Non-operational temperature cycling shall be performed to ensure the hardware meets all
electrical performance specifications after being exposed to the storage temperature range.
The hardware shall be exposed to each temperature extreme for a minimum of 1 hour. The
rate of change between each temperature extreme shall not exceed 20/minute. The
hardware shall be kept at ambient conditions for no less than 1h after the test is complete
prior to electrical performance measurements.

Thermal Shock
Thermal shock testing shall be performed to ensure the hardware can survive rapid changes
in ambient temperature without any degradation to its coatings, surfaces or electrical
performance.

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Random/Sine Vibration
Random vibration testing shall be performed to ensure the hardware can survive the
vibrations associated with the launch and ascent of the Quad-rotor without any degradation to
its coatings, surfaces, or electrical performance.

Operational Temperature Cycling


Operational temperature cycling shall be performed to ensure the hardware meets all
electrical performance specifications while being exposed to the operational temperature
range.
All the above mentioned qualification tests have to be performed at regular intervals to ensure
worthy performance of the Quad-rotor. The results obtained shall also be verified and
validated to meet certain conformances. The results from various tests should also be
recorded and checked.

O.10. Initial Involvement in the MEng Team Project


I was allocated to a few tasks in the very early stages of this project, the details are as
follows:
Write up of the rules and conditions derived from the UAS challenge 2015 handbook

Compiling product design specification document

Research on testing strategies and experiments

Refining design of the gimbal test rig for more than 5 times

The CAD model shown below was the very first concept of the gimbal test rig presented at
the PDR. Conversely design iterations had led to changes in to a more robust design
discussed in the previous chapters.

The figure on the top right shows an angled bracket that was planned to be used in the
updated octagonal gimbal test rig. However lack of facilities present at the universitys
fabrication workshop, they had to be subcontracted. But to save finances and quicken the
manufacturing stage of the test rig, a tri angular bracket as shown below on the bottom right
figure was designed to replace the angled bracket from above. The use of these brackets had
tremendously helped in speeding up the fabricating process of the final design as shown on
the bottom left figure.

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School of Engineering and Technology

O.11. Tri Angular Bracket Technical Drawing

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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328

D
4

MATERIAL - MACHINE FROM:


ALUMINIUM ALLOY (AL-2024-T3)
1.2MM WORK HARDENED AL SHEET
SUPPLIER: METALS4U
QUATITY REQUIRED: 56

135

20

47

YP

4T

Isometric view
Scale: 1:1

12

24

15
42

Note: All dimensions in mm unless


stated otherwise.Debur and polish
sharp edges.

130
Front view
Scale: 1:1

This drawing is our property.


It can't be reproduced
or communicated without
our written agreement.
UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

DRAWN BY

Mohinuddin
CHECKED BY

DESIGNED BY

Mohin
D

Gimbal Test Rig


DRAWING TITLE

SIZE

XXX

DATE
31/03/2015

A4
SCALE

Joint Bracket

DRAWING NUMBER

REV

ONE
1:1 WEIGHT(kg) 0.043

X
SHEET

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Appendix. O

Test Rig

School of Engineering and Technology

O.12. T-Bracket Technical Drawing

[PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

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330

60
4

10 TYP

47.3

34.6

10

25

60

4 TYP

25.4
Front view
Scale: 1:1

DRAWN BY

Mohinuddin
CHECKED BY

Mohin
D

DATE
31/03/2015

Gimbal Test Rig


DRAWING TITLE

SIZE

XXX

DESIGNED BY

Note: All dimensions in mm unless


stated otherwise.Debur and polish
sharp edges.

This drawing is our property.


It can't be reproduced
or communicated without
our written agreement.
UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

Isometric view
Scale: 1:1

MATERIAL - MACHINE FROM:


ALUMINIUM ALLOY (AL-2024-T3)
1.2MM WORK HARDENED AL SHEET
SUPPLIER: METALS4U
QUATITY REQUIRED: 8

A4
SCALE

T BRACKET

DRAWING NUMBER

REV

ONE
1:1 WEIGHT(kg) 0.023

X
SHEET

1/1

MEng Team Project Report


(7ENT1024)

Design features for business case

332

School of Engineering and Technology

Section by Osman sibanda

Appendix. O Design features for business case

Figure 200 -OXV in storage configuration

Figure 201 - Electro-optic camera on the OXV

Figure 202- Main body of the OXV

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N.1. Risk Assessment for business case


The table below quantifies the risks by the probability of the risk occurring and the impact it
would have on the business. The table below it numbers these quantities by using the
probability x impact ratings. The ratings are explained below.
Impact

Probabilit
y

Trivial

Minor

Moderate

Major

Extreme

Rare

Low

Low

Low

Medium

Medium

Unlikely

Low

Low

Medium

Medium

Medium

Moderate

Low

Medium

Medium

Medium

High

Likely

Medium

Medium

Medium

High

High

Very likely

Medium

Medium

High

High

High

10

12

15

12

16

20

10

15

20

25

Impact

Probability

Where;
Impact rating
1 There is little or no impact at all
2 - Nominal risk
3 - Significant effect on project
4 - Significant impact on outcome
5 Project may fail and affects organisation function
Probability rating
1
0-10%
2
11-40%
3
41-60%
4
61-90%
5
91-100%
#

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Potential
Failure
Mode/Risk

Effect
business

Impac
t
rating

on Possible
Cause

Likelihood
of
occurrenc
e

Risk
Ratin
g

Remedial
Action(s)

Use
a
checklist to be
used
prior
every
flight,
use
setup
guides
and
manuals
provided
by
equipment
manufacturers
.

Plan
ahead
and include a
contingency in
time plan

Research on
compatibility
and use same
suppliers

Manufacturing

Incorrect
assembly of Product
will
UAS
not be launch
components

Lack
of
executing
4
incorrect
procedure

Suppliers
delaying the
Delay
in Delays
delivery
of
manufacturing shipping
components/
material
Systems
compatibility
issues

in

Product
will Lack
of
2
not operate
validation

Testing

Legislation
changes

Affect
and
delay project CAA review
delivery

Exceeding
allowable
noise
pollution

Product
not Specification
allowed to be s not well 3
flown
defined

Insufficient
Delay
in
Poor project
time
for launch
and
2
management
testing
poor quality

Product
will
Stability and
Inaccurate
not
meet
control
stability
design
algorithms fail
analysis
specification

15

-dedicate
a
team to follow
up
and
anticipate
changes
-Get involved
with
the
governing
bodies
in
order
to
influence
changes
-specifications
should be well
defined
-proper testing
should
be
carried out
Stage testing
earlier
and
include
a
contingency in
time plan
Use Matlab to
validate
obtained PID
values
through
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School of Engineering and Technology

testing

Flight Operations

UAS
overheats

Electrical
Product
will performance
not sustain in test
not 2
market
conducted
appropriately

Technology
advancement

Business will
Market
not
sustain
competition
longer

Bird Strikes

Loss
economy

One
failure

motor

Product
not
operation

of Unexpected
encounter

will Power
in supply
failure

Take-off and
Testing not
Product will be
Landing
conducted
1
damaged
failure
appropriately

Adverse
weather
conditions

Autonomy
fails

Radio
frequency
interference

Reduction
gross sale

in

Product may
be
irresponsive
and potential
chance
of
collision
Product
launch
embarrassme
nt and will not
operate
as
desired

N/A

-Error
in
system code
- Power loss
2
in
the
products
software
Presence of
other radio 3
source

Check for any


malfunctions
before running
and do not
exhaust
the
system
Allocate
Research and
Development
Team
Cannot
be
managed.
Power of the
motor in front
of the failed to
counter
the
rotation about
yaw axis and
guide
the
copter
to
safety.
Monitor
weather
forecast and
avoid flying in
hazardous
weather
conditions.
Use
a
checklist
to
ensure
equipment are
working
properly prior
to take off.

Designed
be able
manually
control

to
to

Keep
wire/cable
away
from
transmitters
and antennas,
Use
of
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Propeller
Injuries

Bad reputation

Poor quality
1
control

Battery
detachment

Loss
economy

Business
specification
was not met

Battery
combustion

Reduction in
gross
sales
due to safety
issues

Inappropriat
e procedure
1
followed
during wiring

Hackers

Committed
crimes,
possible
accidents

Intentional
suspect/
Pre-planned
by criminal

10

of

UAS theft

Hacking
purposes,
hacking
the
selling
system
or
1
product parts
vandalism
and criminal
activity

Mechanical
Failure

Some system
might
not
function
or
vehicle
may
not start

Old parts in
the vehicle
or
not 3
maintained
properly

shielding for
your
wiring
runs,
Keep
antennas as
far apart as
possible,
Monitor
RC
Channel
interference in
between
flights.
Operate away
from
congested
areas,
50m
away from all
personals and
structures.
Use a Velcro
Strap to hold
the batteries.
Monitor their
temperature
and regulate
their charging
and
discharging.
Automatic
return home
override
in
case of any
control
interruptions
- The vehicle
must
have
CCTVs
mounted
in
and
around
outside
-Allow
immediate
control
of
vehicle by CT
staff
-alert CT staff
of
anything
suspicious or
out of ordinary
-certify regular
maintenance
for all vehicle
parts
and
system
-adequate
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System
Failure

Staff
Changes

product may
be
irresponsive
and potential
chance
of
collision

-Error
in
system code
- Power loss
5
in
the
product
computer

Project delay

Retirement,
illnesses,
demotion,
strategic
focus

Poor public
of awareness
5
for product
operation

10

Public
Loss
damaging the
business
UAS

and
professional
training
provided
to
maintenance
crew
- Substantial
product
system
testing.
- Emergency
Stop
button
must
be
present in the
product.
Remotely
monitor
product
Failsafe
system
embedded in
the product
identify
skill
shortages and
act
accordingly
-sub-contract
suitable
skilled
workers from
different
organisation
Regular
product usage
presentation
and
advertisement
s

Disposal

Decompositio
n of materials

High
manufacturing
cost

Wrong
choice
of 3
materials

Carbon
print

High
operational
costs

Business
expansion

foot

-thorough
analysis
before
material
selection
-strategic
business plan
for
product
distribution.

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