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OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE BIOLOGY

Dedicated
to my Mother and the
memory of my
Father

H. BARNES
B.Sc., B.A., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.E.
The Marine Station, Millport, Scotland

OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE


BIOLOGY
A BOOK OF TECHNIQUES

Ruskin House
GEORGE ALLEN & UNWIN LTD
MUSEUM STREET LONDON

FIRST PUBLISHED 1959


This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.
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SECOND IMPRESSION 1960
THIRD IMPRESSION 1968
This book is copyright under the Berne Convention.
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of
private study, research, criticism or review, as
permitted under the Copyright Act, 1956, no portion
may be reproduced by any process without written
permission. Enquiries should be addressed to the
publisher
George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1959
ISBN Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-70872-5 (Adobe eReader Format)


ISBN 04 551011 3 (Print Edition)

PREFACE
THE reading public has shown a great interest during the past few years in the
exploration of the sea. In many of the books on this subject the reader finds factual
statements, but is left in ignorance as to how they were established. This book is
primarily addressed to those who wish to learn something of how our knowledge of the
sea is obtained. In it will be found an account of the apparatus used in many branches of
oceanography. Although we are not really concerned with results, lest the description of
apparatus becomes too tedious, some reference to themparticularly when they are of
general interest or when they are rather newhas been made. The descriptions are
accompanied by diagrams, either specially prepared or taken from original papers.
There is no recent book of similar scope and original papers have in all cases been
consulted; in addition to being of interest to the general reader it may be useful in
gathering together for workers in the marine sciences an account of their techniques. To
the beginner it will perhaps suggest the instrument most likely to suit his immediate
needs; to the student it may serve as an introduction to the subject.
There are two obvious omissions. First, fish populations are sampled by the methods of
the fishing industry, and the subject is so vast that any treatment in a volume such as this
would be superficial in the extreme; no attempt has therefore been made to give any
account of fishing gear, which has been adequately dealt with elsewhere. Secondly, no
mention has been made of manned deep diving equipment such as the bathysphere or
bathyscaphe. Both are of considerable interest and involve much engineering skill but, as
yet, neither has been extensively used as a research tool, although both have distinct
possibilities. In any event, they have been described in most readable booksBeebes
Half Mile Down and a recent account of the French bathyscaphe work in Houot and
Willms Two Thousand Fathoms Down.
I wish to record my thanks to a number of friends, in particular to Mr. B.B. Parrish,
who not only read the whole of the manuscript and made many valuable suggestions, but
who has constantly encouraged me when enthusiasm or interest waned. Mr. R. E Craig,
Mr. K.M. Rae and Mr. R.S. Glover have made many useful comments on some of the
sections and Dr. J.N. Carruthers has been most helpful with references. I have had the
opportunity of discussions during the writing with my colleague Mr. J. Goodley, and the
many friendly arguments have materially served to clarify the descriptions of various
pieces of equipment. Others have generously provided unpublished photographs:
Dr. W.S. von Arx, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution;
Mr. R.E. Craig, Scottish Home Department, Marine Laboratory Aberdeen;
Dr. G, J. Eicher (jr.), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service;
Professor K.O. Emery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles;
Dr. N. Ingram Hendey, The Central Metallurgical Laboratory, Emsworth;
Dr. Bruce C. Heezen, Lamont Geological Observatory, Columbia University,
New York;

Dr. Martin W. Johnson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla;


Professor B. Kullenberg, Oceanografiska Institutet, Gteborg;
Dr. A.D. Mclntyre, Scottish Home Department, Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen;
Mr. K.M. Rae, Scottish Marine Biological Association, Oceanographic Laboratory,
Edinburgh.
These are acknowledged in the appropriate place.
I have also to thank my wife, not only for making many drawings, but also for her
constant assistance in every way.

CONTENTS

1.
2.
3.
4.

PREFACE
Introduction

v
xiii

Sampling the Living Organisms


The Use of Sound Waves
Some Properties of the Water Itself
Photography and Television

1
52
81
129

EPILOGUE
REFERENCES
INDEX

163
164
171

ILLUSTRATIONS

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Water-bottle for collecting samples for bacteriological work


A marine flagellateChrysochromalina minor
Diatoms from the Antarctic
Hensen net in action
Large stramin net in action
Clarke-Bumpus plankton sampler
Clarke-Bumpus plankton sampler: suspension and closing mechanisms
Plankton Indicators
Small high-speed Plankton Indicators
Stempel (Suction) pipette
Continuous Plankton Recorders
Hardy Plankton Recorder: diagram and section
The modern Continuous Plankton Recorder
Continuous Plankton Recorder: loading the winding mechanism
Penetration of Candacia armata into the North Sea
Occurrence of decapod larvaeSouthern North Sea
Beam trawl
Petersen-type grab
Holme mud-sampler
Holme mud-sampler: explanatory drawing
Smith-McIntyre mud-sampler
Smith-McIntyre mud-sampler: in use
Smith-McIntyre mud-sampler: explanatory drawing
Holme suction grab
Coring device for short cores
Under-way bottom sampler
Under-way bottom sampler: in use
Emery-Dietz gravity corer
Emery-Dietz gravity corer: being brought inboard
Washing a mud sample
Stetson free-falling corer: explanatory drawing
Kullenberg piston corer: explanatory drawing
Kullenberg piston corer: ready for lowering

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Kullenberg piston corer: along side


Diagram of core from the Atlantic Ocean
The principle of echo sounding
Diagram of Kelvin and Hughes-type echo sounder
Kelvin and Hughes Type M.S. 26 Survey Echo Sounder
A magneto-striction oscillator
Outboard unit for echo sounding
The Marconi echo sounder
Cathode ray tube
Echo-graphs and cathode ray tube records
Echo-trace of the wreck of the Lusitania
Tracing of a channel during dredging
Echo traverse in the Antarctic
Herring shoal as recorded on the Seagraph sounder
Echo-trace of a series of isolated pilchard shoals
Effect of light on a shoal of herring: echo-trace
Effect of light on fish: echo-trace
Frequency character of croaker noise
Frequency character of snapping shrimp noise
Snapping claw of shrimp Crangon californiensis
Change in noise level over a series of traverses
Change in noise level with distance from shore
Lumby surface sampler
Temperature in Western Atlantic Ocean
Insulated water-bottle
Insulated water-bottle: closing mechanism
Reversing thermometers
Knudsen reversing water-bottle: in action
Knudsen reversing water-bottle: explanatory drawing
Mosby thermo-sound
Spilhaus bathythermograph and sea sampler
Spilhaus bathythermograph and sea sampler: section
Spilhaus bathythermograph and sea sampler: mechanism of
temperature/depth trace
Spilhaus bathythermograph and sea sampler: temperature unit and stylus
Spilhaus bathythermograph and sea sampler: holder for smoked slide, and
calibrated scale
Sea sampler: sample containers
Sea sampler: triggering mechanism
Sea sampler: diagram of triggering mechanism
Sea sampler: closing mechanisms of sample containers

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Drift bottle
Bottom trailing and double drift bottles
Routes taken by drift bottles in southern North Sea
Ekman current meter: explanatory drawing
Ekman current meter: in use
von Arx current meters
Measuring currents with von Arx current meter
Jacobsen current meters: in use
Jacobsen current meter: explanatory drawing
Carruthers drift indicator
Carruthers drift indicator: explanatory drawing
Carruthers vertical log
Geomagnetic electrokinetograph: in use
Units of geomagnetic electrokinetograph
Recordings from a geomagnetic electrokinetograph
Velocity section in north Atlantic Ocean
Aerial photograph near La Jolla, California
Beach profiles determined by aerial photography
Aircraft of type used for visual surveys
Aerial photograph of red salmon in Brooks River, Alaska
Underwater photograph of the insular shelf east of Catalina Island
Underwater photograph of outcrop of eocene
Underwater photographs of sea bottom at various depths
Underwater camera for moderate depths
Underwater photograph of shelf-covered bottom in Loch Creran
USNEL deep sea camera and lighting unit: diagrammatic
USNEL deep sea camera: in use
Benthograph
The scanning process
C.P.S. Emitron tube and the Millport underwater television camera
The Millport underwater television camera: underneath view
The Millport underwater television equipment: inboard units
The Millport underwater television equipment: on deck of M.V. Calanus
The Millport underwater television equipment: on board M.V. Calanus
Underwater television picture: inshore ground, Firth of Clyde
Underwater television picture: muddy bottom, Firth of Clyde
Underwater television picture: gravelly bottom, English Channel
Underwater television picture: horse-mackerel, English Channel

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I WISH to thank the following publishers, journals and authorities for permission to
reproduce, in part or entirety, plates or figures from their publications:
Association internationale dOcanographie physique.
The Biological Bulletin, Woods Hole.
The Bulletin of the Geological Society of America.
The Council of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
Deutsches Hydrographische Zeitschrift.
The Editors of the Bulletin of Marine Ecology.
Her Britannic Majestys Stationery Office.
The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen.
Messrs. Kelvin and Hughes.
The Journal of the Accoustical Society of America.
The Journal of Marine Research.
The Journal of Wildlife Management.
The Marconi International Marine Communication Co. Ltd.
The McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft.
The National Institute of Oceanography.
Papers in Physical Oceanography and Meteorology, Woods Hole.
The Royal Society, London.
The Scientific Monthly.
Svenska Hydrografisk-biologiska Kommissionens Skrifter.
The University of Chicago Press.

INTRODUCTION
THE oceans cover some seven-tenths of the earths surface and, if excuse be needed,
surely this alone is adequate to justify their study. Oceanographythe science of the
seasis a cosmopolitan activity, for in its broadest sense the term is taken to include all
studies of the oceans, their boundaries and their content of living organisms. In reality,
the subject cannot claim to be a science in its own right since it has no distinctive
discipline. When concerned with the sea as a fluid in motion subject to internal and
external forces, we are dealing with a branch of physics, or, in its more theoretical
aspects, of applied mathematics. When dealing with the air-sea boundary and reactions
between the two milieux, we are concerned with a facet of meteorology. Those who study
the sediments and the rocks beneath the seas would regard themselves as geologists, and
those whose primary concern is with the chemical composition of the water, the
sediments or the living material, as chemists. The living content of the oceans is the
province of marine biology, a vast subject in itself, yet still only a branch of zoology and
botany.
It is possible and indeed common to make a valuable contribution to any one aspect of
oceanography without reference to the others. The physical oceanographer has problems
enough to interest him and to tax his skill and ingenuity without referring them to the
behaviour of living organisms within the fluid medium. The biologist may study the
structure and physiology of the organisms with little knowledge of, or reference to,
physical oceanography. However, in ecological problemsproblems of the relation of
organisms to one another and to their inanimate environmentmany aspects of the
subject meet, and it is usually unwise and may even be disastrous not to have at least a
working knowledge of contemporary activities in many fields. How else can one avoid
postulating movements of animals by currents long since shown to be non-existent by
physical oceanographers? How can the evolutionist know of the conditions under which
animals evolved if he is unaware of modern work on marine sediments?
We have stated that oceanography has no discipline of its own; it has, however,
problems of technique peculiar to itself. These are related to the fact that the observations
must largely be made and the material, hidden from direct view, largely collected at a
distance from the observer. Moreover, all this must usually be done from a ship, often
under very adverse conditions; such a moving platform can hardly be considered the
simplest place from which to manipulate scientific instruments. As a consequence, the
instruments of oceanography must have some mechanism by which the result is either
recorded in situ and retained for reading when withdrawn from the sea, or means must be
provided whereby the information received by the instrument is transmitted back to the
vessel. A further consequence of the working conditions is that a robust instrument is
greatly to be preferred and this is particularly true of apparatus for collecting much
biological material.

A great deal of ingenuity has gone into devising such instruments and these, the tools
without which advances cannot be made, will be considered in the following pages.

1
SAMPLING THE LIVING ORGANISMS
THE free-living or so-called pelagic organisms of the sea, that is, those neither attached
to nor living within the bottom, encompass a vast assembly of animals and plants, and
range from unicellular microscopic bacteria to those highly specialized giant aquatic
mammals, the whales. In spite of this, the principles used in sampling them are relatively
few; the majority are caught by nets or traps, some by hook and line, others by harpoon;
the actual forms that the techniques take are, however, many and varied. For purely
qualitative work, for example in studies of form and anatomy, it matters little how the
animals are caught. The only criterion of success is that they are caught in adequate
numbers and in a sufficiently undamaged condition for the particular problem in hand. It
is when we wish to make quantitative investigations that difficulties arise in sampling
these free-living forms.
In this section we shall consider these problems in relation to the smaller free-living
forms, those which make up much of the so-called plankton. It is difficult to give a rigid
definition of this term; in general, it may be considered to cover those small animals and
plants (often present in enormous numbers) with restricted powers of movement. They
are, therefore, carried about largely under the influence of currents.
The principle commonly involved in collecting these organisms is that of the teastrainerwith this difference; most frequently the strainer, a net, is pulled through the
water and not the water poured through the net. There are, however, some unicellular
organisms so small that they pass through the finest nets. These, the bacteria, the socalled nannoplankton, and the smaller diatoms, are often present in enormous numbers
and are of fundamental importance in the economy of the sea. They are best counted in
water samples and the technique involved will be discussed before considering netcaught plankton.
The bacteria are of various types, but are commonly rod-like, some 23 long and 05
thick; the -flagellates, constituting the smaller nannoplankton organisms, have
somewhat arbitrary size limitssay 110 and are elongated, flagellated organisms;
the diatoms, which take many curious shapes, are small unicellular plants with a siliceous
skeleton.

THE BACTERIA AND NANNOPLANKTON


For enumeration of bacterial content, a sample is usually taken in some form of waterbottle which is let down on a wire run out over a measuring wheel. The depth from which
it has been taken and the volume of the sample are, therefore, known. Dr Zo Bell has,
however, suggested that the ordinary metal water-bottles used for salinity samples (see
pp. 110119) are not entirely satisfactory for bacteriological work; probably as a result of

Oceanography and marine biology

the slight solubility of metals in sea water, there often appears to be a bactericidal
(bacteria killing) or bacteriostatic (bacteria bottles. Further, they cannot be maintained
sterile before the growth-preventing) effect in samples from such standard watersample is
taken, so that, as a result of the ubiquity of bacteria, there is great risk of contamination.
For accurate work, he recommends the use of a glass, rubber, or plastic bottle fitted with
a glass tube: the whole apparatus can be sterilized (by the standard procedure of
autoclaving) and the capillary end of the glass tube then sealed. Either one or a series of
such bottles, mounted as shown in Figure 1a, is attached to a hydrographic wire (in the
same way as ordinary water-bottles). A

Figure 1
a) Water-bottle for collecting samples for bacteriological work: front and back
views. The messenger is shown about to strike the lever which will break the
glass tube and also move the rod releasing a second messenger (C. E. ZoBell,
Journal of Marine Research, 1941; Redrawn from original)

Sampling the living organisms

b) Breaking the glass tube in the Zobell bottle


messenger, that is, a brass weight, is sent down the wire and strikes the lever; this puts a
strain on the glass tube, which breaks where it has been weakened by a scratch mark. The
free end, because of tension in the rubber connection, flies to one side and water is
sucked into the bottle as a consequence of the partial vacuum resulting from sealing it
immediately after autoclaving (Figure 1 b). As with water bottles in hydrographic work,
each messenger can be made to release another which actuates the next bottle so that a
whole series of samples may be taken at different depths on a single wire.
Once a sample of sea water is obtained, how is the number of bacteria present
determined? There are several methodseach with advantages and disadvantages and,
for detailed work, it may be necessary to apply each one successively to the same sample.
The bacteria may be counted directly; a small portion of the sample is transferred to a
chamber whose volume is known and the bacteria in a given fraction of this volume
counted under the high power of a microscope. (This is the procedure used for counting
blood cells, and the counting chamber, ruled into squares, is termed a haemocytometer.)
Multiplying by an appropriate factor gives the bacterial content per unit volume. This
method, while giving a reliable estimate of the numbers present, does not indicate the
types of bacteria; furthermore, all those counted may not be living. As an alternative, the
so-called plating method may be useda standard technique in bacteriological work. In
this method a sample of known volume (that is, a known fraction of the original) is
transferred to culture medium and spread on a gelatine plate in a shallow dish. After some
time, colonies of bacteria grow and may be counted by eye: it is assumed that each
colony has arisen from a single viable bacterium present in the original solution and the
number of colonies, when multiplied by the appropriate dilution factor, will, therefore,
give the number of bacteria originally present. The success of the method depends on
providing, in the culture medium, the nutrients required for growth of the bacteria present
in any particular sample under investigation. The nutritive requirements of different
bacteria vary widely, so that it is not possible to get a single nutrient medium adequate
for all types. However, by using a series of different nutrient media in successive tests
something is also learnt of the types, as well as numbers, of bacteria present.

Oceanography and marine biology

Figure 2
A marine flagellateChrysochromalina minor
a) A diagram of the single celled organism,
cchromatophore
fflagellum
hhaptonema

mmuciferous body

nnucleus
ppyrenoid-like body

lleucosin vesicle

sscales

b) and c) Electron micrographs at different magnification showing flagella and


the coiled haptonema. The latter is possibly connected with feeding
activities
(From M. Parke, I. Manton and B. Clarke, Journal of the Marine Biological
Association, U.K., 1955)

The -flagellates or nannoplankton (Figure 2), like the bacteria, have no skeleton; they
are very delicate and fixatives do not always leave them in a recognizable state. They are,
therefore, best counted alive. In samples from the open sea, as distinct from experimental
cultures, they must usually be concentrated before counting. Some workers do this by
centrifuging the sample, others prefer to pass a known volume of sea water through a
filter with extremely fine pores; just before the filter becomes dry, the concentrate is
transferred to a counting chamber. In order to recognize and name the species counting is
best done by daylight, again under high-power magnification.

Sampling the living organisms

THE DIATOMS
Diatoms (as well as some microscopic protozoa such as Peridinians) are likewise best
sampled by water-bottle. However, these organisms, with their strong skeleton of silica or
calcium carbonate, are more robust and may be preserved before counting (Figure 3).
When the numbers are high, a

Figure 3
Diatoms from the Antarctic. The dominant species is Corethron criophilum,
rather like a spinous cocoon. This plankton is the basis of food for the
whales
(Courtesy of Dr. N. Ingram Hendey)

known volume from a water sample is transferred directly to a haemocytometer cell and
the diatoms counted in the same way as bacteria. When the numbers are low, a larger
volume of water may be first centrifuged in order to concentrate the organisms, and this
may be facilitated by the formation of a slight precipitate in the water; this helps the
diatoms to sediment under the centrifugal force. An alternative method is to kill the
diatoms in a known volume contained in, or transferred to, a tube with a thin microscope
cover slip as its base. This is allowed to stand on the stage of an inverted microscope
(which has its stage above the objective) and, after the diatoms have settled, they may be
counted without disturbance under high power from below.
Even over small areas of the sea the numbers of these unicellular organisms vary

Oceanography and marine biology

widely and counts of a single water sample, whilst valid for that particular sample, may
give only a poor representation of the population over the whole area being studied. In
consequence, the only accurate way to get a reliable estimate of the numbers is to take a
very large number of samples over the area. Then, not only may an average abundance be
calculated butand this is importantthe spread of the values will also be known.
When water samples are taken, this involves much work.
Fine nets are also used to collect diatoms and, particularly if one is only concerned
with the bigger species and with comparative rather than absolute numbers, the results
can be useful. To obviate the very considerable task in counting these organisms, other
methods have been evolved.
The diatoms, like land plants, contain pigments, principally chlorophyll,and Dr Harvey
of the Plymouth Laboratory utilized this fact to develop a method of estimation. The
diatoms are collected by hauling a fine net through the water and, after being separated
by filtration, the pigments are extracted with an organic solvent. The coloured extracts
are then matched against standard tints. The results are usually expressed in pigment
units. From preliminary experiments, in which a comparison is made between counts
and colour intensities, the latter may be converted into the approximate number of
diatoms. This method tells us nothing about the composition of the diatom florawhat
species are present and how many there are of eachand it is subject to inaccuracies due
to variation in the intensity and kinds of pigments present. Nevertheless, as a comparative
method which is simple and rapid, it is important and has been further developed and
extensively used in certain types of investigation.

ZOOPLANKTON
And now we come to the zooplankton, that is, the animal plankton. The larger plankton
organisms are usually caught by netsthe problems associated with the quantitative use
of which were first tackled in the early part of this century by the German school of
plankton workers, the physiologist Victor Hensen being particularly prominent.
The first problem is to determine how much water has been filtered in any given tow
from what volume, in fact, the catch was taken. The quantity of water passing through the
net depends principally upon the mesh size, the area of the filtering surface, the shape of
the net, the area of its opening and the speed of towing. Hensen made a long series of
careful experiments to determine the effect of some of these variables and calculated a
so-called filtration coefficient. This expresses the amount of water which passes through
a net in relation to the amount which would pass through the mouth if no net were
attached; the latter is, of course, the area of the opening multiplied by the length of tow.
Correction of results by a filtration coefficient has been widely used, but there is an
important factor affecting the amount of water filtered for which no allowance can be
made in this way. This is the effect of the organisms themselves. These, particularly
when a fine net is being used and when diatoms are present in large numbers, soon clog
the meshes and the filtering capacity steadily decreases during the course of a tow. Since
this cannot be allowed for by calculation, modern practice is tending more and more to
incorporate a flow meter in the mouth of the net. This registers the number of turns of a

Sampling the living organisms

propeller, and after calibration (in separate experiments) the meter reading in any haul
gives the amount of water which has passed through the net. Even so, the method is not
entirely satisfactory, since one never knows exactly at what point clogging begins;
further, clogging may affect the catch differentiallythat is, the effect may not be
identical for different organisms.

PLANKTON NETS AND PUMPS


Large plankton nets usually take a common form (Figures 4 and 5). They consist of the
net proper attached to a ring by a canvas band at the upper end and at the lower end by a
second canvas band to a collecting vessel. To cut down water pressure and reduce the
opening relative to the filtering surface, a conical non-filtering portion may be added in
the upper part, and this is fastened to a smaller ring and stiffened by supporting rods. The
collecting bucket takes various forms. It is best made with a gauze window so that the
water runs out as the plankton is washed down into the bucket. In some types the main
part of the bucket may be detached from the net and the collected material run off
through a stopcock at the bottom.
In the early work many samples were taken by what are termed vertical hauls (see
Figure 4); with the ship stopped, the net is let down on a wire and then slowly drawn up
through the water. In this way the water column as a whole is sampled. However, this
method suffers from the same disadvantages that we have discussed in connection with
the estimation of diatom populations from water-bottle samples; unless a large number of
samples are taken, we may only get a poor representation of the plankton content over an
area.
Horizontal hauls taken over a considerable distance reduce such errors. They do,
however, introduce two new problems. First, the depth at which the net is towed must be
known. If the speed of the towing vessel can be accurately controlled, then the depth of
the net for a given towing speed may be determined in a series of trial runs, using a
depth-recording device attached

Oceanography and marine biology

Figure 4
Hensen net in action. This fine net is used for catching small zooplankton
organisms. The fine mesh is surrounded by a coarser net for
protection. Notice the non-filtering cone at the top above the net and
the collecting bucket just clear of the water. The net is being worked
by means of a counter-weight
(By permission of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft)

Sampling the living organisms

Figure 5
Large stramin net coming to the surface. This is made from fairly coarse
material and is used to catch the larger zooplankton organisms, since
only these are retained by the coarse mesh. Note the trawl floats that
keep the head up
(By permission of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft)

to the net; indeed, such a device may be attached every time a haul is made. However,
modern practice is tending more to the use of a depth-keeping device, either on the net
itself or on the towing wire to which the net or a series of nets is attached. The paravane
principle is often employed. The apparatus has a plane (or planes) inclined to the

Oceanography and marine biology

10

direction of tow; the thrust of the water during towing forces it down and, within wide
limits, it maintains itself at a fixed depth for a given amount of warp out independently of
towing speed; as this increases, the tendency for it to rise is overcome by the increased
downward thrust on its inclined diving planes.
The second additional problem introduced when horizontal hauls are used centres
round the opening and closing of the net at the required depth; many devices have been
suggested for this purpose. Ideally the net must remain closed during descent, must be
capable of being opened at the required depth, and then closed at the end of the tow
before hauling in; if possible, there should be no cumbersome mechanism obstructing the
opening. Some of the early closing devices, often depending upon water pressure, were
not very positive in their action and some, depending on complicated mechanisms, were
very liable to go wrong. The closing net of Kofoid seems very satisfactory although it
does not appear to have been much used. The net itself was attached to a ring hinged into
two halves actuated by springs. Messengers were used to open and close the jawlike
entrance. In some modern instruments the butterfly valve is used and will be described
in connection with a modern net.
The Clarke-Bumpus sampler is a modern closing net now widely used (Figures 6 and
7) and incorporates many desirable features for quantitative work. It consists essentially
of a short brass tube, 5 in. in diameter and about 6 in. long, to one end of which a net
(about 2 ft. long) of the desired mesh is attached by means of a ring with a bayonet lock.
The tube is mounted on a metal frame fastened directly to the supporting cable by means
of pivots that allow the tube to turn in a vertical plane; when towed, the net always takes
up a horizontal position regardless of the cable angle. Towards the rear two metal planes,
mounted at an angle to the tube, keep the instrument stable

Figure 6
a) The Clarke-Bumpus plankton sampler. The lid to the metal forepart is in
the open position and the messenger is about to strike and close the
lid

Sampling the living organisms

11

b) Details of the metal fore-part. The water meter can be seen through the
celluloid windows. Note method of swinging net from frame

during towing. The frame is attached to the cable by means of a loosely fitting spring pin
at the top and at the bottom by a gate lock which closes around the neck of the supporting
clamp, thus securing it rigidly to the cable. In this way the frame is free to swivel round
the cable so that during towing the opening of the tube is always directed forward (Figure
7a).
A shutter in the form of a circular disc pivoted to rotate about a vertical plane is
mounted within the entrance of the tube: when this is closed, no water can flow into the
net. This metal disc is set against springs so that it may be opened from an initial closed
position (when the net is sent down) by a messenger, the disc turning through 90. When
the tow has been completed, a second messenger actuates another spring catch and the
lid is again closed by turning through a further 90 (Figure 7b). The net may then be
hauled without catching animals. A meter is mounted in the tube and registers the volume
of water entering the net during the tow.
All the nets so far considered are towed at relatively slow speeds in order to avoid
breaking the fine-meshed net material. There is evidence that some of the larger
planktonic animals are able to avoid capture by nets towed slowlyeither in response to
water pressure in front of the net, or by seeing it and taking avoiding action. Such losses
may be avoided by using highspeed nets: in these, the net surface is large in relation to
the opening so that back pressure is reduced; the net is usually fitted into a torpedoshaped body, which is towed through the water at high speed. A simple high-speed net is
the Hardy

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Figure 7
The Clarke-Bumpus sampler
a) The suspension net pivoted on frame, so free to tow horizontal whatever
angle of warp

Sampling the living organisms

13

b) The release machine:


(i) Set for going down; butterfly value closed, stop against semi-circular ring
(ii) First messenger down; allows rod to rotate releasing ring
(iii) Open; lid as caught on second stop at 90 to first stop; second stop has
caught upper release
(iv) Second messenger down, again released allowing closure
(v) Closed

Plankton Indicator (Figures 5 and 9). In some models a disc of netting is mounted on a
brass ring and held in the back of a torpedo-shaped metal tube, which is itself mounted on
a depth-keeping device. In other models a small conical net may be fitted inside the tube.

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Figure 8
Plankton Indicators
Three models of various sizes are shown. The gauze disc is being taken out of a
larger model. Smaller models on the bench
(Courtesy of Mr K.M. Rae)

The net method is the tea-strainer in reverse. It is possible to obviate many of the
difficulties associated with tow-nets by reverting to the direct tea-strainer, that is by
pouring the water through a net. In this technique water is pumped up from the required
depth and passed through a net of appropriate mesh, the net being held in a tank of water
to take up the force of the

Sampling the living organisms

15

Figure 9
Small high-speed Plankton Indicator (Hardy). In these models the gauge is
fitted on a circular ring fitting into the tail. In one model a larger net
is used for more complete filtration at faster towing speeds. This
model has a device for attaching it to a wrap so that a number of
these may be towed at once and at different depths. All models
except the last have their own diving planes
(R. S. Glover, Hull Bulletins of Marine Ecology, 1953; Redrawn from
original)

delivery. For moderate depths quite small pumps may be used, since the only lift
required is that from the sea surface into the boat: apart from this, it is only necessary to
overcome frictional resistance in the hose. The volume filtered may be registered by a
meter on the pump or determined by filling a tank of known dimensions; both the depth
from which the sample is taken and the amount of water filtered are then accurately
known. The method is usually used with the ship stationary, but greater areas or depths
can be sampled by working with the ship slowly under way and by moving the hose up
and down while pumping. A hose is somewhat cumbersome to manage and becomes
more so the greater the depths from which samples are taken. However, this difficulty has
recently been overcome by dispensing with the hose and using a submersible pump fitted
with a water meter and net. There is one further disadvantage of the method; although the

Oceanography and marine biology

16

smaller animals come through a centrifugal pump undamaged and indeed often alive, the
larger ones may be mutilatedon occasions to such an extent that recognition is difficult.
Separate problems arise in the sampling of plankton very close to the bottom, and
various nets have been devised specially for this purpose. In one method, a net is
mounted on an Agassiz trawl frame (see page 47), which, since it is on runners, may be
dragged over the bottom. A more recent bottom net has

Figure 10
Stempel (Suction) pipette. Used for taking an aliquot from a plankton sample.
The sub-sample is contained between the curved part of the plunger
and the barrel of the pipette

doors held by springs over the mouth of the net; to the doors are attached long arms and
when these are dragged over the bottom they pull the doors open; the latter close
automatically by the action of the springs when towing is finished.
Enumerating the catch
Once obtained, the catch must be enumerated, that is, the species determined and the
individuals counted. With the smaller nets now in common use the whole catch may be
dealt with, but if larger nets are employed then it may have to be sub-sampled and only a
fraction counted. This requires that the organisms shall be uniformly distributed
throughout the sample and a known fraction taken for counting. There are various ways
of such sub-sampling. Hensen devised a special suction pipette. This is really a syringe
(Figure 10), the end of the piston being cut away so that a definite volume is enclosed in
this cut-away portion when the piston is raised. The plankton in a known volume of water
is stirred by means of the syringe and the piston then raised: the fraction taken can be
calculated and the animals counted. Another method is to transfer the preserved plankton

Sampling the living organisms

17

sample to a whirling vessel; after thoroughly stirring, a set of vanes is dropped quickly
into the suspension, dividing it into a number of equal sectors; the contents of one sector
are run off at a tap in the base of the container and counted.

THE SYNOPTIC PLANKTON PICTUREHARDY CONTINUOUS


PLANKTON RECORDER
A specially equipped research ship is a necessity for most types of plankton work.
However, for the study of some plankton problems a research ship is unable to supply
sufficient samples over a wide enough area. Plankton populations are not static; the
pattern of their distributiona veritable mosaic in three dimensionsis continually
changing and it is of the greatest importance to know something of these changes. Once
we do know something of such changing patterns we can attempt to relate them to other
variables, for example, nutrients, temperature, salinity, wind and ocean currents. Further,
the populations of the sea are closely interdependent and a study of the changing plankton
picture from year to year should, since it gives a picture of changes in the biological
environment, yield valuable information in relation to fishery research. Something like
the weather charts, now a regular feature of the daily newspapers, is wanted, but showing
the plankton distribution in the seas. A map, in which the distribution of a set of variables
over an area at a given instant is plotted, is called a synoptic chart. Such a picture giving
the distribution over a wide area at any one time is important and, if successive synoptic
charts are obtained, we then get a truly dynamic view of plankton populations.
Even if time and money were available, it would be almost impossible for a more or
less continuous synoptic programme

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Figure 11
Continuous Plankton Recorders
The large recorder in the centre is the original model tried out by Professor
A.C. Hardy in the Antarctic. In the background is a smaller recorder
taken on Sir Herbert Wilkins Nautilus Expedition. A modern
recorder is shown in the foreground
(Courtesy of Mr K.M. Rae)

of plankton work to be carried out by research vessels. With the difficulties inherent in
obtaining such information in mind, Professor (now Sir) A.C. Hardy designed a planktoncollecting instrument which he called the Continuous Plankton Recorder (Figure 11); this
can be worked from merchant ships without difficulty and without any disturbance of
their normal routine. Its possibilities were first explored during a Discovery Expedition to
the Antarctic in 192527; these preliminary trials allowed many of the mechanical
teething troubles to be eliminated and a smaller, simpler, more robust, and more
efficient machine to be designed (Figures 12, 13, 14). On his return, Professor Hardy was
able to set up a small team of workers at the University College, Hull, to deal with the
samples collected by this new instrument and now the work, with its scope considerably
expanded, is continued at Edinburgh as part of the activities of the Scottish Marine
Biological Association.

Sampling the living organisms

19

The machine
The principle of the recorder is quite simple. A hollow, more or less torpedo-shaped body
is towed through the water which enters at a small opening in the-front; the plankton is
both filtered off and stored on a silk gauze which continually moves across the incoming
stream, the water passing out at the rear of the instrument. The result is a length of silk
gauze covered with plankton. The speed of the gauze through the machine and the speed
and course of the ship being known, it is then possible to determine the distribution of
plankton along the ships route. When the results from a number of recorder tows, made
over different routes at the same or similar times, are entered on a single chart, a close
approach to a synoptic picture is obtained.
The machine (Figures 1214), which consists of an outer shell and an internal
mechanism for winding the gauze and storing the reels, is 3 ft. 4 in. long and weighs 156
lb., the weight being largely that of the lead put into the front section to bring the centre
of gravity forward: the cross-section is square, so that the internal mechanism may be
more conveniently housed. Below and towards the front, strong brackets support an
inclined diving plane and this ensures that, with a given length of towing warp, the
instrument will tow at a constant depth in spite of considerable changes in the ships
speed (see page 26): variation from 8 to 16 knots has been shown not to affect the towing
level of the recorder. As may well be imagined, the strain on the towing cable is
considerable, but more important than this is the fatigue of the wire resulting from
vibration at the point where the cable is attached to the recorder. The towing cable is,
therefore, fastened to the recorder through a

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20

Figure 12
Diagram and simple section of the Hardy Plankton Recorder
(A. C. Hardy, Hull Bulletins of Marine Ecology, 1939, 1944; Redrawn from
original)

Sampling the living organisms

21

shock-absorber and this takes the form of a rubber compression block within a steel
cylinder. To give the machine stability, small paired horizontal fins as well as a large
vertical fin are fitted to the tapered tail section. Inside the vertical fin is a small

Figure 13
Continuous Plankton Recorder
The modern recorder for use from merchant ships. Note the shock absorber
where the towing cable is attached, the diving plane underneath the
fore part of the main body, the propeller with its guard, and gear case
for spool drive.
The removable gauze and winding mechanism is out of the instrument
(Courtesy of Mr K.M. Rae)

rudder, set so that the recorder will veer to one side and hence avoid the log line and the
disturbed water in the ships wake.
The motive power that drives the spools drawing the gauze continually across the
stream of water is obtained through a propeller mounted on top of the machine. This
propeller

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22

Figure 14
Continuous Plankton Recorder
Inserting the newly loaded winding mechanism into the body of the instrument.
Note the square hole in nose for entry of water
(Courtesy of Mr K.M. Rae)

rotates rapidly when the instrument is towed. The propeller shaft passes forward through
a bearing and connects by means of a flexible joint to a drive-shaft entering a
domeshaped gear-box. By changing the pitch of the propeller blades, the speed of the
gauze can be altered; in this way the plankton record may, so to speak, be expanded or
contracted. The limit of any such expansion is, of course, set by the amount of gauze
which the spools can take and the distance the recorder is to be towed. In the earlier
models it was found that the propeller was sometimes jammed by seaweed, and even on
one occasion by a decapitated fish! Guard rails were, therefore, fitted round the propeller,
and these also serve as handles to facilitate lifting the machine.
Water enters the tunnel at the nose through a in. square hole and passes backwards

Sampling the living organisms

23

into the wider portion, which is rectangular in cross-section (Figure 12). The central
section of the tunnel is formed by a separate unit containing the gauze spools together
with the appropriate gearing and, although when in position it makes a tight joint, this
unit slides out at the side of the machine. When the frame is pushed into position a worm
from the propeller gear-box engages the gear from the driving spool and a train of
gearsvia a special conical drivedrives the storage spool.
The collecting gauze, initially all on the lower spool, passes across the tunnel and
leaves through a slit in its roof. It is necessary to keep the plankton in the position in
which it was collected on the gauze and therefore, as soon as the latter leaves the tunnel,
it is overlaid by another gauze coming from a second upper spool. Thereafter the two
gauzes, tightly gripped together at the edges only, pass backwards as a sandwich of
plankton on to the storage spool in the tank at the rear (Figure 14). This tank contains a
preservative, formalin.
After the machines are returned to the laboratory, the spools are taken out, the gauzes
unrolled and cut up into blocks, as they are called, each equivalent to 10 miles of tow
and each, therefore, having on it the plankton from a 10-mile line of water. The preserved
organisms may be examined, identified and counted at any time. In order that the results
may be accurately plotted on charts, the masters of the towing vessels fill in a standard
form; they give log readings when the machine was both launched and hauled as well as
any additional check readings on passage. It is usually arranged for the recorders to be
shot and hauled at definite points. For example, on the line to Bremen across the North
Sea the point for shooting on the outward voyage is the Outer Dowsing Lightship and
that for hauling is the Norderray Lightship.
The advisability of running a recorder on any particular voyage is, of course, left to the
master of the vessel concerned. They are not run in fog, very severe weather or when the
ship is amongst herring nets.
The ships that tow these recorders are provided with a small hand-winch, towing rope,
davit and block, and on the first run instructions are given by a member of the plankton
team. As the recorder is launched the ship slackens to half speed, the instrument is lifted
over the rail and 9 fathoms of cable veered out against the winch brake; the machine will
then be towing at the standard depth of 10 metres.
We have stressed that all methods of plankton collection have their limitationsthe
Continuous Plankton Recorder is no exception. Before looking at these limitations, which
might appear seriously to detract from its value, we must, however, stress that at present
it is the only instrument that will give any approach to serial synoptic plankton pictures
and this with relatively small running costs; in spite of its limitations it is, therefore, a
valuable addition to the techniques of plankton research.
Limitation of the technique
It has been stressed that no one net or method is satisfactory for catching all types and all
sizes of organisms at one and the same time and, since a single gauze is used in a
recorder, it must suffer from this limitation. Once this is accepted, it is then necessary to
decide upon what type of information is needed for the particular investigation in hand;
the appropriate gauze mesh is chosen and some information, no matter how desirable for

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24

other purposes, must be sacrificed. Perhaps it should be added that this limitation must be
clearly kept in mind when interpreting the results. The gauze chosen, 60 meshes to the
inch, is a compromisesome small organisms escape, but the large and medium-sized
planktonic organisms are retained.
The second disadvantage, namely, clogging of the gauze by the plankton itself with
consequent reduction in filtration capacity, is also common to other net methods.
However, since the ratio of the area of the opening to that of exposed filtering gauze is
high, this will only occur when organisms are taken in very large numbers: in this event it
must be remembered that the number counted is to be regarded as minimal. More serious
is the fact that there is a differential effect as a result of clogging; this will also affect the
catching power in respect to organisms other than those actually responsible for the
clogging. For example, suppose the copepod Calanus is present in sufficiently large
numbers over a 10-mile block to cause clogging and to reduce the catching power by a
factor of 10. Then instead of the true value of say 10,000 Calanus one would estimate
1,000; this could still be large compared with the numbers of Calanus on adjacent blocks.
However, another organism present in this region at a true value of say 10 would be
reduced to 1, and this could be lower than the catch taken in the absence of clogging in an
adjacent patch with the same number present. Further, extremely rare forms which are
often of great importance in some problems may be entirely lost as a result of clogging.
However, for the purpose and in the way the recorder is used this is relatively
unimportant.
A further limitation is that imposed by the single depth of sampling, namely 10 metres,
since the distribution obtained is, strictly speaking, only that at this depth. Animals are
not uniformly distributed in depth and ideally one would like to have synoptic charts for a
number of standard depths. This could, of course, be done by towing simultaneously a
number of recorders, one at each of the selected depths. With the present scheme
namely, using merchant vesselsthis is hardly a practical possibility. Even if the animals
were not distributed uniformly but always remained in the same proportions at the
various depths,,then the values at any given depth would always be comparable. This is
not so; many organisms, particularly the important copepods, make regular diurnal
migrations, rising by night and going down by day. When this effect is marked, the
results of a tow will be grossly biased and it will be misleading to compare day blocks
with night blocks. So far the greater part of this work has been done in the North Sea, and
analysis of the results has shown that in this region the effect of vertical migration is not
great enough to obscure the general picture. This migration must, however, be borne in
mind as the work extends to other regionsparticularly where the sampling is over deep
water; it soon becomes evident from the results which animals are showing diurnal
migration; when regular tows are taken, the night and day blocks are never consistently
placed in space so that, even with extensive vertical migration, it becomes possible to
eliminate bias as records accumulate. There is another restriction; the necessity to
maintain the animals in the position in which they are caught by means of a covering
gauze, which together with the collecting gauze is wound on to the spool in the
preserving tank, results in the animals being squashed. This tends to make specific
recognition of the animals difficult. In spite of this, many are still easily recognizable by
their standard zoological characters and for others different features from those normally

Sampling the living organisms

25

employed may be used; in some cases new methods of recognition of the somewhat
mutilated organisms have been developed.
Application of the technique
What sort of problems may be tackled by recorder surveys and by a study of the synoptic
charts so obtained, giving as they do, the pattern of plankton month by month and year by
year? Questions such as the following can be answered. Is the seasonal sequence repeated
annually? How great are the fluctuations in numbers over any area from month to month
and from year to year? Do the various organisms behave differently as regards either the
numbers present or their distribution? There is such a wealth of data that it is difficult to
choose simple illustrative examples; the first to be given illustrates most clearly the
advantages of a synoptic picture in the interpretation of the movement of plankton
populations. Figure 15 (taken from a paper by K.M. Rae and C. Rees) shows the
positions at which the copepod Candacia armata was taken by the recorder during the
latter part of 1938, the various lines indicating the south-eastern boundary of its
distribution in successive months. As the season progresses it is evident from this work
that the animal steadily penetrates farther and farther into the North Sea. Now the species
is known to thrive in oceanic water; the steady

Figure 15
Penetration of Candacia armata into the North Sea. Circles indicate the
presence of Candacia armata, and the various lines the limit of
penetration during successive months
(K. M. Rae and C.B. Rees, Hull Bulletins of Marine Ecology, 1947; Modified
from original)

Oceanography and marine biology

26

progression southwards of the limit of distribution can therefore be considered to give an


indication of the penetration of Atlantic water into the North Sea.
The recorder programme has been concentrated largely on those organisms which,
from egg to adult, are totally planktonic. Recently, however, Dr Rees has studied the
distribution of the larvae of the Decapodacrab-like animals which live on the sea
bottom. The larvae, quite different in appearance from the adult, are set free into the
water and spend several weeks in a planktonic phase before they settle and change into
the young bottom-living animal. The adult animals, benthic as they are called, are of
great importance as food for bottom-feeding fish, and the planktonic larvae are often an
important constituent of the food of pelagic fishes. Figure 16 gives the pooled numbers of
total larvae on a number of recorder lines for several successive years. Although there is
some variation in total production from year to year, it is clear that the pattern of
distribution is strikingly constant; the larvae are, to a large extent, restricted to the
southern part of the North Sea. In this region the bottom conditions are favourable to the
adults and indeed it is known that there they are most common. Young larvae would be
expected where the adults are most abundant, but the recorder survey also shows that
they are retained in the same region throughout their planktonic life. Why are the larvae
not more widely distributed? The restrictive factor to their northward spread is probably
in part due to the barrier of the Dogger Bank and in part to a swirl of water in the
Heligoland Bight, where the larvae circulate in a large eddy and are not carried away to
the north. We may also note the scarcity of larvae in 1946 and 1947; on examining the
temperature conditions recorded for this region it was found that the low bottom
temperatures, which are always established during the winter in the North Sea, were
maintained well into the summer of 1947. This is unusual and it was suggested that these
low summer temperatures had a detrimental effect on larval production. Perhaps it is
worth adding that the maintenance of these low temperatures was probably due to a
relatively small influx of Atlantic water into the North Sea during that year.
Valuable results have been obtained by this technique and the work, originally
confined to the North Sea, has now been extended to include parts of the Atlantic Ocean.
However, this expansion creates new problemsthe estimated number of recorder miles
per year is 30,000, that is, 3,000 10-mile blockswhat a wealth of potential information!
But how is a staff to keep pace with the analysis of all these records? Again it is a
question of deciding on an objective and adjusting the working

Sampling the living organisms

27

Figure 16
Occurrence of decapod larvaeSouthern North Sea
a) The ship routes on which recorders were towed. b) larvae 19389. c) larvae
1946. d) larvae 1947. e) larvae 1948. f) larvae 1949
The similarity in the distribution in these years and the lack of any wide
dispersal is clearly indicated
(Dogger Bank dotted)
(C. B. Rees, Hull Bulletins of Marine Ecology, 1952; Modified from original)

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28

methods to accomplish it. In recent years the general routine assessment has been
changed in three ways. First, the number of species counted has been reduced both by
omitting some organisms now considered to be of less importance to the primary object
of the work and by grouping others together in a single category; secondly, the initial
counts are taken from alternate blocks only; thirdly, instead of counting each individual
animal, the number present is estimated as lying between certain limits. This allows a
very broad picture to be obtained quicklyquickly enough for the results to be of use to
other workersand, for example, to point where more detailed information could
profitably be obtained by other methods. Nothing is lost by such a rapid initial survey
because all the blocks are stored and can be worked over again to fill in the details and
give a more complete picture.

SAMPLING BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND THEIR FAUNA


In this field of enquiry the biologist is particularly interested in the animals that live on or
within the substratum, but the physicist, the chemist and the submarine geologist are
more concerned with the physical and chemical nature of the materials of which it is
composed. The two types of study are, however, to some extent complementary; the
bottom-living animals, which relatively speaking do not penetrate deeply, are adapted to
their physical environment and a biologist who studies the behaviour of bottom fauna
requires, therefore, information regarding the character of the superficial deposits. The
type of equipment employed depends very much upon the purpose for which it is used. If
we are interested in the bottom material as a sediment, we may only need a small sample,
but it is often desirable to take it as an undisturbed core. If we are concerned with
burrowing animals, a larger sample will be required and for many purposes it need not be
in an undisturbed state. For the animals living on the surface or on other animals, the socalled epifauna, the material must be scraped off the bottom and when the animals are
relatively sparsely distributed a consider able amount of ground may have to be covered.
All these objectives require different sampling devices each adapted for its own specific
purpose; none is adequate for all.
Trawls and dredges
A commercial trawl is used for sampling bottom-living fish; the foot-rope, often rigged
with special devices such as tickler chains, disturbs the fish, which pass backwards into
the codend as the trawl is dragged through the water.
For many purposes the commercial otter trawl, which cannot be easily worked from a
small boat, is too large and the meshes too wide for sampling organisms other than fish.
A beam trawl (Figure 17), now little used commercially except in some inshore prawn
fisheries, may, however, be employed. The rigid front of such a trawl consists of a stout
wooden beam fastened between two metal shoes, the soles of which slide over the
ground. The upper edge of the net is fastened along the beam and the sides to the shoes.
The lower, leading-edge of the net is attached to a stout foot-rope and is shaped so that in
towing it lies in a curve behind the front of the net. Commonly, the fore part of the net is

Sampling the living organisms

29

made with a coarser mesh than the aftercollecting portion. The trawl is towed on a single
warp fastened to a pair of bridles, the latter being shackled to eyes on the metal shoes.
When towed, the length of warp out must be adjusted both to the speed of the ship and to
the depth of water so that, on the one hand, the trawl does not dig into soft ground and fill
with mud, while on the other it does not travel too lightly over the bottom and fail to take
off the animals.
The Agassiz trawl is used for the same purpose and is similar in construction but the
shoes, connected between their centres by a stout iron bar, are symmetrical and there is
no beam. It has the advantage that since it is completely symmetrical with regard to its
upper and lower parts it will tow and catch material whichever way it falls on the ground.
On fairly soft and even groundmud, sand or gravelthe beam or Agassiz trawl is a
suitable device for taking the

Figure 17
a) Beam trawl; side view showing metal shoes, beam and net

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30

b) Beam trawl; view from above showing towing wrap, fore and hind part of
net. Note how the foot-rope curves to form a concave leading edge (F.M. Davis,
'Fishery Investigations', Series II, 1927; Redrawn from original)
epifauna. On rough, stony or rocky ground, the net is often torn either by the substratum
itself or by large stones that enter the net and are dragged over the bottom. Sometimes the
trawl may come fast and be lost. On such grounds a stronger and smaller apparatus, the
dredge, is used. This may take a variety of forms often adapted to local conditions and
usually influenced by personal preference or local prejudice and custom. It is much
smaller than a trawl and usually has a fixed and strong metal opening to which the net is
attached.
Dredges are used commercially for harvesting shell fish such as cockles. The lower
edge of the frame may be a simple bar, but more often it has a blade-like form with the
leading-edge inclined downwards and forwards; it may have downward-projecting spikes
fastened to it. In either case the function of this modified leading edge is to scoop up
animals lying free on the bottom so that they pass backwards into the bag which is
attached to the front frame. The floor of the bag is often made from a series of large iron
ringsrather like a piece of chain mailwhilst the sides and roof are of net. Care must
again be taken to adjust the length of warp and the speed of tow to the nature of the
ground so that the dredge neither digs too deeply into soft ground nor passes too lightly
over hard ground.
For sampling burrowing animals some form of dredge is used; they are often made
with a very heavy rigid metal frame, oval in shape, and to this the net is attached. In use,
they are allowed to take a sharp bite into soft ground and bring up a bag of mud.
On sand, where there is considerable resistance to the leading-edge of either the mud
bucket or naturalists oval dredge, only a small sample is usually brought up and deeper

Sampling the living organisms

31

burrowing animals frequently avoid capture. To get over this diffculty Mr Forster of the
Plymouth Laboratory has devised what he calls an anchor dredge, which is shot and
hauled in a similar manner to a ships anchor. The net is attached to a strong rectangular
frame on the lower bar of which fits a stout iron base-plate with a digging leading-edge.
A strong iron bar projects forward from the centre of the upper edge of the frame and to
this the warp is shackled. The dredge is put out with the ship going astern. A long length
of warp is then paid off; on hauling, the broad inclined plate digs into the substratum and
a large and deep bite is taken. The long forward-projecting arm serves to prevent fastmoving burrowers from being disturbed by the warp and making their escape as the
sample is taken; with this instrument many deep-burrowing animals are taken that usually
avoid capture by more conventional dredges.
Grabs
If we wish to investigate the ground quantitatively, then an attempt must always be made
to take a sample of equal area and volume. Some form of grab is used for this purpose,
but it is extremely difficult to devise an instrument which will work adequately under all
circumstances.

Figure 18
The Petersen-type grab

In the Petersen (Figure 18) or van Veen type of grab two semicircular buckets are
hinged along a central axis. The buckets are held apart by some form of catch. On
striking bottom this is released, so that on hauling the buckets move round on their axis,

Oceanography and marine biology

32

take a bite out of the ground, and eventually come together to form a closed container.
Neither of these grabs is invariably successful on all types of ground and under all
working conditions. The rate at which the grab hits the bottom affects the bite and when
the ship is drifting, a poor sample may be obtained if the grab does not hit the ground
vertically. Further, the depth of penetration varies with the type of ground; material may
be lost if shells or stones lodge in the jaws and prevent complete closure.
A number of attempts have been made to devise an instrument in which these faults are
absent. In that designed

Figure 19
The Holme mud-sampler with semi-circular scoop
(N A. Holme, Journal of the Marine Biological Association. U.K., 1949;
Redrawn from original)

by Mr Holme of the Plymouth Laboratory the sample is taken by a scoop rotating on an


axle mounted on a heavy frame that rests firmly on the ground (Figure 19). (Single and
double scoop models have been designed.) The apparatus is lowered open (Figure 20),
the whole weight being taken by a shackle on a balanced arm; closure is not effected on
touching

Sampling the living organisms

33

Figure 20
The Holme mud-sampler (diagrammatic)
a) Set with pin in key, weight on key
b) Arm tips on touching bottom when warp slackens, pin slips out allowing
tension to come on the bucket wire
c) Beginning to haul, key free, tension on hauling wire now comes on wire on
drum and this pulls round the scoop
d) Scoop now round as hauling continues and completely closed

bottom. On hauling, the pressure of water on a vane attached to this balanced arm tips a
lever and allows a pin to slip out and release the shackle. The weight is then transferred to
a rope rotating round the large drum; this in turn rotates a small pulley and drags the
sampling hemisphere through the bottom via a second pulley to which it is attached by a
light wire. The maximum volume of the sample is 5 litres and in practice about 34
litres of soil are brought up; this is some four times that usually obtained by a Petersen
grab ostensibly sampling the same surface area of square metre; again, it digs deeper and
brings up species that are not normally taken by the older grabs.

Oceanography and marine biology

34

Figure 21
The Smith-McIntyre spring-loaded mud-sampler. In this instrument heavy
springs force the grab into the soil before the jaws are closed to
collect the sample
(W. Smith and A.D. Mclntyre, Journal of the Marine Biological Association,
U.K., 1954; Redrawn from original)

The van Veen, Petersen and Holme samplers do not work very satisfactorily in poor
weather. Messrs Smith and Mclntyre have described a new sampler (Figures 2123) in
which the digging and hauling mechanisms are separated and whose performance is good
even under bad working conditions. It consists of a spring-loaded bucket actuated only
after the apparatus rests squarely on the bottom (Figures 21 and 23). The bucket is carried
on a stout metal bridle which slides on a guide tube, and two heavy springs on the frame
bear on the movable bridle. In the set position the springs are held by two catches which
fit into a pair of holders and these are triggered when the apparatus strikes bottom. On
release, the springs bear on the bridle and push the bucket down into the substratum.

Sampling the living organisms

35

Figure 22
Smith-McIntyre grab
Apparatus set and going over
(From W. Smith and A.D. Mclntyre. Journal of the Marine Biological
Association, U.K., 1954)

At the same time as these are triggered, a release bar moves so that on hauling the weight
comes on the wire and the two halves of the bucket are drawn together taking a sample of
soil.
All the grabs so far described are inefficient on very sandy bottoms; this is in part the
result of the great resistance of sand to their digging action, and in part to the difficulty of
keeping coarser samples intact during hauling. A vacuum grab such as described by
Holme may then be used (Figure 24).
In this instrument the force required to suck in a sample of the bottom is provided by a
vacuum chamber which contains

Oceanography and marine biology

36

Figure 23
The Smith-McIntyre mud-sampler (diagrammatic)
a) The bucket mechanism
(i) Descending
(ii) Hitting the groundcable slackens, trigger plate allows arm to slide past
stop
(iii) Hauling begins, weight on arms close the bucket
(iv) Further hauling, bucket completely closed
b) The spring-loading device
(i) Springs set and bucket held by rockers in eyes and by ring
(ii) Trigger plate thrust up, ring moves up, allowing rockers to slip out of eyes
and springs, then thrust bucket into the mud

Sampling the living organisms

37

a) Suction type of bottom sampler (Holme)


(N. A. Holme, Journal of the Marine Biological Association, U.K., 1955
Redrawn from original)

Figure 24
b) Holme suction grab (diagrammatic)
(i) Plug in set position held by hooks fitting into slots
(ii) Released by bottom of hooks sliding over stops on contacts with the
bottom, plug flies up and mud is sucked into pressure chamber

Oceanography and marine biology

38

air at atmospheric pressure and is mounted above the collecting tube. On striking the
bottom the chamber is put into communication with the outside and the water pressure
forces the sample into the collecting tube.
The pressure chamber itself is a strong brass tube closed at the upper end by a lid and
held firmly in position by a clamp. A sampling tube is fixed below the chamber and
extends upwards into it. Between the upper and lower parts of the central tube is a plug
held in position by retaining hooks through slots in the wall of the lower tube. When the
apparatus strikes the bottom a mouth tube rises, disengaging the plug, which flies up the
tube; the water pressure then forces material up into the collecting tube (Figure 24). The
lid is removed and the sample emptied out.
Coring devices for undisturbed samples
For many purposes it is sufficient to be able to take a sample with one of these
instruments and examine the animals contained in it. For some types of work a sample of
bottom material remaining as it is in situ is needed; this is often the case with mud
samples and for this purpose a coring device is used. This takes many forms; in all cases
the instrument must have some simple type of valve that lets water pass through the
apparatus during descent but which closes when the corer is raised to prevent loss of the
sample during hauling. The complexity of this type of device largely depends upon the
length of core required. In studies of the relation of burrowing animals to the material in
which they live, or for investigations of recent sediments, a core of superficial material a
few inches to a foot is adequate and the apparatus is relatively simple. For geological
purposes, the longer the core the greater is the yield of information and a more complex
and heavy instrument is essential.
For short cores, the apparatus is variously modified; it may be a long tube with
attached weights which drive it into the bottom and which are then released, or the weight
of the sampler itself may be sufficient for this purpose. Moore and Neills sampler is very
effective and will be described (Figure 25). It is essentially a protected glass tube through
which water flows freely during descent and which is forced by impact into the mud; on
hauling, a simple valve mechanism closes the top of

Sampling the living organisms

39

Figure 25
Coring device for short cores
(H. B. Moore and R.G. Neill, Journal of the Marine Biological Association,
U.K., 192930; Redrawn from original)

the tube and the sample may be brought to the surface. The body of the sampler is a stout
brass cylinder (Figure 25b) and into this fits a thinner metal tube holding the glass
sampling tube (Figure 25c). When the glass tube is in position it is closed by a rubber
bung which comes hard against the upper surface of the main body of the sampler in the
centre of which is a hole. Through this passes a short piece of small-bore glass tube
which in turn passes through the rubber bung closing the glass sampling tube. The upper
end of this short glass tube is joined by rubber to a second similar tube which fits against
a simple valve. The latter consists of a flat ground rim on which lies a ground glass plate
confined in a cage. As the sampler descends, water streams through the whole apparatus
and escapes through the valve, since the glass closing-disc is lifted up in its cage by the
upward pressure of the water. The weight of the sampler drives the tube into the bottom
and a core of material is forced into the glass sampling tube; the glass plate then drops on
to the ground surface (being no longer forced up by the water) and when the instrument is
raised gives a watertight joint. At the upper part of the apparatus is a stout pillar on which
is mounted a propeller revolving freely and thereby helping to maintain a vertical
descent.
We have seen how, in several branches of oceanography, rapid methods of survey are

Oceanography and marine biology

40

of great importance, particularly when we want a synoptic picture of a continually


changing pattern. In the case of surface sediments, except in the most shallow waters, the
pattern is relatively stable; it may, nevertheless, be of a complex character with sharp
boundaries over small distances. If the time taken to get a sample can be reduced, then it
becomes economically and practically possible to carry out more detailed surveys of
superficial bottom deposits.
To this end Emery and Champion have designed and used an under-way sampler
(Figures 26 and 27); with it they have taken many thousands of samplesas many as 200
in a working day. The instrument consists of a sampling cup which is mounted in a
hollow barrel attached to a tail-piece. When cocked ready for use, the cup protrudes about
half an inch from the barrel and a hinged cover is held back by a spring. Attachment to
the light towing cable is by means of a hinged arm, that is folded down during descent
(Figure 26b). When ready, the sampler is gently lowered over the ships side, but on
striking the water the brake is taken off the winch drum and the cable rapidly run out. On
striking bottom, a small sample is taken into the cup, which at the same time is forced

Sampling the living organisms

41

Figure 26
Top, going down; bottom, coming up

back into the tube; as this happens, the spring holding back the lid is released and the
latter now comes over the end of the tube and prevents any loss of sample during hauling.

Oceanography and marine biology

42

Figure 27
Under-way bottom sampler; ready for shooting
(Courtesy of Professor K.O. Emery)

Simultaneously a catch is sprung which frees the after end of the towing arm so that
during hauling the towing point of the sampler is brought nearer the forward end, thus
reducing drag (Figure 26c).
This technique has some severe limitations. Only a small surface sample is taken. In
the case of muds or sands, the amount is usually sufficient for standard chemical and
physical analyses, but with gravels and coarser materials only a few fragments are often
brought up; even so, these may be sufficient to characterize the bottom. Really coarse
material, such as moderate-sized stones, is not taken.
The apparatus has been very successfully used to make rapid surveys in water of
depths up to 100 fathomschanges of surface sediments being correlated with changes
in topography as revealed by echo sounding. Clearly the method may be extended and
developed to take larger samples and largersized material from the bottom; it has not
been used for biological work.
We may now consider the specialized corers used for geological work.
The older coring devices were modifications of the weighted tube; success depended
upon their weight and the speed at which they could be dropped. Much valuable
information from cores 34 ft. long was obtained by the German Meteor Expedition,
using such instruments developed by F.L. Ekman and improved by V.W. Ekman. A corer

Sampling the living organisms

43

developed by C.S. Piggot gave cores up to 10 ft. long; this instrument did not rely upon
weight or speed of fall, but was driven into the substratum by an explosive charge.
Although the long cores taken by this instrument gave a great stimulus to coring studies it
is not much used at present, since cores of similar length can be obtained by newer corers
that are much cheaper to make and safer to use. The Kullenberg corer has revolutionized
this field; it will take cores up to 70 ft. in length. This and the Emery-Dietz gravity corer
will be described.
In the latter corer an attempt has been made to produce a cheap, robust and reliable
instrument capable of working even under moderately adverse sea conditions (Figures 28,
29, 30). It consists essentially of a shaft, weights, and coring tube. The shaft is a standard
8-ft. pipe 2 in. in diameter with several small holes drilled in it to allow water to run off
as it is lifted on board. On this shaft is mounted a set of removable lead weights, which
are roughly streamlined; the number of weights is adjusted to give the required depth of
penetration. The complete corer weighs some 650 lb. in air. The weights rest on a
shoulder, which is part of the valve housing. The valve is similar in principle to

Figure 28
Emery-Dietz gravity corer
(K. O. Emery and R.S. Dietz, Bulletin of the Geological Society of America,
1941; Redrawn from original)

Oceanography and marine biology

44

the ground-glass plate of the Moore and Neill sampler and is necessary to prevent loss of
the core by suction during withdrawal from the mud, to obviate any washing out of the
relatively fluid upper part of the core during hauling, and to stop the weight of water in
the shaft forcing out a short core as the instrument is lifted out of the sea. It consists of a
rubber bung resting in guides, and fitting loosely in a brass seating. The coring tube itself
fits below this valve and consists of a standard pipe, 2 or 2 in. in diameter, thrust into a
sleeve against a shoulder of the valve housing and clamped there with a set-screw. A
removable celluloid liner is fitted inside the coring tube so that the core may be readily
removed and inspected. Screwed to the bottom end of the tube is a nose-piece with a
slightly smaller diameter than the coring tube itself. A core

Figure 29
Emery-Dietz gravity corer being brought on board R.V. Velero IV
(Courtesy of Professor K.O. Emery)

retainer is fitted in the nose; this has strips of celluloid thrust into a thin rubber sleeve and
bent over towards the centre. When the sample is passing up the coring tube they are
pushed back against its wall, but if the core starts to slip, they close the opening. In use,
the instrument is lowered on a wire until about 300 ft. above the bottom when it is
allowed to run almost free with only sufficient braking to ensure a vertical descent. Just
before striking the bottom the velocity is between 12 and 21 ft. per second. After hauling
and hoisting inboard (Figure 29), the undisturbed core is extracted from the tube by
withdrawing the celluloid liner; the core is then cut into convenient lengths which are
labelled and stored in sealed containers.

Sampling the living organisms

45

Figure 30
Washing a mud sample on board R.V. Velero IV
(Courtesy of Professor K.O. Emery)

If it is not possible to have a free-running winch, the method suggested by Hvorslev


and Stetson may be used (Figure 31). In this the corer is attached by a coil of wire to a
release mechanism from one arm of which hangs a counter-weight. This weight, hanging
the required distance below the corer,

Oceanography and marine biology

46

Figure 31
Method of working Stetson free-falling corer: (i) descending, (ii) release of the
corer, (iii) corer in the bottom, and (iv) hauling back with the core in
tube
(M. J. Hvorslev and H.C. Stetson, Bulletin of the Geological Society of
America, 1946; Redrawn from original)

touches bottom first and allows the corer to slip off the release and then to fall under its
own weight.
The length of a core taken with an instrument driven into a sediment, either by its own
weight and velocity or by an explosive charge, is always less than the depth of
penetration of the coring tube. Depending upon the instrument and the type of sediment,
the core itself may vary from 40 to 70 per cent. of the depth of penetration. To what
extent then does a point on the core correspond to the original sediment? Does material
escape from the tube mouth, or are the layers simply compressed into a shorter length?
The answer to these questions is of fundamental importance in any interpretation of
cores, particularly when attempts are being made to estimate rates of sedimentation of the
layers. A good deal of attention has been paid to this problem. The main factor
responsible for shortening is friction between the core, as it passes up the tube, and the
walls of the latter. As more and more sediment passes up the tube, frictional resistance
increases and it becomes more and more difficult for material to enter; only part of the
sediment does so, the rest slipping away so that the layers in the tube become

Sampling the living organisms

47

increasingly smaller than those in the undisturbed sediment. Eventually frictional forces
become so great that they prevent any more sediment entering the tube even though the
latter continues to penetrate the soil. (Pratje reduced this friction by fitting a nose-piece
with a slightly smaller diameter than the tube and so greatly increased the length of the
cores taken by Ekman-type instruments.)
In Kullenbergs piston corer the hydrostatic pressure at great depths is utilized to
overcome this friction and to allow very long undisturbed cores to be taken (Figures 32,
33 and 34).
Consider a tube (Figure 32a) being forced into a sediment, and suppose a closely fitting
piston is mounted in the tube just above the surface of the sediment. As the tube goes
down, wall friction exerts a downward pull on the core; if this were to let a space develop
between the piston and the surface, a partial vacuum would be set up. Hydrostatic
pressure, when it exceeds frictional forces (which will always be the case in deep water),
will not allow this, and an undisturbed core is drawn into the tube. The key to the
problem is, therefore, to immobilize a piston inside the tube in the vicinity of the bottom.
This has been done ingeniously in Kullenbergs instrumentwhich has revolutionized
coring techniques and sediment studies.
The sampler consists of a hard steel tube which may be up to 70 ft. long loaded with
weights according to the length of core required and the consistency of the sediments. To
avoid damaging the whole tube should it strike rock, it is made in 15-ft. sections coupled
together, At its lower end is a nose; this has a slightly larger external and slightly smaller
internal diameter than the tube itself. The larger external diameter reduces friction on the
outside of the tube by the water descending in its wake. The smaller internal diameter is
not required in the piston sampler to obtain longer cores by reducing

Oceanography and marine biology

48

Figure 32
The Kullenberg piston corer
Diagrammatic:
a) Piston in mouth of corer
b) Corer in set position
c) Balanced lever for suspension
(B. Kullenberg, Svenska Hydrografiskbiologiska Kommissiontns Skrifter,
1947; Redrawn from original)

the internal wall friction, but a reduction in this is still desirable to prevent distorting the
peripheral parts of the sample. The steel tube is lined with short lengths of brass tubing.
The piston fits the brass liners and is connected by a steel rope to the suspension. The
corer is suspended from the shorter arm of the release mechanism, the longer arm of
which carries paired heavy counter-weights. These weights are suspended through eyes in
a metal bar carried by the.main tube. They hang down symmetrically below the mouth of
the coring tube so that the

Sampling the living organisms

49

Figure 33
The Kullenberg piston corer
The corer is ready for lowering; the safety catch has been removed and the
counter-weights hold the corer in set position
(Courtesy of Professor B. Kullenberg)

centre of gravity is located on the axis of the tube, which is therefore kept in a vertical
position. The counter-weight rope is used to bring the apparatus inboard (Figure 32).
The counter-weights strike the bottom first and unload the release mechanism,
allowing the lever to tip and the corer to slip off the shorter arm and fall into the sediment
with a considerable velocity. As the tube slips off the tension in the cable is reduced and
this is indicated by a ship-board dynamo

Oceanography and marine biology

Figure 34
The Kullenberg piston corer
(Courtesy of Professor B. Kullenberg)

50

Sampling the living organisms

51

Figure 35
Diagram of core from the Atlantic Ocean at 2,250 fathoms. The type of
sediments and deductions by F.B. Phleger from their analysis
regarding the climatic conditions when the sediments were laid down
are shown
(M. J. Hvorslev and H.C. Stetson, Bulletin of the Geological Society of
America, 1946; Redrawn from original)

meter; the winch is stopped and the piston arrested above the bottom, in which position
it .stays as the core enters the tube.
In Figure 35 is a diagram of a long core, taken by Hvorslev and Stetson, in which the
types of sediment are indicated together with the associated climatic conditions
prevailing when these components of the core were laid down. The climate is inferred
from the present known distribution of the organisms whose remains are found in the
core when it is submitted to detailed analyses.

2
THE USE OF SOUND WAVES
THE ECHO SOUNDER
EVERYBODY is familiar with the delay between shouting at a distant cliff and reception
of the echoa consequence of the time taken by the sound wave to travel to and from the
cliff. Clearly, if this time could be measured accurately and if the speed of sound in air
were known, it would be a simple matter to calculate the distance away of the cliff.
The speed of sound in water is known (about 4,900 ft. per second) and it is this simple
principle of measuring the time taken for an echo to return from the sea bed that is used
in all echo sounding (Figure 36)a method of depth recording which has almost
completely replaced the older and more laborious lead line. The suggestion that sound
waves should be used in this way is usually attributed to Jean F. Arrago about the year
1807. At first submarine bells, explosions, and hammers, were used to generate audible
sound waves (relatively low frequency), and the time taken by these to return was
measured as accurately as possible by a chronometer. The microphone was introduced
about 1900 as a sensitive means of detecting the return echo. Echo sounding was not,
however, considered sufficiently reliable for surveying purposes until 1924, in which
year it made its first appearance in the Hydrographic Service of the British Navy. Rapid
development followed and the reliance placed on the new method may be judged by the
fact that in 1929 it was used for some 60 per cent. of all the soundings made by the Navy.

Figure 36
The principle of echo sounding. The timetaken for an echo to return from the
sea bed to the ship is timed, and the distance calculated from the
known speed of sound in water

The use of sound waves

53

In early machines sound waves, at audio-frequency, were produced by an


electromagnetic hammer and the echo picked up by hydrophones. The transmission was
timed by a bridge control unit which also passed the echo, via a transformer, to
telephones. A telephone short-circuiting device coupled to a movable depth scale allowed
the echo, detected by a click in the telephones, to be located in relation to a scale
reading. Although now quite out of date, such sets were used for charting depths up to
4,500 fathoms.
The production of ultrasonic sound waves
The use of low-frequency audible sound has two inherent disadvantages: first, it is
difficult to separate the signal from any nearby noise such as that coming from the ships
engines and propellers, and secondly, it is difficult to screen the receiver from the
transmitter. An important advance was made when audio-frequency transmitters were
replaced by those giving an ultrasonic beam, that is, working with sound of a frequency
just at or higher than can be detected by the human ear. The sound frequency used in
modern machines varies from 15 to about 50 kilocycles per second.
These ultrasonic high-frequency waves are produced in two ways, namely, by utilizing
either the piezo-electric or the magneto-striction effect. The former was used by
Professor Langevin, working for the French Government on the development of methods
for detection of underwater craft during World War I; the latter, largely employed in
British commercial instruments, was originally introduced by Dr A.B. Wood of the
British Admiralty.
In 1880 the Curie brothers found that certain crystals develop an electrical charge when
submitted to mechanical pressure or tension, and the phenomenon was termed the piezoelectric effect. This may be observed with many crystals; for the practical development of
ultrasonic beams, quartz and Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate) are most generally
used, although a number of synthetic crystals have recently been developed for special
purposes. The electrical charge developed on the crystal is proportional to the pressure
applied and when a compression is changed to an equal tension, the sign, but not the
intensity, of the charge changes. Conversely, when a charge is applied to one of these
crystals, its faces move with respect to each other. If, therefore, such a crystal (and
particularly when it is cut to oscillate at a given frequency) is submitted to an alternating
high-frequency electrical charge and one surface of the crystal is then applied to that of a
transmitting medium, the vibrations of the crystal will produce ultrasonic waves in that
medium. It is in this way that the piezo-electric effect is utilized to generate ultrasonic
high-frequency sound waves. Further, by suitable mounting of the crystals the
mechanical changes that take place when sound waves fall on them and which in turn
give rise to electrical effects can be employed to detect the return echo. In practice, the
crystals are mounted in mosaics or stacked to give a greater output of sound energy.
The magneto-striction effect depends upon the fact that when certain metals, notably
nickel, are placed in a varying magnetic field they undergo mechanical changes; nickel
itself contracts in an increasing and expands in a decreasing magnetic field. As with the
mechanical changes brought about by the piezoelectric effect, these also.may be
transmitted to a medium and, if they are sufficiently rapid, ultrasonic sound waves are

Oceanography and marine biology

54

produced. By altering the rate at which the magnetic field changes, the frequency of the
sound pulses can be varied. In practice, the magneto-striction oscillator is made up of a
number of nickel laminations wound with a few turns of thick low resistance wire. This is
connected to a condenser placed in circuit with a high-voltage generating unit; when this
condenser discharges, a momentary large surge of current flows through the oscillator
winding resulting in the rapid formation and dying away of an intense magnetic field; the
inductance of the oscillator winding coupled with the capacity of the transmitting
condenser give an oscillatory circuit. This oscillatory magnetic field causes the nickel
plates alternately to increase and decrease their diameter, that is, to vibrate radially, and
when applied to a medium, ultrasonic waves are produced in it.
The modern echo sounder
We are now in a position to understand the working of a modern echo sounder; short
pulses of high-frequency sound waves are sent out from the ship and the time required for
the resulting echoes to return from the sea bed is measured; the records are usually
presented in the form of a continuous graphical trace of the depth of water beneath the
vessel. To use the principles already outlined in a convenient way, we require:
(a) an ultrasonic sound transmitter and receiver,
(b) a means of amplifying the return signal,
(c) some form of scale, calibrated directly in distance,
(d) a method of recording the distance indicated by this scale.
There are many types of instruments but all use the same principles. The general layout is
shown in Figure 37, and a typical instrument, the Kelvin and Hughes M.S. 26 Survey
Echo Sounder, in Figure 38. Most British instruments utilize magneto-striction
transmitters and receivers. The transmitting unit or oscillator in wooden ships is of the
pierced-hull type, a hole being made in the ships hull and a plate inserted astride the
oscillator; alternately it may be mounted in a separate external dome. When the plates of
an iron ship are not too thick, the oscillator is fixed directly on the hull (Figure 39). The
oscillator itself is contained in a tank filled with water and the radial vibrations of the
nickel stampings, transmitted

The use of sound waves

55

Figure 37
Diagram of Kelvin and Hughes-type echo sounder. The contactor box which
generates the signals is connected to the oscillator. The return sound
is received, passed to the amplifier and then to the stylus of the
rotating arm which marks the paper
(Courtesy of Messrs Kelvin & Hughes; Redrawn from original)

horizontally through the surrounding water, are condensed into a beam and projected
downwards by means of the reflector in which the oscillator is mounted (Figure 39). The
reflector itself is made from two thin conical metal sheets soldered together and enclosing
between them an air space; it is this air space that functions as an efficient reflector.

Oceanography and marine biology

56

Figure 38
Echo sounder Kelvin & Hughes Type M.S. 26 Survey Echo Sounder open and
shut
(Courtesy of Messrs Kelvin & Hughes)

Figure 39
A magneto-striction oscillator. The nickel laminae mounted inside the reflector
which consists of liquid or air between thin metal plates

The receiving oscillator (when a separate unit) is, so to speak, a transmitter in reverse
and indeed looks identical, but the nickel stampings of the former have their small
amount of residual magnetism increased by flashing the windings. However, in some
modern installations the transmitting and receiving elements are combined into a single

The use of sound waves

57

so-called transceiver. The return echo impinging on the receiving oscillator causes
vibration in the nickel stampings and these induce in the winding an alternating voltage
which may be amplified and passed to the recording part of the instrument.
In steel ships both transmitter and receiver tanks are cut to conform to the hull being
welded round their circumference to the plates, with the reflectors taking up a vertical
position. As already mentioned, no holes need usually be cut in the ships plates; the
intensity and wavelength of sound in steel are such that, at ultrasonic frequencies, sound
waves up to about 15 kc/s will pass through the normal thickness of ships plate without
any serious attenuation, provided there is a good soundconducting layer of water on both
sides of it. (At high frequencies pierced-hull oscillators may be obligatory.) The oscillator
tanks are always kept full of liquid, to which antifreeze components may be added if very
low temperature conditions are anticipated. The oscillators, both transmitting and
receiving, may be housed together in a separate streamlined case (Figure 40), which can
be mounted over the side of the shiprather like a small outboard motor. Such an
arrangement is particularly convenient when using small boats for shallowwater work, as
for example in harbours or where only a temporary installation is required.
The signals, in the form of alternating current generated in the receiving oscillator by
the return echo, are minute and before being passed on to the recording part of the
instrument, must be amplified. In practice, the amplifier is often a selfcontained unit
fitting in, or mounted close to, the side of the recorder unit. In many respects the
amplifier circuit follows normal radio practice except that it is designed to give maximum
amplification at a fixed frequency. Two stages of amplification, partially under manual
control, are usually included; the total gain at maximum sensitivity is about a million to
one. A rectifier may be incorporated in the amplifier unit to convert the amplified
alternating into direct current, in which form it is required for some types of recording
paper.

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Figure 40
Outboard unit for echo sounding
(Kelvin & Hughes)
(Courtesy of Messrs Kelvin & Hughes)

So far we have seen how the ultrasonic impulses are generated, transmitted, and
received, and how the return signal is amplified. We must now consider in more detail
the recording. As already noted, the speed of sound in water is about 4,900 ft. per second,
so that a time interval of one second between transmission of the sound wave and
reception of the echo corresponds to a depth of about 2,400 ft, or 400 fathoms. A modern
instrument is capable of measuring fractions of a fathom, and it incorporates, therefore, a
precision chronometer.
There are several ways of recording the return signal in relation to depth, but all
employ the same principles. In general, a moving pointer travels over recording paper. As
the pointer passes the zero mark, a switch is operated and a pulse of sound transmitted.
By the time the return signal is received and passed to the pointer the latter will have
moved a certain distance, which if it moves at a constant speed, will be proportional to
the time taken for the echo to return and hence to the depth. A mark is made on the paper
by the return signal. By placing a calibrated scale against the pointer the depth can be
read off directly. In some instruments the moving pointer or stylus is mounted on an arm
which travels in a circle, in others it is mounted on an endless band which moves across
the paper (Figure 41).

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The range and calibration of the depth scale is directly related to the speed of
movement of the stylus. For example, if it takes exactly one second for the arm to cover
the full length of a given scale, then that scale might be divided into 400 divisions, each
of which represents one fathom. Clearly, by suitable selection of stylus speed, any
required scale range is possible and it may be calibrated in feet, fathoms or metres. Also,
by providing in one recorder a choice of two alternative gear ratios for the movement of
the arm, one of which is, for example, six times the other, a single scale may be utilized
to indicate feet at the higher speed and fathoms at the lower.
In the early instrumentsa few are still in usethe depth is indicated on a circular
scale evenly divided into fathom intervals. A gas-filled relay tube rotates on the arm and
when the signal is returned the scale is lit up at that point by a brilliant flash.
In most modern instruments recording paper is drawn through the instrument and
successive echo marks appear side by side and build up into a thick line, giving a
continuous record of the depth of water and following every undulation of the sea or river
bed (see Figures 4346). The mark may be made on a moist recording paper treated with
potassium iodide and starch; the current transmitted to the stylus electrolyses the iodide,
producing a lasting brown stain of a complex starch iodide. Alternately, a coated graphite
paper may be used and this is burnt at the stylus point to give a black trace.
Cathode ray tube presentation
In some recent instruments the return echoes are presented on a cathode ray tube which
may replace or be additional to the recording paper. In one setting a large depth, 100, 200
or 500 metres, may be recorded, but by turning a switch a small depth

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Figure 41
Interior and exterior views of Marconi echo sounder. In this machine the
writing stylus moves in a continuous linear band across the paper.
Note fish traces and double echo
(Courtesy of the marconi International Marine Communition Company Ltd)

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interval may be selected for detailed observation. This method has some advantages,
particularly in biological work, since the intensity of the echo is related to the magnitude
of the return trace (see below). Further, it facilitates the detection of traces from fish
near the bottom even though the latter is rough. Unless some additional recording camera
unit is attached, as may be done for research work, the cathode ray tube does not,
however, give a permanent record.
The cathode ray tube consists of an evacuated bulb in which is mounted an electron
gun (Figure 42), and two sets of deflecting plates, one pair being mounted horizontally
and the

Figure 42
Cathode ray tube
In the cathode ray presentation of echo sounding the return signal is applied to
the plates for horizontal deflection

other vertically. The cathode gun gives a stream of electrons. When these impinge on the
face of the tube, which is coated with a fluorescent material, they cause it to glow; where
the electron beam impinges, a bright spot is seen. When a potential is applied to the
plates, the electron beam is deflected and the spot will move up, down or across the
screen according to which plate the potential is applied. Instead of the transmission pulse
being sent out when a stylus passes zeroas in the recording instruments just
describeda deflecting potential is applied to the horizontal plates (Figure 42). In the
absence of an echo a vertical bright line is, therefore, seen on the face of cathode ray
tube. The echo after reception and amplification is fed to the vertical plate and a
horizontal deflection of the spot thereby effected. The vertical movement of the spot is
the time base and this may be selected for various depth intervals. In the absence of any
object in mid-water the bottom appears as a series of horizontal lines, the depth being

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read on a scale in front of the cathode ray tube. The appearance of fish is indicated by
horizontal lines above the bottom echo (Figure 43).
We have followed the development of the echo sounder from the knock and listen
stage to the modern machine which gives a continuous record of the depth of water
beneath a ship under way, and this section may be closed by a few examples of some of
the more striking results. Figure 44 shows a record of the Lusitania. The wreck, some 80
ft. high, is seen resting on a flat bottom in just over 300 ft. of water and the scouring of
the sea bed to one side of the wreck can be clearly seen. Figure 45 gives some idea of the
detail that may be resolved in shallow waters; it shows a record of a survey taken during
a dredge operation, and the amount of mud removed by the dredge can be quite
accurately estimated. The third figure (Figure 46) shows a section in the far south taken
on R.R.S. Discovery during her work in the Antarctic. It indicates a varied bottom
between 750 and 2,040 ft. in the Schollaert Channel of the Palmer Archipelago, only a
few miles from the edge of the Antarctic Continent.

THE ECHO SOUNDER AND FISHERIES


So far we have considered the echo sounder only as a depthdetermining device; we may
now consider its use in the fishing industry and fishery research.

a) A well-defined single echo right on the bottom is clearly shown on the tube
face, although the record-chart shows discernible trace

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63

b) A fairly heavy collection of fish in mid-water is indicated by the


conglomerate echo-type signals shown here. The full extend of the shoal is
shown by the shaded area on the record chart

Figure 43
c) A multiple echotype signal is shown on the tube face, indicating the presence
of a small fish shoal in mid-water. An equivalen shaded patch is
visible on the record chart Echo-graphs and cathode ray tube records
(Courtesy of Messrs Kelvin & Hughes)

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Figure 44
Wreck of the Lusitania
(Courtesy of Messrs Kelvin & Hughes)

Figure 45
Tracing in a channel showing the material removed from the bottom
during dredging. The volume and depth cleared can be
determined. Note the double echo. Time marks are at the
top
(Courtesy of Messrs Kelvin & Hughes)

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65

It is perhaps not generally realized that, quite apart from any navigational
value, to know the depth of water is of great importance to a fishing skipper
particularly a trawler-man. Fish taken by trawl are usually over more or less
shallow banks surrounded by deeper water; these banks have first to be found
and then, while the trawl is being worked, the ship must be kept on the bank.
This is necessary not only to catch fish, but to prevent damage to the nets as a
result of their running off into deep water and then having to be dragged back
across the rocky edges of the bank. Nets are very expensive and it is

Figure 46
Echo traverse in Antarctic, Schollaert Channel, Palmer Archipelago
(From H.F. P. Herdman, Discovery Reports, 1953. Courtesy of The
National Institute of Oceanography)

therefore not surprising that even in 1928early days for the echo sounderan
instrument using an electric hammer and hydrophones was installed in a Hull
trawler. It was not, however, until ultrasonic sounding had been developed that
the machines came into general use on commercial fishing vessels; by 1935
some hundreds had already been installed in British ships alone. The
development of continuous recording instruments, giving a permanent record,
was an important advance. With their introduction the skipper had no need to
rely on the mental picture of his fishing grounds built up over many successive
trips; he had available a continuous record that could be consulted whilst
working the ground or scrutinized more carefully at leisure. Initially echo
sounders were installed only on trawlers, where they were still essentially used
as a navigational aid both in locating the fishing banks and, once over them, in
manipulating the trawl. It is certain, however, that in this way fishermen had
become echo sounder conscious and were the more ready to appreciate any new
potentialities of the instrument.
Echo traces from fish
A number of people had from time to time suggested that fish could give rise to
echoes and echo traces, and it was in 1933 that the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries Lowestoft research ship Onaway, using a flashing-type Marconi echo

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meter, noticed distinct pulse echoes, as they were called, occurring constantly
at one depth between surface and bottom; the suggestion was again made that
they were caused by fish. Two years later, the Norwegian fisheries scientist,
Oscar Sund, using one of the newer recording machines, reported that he had
detected spawning cod at Hla in the Lofoten area, and for a long time it was
thought that he was the first to obtain recordings of fish on echo sounder paper.
It has since been found that another Norwegian, Skipper Bokn, published traces
some eleven months before Sund, showing sprat shoals at the surface in the
Frafjord. The Lowestoft workers discussed their results and suspicions with a
herring fishing skipper, Mr Ronald Balls. He had been closely connected with
fishing from childhood, for his father was a trawler owner and he himself had
inherited an interest in his fathers business. He was a practical fisherman whose
job it was to catch fish for a living. As a result of these discussions, Skipper
Balls began to study carefully the flashes from his echo meter while working at
the herring fishing; by the end of his 1933 season he was convinced that the
echo sounder was capable of recording the presence of herring shoals and that it
could give the depth at which the shoal was moving as well as some idea of its
density and extent. This was some-thing quite new.
These initial trials and subsequent intelligent observations lead to a much
more detailed survey of the possibilities of the instrument in herring fishing.
Skipper Balls kept detailed records of echoes and catches during his drift-net
fishing over the four years 193337. During the summer period his ship shot 69
times on echoes and the average catch was 26 crans of herring; this was more
than three times the average catch of 8 crans that he obtained when shooting
without an echo. In giving an account of these results he was careful to point out
that shooting on an echo did not guarantee a successful catch; there are many
other factors to be taken into account besides the production of an echonot
least the behaviour of herring themselves. Nevertheless, the gain achieved over a
season by echo fishing was quite clear; it has since become standard practice in
herring fisheries. We may quote an account written by Skipper Balls himself of
one nights fishing: Once, at 147 miles NNE. of Shields herring were echoed
almost continuously whilst steaming over a fairly large area at 6.0 p.m. It was a
dull southerly kind of evening. The spotline [echo sounder] showed many
separate shoals, sometimes at surface, mid water and bottom simultaneously,
but no particular echo lasted more than 10 or 12 soundings. Shooting here
brought 150 crans. This was the only case of such numerous echoes and was the
biggest shot hauled in the period of summer fishings.
The echo sounder saves time; herring, for example, are located more quickly
and less time is lost casting where there are no fish or where the shoals are
small. The great majority of all fishing vessels now carry echo sounders and
there is no doubt that they have helped to increase the efficiency of both the
herring and cod fisheries. In their cod fishery in the Lofoten area, following
requests to the authorities by the Norwegian fishermen themselves, at least one
vessel is employed solely to locate fish and to radio information, by reference to
special grid charts, to the fleet.

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67

The relation of echo trace and fish species


It is, of course, very desirable to know what kind of fish are giving rise to any
particular echo trace and much research has been and still is being done on this
subject. In Britain, scientists of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,
at Lowestoft and those of the Scottish Home Department at Aberdeen have been
particularly active in this field, and comparable work is reported from most
nations with an interest in fishery biology. Expert observers can now often make
more than a good guess as to the type, if not the actual species, of fish giving
rise to a particular echo trace in any specified area. In 1950 Dr W.C. Hodgson of
the Lowestoft Laboratory published the first account of efforts to relate the
different kinds of traces to the particular species of fish responsible. In many
cases he identified the fish by capture and in this way traces characteristic of
pelagic fish, such as mackerel, herring, pilchard and sprat, as well as of the
demersal gadoid fishes, cod, coalfish and pollack, were determined with some
certainty. Some of Dr Hodgsons traces are reproduced in Figures 47 and 48.

Figure 47
Herring shoal as recorded on the Seagraph sounder in the M.V.
Platessa
(From W.C. Hodgson, Fishery Investigations, Series II. Courtesy of
the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft)

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Figure 48
Series of isolated pilchard shoals off the Cornish coast
(From W.C. Hodgson, Fisheries Investigations, Series II. Courtesy
of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,
Lowestoft)

There was little doubt about the species producing the traces shown in the
Figures, for fish were actually caught and identified: in many other cases
identifiable marks are known either from catches taken at the time or, with less
certainty, from general information regarding the fish in the area.
The problem of correlating trace and fish is, however, proving rather more
difficult than was anticipated when the work was begun. The production of a
trace is a very complex process and recent investigations have shown that the
same fish can give rise to different kinds of traces according to the conditions
and the instruments used. We have to consider the instrumentation in relation to
the target. The most important considerations regarding the former are speed of
the recording paper, speed of the ship, frequency of the sound, and beam angle.
Even with a given shoal of fish at a given depth, any change of these variables
will affect the type of trace. It is evident that paper speed and ships speed will
alter the trace since they determine when the marks are made on the paper. The
beam angle is important in relation to the size of shoal as distinct from its
density. The frequency of the sound waves must be considered in relation to the
size of the fish; when its cross-section approximates to the wavelength used a
stronger signal is obtained.
With regard to the fish, their dimensions, character, shoaling density, size of
shoal and depth below the ship have all to be taken into account. A large fish
produces a stronger return signal than a small fishthe strength being roughly
proportional to its horizontal cross-section. The air bladdersince a water-air
interface is a much better reflector of sound than a fish-water interfaceis of
great importance: in fact, Dr Cushing has shown that in those fishes with
moderate-sized air bladders about 40 per cent. of the returned signal may be
attributed to the air-water interface, even though the air bladder takes up only 5
per cent. of the total volume of the fish. Such estimates were confirmed

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experimentally using artificial air bladders. These results explain why mackerel,
which do not possess an air bladder, give such a thin trace. The number of fish
per unit volume, that is, shoaling density, and their depth below the ship must be
taken into account: the strength of the signal is roughly proportional to the
number of fish on the axis of the sound beam. One of the main differences
between herring and pilchard traces, for example, is often the intensity, and this
may be a consequence of the tighter shoaling of pilchards.
Application to research work
The echo sounder has also been used in studying the behaviour of fish; for
example, vertical migration of fish was shown by Dr Runnstrm in 1941 and by
Dr Tester in 1943. Mr Richard-son of the Lowestoft Laboratory has followed the
behaviour of fish over quite long periods. He was able on one occasion to keep
the ship over the same shoal of sprats for 24 hours while running the echo
sounder continuously. The echo trace clearly showed that the shoal rose after
dark until it was up in the surface layers (when the noise of the fish breaking the
water could be heard), but with increasing light at dawn the fish descended. He
could not follow a single shoal of herring, but an examination of echo traces
taken over a period during the North Shields fishery showed that herring too
were more often in the lower layers during the day than during the hours of
darkness.
In addition to making extended observations followed by attempts to interpret
and correlate the resultsa common form of attack in many biological
problemsthe echo sounder can be used to record the behaviour of fish in
experimental work: the environment is artificially modified and the effect
followed by means of the echo trace. For example, the effect on fish of lights of
various colours and intensities, and of different kinds of shock, have been
investigated, the result of the stimulus being followed in detail by the echo
sounder. Figures 49 and 50, taken from Mr Richardsons work, show that after
switching on a light at night a shoal gradually collected: after the light was
switched off, the fish began to disperse. It is also clear that the first reaction to
light of the residual shoal was a shock reactiona slight descent into the
waterfollowed by a rise and then aggregation.

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Figure 49
The effect of a searchlight shone vertically on a shoal of herring in
East Anglian waters is shown in this tracing; note that shoal
appears to move bodily down when light switched on
(From I.D. Richardson, Fishery Investigations, Series II. Courtesy
of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,
Lowestoft)

Figure 50
A tracing obtained off Cornwall in which a shoal of fish is collected
by the searchlight. The points at which the lights were
switched on or off have been marked on the chart
(From I.D. Richardson, Fishery Investigations, Series II. Courtesy
of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,
Lowestoft)

Deep scattering layer


All the traces we have just been discussing are known with a fair degree of

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71

certainty to originate from fish. There is, however, another type of trace, first
noticed by a war-time underwater sound group of the U.S. Navy, and this has
aroused great interest. Records were first obtained over very deep water when
the trace itself was often as much as 50 fathoms thick; it was frequently
continuous over wide areasso much so that it presented the appearance of a
false bottom. It was called the Deep Scattering Layer. Further work has shown
that there may be a number of such deep-water traces whose behaviour is not
always the same. These scattering layers have now been recorded by many
workers, not only from the deep-water regions of all the major oceans but also
from shallow water. Apart from continuity, one of their most interesting features
is that they frequently ascend at sunset, stay in the upper layers (usually with
some dispersion)during the night and then descend during daytime.
The universal appearance and the wide extent of this type of trace might
suggest that it was caused by some sharp physical change such as density but, on
the basis of any known physical phenomenon, it is extremely difficult to account
for the frequently observed night ascent and day descent. However, many
animals are known to perform such daily vertical migrations, and it seems
almost certain that in general the trace is of biological origin. Which organisms
are responsible is much less certain. Dr H.B. Moore has presented evidence that
in deep oceanic regions planktonic organisms, such as the shrimp-like
Euphausids, are responsible for this deep scattering layer. However, certain
physical parameters are necessary to account for the observed scattering and it is
not yet certain that Euphausids have the required properties. It may even be due
to deep-water fish feeding on these smaller planktonic organisms and moving up
and down with them, in which case the air bladders of the fish may be the
primary cause of the scattering. There is good evidence that small fish are
responsible for the scattering layers observed in shallower waters. The most
recent work strengthens earlier suggestions that the layer is not always caused
by the same organismsthat, in fact, there exist different types of these deep
scattering layers in different places and at different times. It is a fascinating
problem and one which might be readily solved if only all the appropriate
techniques could be brought together in the right place at the right time.
Asdic and fish detection
All the above work has related to the use of a sound beam projected downwards.
In Asdic the echo sounding principle is used for detection in a horizontal
direction; the oscillators can be rotated and the impulses transmitted horizontally
in any given direction. In this way shoals of fish should be detectable along a
bearing line up to some 2,500 yards from the ship. The Norwegian vessel, G. O.
Sars, which was commissioned in 1950, carries Asdic, and using this
instrument, migrating herring have been followed for distances up to 300 miles.
On one occasion fishermen caught herring detected in this way and valued at
seven million krner; the normal fishing grounds were giving poor catches.
Echo fishing is still relatively new but, to quote from a recent F.A.O. Fisheries

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Bulletin issued by the United Nations, it is safe to say that of all the tools of this
trade acquired during this period (since World War II) the common use of the
echo sounder for detecting fish must be considered the outstanding development
of commercial fisheries.

UNDERWATER NOISE
The sea has often been referred to as a silent worldbut read Mr Fisher,
recounting in 1819 his experiences off the Prince Edward Isles in the Canadian
Arctic and recorded in his Journal of a Voyage of Discovery to the Arctic
Regions: Whilst we were pursuing them [white whales] to-day, I noticed a
circumstance that appeared to me rather extraordinary at the time, and which I
have not indeed been able to account for yet to my satisfaction. The thing
alluded to is a sort of whistling noise that these fish made when under the
surface of the water; it was very audible, and the only sound I could compare it
to, is that produced by passing a wet finger round the edge or rim of a glass
tumbler. It was most distinctly heard when they were coming towards the
surface of the water, that is, about half a minute before they appeared, and
immediately they got their head above the water the noise ceased. The men were
so highly amused by it, that they repeatedly urged one another to pull smartly, in
order to get near the place where the fish were supposed to be, for the purpose of
hearing what they called a whale song: it certainly had very little resemblance
to a song, but sailors are not generally the most happy in their comparisons.
This is an extract from Mr Fishers account of the voyage of His Majestys
Ships Hecla and Griper, sent out to discover the North-West Passage. Nor is this
the only reference by early explorers to sea noises; Dr Kane, surgeon on board
the ship sent out to search for traces of Franklins expedition, writes in 1854:
On this occasion I heard the white whale singing under the watera peculiar
note between a whistle and a Tyrolean yodel. Our men compared it to a Jewsharp. Little wonder that the white whale or dolphinBegula, from the Russian
signifying whitebecame known as the sea canary. A silent seanot at all!
Even the very names of some fishcroaker, drum-fishsuggest their vocal
character, and the fisherman from Malaya who puts his head over the side of his
prau, holding it under the water and waiting for fish honks before shooting his
nets, has, like the ancient Phoenician fishermen who located shoals of drum-fish
by their sounds, little doubt about the reality of underwater noise.
However, marine biologists took little interest in the occurrence of natural sea
noises until their widespread occurrence and importance was vividly brought to
the notice of naval scientists early in World War II. Soon after its outbreak an
extensive and intensive programme of underwater listening was initiated in
connection with the detection of underwater craft. The apparatus consists of a
set of submerged microphones, i.e. hydrophones and an ordinary receiver
similar in principle to that used in a dictaphone. The sounds may be recorded on
tape or discs. Frequency analyses are made by a harmonic wave-analyser. We

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will follow the adventures of two U.S. Navy Groupsone on the east coast and
the other on the westin both cases charged with maintaining sonic stations at
the entrance to important harbours. They soon found, as indeed would be
expected, that various human activities in harboursships engines, pile driving
and the likegive rise to underwater noise. They also quickly realized that in
the open oceans, wave motionparticularly the number and prominence of
breaking waves and white capswas responsible for much of the socalled
ambient or background noise which could, therefore, be directly related to
weather conditions; even rain was found to give rise to underwater noise and
some recorded sound was ascribed to the rolling of pebbles and gravel. Quite
dramatically in 1942, very strong interfering noises became troublesome in the
underwater sound-detecting system of Chesapeake Bay. Here, a number of
regularly spaced hydrophones had been connected to a shore station so that not
only could long periods of listening be undertaken but signals could be
continuously recorded on instruments.
A single source of this unusual interference often gave a drumming sound,
but the overall effect resembled that of a pneumatic drill tearing up a pavement;
there was no doubt that it was quite different from any noise previously detected
from adjacent sources. Detailed investigation of the records and continuous
listening over long periods showed that there was a diurnal rhythm in the
intensity of this interference'the noise level rose at night and fell during the
day. It seemed possible that the noise was of biological origin and a small
charge was therefore exploded under the water; immediately the noise ceased
to begin again quite suddenly. At about the same time fishermen reported large
quantities of croaker fish in the vicinityone estimate gave 300 million fish in
the Bay. Some of these fish were captured, transferred to an aquarium and tested
for their vocal characters. A comparison of these results with those obtained
from the open Bay quickly confirmed the hypothesis that the Chesapeake Bay
chorus did indeed originate from dense shoals of croakers.
The amount of noise from these croakers was about half as much again as that
normally found in the vicinity. The distribution of the noise over a whole range
of frequencies was then investigated and, as can be seen from Figure 51, most of
it was confined to frequencies below 2,500 cycles per secondquite distinct

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Figure 51
Frequency character of croaker noise
(D. P. Loye and D.A. Proudfoot, Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America, 1946; Redrawn from original)

from the frequency distribution of noise from a calm sea. A frequency analysis
of croaker noise made later in the same season showed that much of the highfrequency noise associated with the fish had disappearedthe noise had become
concentrated towards the lower-frequency bands. The known growth rate of the
fish is not sufficiently high to indicate that development was rapid enough for
increased size of the fish to cover such a change; a more likely explanation is
that a population of older fish had migrated into the area, replacing the younger
generation.
No sooner had the mysterious noise in Chesapeake Bay been laid at the door
of the croakers than a listening group on the Pacific coast were faced with the
same problema disturbing amount of interfering noise in their hydrophones.
Perhaps with the experience of the Chesapeake Bay group in mind, or perhaps
because there were more biologists to hand, a biological origin was immediately
suggested and a whole series of animals from the vicinity were collected and put
through aquarium tests. The noise was quickly traced to the snapping of the
claws of a group of non-edible shrimps. Over the hydrophones a single animal
produces a sharp crack or snap while the combined effect of large numbers
gives a continuous crackling sound.

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Figure 52
Frequency character of snapping shrimp noise compared with that of
typical ambient water noise spectrum in quiet situation
(D. P. Loye and D.A. Proudfoot, Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America, 1946; Redrawn from original)

The noise spectrum was again investigated (Figure 52) and it may be compared
with that of the croaker noise in Figure 51. Clearly the shrimp noise is
concentrated far more in the higher frequencies than the croaker noise.
The origin of this second underwater sound has been investigated in some
detail. The claw structure in all species of the shrimp genera concerned
(Crangon and Synalpheus) is similar, and to some extent they are probably all
capable of making a snapping sound. This snapping habit is associated with both
defensive and offensive activities since, when the claw snaps, a strong jet of
water is shot out; this probably frightens away other animals. The two claws of
the shrimp are often quite different in construction, the sound-producing
snapping claw being much the larger; indeed, in some species it is nearly as
large as the whole body of the animal, so that there is ample

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Figure 53
Snapping claw of shrimp Crangon californiensis
a) Snapper open b) Snapper closed

room for development of strong snapping muscles. The detailed structure is


shown in Figure 53. Near the outer end of the palm is a movable hard finger
with an immovable thumb, forming a pincer-like arrangement. On the inner
side of this finger is aplunger structure fitting into a socket on the thumb, and
leading from this socket is a groove through which water is expelled when the
plunger is suddenly forced into the hollow.
This plunger-socket device is present in both Crangon and Synalpheus. All
species of Crangon have in addition a so-called sucking disc on the outer side
of the finger near its point of attachment (Figure 53), When the finger is fully
raised and ready to snap, the disc contacts on a precisely similar one on the
palm, the two being held firmly together. It is believed that these suckers serve
as a trigger holding the finger back, and that extra muscular tension has,
therefore, to be exerted to break the contact, with a consequent increase in the
force of impact. Such suckers are absent in the genus Synalpheus, but in the
same relative position and probably serving the same purpose there are smooth
contacting surfaces.
As the finger is raised the plunger is withdrawn from the socket, and it has
been held by some observers that the noise is produced during this withdrawal
rather like the familiar plop on drawing the cork from a bottle. The function of
the plunger-socket arrangement does not appear, however, to be the production
of sound but rather the ejection of a stream of water as already described. (It
may also aid in preventing dislocation of the finger when it is violently

The use of sound waves

77

snapped.) The precise way in which the sound is produced still appears a matter
of some doubt, but the most reasonable explanation is that it results from impact
when the movable finger strikes a glancing blow on the opposing tip of the
thumb. It is of passing interest to note that the snapping claw may be either the
right or the left; if lost through injury, the inconvenience is only temporary and a
new one is always grown in subsequent moults. It is a curious fact, however,
that in the renewal process the lost large snapping claw becomes replaced by a
small pinching claw, while the original pinching claw is enlarged to give rise to
the new snapping claw.
We have concentrated on two sub-surface noises of animal origin largely
because of the sudden and somewhat dramatic way in which they were
encountered. Sound production is now known to be of common occurrence in
marine fishes and much work has been done on this subject in the past few
years. The organ most commonly concerned is the air bladder, a membranous
sac lying in the body cavity between the backbone and gut. Its form is diverse
and the type of sound produced is particularly a function of the size and shape of
this organ, which may be vibrated in a number of ways. Air-bladder sounds are
usually low pitched, guttural, vibrant, and drum-like, and exhibit a frequency
range from 50 to about 1,400 cycles per second, although most of the sound
energy is concentrated towards the lower part of the spectrum. Friction of some
part of the body, most frequently the gill teeth within the throat or the jaw
teeth, gives rise to stridulent sounds of a rasping, scratching, scraping or
whining character. Again, although the frequency range may be very wide, from
50 to 4,800 cycles per second, the maximum energy with this type of sound is
concentrated higher in the spectrum than is the case with air-bladder noise. In
the noisiest fish, both organs take part in sound production. The biological
function of these sounds is uncertain; they may bring individuals of a species
together for mating and spawning or colonial activities; they may be used as a
defence mechanism; it has even been suggested that in some deep-water fishes
they may act as an echo sounder and enable the fish to determine its depth above
the sea bed. It is certain that many of these fish are well provided with sound
receptors and that these are particularly sensitive to the low frequencies which
they themselves emit.
An interesting field of work has been opened up by these investigations in
which co-operation between biologists and physicists is essential and most
profitable. We are particularly concerned with the possibility of using
underwater sounddetecting equipment as a biological tool. It is clear that if the
noises are specific to certain animal groups, then underwater listening may be
used to plot the distribution of such animals. It has even been suggested that
hydrophone equipment may be used by fishermen rather in the manner of an
echo sounder. It must be pointed out, however, that although many fish have
been shown to emit noises under laboratory conditions (and on removal from
water) and whilst it is not unreasonable to assume that they will always emit
similar noises with the appropriate stimulus, only a limited number of noises
have, in fact, been obtained under entirely natural open-sea conditions. Further,

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78

the noises even from known sources are not continuous; from the fishermans
point of view this is a distinct disadvantage. Again, propeller noises constitute a
severe source of interference and the ship would, therefore, have to be stopped
during the observations. Nevertheless, as a tool for research purposes
hydrophone techniques have distinct possibilities and some of these may be
illustrated by reference to the work already done on the snapping shrimp itself.
Figure 54 shows a plot of the noise intensities obtained in hydrophone traverses
across a stretch of variable inshore bottom near San Diego. It is clear that the
amount of noise is directly related to the type of substratum being traversed.
Over the sand and mud there is little shrimp noise but over the zone of shale,
which is honeycombed by abandoned mollusc borings and over cobbly or
bouldercovered ground the noise is considerable. The intensity of sound over the
rough ground clearly indicates the presence there of a large number of snappers.
By contrast, dredging produces very few shrimps and indeed gives the
impression of quite a small population. Now, the animals are relatively shy
creatures and although capable of swimming rarely do so in the adult stage;
rather, they seek shelter and concealment in crevices between stones and
boulders or in holes in the shale. Collecting by dredges over such rough ground
is notably ineffective and it is clear that the discrepancy between the sound and
dredging techniques is really due to the inadequacy of the latter over such
ground; this in turn is dependent upon the habit of the shrimp living in such
places. There is no doubt that a more accurate measure of the distribution of the
shrimp population is obtained by the listening technique than by dredging. The
intensity of sound is related to shrimp numbers and the method may be used to
plot the distribution of the animal in other areas. It has been suggested that
shrimp noise could be used to locate sponge bedsin which some shrimps
liveprior to commercial exploitation. Deep-water forms of these shrimps are
known, but it has been found that the noise intensity even over suitable rocky
ground, where they might be expected to occur, decreases rapidly below 30
fathoms

The use of sound waves

79

Figure 54
Change in noise level over a series of traverses. Different types of
bottom are indicated by the same shading
(M. W. Johnson, F. A. Everest and R. W. Young, Biological
Bulletin, 1947; Redrawn from original)

Sound levels and bottom profiles of traverses on above figure


a) Traverse AA b) Traverse BB c) Traverse CC d) Traverse DD

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80

(Figure 55); the numbers are too small to give the continuous crackle, so that it
may be assumed that the greatest numbers occur at depths above 30 fathoms.
The noise is continuous over the shrimp beds, suggesting that the shrimp
population is relatively constant and static. This is in agreement with the known
behaviour of the animals. They tend to keep to their burrows, not migrating or
moving great distances and, in the

Figure 55
Diagram to show drop in noise level on going into deeper water from
the high inshore values
(M. W. Johnson, F.A. Everest and R.W. Young, Biological Bulletin,
1947; Redrawn from original)

area studied, breeding seems to be continuous throughout the yearwith a


reasonable life span and many overlapping generations: the population would
therefore be expected to remain relatively static. Although there is little variation
over the seasons, there is a small but distinct diurnal variation in the noise which
rises at night with a slight peak shortly before sunrise and sunset. Observations
of the animals in aquaria suggest that this is probably due to increased activity at
night perhaps associated with searching for food. This may be the explanation in
natural surroundings; on the other hand it may then be due more to the activity
of other animals at night, these in turn disturbing the shrimps, which are then
stimulated to give the defensive snapping reaction.
These results indicate that on the whole the picture obtainedand obtained
very quicklyby the listening technique has fitted the known behaviour of
snapping shrimps; the method may, therefore, be applied with some confidence
in situations where direct observations on the animal are lacking, sparse, or for
some reason difficult to obtain.

3
SOME PROPERTIES OF THE WATER
ITSELF
TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY
THE physical properties of fresh water are largely determined by two variables,
temperature and pressure; in the case of sea water, a third variable must be
addedthe salt content or salinity. Temperature, salinity, and pressure, together
determine the density of sea water, and a knowledge of its density is of
fundamental importance in dynamic oceanography. Further, bodies of water are
characterized by their salinity-temperature properties. In addition, information
about temperature and salinity conditions and their variation enables deductions
to be made about physical processes taking place at the sea-air interface,
processes such as evaporation, precipitation and cooling; all of these are of great
importance to physical oceanography. Temperature and salinity are no less
important to marine biology. The temperature of the sea changes from the poles
to the equator and the annual and seasonal variations differ widely from place to
place. Just as on land there are arctic species and tropical species, species with
wider and species with narrower temperature limits of distributionso in the
sea, and a knowledge of temperature conditions is required in studying problems
of animal distribution. In the open oceans salinity changes are relatively small
and their biological influence less marked, but in some regions, for example the
Baltic Sea, salinity becomes greatly reduced and decreasing salt content plays an
important part in restricting the spread of typically oceanic species into this area.
A knowledge of both the temperature and salinity of the water at a given point
is required to calculate its density. A chemical titration of the water sample is
usually made to determine the salinity and often, therefore, a sample of water is
collected and the temperature taken at the same timethe temperaturerecording
apparatus being attached to the water sampler. Methods have recently been
developed that do not require a sample for determining the temperature and
salinity: these will be discussed later. The classical and still most accurate
method consists essentially in letting down a suitable container into the seaa
container that can be closed at the required depth and to which is attached a
thermometer, so that the temperature, either of the sample itself or of the
surrounding water, is registered.
Surface temperatures
Surface temperatures are of considerable importance, since it is the sea surface

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82

which is in contact with the atmosphere. If the temperature at the surface only is
required, the simplest method is to draw a bucket of water and take its
temperature with an accurate thermometer, preferably one with a reservoir
holding some residual water. The method is simple and the apparatus
inexpensive, and many thousands of surface temperatures have been taken over
the oceans, largely from merchant ships whose masters often co-operate in this
work.
The method is subject to many sources of error which have been summarized
by Dr Brooks of the U.S. Weather Bureau. The bucket is not likely to have the
same initial temperature as the sea surface; the water sample is usually cooled
by evaporation during hauling; the thermometer when inserted is seldom at the
same temperature as the bucket; while the thermometer is resting in the bucket,
further cooling or heating of the water may take place; when the temperature of
the water is read, the thermometer may not have reached the temperature of the
water in which it is immersed; if it is withdrawn for ease of reading, the
temperature of the very small sample of water in the reservoir may change
before the temperature has been observed;after the marking and numbers have
become indistinct, errors of reading creep in; the thermometer itself may be
inaccurate. Of course, many of these errors are negligible and many may readily
be minimized; some would be quite insignificant if the measurements were
made by scientists working on research vessels, but when these surface
temperatures are taken by people whose primary job is not temperature
investigation, errors such as those outlined must be considered in assessing the
results. Dr Brooks, in a series of comparative experiments, found that about 34
per cent. of the readings differed from his standard reading by-2 F. to+7 F.
The deviations, especially marked in cold winds, also appear to vary directly
with wind strength and depression of wet bulb below sea temperature and
inversely with the quantity of water drawn in the bucket; in fact, the chief source
of error lies in any cooling of the sample during hauling.
To obviate many errors associated with the bucket method, Lt.-Comdr.
Lumby of the Lowestoft Laboratory has devised a surface sampler which gives
both the temperature and a sample for salinity estimation. It is simple, cheap,
easy to use, gives reliable results, and can be handled from a merchant ship by
untrained personnel. Essentially, a bottle and thermometer are towed in a
torpedo-shaped container at the sea surface, the bottle being flushed out with the
water. The apparatus consists of a head and body (Figure 56b) held together by a
three-point bayonet fitting and safety catch. The bottle for the salinity sample is
held firmly in a spring cup at the base and by a rubber washer bearing on the
head at its upper end. The head carries a funnel-shaped opening which passes
into a tube, the latter going well down into the sampling bottle. The
thermometer, held at top and bottom in rubber glands, fits into a brass tube
mounted within the main body. A celluloid insulating cylinder inside the body is
separated from it at the sides by ebonite distance pieces and by an ebonite block
at the base.

Some properties of the water itself

83

a) The method of towing

Figure 56
b) Section: the ordinary salinity bottle held by a spring underneath
the conical mouthpiece and the thermometer in rubber
glands at the side
The Lumby surface sampler
(J. R. Lumby, Journal du Conseil, 1928; Redrawn from original)

Towing bridles are shackled to eye-bolts on the head, and the usual method of
towing is shown in Figure 56a. When the instrument is towed, water goes
through the funnel piece in the nose and also enters the body by side tubes,
whilst some passes into the sampling bottle and thence into the main body of
the sampler; it escapes from this via ports under the head. The bottle is,
therefore, continually flushed out during towing and the thermometer takes up

Oceanography and marine biology

84

the temperature of the water.


The bucket method and the Lumby sampler have now been replaced largely
by thermographs, which give continuous readings with the ship under way.
These have a temperature responsive element fitted either in the water intake
pipe or in a pocket in the ships hull and a recorder mounted in any convenient
position on board.
Dr Church has summarized a large body of surface temperature data taken by
these methods on merchant ships traversing the Atlantic Ocean. We may
illustrate the results by considering average annual maximum and minimum
temperatures along the New York-Cape So Roque route (Figure 57). The
changes are quite striking; in the coastal waters there is a large temperature
range, but further offshore we have the so-called slope water where the range is
smaller and the temperature higher. The band of water constituting the Gulf
Stream, with its high temperature, is clearly marked. Towards the centre of the
ocean the temperature rises and the range becomes smaller until relatively
constant conditions are attained in the North Equatorial Current. It should be
emphasized that these are average values over long periods; we shall see later
how great is the variability over short periods in the Gulf Stream region.
The insulated water-bottle
We must now consider the taking of temperatures and water samples at subsurface levels. For this purpose a sampler must be designed which may be
completely closed at the required depth so that the sample is not contaminated
by water from any other level. Many types of samplers, usually called
waterbottles, have been devised, but those that will function satisfactorily under
working conditions at sea are few and of relatively simple and rugged design.

Some properties of the water itself

85

Figure 57
(P. E. Church, Association Internationale dOcanographie
Physique, 1937; Modified from original)

For moderate depths a bottle in which heat interchange is reduced may be used

Oceanography and marine biology

86

and then the thermometer, mounted directly in the bottle, is read after hauling
the sample to the surface. The bottle most frequently used and which will now
be described is Knudsens modification of a bottle originally designed by
Nansen and Pettersson (Figures 58 and 59).

Figure 58
Insulated water-bottle in set position

The bottle itself consists of a thickwalled metal cylinder open at both ends and
containing five coaxial thin-walled tubes; heat interchange between the water
sample and its surroundings takes place largely by convection currents within
the bottle and these are minimized by the coaxial cylinders which hinder any
circulation. This cylinder, the body of the bottle, slides on two hollow pillars to
which the fixed bottom of the bottle is attached; the bottom plate, cushioned
with rubber on its upper surface, has a valve for withdrawal of the water sample
after the bottle has been closed. The lid of the bottle also slides on the hollow
pillars and the thermometer, mounted through this lid, projects into the body of
the bottle. The lateral guide pillars contain heavy springs, fastened at the bottom,
and connected at the top with two wider pieces of tubing that slide over the inner
pillars.
The bottle is set for lowering as follows: each of the rifled tubes sliding over
the side pillars is lifted as far as it will go and then twisted, so that each slips
into a bayonet catch that holds it up. The upper lid of the water-bottle is then
raised (the pressure of the springs now being released) and a knob at the top,
above the thermometer mounting, is caught by a hook and this holds it up. The

Some properties of the water itself

87

two rifled tubes are then released from their bayonet fittings so that they press
on the lid of the waterbottle and hold it down against the knob and catch with
the full force of the springs. When the required depth has been reached, the
bottle is allowed to remain there for 3 to 5 minutes, so that the thermometer may
reach equilibrium and a messenger (see p. 18) is then sent down the wire. The
hook is released and the springs contract closing the bottle (Figure 59). The
water in the tubes carrying the springs (with a combined pull on the lid of 16
kg.) damps the movement of the latter sufficiently to prevent any damage to the
thermometer when the bottle is closed.
The run-off valve fitted to the bottom plate is kept closed by a spiral spring.
When this spring is pressed upwards by the mouth of the bottle in which the
water sample is being collected, the valve remains open and the water flows out;
an air valve at the upper end of the water-bottle is opened to allow the water to
run out freely. In strong currents heavily weighted extension legs may be fitted
and these keep the bottle from drifting; such extension pieces also serve both to
reduce the risk of damage if the bottle comes in contact with the bottom and to
prevent contamination of the sample by mud.
A high degree of accuracy is necessary in the temperature measurements since
small changes in temperature have relatively large effect upon the density. An
accuracy of 001 C. is desirable and this can only be achieved with a wellmade and accurately calibrated thermometer whose calibration is checked at
regular intervals during use. It should be of small thermal capacity, so that
equilibrium is quickly established. The scale must be open, easily read and have
divisions every tenth of a degree. The marks should be etched on the glass and
carried right round the thermometer so that errors due to parallax are more easily
avoided.
The reversing water-bottle
When greater depths are being investigated, the time of hauling becomes quite
considerable and the danger of heat exchange is increased. Further, the
enormous changes of pressure in bringing the bottle up from, say, several
thousand metres, results in adiabatic cooling. Under these conditions
temperatures taken with an insulated bottle are not accurate. For deep-water
work

Oceanography and marine biology

88

Figure 59
Insulated water-bottle. The closing mechanism (diagrammatic)
a) Raised in set position
b) Released botttle and lid free to fall
c) Closed; ready for hauling

d) Set position with head held on catch, messenger about to strike


and acturate lever
e) Catch released, bottle falling

Some properties of the water itself

89

the temperature must be taken in situ. Thermometers of a special kind, called


reversing thermometers, are attached outside the bottle, and the mechanism that
closes the bottle also reverses the thermometers.

Figure 60
Reversing thermometers
a) Protected thermometer in set position
b) Unprotected thermometer in set position
c) Constricted part of capillary in set position
d) Constricted part after the reversal

A reversing thermometer is essentially a double-ended thermometer with a large


mercury reservoir at one end, and this is connected through a very fine capillary
to a smaller bulb at the other end (Figure 60). Just above the large reservoir the
capillary is constricted and branched with a small arm; above this, the
thermometer tube is bent over into a loop from which it continues straight (over
the registering portion) and terminates in the small bulb. The thermometer is
so constructed that when it is in the set position the mercury fills the reservoir,
the capillary, and part of the bulb. The amount of mercury above the constriction

Oceanography and marine biology

90

depends upon the temperature, and when the thermometer is reversed by turning
through 180 the mercury column breaks at the point of the constriction and runs
down, filling the bulb and part of the graduated capillary, thus indicating the
temperature at the time of reversal. The loop in the capillary, which is generally
of enlarged diameter, is designed to trap any mercury forced past the
constriction should the tem perature be raised after the thermometer has been
reversed. The thermometer readings are corrected for changes resulting from
differences between the temperature at reversal and that of the surroundings
when it is read, by reading at the same time a small standard type of
thermometer, known as the auxiliary thermometer, mounted alongside the
reversing thermometer. Because of the different compressibilities of glass and
mercury, thermometers subject to great pressures give fictitious values. The
reversing and auxiliary thermometers are, therefore, enclosed in a heavy glass
tube which is evacuated except for the portion surrounding the reservoir of the
reversing thermometer. This portion is filled with mercury to serve as a thermal
conductor between the surrounding water and the reservoir. However, this
pressure error is put to good use. A second unprotected thermometer, not
enclosed in a strong glass tube and not, therefore, protected from the hydrostatic
pressure, is fastened alongside the protected thermometers, and the difference in
the readings can then be used to determine the depth at which the thermometers
were reversedthe instruments being devised so that the apparent temperature
increase due to hydrostatie pressure is about 001 C./metre. The depth obtained
in this way is often of great value since in bad weather the wire to which the
bottles are attached runs out at a considerable angle, and the amount paid out
does not give the true depths of the bottles. If temperature alone is to be
measured, the several thermometers are mounted in a frame, which can be
reversed by means of a messenger. In general, however, a water sample for
salinity is required at the same time as the temperature is taken and the
thermometers are usually attached to a bottle, which itself may reverse within a
frame or which may, together with the attached thermometers, turn completely
over.
The Knudsen frameless bottle, in which the whole bottle turns over, has
advantages over some other types, namely that it is lighter to handle and its
closing device is very reliable; this sampler and its mode of action will be
described.
The bottle is shown in the set position in Figures 61 and 62. It is clamped to
the wire at the bottom, being free to swivel at the clamp, but kept in position by
the wire itself, which passes,

Some properties of the water itself

Figure 61
Reversing water-bottle (Knudsen) in action
a) Messenger about to strike
b) Bottle closed and reversing
c) Completely reversed, messenger at end of fall

91

Oceanography and marine biology

92

at the top of the bottle, through a small stop attached to an arm and this, in the
set position, also holds open the two movable lids. When hit by a messenger, the
stop is forced away, the

Figure 62
Knudsen reversing water-bottle (diagrammatic)

whole bottle and attached thermometers fall over and the latter are therefore
reversed. At the same time the arm releases the catches (top and bottom are
connected by a rod) holding open the bottle lids and they are then closed by the
action of a stout connecting spring running through the centre of the bottle. The
lids are well out of the way during descent so that water passes freely through
the instrument. A second messenger can be released at the same time as the
bottle is reversed and the former then travels down and closes, in exactly the
same way, a lower bottle; a series of bottles may thus be used on one wire.
The thermometer and water-bottle are still the standard instruments for taking
temperatures and for the collection of water samples for salinity estimations and
chemical analyses. They give the most accurate results and are still widely used.
However, since they are so time-consuming a vertical profile of temperature and
salinity (or density) is only obtained at a relatively small number of points over a
given area. As in plankton work, so in physical oceanography there is a demand
for more closely spaced observations rapidly taken so that we may hope to make
some approach to a synoptic picture. The instruments to be described next are all
designed to give a more complete picture of the temperature and salinity

Some properties of the water itself

93

structure of the oceans, but it must be stressed that, in general, some accuracy in
the results has to be sacrificed.
The Mosby thermo-sound
The thermo-sound of Professor Mosby enables a continuous plot of temperature
throughout a water column to be obtained and, unlike some other recording
instruments to be discussed later, can be used to great depths. It is both simple in
principle and robust in construction (Figure 63). A taut thin wire is used as the
thermo-sensitive element and its change of length, as a result of thermal
expansion or contraction, is recorded and utilized to measure the temperature.
This thermo-sensitive element, in the form of a length of fine brass wire, is
attached to a frame at its upper end and to a stiff steel spring at its lower end.
The frame, made of invar steel, with a negligible coefficient of thermal
expansion, is strutted by cross-pieces and bolted to a head and base. The head
carries a hole for a shackle and the base, besides taking the propeller mountings,
also has a hole to which a weight may be shackled. The steel spring is attached
at one end to the frame by a brass holder. The head-piece, where the brass wire
is attached, is bent over, forming a support for a recording arm to which it is
fastened. A pen is soldered into the lip of the recording hand and a second
hand attached to the frame carries a zero pen. The record is scratched on a small
(6-cm.) smoked circular glass plate held on a table by two small springs, the
table being turned (through a set of gears) by the propeller. The recording arms
can be lifted out of contact with the smoked plate by a vane, but, as the
instrument goes down, the pressure on this vane keeps the pens depressed and in
contact with the smoked plate.

Oceanography and marine biology

94

Figure 63
The Mosby thermo-sound
Diagram of mode of action

The propeller is shielded by two brass guards and a simple, protective but not
watertight, cover.
As the instrument is lowered, the propeller turns the table and the pen
scratches a line on the smoked plate: the form of trace depends on the tension on
the spring, which in turn is determined by the effect of temperature changes on
the long brass wire. If temperature were constant the pen would trace a circle,
but when it decreases, as is usual during descent, then the pen is drawn towards
the centre. The traces are only very small (a movement of 0.15 mm. corresponds
to 1 C.) and they are, therefore, measured under a microscope. The instrument
is best calibrated by immersion in a water bath at a known series of
temperatures. A rate of descent of about 2 metres per second is suitable. If the
instrument is adjusted so that about 033 revolution of the plate corresponds to
one metre depth, one full revolution of the plate will suffice for about 1,100
metres. Since, as already pointed out, temperature generally decreases with
depth, there is little risk of confusion in the record with a second or even third
revolution of the plate. As many points as desired can be read off the record and

Some properties of the water itself

95

the temperaturedepth curve plotted.


Resistance thermometers and thermistors have been used for temperature
measurement and conductivity cells for salinity. The instrumentation, however,
is not simple, particularly if a recording device is incorporated into such
equipment.
The Spilhaus bathythermograph and sea sampler
A new instrument, the bathythermograph (later combined with a water sampler),
has been more widely used. This is a purely mechanical instrument, the principle
being essentially that of the thermo-sound; a temperature-responsive element
scratches a mark on a smoked plate which moves in response to depth. The
depth response is, however, obtained by a pressure element rather than a
propeller and the temperature-responsive unit is not a wire but a liquid in metal
thermometer with a Bourdon spiral. (This replaces the bi-metal strip of earlier
models, which were found to be very sensitive to vibration, and the records
were, therefore, not very sharp.) The temperature element is exposed to the flow
of water whilst the moving portion of the Bourdon spiral is entirely shielded.
Effective heat transfer to the sensitive element is thereby ensured without
transmitting vibration to the recording pen.

Figure 64
The bathythermograph and sea sampler

The main casing of the bathythermograph and sea sampler (see below) is a stout
brass tube which houses the pressure element towards the rear end, the slide
holder being fitted in the intervening space (Figures 64 and 65). A sliding brass
sleeve fits over the main casing and three ports on the former coincide with three
similar ports on the latter. By rotation of this sleeve, access to the slide holder
and ejection of the slide is attained at two of the ports; the third port, when open,
allows the pen stop to lift, and on closing causes the pen to fall back in position
ready to mark the smoked slide. A heavy brass stream

Oceanography and marine biology

96

Figure 65
The bathythermograph and sea sampler

lined nose-piece and sleeve fit over the forward part of the casing; to the nose is
fastened the bracket for the towing cable. Fins are attached at the rear end to
give stability when diving. The pressure element consists of watertight metal
bellows enclosing a carefully wound steel compression spring inside which is a
piston and cylinder device acting as a guide. One end of the bellows is
permanently attached to a brass endpiece within the body and the other to the
slide holder that takes the small smoked slide on which the stylus marks; this is
in contact with the compression spring and free to follow its movements (Figure
67). Thus as the pressure increases the slide holder is drawn under the writing
stylus, which in the absence of temperature changes would then scratch a
straight line (Figure 66).
The thermal element is a liquid thermometer consisting of a capillary and
Bourdon tube, the latter being connected to the stylus (Figure 65); changes of
temperature would cause the stylus to move in an arc across the smoked slide if
pressure remained constant (Figure 66). The capillary tube is taken outside the
main casing and wound on six slotted fins, where it is fully exposed to the
surrounding water.

Some properties of the water itself

97

Figure 66
The bathythermograph and sea sampler (diagrammatic)
a) to b) Constant temperature, increasing pressure: bellows contract
drawing smoked slide under the pen which scribes a line on
the smoked slide.
c) to d) Constant pressure, decreasing temperature: Bourdon contracts
drawing pen across smoked slide on which an arc is
scribed.
e) to f) Steady increase of pressure, steady decrease of temperature:
bellows contract and slide is drawn under pen; at the same
time Bourdon contracts and a temperature depth curve is
scratched in an arc across the smoked slide.

The instrument, with the slide and pen in position, is lowered over the side and
towed at the surface for half a minute. The line is then paid out as fast as
possible with the ship under way, and when approaching the required or
maximum working depth the brake is slowly applied to the winch drum; after
coming to rest, the instrument is hauled in. The slide will then have a
temperature-depth record scratched on it. There may be one trace for the descent
and one for the ascent; often the two are coincident. The slide is inserted in a

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viewer and read off against a calibrated grid (Figure 68); a photograph gives a
permanent record.

Figure 67
Temperature unit and stylus of bathythermograph

Figure 68
Holder and calibrated scale for bathythermograph slide. The slide is
inserted into the holder behind the calibrated scale and read
through the magnifying glass into the base of which the
slide holder fits

The bathythermograph gives a temperature-depth record. In its modified form

Some properties of the water itself

99

samples of water are also taken at selected depths for salinity estimations. This
is achieved by allowing the pressure element to actuate a series of triggers at
given depths, these triggers closing the sample bottles. Both pressure

Figure 69
The sea sampler and bathythermograph
Two of the twelve sample containers

Figure 70 Enlarged view of Fig. 69. Note catch is at different


distances from end to trigger at different depths. Near bottle
is in set position

and thermal elements as well as the general construction are similar to the
simpler instrument just described, but the main

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100

Figure 71
Going down, bellows contract and spring is drawn over lever; coming
up, spring forces lever to the side, thus closing the bottle

casing has twelve slots to enable the trigger mechanism of the bottles to be
operated by the pressure element. The metal bottles are arranged radially around
the case and each is provided with a closing valve at both ends. These valves are
open in descent, during which a trigger associated with the valves of each bottle
slides along a supporting strip of the sample operating unit, which is moved by
the pressure element (Figures 69 and 70). During descent the bent end of the
strip (trip) is pushed aside (Figure 71) as it passes the trigger, but on its return
(during the ascent), when the trip comes against the bottle trigger the latter is
now pushed to one side and the valves are closed by a spring mechanism, so

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101

enclosing a sample of water. The triggers are set at positions (Figure 72) in
which they will be tripped in this way at selected depths.
This instrument has been intensively used in Gulf Stream studies and the
results have clearly indicated features impossible

Figure 72
The bottle-closing mechanisms:
a) Side view
b) Top view
c) Diagram showing levers set at various levels and springs on the
bellows

to detect without such rapid methods of temperature and salinity estimation.


Large eddies, entraining water from outside the Stream yet carried along with it,
have been found; warm eddies, probably broken-off loops, have been detected
many miles away.

CURRENTS
Direct ways of measuring currents may be divided into two groupsdrift
methods and flow methods and, although both are to some extent
complementary, the form and type of information obtained varies with the
instrument used. In planning work on currents it is necessary to realize the
limitations of each method; the technique used must depend upon the kind of
information required and upon the use to which it is to be put.

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We shall first consider drift methods. The general drift of surface currents is
known from the movements of floating objects and there are many interesting
casual observations which tell us something about their speed and direction in
the open oceans. Glass floats, used by Japanese fishermen, and wrecked Chinese
junks are sometimes found on the west coast of North America and it may be
presumed, therefore, that the net current flows from west to east across the
North Pacific Ocean. In December 1887 an enormous lumber raft consisting of
27,000 tree-trunks broke up while under tow from the Bay of Fundy towards
New York. By the following June logs were found near the Azores and three
months later to the north of Madeira. Floating wood, which must have come
from the West Indies, has, from time to time, been found stranded on the Faroe
Islands and mahogany trees have been found washed ashore on the south
Greenland coast. In the West Indies is a climbing shrub remarkable for its long
pods, and these are often found washed up on the shores of the Faroes, where
they are known as goblins kidneys. These and many other examples of
tropical plants cast up on the west coasts of Europe all point to a general drift of
surface water across the North Atlantic in a north-easterly direction. Again,
Siberian timber frequently drifts across the Polar Basin to the north of
Spitzbergen or to the east Greenland coast, and it was on this sort of evidence
that Nansen planned his famous Fram Expedition; he deliberately froze his.ship
in the pack off the New Siberian Islands and allowed it to drift with the ice; it
averaged about a mile a day as far as Franz Josef Land. The movement of
icebergs gives very reliable indications of currents, since, having a large
proportion submerged, their wanderings are little affected by wind. Bergs,
originating in the Arctic, are regularly found in waters to the south-east of
Newfoundland and indicate the existence of a south-going current in this region.
Bottles containing postcards have often been put out from exploration vessels
and recovered after what must have been long journeys. A glance at a map
shows that in the southern oceanssouth of the great continentsthere is an
unobstructed waterway round the earth, and there is reason to believe that a
bottle put out from a German barque about half way between Kerguelen and
Tasmania, and which was recovered, 2,447 days afterwards at Bunbury in
Western Australia, had probably travelled some 16,000 miles round the world at
an average speed of some 7 miles a day.
Drift bottles and drift methods
In view of the above, it is not surprising that systematic experiments are
regularly carried out by means of so-called drift bottles. In all drift-bottle
experiments there are, however, difficulties both of technique and interpretation.
For example, it is essential to ensure that, as far as possible, the drift bottles do
not sail through the water, being carried forward by the direct action of the
wind. In any analysis of the results it must be remembered that the bottle may
not have followed a straight course from its point of liberation and that it is not
known how long the bottle may have been lying in the position where it was

Some properties of the water itself

103

found. Further, the returns of these cast-up bottles will be clearly dependent
upon the frequency with which the coast-lines are visited; some may find their
way to isolated shores. However, drift-bottle methods are cheap, easy, and rapid;
bottles can be put overboard from a vessel in weather that would make any other
type of current-work quite impossible. From the early days of research in
oceanography they have been used systematically on a large scale by many
people and have yielded valuable information.
The bottle (Figure 73d) is so ballasted that it floats with its neck just awash
and still further to reduce the direct effect of wind, is made long and narrow.
They float in the surface layer until cast ashore on a beach or, occasionally, are
taken by fishermen in their nets. Each bottle contains a break this bottle slip
and a postcard (Figure 73a, b, c) printed in several languages and the finder is
asked to fill in and return the latter: a small reward is usually offered. The results
from such experiments only give a picture of the surface driftthe upper layer
of water

Figure 73
Drift bottle
a) b) Postcard to be returned by finder
c) Break the bottle slip
d) Bottle with card and slip, loaded with sand

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which is very much under the influence of wind. Attempts have been made,
therefore, to use deeper-riding bottles: these are buoyant bottles similar to those
just described but have

a) Bottom trailing bottle

Figure 74
b Double drift bottles
(Redrawn from figure in Fisheries Notice, No. 16; British Crown
Copyright)

Some properties of the water itself

105

attached to them a drag by means of which they are made to ride some distance
below the surface. Since one of the chief difficulties in preparing such bottles is
to make a satisfactory attachment of the drag and since, if it eventually breaks
away, the bottle then behaves as a simple surface bottle, it is desirable to know
whether the drag was still attached when the bottle was picked up; this
information is, therefore, asked for on the postcard. Scientists of the Ministry of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Food have used a second bottle as a drag with a
postcard in each bottle; if both cards are filled in and returned, there is no doubt
that they were caught together, To overcome the difficulty of knowing the route
followed by the bottle, paired bottles have been used; an upper bottle contains
acid that eats through a stopper and drops the lower bottle en route. The upper
bottle has a capillary tube at the top and a metal stopper below, the latter being
gradually eaten away by acid contained in the bottle (Figure 74b). Eventually
the metal stopper collapses and water enters the bottle, air being pushed out
through the capillary leak. The bottles then sink together, and since a simple
anchor is attached to the lower one (Figure 74b), they become lightly anchored
to the bottom and may be taken in a trawl and the contained postcard returned.
By adjusting the amount of acid in the upper bottles, pairs can be made to sink
after different periods of time and in this way intermediate positions on the route
are established. Bottom currents may be investigated by a third type of bottle
the bottom trailer. This has weights in the neck and is so adjusted that, when
properly sealed, it is only just buoyant; a long piece of copper wire is then added
so that when it is thrown overboard the bottle sinks until the wire tail touches the
bottom; it is then carried along by any bottom currents (Figure 74a). When the
postcard is returned it is necessary to know what length of copper wire was still
attached, since if the tail were lost it would again behave as a surface bottle.
The most intensive drift-bottle work has been done from the Ministry of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Laboratory at Lowestoft and the Scottish Home
Department Laboratory at Aberdeen in their work on the north-eastern Atlantic
(particu larly the Faroe-Shetland Channel), the North Sea and the English
Channel, In all these regions there is a good chance of bottles being recovered
from the bounding shores, and the intensity of fishing gives a reasonable
recovery of bottom bottles. In 1920, for example, 68 per cent. of 9,550 surface
bottles and 35 per cent. of 9,525 bottom-trailing bottles, put out by Lowestoft
workers, were recovered. In 1929, bottles liberated at the western end of the
English Channel (except those stranded locally) were found to travel rapidly up
Channel, across the

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106

Figure 75
Routes taken by drift bottles
(Redrawn from figure in Fisheries Notice, No. 16; British Crown
Copyright)

North Sea, and many arrived in the Skagerrak after a journey of some 700 miles
at a minimum rate of 6 miles per day (Figure 75). It is significant that over this
period there was for some five and a half months an almost uninterrupted
predominance of southwesterly winds in this area.
Recently, plastic envelopes containing cards have been used instead of drift
bottles; these have the advantage of being small and easily carried to the point of
liberation. Unless specifically weighted or made with a weighted plastic tail they
do, however, give only the drift of the very surface skin.
Near land, drift methods may be easily elaborated. The movement of a buoy,
or a coloured patch of water, may be followed for long periods and over quite
considerable distances by following its course by ship and positioning it with
respect to land bearings. This method may even be employed in the open ocean,
using additional fixed buoys, and such a technique has been greatly facilitated
by the development of accurate navigational aids such as Decca and Loran.
Radio buoys giving out continuous signals have been used for the same purpose;
they are, however, expensive.
Flow methods: the Ekman current meter
In flow methods, used from an anchored ship, the instrument is kept stationary
and the current measured by allowing it to turn a propeller or to exert pressure
on a movable vane. With this type of technique observations can be made at a

Some properties of the water itself

107

series of depths and the speed and direction determined. The main disadvantages
are that the apparatus requires constant attention and the records refer only to the
limited period during which the observations are made. When anchored in deep
water, difficulties also arise from the ships motion. In most of these instruments
a vane orientates the machine in the direction of the current and a mechanism is
provided for recording this direction, relative either to the magnetic meridian or
to the fixed direction of a bifilar suspension. Instruments that measure the
pressure do not need a vane, since the deflection of a pendulum may be used to
measure direction. The advantage of a propeller or cup instrument is that, in
general, a linear relation exists between the number of revolutions per minute
and the current speed, and this type of instrument has been most commonly
used. It is not reliable, however, for current speeds of less than 2 cm./sec. The
use of a compass to determine direction has the disadvantage that near a steel
vessel the needle is influenced by the ships magnetism; compass-containing
instruments should not be used at depths less than 50 metres. Propeller and cup
instruments both suffer from the further disadvantage that, unless adequate
precautions are taken, they are easily fouled by passing objects such as seaweed.
There are many different forms of current meters employing these general
principles. The various instruments reflect in part the period of invention, for
example, the availability of ancillary electrical or electronic equipment, in part
the bent of the inventormechanical or electricaland in part the parti cular
purpose for which the instrument was intended. The simplest method for an
accurate direct current reading is undoubtedly to allow the current to turn a
propeller and in some way to record the number of turns in a given period of
time, the direction being indicated by reference to a compass. We shall not
describe all the various modifications of this technique, but rather illustrate the
basic principles involved by reference to the well-known instrument of Ekman
(Figures 76, 77).
The main body of the instrument (Figure 76a), mounted on ball bearings, is
free to swing round its vertical axis in response to a current. If the direction of
weak currents is to be recorded accurately, the plane of symmetry of the meter
must be vertical, and the instrument is, therefore, carefully balanced. The tail
orientating it into the current is a simple metal plate attached to the body by two
brass tubes. An 8-bladed propeller is mounted inside a strong protecting ring to
which two front shutters are hinged. Slow-running propellers, that is, with a high
pitch, have been found to give the most accurate results. A set of levers and
catches are arranged so that when the instrument has been lowered with the front
doors closed and with the propeller looked, a first messenger will both open the
doors and release the propeller and, after allowing to record for a known time, a
second messenger will then lock the propeller. This is achieved as follows
(Figure 76a). Inside the protecting ring there is a stopper which moves
vertically and which is connected with a lever so that the propeller is released or
arrested as the right arm of the lever takes a higher or lower position. The lever
is raised by a spiral spring and is kept in the set position by a catch in the shape
of a twin spring on an arm resting against the closed upper shutter, which is in

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turn locked by the lever. The instrument is lowered into the water closed, with
the double spring pressed to the right (towards the wire) and held by a ratchet.
When hit by the first messenger the lever releases the shutters; these fly open by
the force of the strong spiral springs and the lever immediately takes its upper
position. At the same time the ratchet releases the twin spring, which now
resumes its natural position to the left, catches the lever and locks the propeller
when it is pressed down by the second

Figure 76
The Ekman current meter
a) Diagram of front part (without fin). b) Diagram of balls feeding on
to compass. c) Compass with ball receiver and groove. d)
Compass mounting and holes through which balls pass to
box

Some properties of the water itself

109

Figure 77
Current measuringEkman meter
(Courtesy of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,
Lowestoft)

messenger. Since connection between lever and stopper is indirect and elastic,
the impact of the messenger is not transmitted to the blades. The propeller shaft
leads, via gears running in stainless-steel bearings, to a set of recording dials,
and these indicate the number of propeller revolutions. It is necessary to know
the relation between propeller revolutions and water velocity. This is usually
obtained from tank tests; velocity is calculated from the time and length of a tow
and, knowing the number of revolutions of the propeller, the instrument may be

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calibrated.
Direction of the current is recorded mechanically in a very ingenious way. A
compass with a grooved needle (Figure 76c) is mounted on the instrument and
balls are dropped on to it and carried along this groove into a box fixed to the
frame. Since this is orientated into the current, its direction with respect to
magnetic north (as indicated by the compass) may be determined. A vertical
brass tube serves as a magazine for the balls and its bottom is formed by a
threeholed cylinder carried on the axle of the worm wheel driving one set of the
current dials (Figure 76b). As this cylinder passes the magazine a ball drops into
one of the holes when the latter becomes aligned with the magazine base. The
ball is carried round until it comes opposite a lower guide tube, when it passes
down into the actual compass box. Here a system of magnets runs on agate
bearings and the frame of the magnets carries a trough into which the ball rolls.
The lower part of the compass box, rigidly attached to the swinging frame, is
divided by means of radial partitions into thirty-six compartments each with a
hole opening into an equivalent compartment of the lower storage box (Figure
76d). These compartments and not the compass box itself finally receive the
balls.
This instrument gives only one result at each lowering and although in
shallow water, or even in water of moderate depths, this is inconvenient, it is not
too time-consuming. For deepwater work it would be extremely laborious to
take a large number of readings, and Ekman therefore devised a more
complicated instrument on the same basic principles. In addition to those
dropping into the compass box, balls were guided into slots by the propeller
dials. Up to forty-seven messengers could be sent down and, by using numbered
balls, forty-seven consecutive readings could be obtained without bringing the
instrument to the surface. After activating the instrument the messengers divide
into two parts and fall into a receptacle hung below the instrument. The great
advantage of these instruments, apart from being robust, is that they are entirely
mechanical; no extra wires are required and there are no complicated electrical
or other devices to go wrong.
Continuous-recording current meters
Electrical and photographic methods of recording both velocity and direction of
currents have been used to obtain more continuous observations and propeller
instruments employing such devices have had varying degrees of success and
popularity. In one of the earliest electrical machines, devised by Rolf Wittinga
Finnish hydrographerthe propeller turns an eccentric disc that actuates a
forked lever working against a magnet. When the lever is raised, it lowers the
magnet frame which serves as a key closing an electrical circuit by providing
contacts between an inner solid and an outer segmented contact ring. One
conductor is connected to the inner ring, and the other to the segments by
resistances of different magnitudes. The resistance in circuit depends, therefore,
upon which segment is touched by the outer ring of the magnet frame and, by

Some properties of the water itself

111

having a milli-ammeter in circuit, orientation with respect to magnetic north


may be determined. Since the propeller actuates these contacts, once the
instrument has been calibrated, the current speed may be calculated by the
number of contacts per unit time.
Photography is used to record in a current meter designed by Pettersson. A
propeller turns a disc with a transparent section and the magnet carries a smaller
similar and concentric disc. Every half-hour the positions of the discs are
photographed. A clockwork mechanism advances the film and actuates a battery
supply to an electric light. This instrument was designed to be suspended from a
buoy and to work continuously for two weeks.
The most recent instruments rely on electromagnetic induction as the link
between propeller and recording equipment, and since the signal generated in
this way may be recorded continuously, continuous current measurements are
possible. The link involves no moving parts. To form this link the propeller is
fitted with a small strong permanent magnet at the tip of one or more blades and
a small coil of wire is housed on the propeller guard. At each turn of the
propeller, as the magnet passes the fixed coil a momentary pulse of induced
electromotive force is generated, and current flows in the closed circuit (Figure
78a). The signal is transmitted via a twocore cable on which the instrument may
be lowered (Figure 78b). The pulses may be counted, integrated or recorded. It
should be noted that the energy of the electrical signal is derived from that given
to the propeller by the passing water. Intermittent magnetic drag together with
propeller-bearing friction usually places minimum detectable speeds at about
0.15 knot.
A count of the number of rotations may be obtained in several ways. The
propeller rotation signal may be registered directly on a recording milli-ammeter
(Figure 79). It may also be detected visually by a slow-response micro-ammeter,
in which case very low current velocities are indicated by separate kicks on the
instrument, while high velocities are recorded as a steady current value. The
signals may also be counted by acoustic methods using a pair of headphones.
In the model designed by Dr von Arx for deep-water work, the instrument
(Figure 78c) has a barrel designed to withstand the pressure at 300 metres.
Within the pressure case is a magnesyn compass transmitter to report direction
to the deck, a Bourdon-operated micro-torque potentiometer to give instrument
depth, and a pick-up coil with selenium rectifiers to supply a micro-ammeter
which indicates current speed. In order to smooth the micro-ammeter action, the
signal impulse rate of this particular model is increased by mounting several
smaller magnets separately on the tip of each propeller blade rather than a single
large magnet on one blade. This improves the

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112

Figure 78
The von Arx current meters
These rely on electromagnetic induction
a) As the magnet A on the propeller blade passes the coil B a surge of
current is induced in the latter and can be observed or
recorded on deck
b) Simple model. No direction indicator
c) Direction indicator (magnesyn) in pressure case: meter orientated
into current by Garbell-type fins for short instruments
(Courtesy of Dr W. S. von Arx)

Some properties of the water itself

113

Figure 79
Measuring currents in the Mediterranean with the von Arx Model II
current meter. The instrument is suspended from the small
boom in the background. The deck unit showing current
speed, direction and instrument depth is being read by Dean
F. Bumpus, Eugene Krantz and Second Officer Donald Fay
(Courtesy of Mr D.M. Owen)

micro-ammeter action and its response at low current speeds, but it removes the
possibility of counting individual propeller revolutions at the lowest current
speeds. Dr von Arx has built models of this instrument both with conventional
fins and also with the new type of Garbell fins (Figure 78c). The latter,
developed in connection with modern aircraft, have a high directional sensitivity
even on a short instrument with its greatly reduced rotational inertia.
It has been pointed out that, particularly when measuring currents in deep
water, the motion of a ship even at anchor must be taken into account. At a
given instant one really measures the run of the current relative to any
movement of the ship or, more precisely, to any movement of the current
meterfor the latter does not follow exactly that of the ship. Even when firmly
anchored, two components of motion are important. Under the combined
influence of current and wind a ship will move round a central position, thus

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executing a pendulum movement within a sector whose point is formed by the


anchor: it will in fact yaw, and this is the principal motion. Further, as the
resistance offered by the vessel to wind and current varies with time, the ship
rides to and from the anchor itself. The disturbing effects are, of course, greatest
when weak currents are being investigated and when the records are being made
from very great depths. In areas where the currents are strong and the depth
small, the effect can often be neglected. Various attempts have been made to
overcome these difficulties, for example, by using more than one anchor. This is
time consuming and not always very successful. When conditions are
unfavourable and particularly when they are changing suddenly, current
measurements obtained in this way may be unreliable. A current meter fixed to a
tripod which rests on the bottom has also been used for measuring bottom
currents.
One of the great advantages of continuous recording instruments such as those
developed by von Arx is that observations can be made during those phases of
an anchored ships motion when acceleration is great but velocity small.
Preliminary observations allow incoming signals to be separated into ships
motion and water motion. Once the rhythm of the ship at anchor has been found,
the technique allows observations to be made at predictable intervals. At the end
of each yaw there is a period when the ship swings off on the opposite tack and
during swing a certain point in the ships length is temporarily at rest with
respect to the bottom. The location of this point is usually well forward of
midships and varies with the size and shape of the ship. If the current meter
suspension is led over the rail into the water at this centre of rotation, the upper
end of the current-meter cable will be held at rest with respect to the bottom for
a matter of a few seconds or minutes, depending upon the particular ship.
During this time measurements can be made with some degree of reliability
provided it is long enough for the current meter to have come to equilibrium. At
equilibrium during these stationary intervals the indicated current speed is
minimal; both the indicated rate of change of direction and the indicated depth
are maximal. The speed observed during the motionless period and the average
observed on the preceding and succeeding yaws is then taken to be the true
current speed at that time. Since this technique permits the ship to be at anchor,
it is possible to make reasonably reliable measurements of current velocity at all
depths where a single anchor will reach and hold.
Very recently two further methods have been used in attempts to eliminate the
difficulties associated with anchored ships when measuring deep-water currents.
In one a buoy, balanced to stay at the required depth (the density of the water at
that depth being known), contains a series of explosive charges which are set off
at intervals. The train of sound waves from these charges is transmitted through
the water and may be picked up by directional hydrophones at shore stations.
The position of the buoy can, therefore, be determined at every explosion and its
course plotted. An alternative method has been to enclose in a buoy a simple
sound source rather like a modified transmitter of an echo-sounder. Sound
pulses are continuously sent out, and these can be picked up by hydrophones on

Some properties of the water itself

115

a moored ship and the positions of the buoy plotted.


Long-period current measuring instruments
All the methods described so far are capable of giving current speed and
direction at any instantbut they are essentially methods requiring a research
ship. In shallow coastal waters, where large tidal streams are super-imposed on
permanent or semi-permanent currents, the results, while of interest, are often
difficult to use in some forms of biological work, for example, that concerned
with the dispersal of larvae and the movement of planktonic animals. For this
type of investigation an instrument is required which will give the residual or net
current over long periodsand which, therefore, requires little servicing: this
aspect of current measurement has been given particular attention by Dr J.N.
Carruthers of the National Institute of Oceanography. He has stressed that a
continuous programme of current observations cannot be carried out by research
vessels alone and his instruments have, therefore, been designed to be worked
from lightships. Observations must, of course, be made at a number of different
places and if these are carefully chosen the results give an indication of water
movement over a wider area.
A simple current-measuring device, the Jacobsen current meter, for use on
lightships or similar vessels, had indeed been in use for some time prior to Dr
Carruthers work, but readings had to be taken regularly by the crew. With this
instrument current speed is measured by the tilt produced on a plate and the
direction determined by reference to the ships head. No magnet is involved and
steel ships may, therefore, be used. There is, however, no continuous record of
either current speed or direction; the instrument must be read at intervals.
Fastened firmly to the ships rail is a strong bracket secured at the inboard end
by two stout clamps, the jaws of which are adjusted by bolts under the rail
(Figure 80). The bracket carries a flat iron plate swung in gimbals, and on the
upper surface of this plate are two circular spirit levels. In each of these the
moving element is a bubble of air. From the underside of the plate, upon which
the two levels are mounted, an iron tube projects downwards from the centre for
a short distance. This tube is screwed into the plate at its upper end and above it
is a small hole bored through the centre of the plate. The hole is exactly midway
between the levels. A davit lined up with these carries a small hand-winch that
can readily be locked when desired. From this winch a steel wire leads over a
measuring block, passes down through the central hole in the plate and on

Oceanography and marine biology

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Figure 80
Jacobsen current meters in use
(Courtesy of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,
Lowestoft)

through the iron tube. The free end is fixed to an open cylinder. The current,
acting on the cylinder, takes it away at an angle and the levelling plate is tilted
(Figure 81).

Some properties of the water itself

117

Figure 81
The Jacobsen current meter (diagrammatic)
a) to c) Ship heading directly into current

a') to c') Top views of levelling plate


d) to f) Current flowing at an angle to the ship; bubble displaced at
the same angle to the plate, and determined by reference to
ships heading

The bubbles are, therefore, no longer central. Now the position of the bubble can
be determined with reference to the ships heading by means of lines etched on
the glass covers of the levels (Figure 81e); knowing the ships heading, a true
current bearing can be obtained. To get a measure of the current velocity it is
necessary to know the relation between the tilt of the plate and the current
strength and, although these meters have been calibrated indoors, they are better
calibrated at sea for each depth against a standard direct-reading current meter.
Once calibrated, the instrument is simple to use and requires very little
maintenance. Usually a series of readings are taken at set times by a relatively
untrained observer.
The drift indicator of Carruthers is a robust instrument, easily maintained and

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is capable of being worked by nonscientific personnel and of giving continuous


records over long periods. It is a modification of the Ekman meter. A set of cups
made from thick copper sheet and protected by a guard of stout wires is mounted
on a spindle and this rotates under the action of a current (Figures 82 and 83).
The recording mechanism is enclosed in a strong box, fitted outside with a
projecting vane that orientates the instrument in the current. Internally a crossbar
carries a large lidded hopper containing a supply of phosphor-bronze balls. In
the centre is a large crown wheel turned through gears by the rotating propeller
and making one revolution for each hundred cup revolutions. A brass sphere
with a cut-out slot rotates with the crown wheel and fits hard up against the
hopper exit, so that only when the slit comes opposite the hopper are balls
allowed to drop into the three holes (in a similar manner as in the Ekman current
meter) (Figure 83c). Underneath is mounted the compass box and into this balls
pass via a sloping runway, to be distributed by the compass needle trough into a
lower collecting box. The number of rotations gives the average current speed,
and by counting the number of balls in the various compartments the proportion
of the time the current has been flowing in the different directions can be
calculated.
The drift indicator is fairly expensive and, since direction is determined
magnetically, for readings near the surface it can only be used from wooden
ships. For these reasons Carruthers developed an even simpler devicethe
vertical loga very cheap, robust instrument (Figure 84). The submerged part
consists of a system of strong iron cups with heavy weights suspended below.
The cup arms are welded to a steel bar and the top of the rod of the cup system
has an eye from which a rope

Some properties of the water itself

Figure 82
The Carruthers drift indicator
(Courtesy of H.M.S.O., London)

119

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120

Figure 83 The Carruthers drift indicator


a) External view
b) Section
c) Enlarged section of hopper feeding balls on to magnet through
hole in axle of wheel turned by revolving caps
(J. N. Carruthers: a) and b) Fishery Investigations 1928; c)
Journal du Conseil, 1926; Redrawn from original)

Some properties of the water itself

121

Figure 84
The Carruthers vertical log
(J. N. Carruthers, Rapports et Procs-Verbaux 1937; Redrawn from
original)

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leads to the recording part of the instrument. This consists of a very stout open
boxa foot or so square. It has a vertical steel spindle mounted at the bottom in
a ball-bearing collar and to this the upper end of the rope is attached (Figure
84c). On the top of the spindle is secured a large nut and mounted vertically in
this is a steel pin about an inch long which, of course, describes a circular path
as the spindle is rotated. The box is hung out on a beam. In the fore and aft sides
of the box is a slit and this takes a hardwood slat which carries a cyclometertype
of counter. The handle of this counter is carried round without any intermediate
gears by the pin on the nut mounted on the central spindle. There are several of
these wooden slats and a separate one is put in for a given octanta record
being made and the slat changed when the current direction changes into another
octant. The direction is taken by streaming out a floating drag and observing the
direction this takes in relation to ships head.
These robust continuous-current meters of Carruthers have been used by the
English Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries over long periods and have given
some valuable results on net current speed and direction in the English Channel
and Southern North Sea.
Before leaving the subject of current measurement we must mention the most
recent development in this worka method which though simple in theory is in
practice somewhat difficult. The method depends upon electromagnetic
induction. Early in the nineteenth century Faraday showed that when a
conductor, such as a piece of copper wire, is moved through a magnetic field an
electrical current is induced in the moving wire. The induced current is related to
the intensity of the magnetic field and to the speed at which it is cut by the
moving conductor. The earth is a magnet, and sea water is a conductor of
electricity; when a water current flows in the sea a conductor is therefore cutting
through a magnetic field and an electric current should flow. The possibility of
measuring water currents by their electromagnetic effect was foreseen by
Faraday himself; he stated in his Bakerian Lecture of 1832; Theoretically, it
seems a necessary consequence [of the laws of electromagnetic induction] that
where water is flowing, there electric currents should be formed: thus if a line be
imagined passing from Dover to Calais through the sea and returning through
the land beneath the water to Dover, it traces out a circuit of conducting matter
one part of which, when the water moves up or down the channel, is cutting the
magnetic curves of the earth, whilst the other is relatively at rest. Faraday
himself suspended two copper plates in a tideway, but with the instruments then
available could not detect any potential difference other than that arising from
chemical polarization at the electrodes. However, the effect was soon noted
repeatedly on the very long ranges provided by broken submarine cables and
quantitative and systematic experiments by Marc Dechevrens in the Channel
Islands and by Young, Gerrard and Jevons in Dartmouth harbour clearly showed
that tidal currents could induce electrical currents whose form and intensity
agreed with that to be expected from the tidal streams.
It is to Dr von Arx of the Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, that we owe a
further development of this method of measuring currents, namely, from a

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123

moving ship by means of what he has called the geomagnetic


electrokinetograph. The undisturbed magnetic field of the earth is used as a
frame of reference for the observations; it can be considered virtually constant
under all conditions (even during magnetic storms).
The surface electrokinetograph consists of a pair of carefully selected silversilver chloride electrodes mounted some metres apart on a two-conductor cable
and streamed out from a boom over the side of the ship, the cable being long
enough to take these electrodes away and astern from its influence (Figure 85).
The electrodes are connected to a recording potentiometer (Figure 86). With this
equipment and the ships compass, observations are made under way of the
direction of motion and the potential difference between the electrodes. These
potential differences are due to water motion at right angles to the course and are
related to the drift of the ship and the set of the electrodes. The potential
difference changes sign when the currents set the ship to port or starboard.
Although the principle is simple, the underlying detailed computations are

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Figure 85
The geomagnetic electrokinetograph boom and cable towing astern of
R.V. Albatross III in the North Atlantic. Surface currents
were observed continuously along a course from
Newfoundland to Ireland on this particular cruise
(Courtesy of Mr Jan Hahn)

difficult and we must be content to state that the magnitude of the potential
difference depends on the rate of current drift at right angles to the course, the
length of water between the electrodes,the local strength

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125

Figure 86
Deck unit, cable and electrodes of geomagnetic electrokinetograph,
Model II. Used for five years on U.S.C.G. Cutter Evergreen
on the International Ice Patrol, Oceanographic Surveys.
Surface currents measured with this device every half hour
under way between hydrographic stations provide data
which replace simple interpolation between known points
in the dynamic topography
(Courtesy of Dr W.S. von Arx)

of the vertical component of the earths magnetic field, and, to some extent, the
vertical distribution of water velocities in the vicinity. By measuring the
potential differences on two courses nearly at right angles, the drift or
component velocities in these two directions are obtained. The vector sum (or
resultant) of these velocities gives the surface-water current vector for the
locality. The signal strength is related to flow and total depth of water, and since
in the open sea the flow is generally greatest at the surface with a vast body of
highly conducting relatively quiet water below, these are the best conditions.
Inshore currents (principally tidal) may extend almost uniformly from top to
bottom, so that a quiet conducting layer is virtually absent and the circuit is

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completed mainly through the higher resistance of the sea bed.


In practice, a course of about 500 metres has been run, a limitation imposed

Figure 87
Recordings from a geomagnetic electrokinetograph
a) Example of a record: at the point marked the signals from the
waves have been partially suppressed so that the main trace
is clearer, but the small potentials from the waves are still
present from which wave periods can be determined
b) Complete current record: long segment on course, short segment at
right angles (90) to course
(Dr W.S. von Arx, Papers in Physical Oceanography and
Meteorology, Woods Hole 1950; Modified from original)

partly by the apparatus and partly by the need to average out the turbulent
irregularities of motion in the sea itself. The type of trace obtained is seen in
Figure 87. Here the long segment of the trace represents the component of water

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127

motion normal to the course and the shorter segments that at 90 to the principal
course. It will be noted that there is a lag between signal and course change; this
is directly proportional to the length of cable astern and inversely proportional to
the speed of the ship. This record provides two estimates of true current, the
intervening normal component to flow and also, from the width of the traces,
data on wave periods; when the width is suppressed, the record is as shown in
Figure 87b.
Reliable current-measuring techniques that detect identical aspects of flow are
so few that it is difficult to devise conclusive experiments to demonstrate the
validity of such a new method. It has been tested against propeller-type current
meters suspended from an anchored ship, drift of current poles and dyes,
predicted currents from various tables, and drift calculated from dynamic
topography when steaming through a major current.
Since this instrument can be used with the ship under way, a large area may
be rapidly surveyed and a synoptic picture of the current systems obtained. We
may illustrate this from work that has been done in the vicinity of the wellknown Gulf Stream. It will be remembered (pp. 110 and 127) that as one passes
across the Gulf Stream there is a fairly sharp temperaturesalinity boundary
between Gulf Stream water and the so-called Slope water lying over the
Continental Shelf. Figure 88 shows the surface velocity across this boundary at
the continental edge of the Gulf Stream taken during a cruise towards Bermuda
from Cape Cod and Cape May. This figure shows the existence of an
entrainment current (that is, water dragged along) of Slope water on the
continental side of the Gulf Stream. The entrainment current begins roughly 20
nautical miles from the boundary, and its velocity in general increases towards
the Gulf Stream. The thermohaline structure shows (p. 110) that pools of Gulf
Stream water are detached from the main stream and the velocity structure
suggests that the pools have an eddy character, rather like a miniature
whirlpool, the size of these eddies ranging from 3 to 10 nautical miles in
diameter. Speeds as high as 3 knots have been observed near their

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Figure 88
A velocity section along lines at right angles to the cold wall showing
entrainment of Slope water by Gulf Stream and the abrupt
transition in velocity at the temperature-salinity (T-S)
boundary separating the two water masses. (See also Figure
57, p. 111)
(Dr W.S. von Arx, Papers in Physical Oceanography and
Meteorology, Woods Hole 1950; Modified from original)

margins. The velocity changes observed during a traverse indicate that these
eddies may be moving bodily along with the Gulf Stream at about half its
maximum velocity. At the main boundary of the Gulf Stream it is not
uncommon for the velocities to double in a distance of only 3 nautical miles,
reaching almost 5 knots without appreciable change of direction. The existence
of the Gulf Stream has been known for many years, but only by means of these
rapid recording instruments has its detailed structure been recently revealed.

4
PHOTOGRAPHY AND TELEVISION
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY
OUR primary concern throughout this book has been with problems involved in
making observations and measurements within the marine environment:
attention has, therefore, been focused particularly on methods by which a great
variety of instruments can be made to function properly in the sea. This section
may, then, appear somewhat anomalous since, as the title indicates, it concerns a
technique where the instruments are quite clearly remote from the sea. Although
aerial photographs have sometimes been used to illustrate various aspects of
marine biological studiesin particular those of the intertidal zone
comparatively recent developments have shown that the potentialities of this
method are greater than had been realized.
The measurement of beach profiles
The necessity for widespread amphibious operations in World War II lead to an
urgent demand by naval and military authorities for detailed information
regarding beaches in various parts of the world; not only were pictorial records
of many shorelines wanted but also estimates of beach slope and configuration,
and their changes with weather over long and short periods. Considered simply
as records, aerial photographs of beach and shore-line topography have all the
advantages of terrestrial surveys by aeroplane. Large areas may be covered
rapidly, repeated excursions may be taken to determine anychanges and,
although the detail obtained is less than that given by conventional methods,
aerial techniques may be far less expensive. Figure 89 shows a particularly
interesting photograph taken from American work on the transformation of
waves in inshore waters. When waves arrive in shallow water their form is
dependent to a large extent upon the underlying beach topography and in this
figure we see striking changes of wave pattern as the shore is approached. In this
region a submerged canyon runs out at right angles to the shore and across the
beach into the sea. The much greater depth of water over the canyon results in
the waves being bent sharply forward, so that they are higher just outside the
canyon than immediately over it. At the same time, directly opposite the mouth
of the canyon, the surf zone is seen to be narrower than on other parts of the
shore.
Careful examination of aerial photographs over shallow water reveals
considerable underwater detailthe type of bottom, rock or sand, the presence
of sub-littoral weed, and the changing pattern of sedimentation with the

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production of sand bars, can all be detected. Even the depth of water and hence
the beach profile can be determined by aerial photography using an ingenious
method worked out during World War II by Major J. Grange Moore of the
British Army Photographic Research Unit.
Consider an aerial photograph taken over a uniform sandy beach. In a print,
the sea bed will obviously appear clearer the shallower the water. Along a line
extending at right angles to the shore into deeper water there will, therefore, be a
gradual decrease in optical density (that is blackness) of the negative and this is
equivalent to an increase in blackness of the print. The differences depend upon
the change of depth of water along the line. A plot of the density of the negative
against distance along any line is called the brightness profile. The light
reaching a camera at any point vertically above a water-covered beach is made
up of a number of components. First, there will

Figure 89
Aerial photograph near La Jolla, California
(From W.H. Munk and M.A. Taylor, Journal of Geology, 1947)

be light from all sources scattered by atmospheric haze betweensea


surface and camera; secondly, there will be a contributionfrom
light not penetrating the sea but reflected upwards fromthe surface;
thirdly, light which is scattered vertically upwardsfrom the
particles within the sea will also reach the camera;and fourthly,

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light will be reflected at the sea bed itself to emergevertically from


the sea surface. When we have constant atmospheric conditions
and a fixed type of reflecting sea bottomthe apparent brightness of
the image appearing on an exposedphotographic film will vary
with only two factors, namely,the depth and clarity of the water. If
the latter is known,then the depth profile may be determined by
measuring therelative brightness of the image at different points
along a lineon a single photograph.
However, it may not always be possible to obtain a sample of the water and
measure its clarity. An alternative and more convenient method may be used.
This depends upon the fact that the clarity of the water, that is, its ability to
transmit light (as measured by the so-called extinction coefficient), depends
upon the wavelength of the light. Green light is transmitted better than red. If the
relation between the extinction coefficients for two contrasted colours, say green
and red, is known or can be calculated, then, using a special calculator, the
depths may be determined from two aerial photographs taken simultaneously
one through each coloured filter.
The aircraft, which need not be of a special type, carries a pair of cameras
mounted vertically, one fitted with a red and the other with a green filter and
simultaneous photographs are taken by synchronized shutters. The area covered
by a photograph depends upon the height at which it is taken and the angle of
view of the lens. During World War II much work was done from 5,000 ft, at
which height a camera with an 8-in. lens gives a photograph 5 in. by 5 in.
covering about a thousand yards square at a scale of 1/7,500. Although the area
covered may be altered by changing the lens and the operational height, the
ultimate scale should preferably lie between 1/7,000 to 1/10,000 (about 1/8,000
approaches the ideal). If the scale is too large, then, apart from giving
insufficient cover, the photographs may show too much wave detail, while if the
scale is too small errors arise from a less accurate location of points on the
profile, whose brightness is being compared on the red and green negatives.
All photographs must show a small amount of beach above the water and should
be as free as possible from tilt, cloud shadows, and reflection from the water
surface. It is possible to produce satisfactory pictures with broken cloud
although this requires greater skill on the part of the pilot; if at all possible, the
sky should be either cloud-free or fully covered with high cloud. To satisfy these
requirements, as well as those considered below, the meteorological conditions
have to be carefully considered beforehand. The time of day for taking the
picture is also carefully selected; there is an optimum time for each lens angle.
The sun should be as high as possible to give adequate illumination yet low
enough to eliminate a tendency for specular reflection from small waves. The
wind speed should be low, since apart from introducing navigational difficulties
it both increases the amplitude of the waves, so tending to distort the brightness
profile, and gives rise to local variations in the reflectivity of the sea surface.
With high winds difficulties may even arise from the stirring up of bottom mud.

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Following exposure, the negatives are developed to full contrast under very
careful control so that all parts of the film are under identical conditions of
development. After being processed, although a knowledge of the absolute
brightness is not required, the relative brightness in various parts of the negative
must be very accurately determined. This is not so simple as it may appear. It is
not sufficient just to measure, by means of a calibrated photometer, the amount
of light that passes through various parts of the negative, because the relation
between exposure time and density of the film after development is not linear. It
is necessary to have a standard by which the relative brightness in different parts
of the picture may be compared and an optical step wedge illuminated by a
standard lamp is, therefore, exposed in each shot, the exposure being made
synchronously with the picture by releasing the shutters together. A step-wedge
consists of a series of small areas with increasing optical density; by calibrating
it for each set of camera conditions, an arbitrary scale of brightness is obtained,
and against this the relative densities over the negatives may be compared. A
further and important correction must be made. When a picture is taken at a
given shutter speed, the amateur taking his snaps usually assumes, if indeed he
thinks about it at all, that the whole of the negative is given the indicated
exposure. This is not so; two factors vitiate this assumption. First, the amount of
light which can pass through the lens is not the same at all points over the lens;
in this respect each lens has its own performance. Secondly, the slot of a focal
plane shutter does not pass across the whole negative at a uniform speed. A
correction may be applied for both these errors taken together by making
control exposures under uniform lighting conditions, developing the film and
comparing the optical density over what ought to be a perfectly uniform area. A
correction template is then prepared on which the corrections to be applied in
different parts of any subsequent negative are drawn in the form of correction
contours. In reading a film, this template is placed over it and the necessary
correction to be applied to any part of the film where the density is being
determined can be read off directly. Figure 90 is a reproduction of three
photographs by Major Grange Moore taken during his work.
Since sea water is more transparent to green than to red light, the green
prints show more underwater detail; under favourable conditions the bottom can
be seen even at a depth of 50 ft. By contrast, red prints emphasize the
configuration of the shallows and enable qualitative estimates to be made of
relative depths in very shallow water. The change in tone together with the
sharpness with which rocks are outlined as the depth increases also gives some
indication of the clarity of the water. In addition to the green and red shots, a
picture is often taken on infra-red film. There is very little penetration of water
by infra-red light and such prints are particularly useful for showing the exact
position of the water line (when normal prints are made) or for assessing the
depths in the extremely shallow water (when under-exposed prints are made).
If a quantitative estimate of the depth of water and the beach

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Figure 90
Beach profiles determined by aerial photography. Bar Point, St.
Marys, Scilly Isles, taken at 10,000 ft. 1/250 sec.
a) Infra red: edge of coast shows clearly, completely submerged
sandbar seen in other prints does not show
b) Green: great penetration, sandbar shows clearly
c) Red: less penetration, only shallow sand shows
(Courtesy of Major J. Grange Moore; Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society, 1948)

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profile is required, then a brightness profile is set up; although reasonable


estimates can be obtained from a carefully prepared print, it is better to work on
the original negative. A line is chosen and this is carefully aligned either in
relation to the waters edge (as obtained from the infra-red photograph) or from
some selected point on the beach itself. The relative densities of the negative and
of each step on the optical wedge (which, of course, appears on each negative)
are then determined by an optical density comparator, an instrument that
compares light passing through the film at any point and hence its density at that
point. A comparison curve is plotted from the densitometer calibration data and
the relative brightness along the selected line is then determined. When the
brightness profiles for the red and green negatives are known, a special
calculator is used to convert the results to actual depths which, over
lightcoloured beaches, may be determined with an accuracy of 10 per cent. over
a range exceeding 20 feet.
Application to fishery research
A very different application of aerial photography and scoutingand one which
may come to have considerable importanceis used in some fisheries work.
Visual spotting from the mast head has, of course, been practised for many
years by some fishermen. Compared with this, however, an aeroplane can cover
a far greater area more quickly and at any instant the observer has a larger field
of view; further, sub-surface shoals of fish are much more readily seen from an
aeroplane than from mast height. In practice, these advantages must be offset
against the high capital cost of the aeroplane itself, the difficulty of handling it
on board ship, particularly in bad weather, and the tendency for its rapid
structural deterioration under working conditions at sea. The ideal aeroplane for
the purpose does not exist, but it could certainly be designed. Helicopters could
also be used.
Aerial scouting has indeed been practised in the Icelandic herring fisheries for
some timethe aircraft being operated by the industry on a co-operative basis.
An experienced skipper acts as observer; when herring shoals are located, the
fleet is in formed by radio-telephone. This form of reconnaissance is said to be
particularly valuable in the Icelandic herring fishery; traditionally the fleet tends
to congregate in rather limited areas where the skippers, as a result of past
experience, believe the herring will come to the surface and the searching
efficiency of the fleet itself is thereby restricted. In addition, the echosounder is
considered to be of limited application in this particular purse seine fishery,
where the shoaling herring are caught near to the surface. In recent years aerial
spotting has also been used in the tuna fishery of the east-central Pacificthe
tuna boats are well adapted to carry planes because of their large free space aft
over the bait tank. Shore-based planes have been used for inshore fisheries, as
for example in the pilchard fishing off the Californian coastin the years when
this fishing was profitable.
Aerial photography and scouting have been used in preliminary exploratory

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work in Australia to give a broad picture of the distribution of pelagic fish shoals
before beginning an expensive programme of detailed investigations. They have
been used by Dr Eicher to estimate fish numbers. At the spawning season he
took photographs (Figure 91), an example of which is given in Figure 92, of
salmon in the rivers and lakes of western Alaska and, after magnification of the
prints, an estimate of the number of fish could be made. For example, from this
particular photograph he estimated that there were 1,600 salmon between the
straight line and the mouth of the river. By repeating such surveys each year
during the spawning season, changes in fish stocks were estimated.
Surveys have also been made from aeroplanes to follow the dispersion of
waste discharged from barges and it is possible that variations in colour in the
open ocean could be detected and their origin determined after directing a
research vessel to the location.

UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY
The development of aqua-lung equipment has led to a great increase in the
number of people who take up diving and underwater photography either as a
profession or as a hobby.

Figure 91
Aircraft of type most often used for visual surveys
(Courtesy of Dr G.J. Eicher, Jr.)

Frogmen have been used to take films for the purpose of biological research
for example, a film taken for the Scottish Home Department showing seine nets
in action, and one for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food on the
working of a trawl have given much new information; frogmen are being
increasingly employed for special projects. Hand cameras for this type of work
have been repeatedly described in recent books, and our attention will, therefore,

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be focused on remotely controlled or self-actuating underwater cameras which


are now commonly used and which are playing an increasing part in marine
biological research.
The scope of remotely controlled underwater cameras
We must first consider the scope of this technique and its relation to older and
more conventional methods. Perhaps its most promising application lies in the
observation of bottomliving plants and animals under natural conditions. It is
possible with underwater cameras to examine organisms, both in relation to one
another and to their environment, without the disturbance and consequent loss of
detailed information inevitable when conventional sampling apparatus is used. It
should also be stressed that not only may qualitative observations be made but
quantitative data on both the numbers and sizes of the animals can be obtained.
In addition, observations may be

Figure 92
Photograph of red salmon at the mouth of Brooks River, Alaska.
Taken at an elevation of 1,000 ft. An estimated 1,600
salmon are shown between the oblique line and the mouth
of the river
(By G.J. Eicher, Jr.; Courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

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made on the physical character of the bottom and these supplement results
obtained from examination and analysis of samples collected by conventional
methods. It is also possible to use underwater cameras to record the results of
experiments designed to test some particular hypothesis. For example, Professor
Emery has proposed that turbidity currents, that is, currents loaded with mud,
could be investigated by placing a camera at the bottom of a slope and observing
the effect of an anchor dragged across the upper part of that slope. The direct
observation of the bottom also gives much information of

Figure 93
Underwater photograph taken by Professor Emery of the insular shelf
east of Catalina Island (Lat. 33 19' N. Long. 118 17' W.)
at a depth of 295 ft. This picture is of considerable
geological interest; the sediment is a foraminiferous shell
sand and the conical elevations are probably the result of
worm activities
(From K.O. Emery, The Scientific Monthly 1952)

geological interest (Figures 93 and 94); thus, Emery has pointed out that the
surface appearance of a muddy bottom, as revealed by underwater cameras,
contradicts the opinion generally held amongst geologists regarding the
formation of evenly layered shales. The observations of track marks and surface
features (Figure 95a, b and c) on muddy bottoms and the possibility of assigning
them to known animals are also of importance to geological studies (Figure 95).

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Many places such as the faces of steep underwater canyons are difficult to
examine by any other means.
There is no doubt that underwater photography is a useful technique and that
it can give information not otherwise obtain

Figure 94
Outcrop of eocene; depth 1,000 metres. Photograph taken 90 miles
south of Vinigard Light in 1947 and shows evidence of
recent landslide. Lat. 39 43' N. Long. 70 48' W.
(Original through courtesy of Dr B.C. Heezen)

able, but like all other techniques it has its limitations. The subject, whether
animal, plant or inorganic environment, is only inspected; nothing is brought
up for detailed examination or experiment in the laboratory. This is sometimes a
severe limitation and in general ecological work the photographs should, when
possible, be supplemented by conventional collecting and any other method of
examination. The properties

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Figure 95

139

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140

of the water itself impose the severest limitation; when the light transmission
falls below about 80 per cent. per half metre, adequate results for research work
become virtually impossible and the method can therefore only be of restricted
application in some coastal, estuarine and polluted waters. Further, except in
shallow water, when satisfactory results can be obtained by natural light, it is
essential to provide artificial illumination of the underwater subject and this may
affect the behaviour of any animals being examined. This must be constantly
borne in mind when interpreting the results.
The problem of lighting
The question of light and lighting is of paramount importance to all direct or
indirect underwater observations and we may consider it in some detail. When
light passes through water some is lost by absorption but, except as this may
influence the quality (spectral composition) of the light, such losses are of little
importance; even if serious, they could be made good by the use of more
powerful lamps (although the effects of this on living animals might then be
more troublesome), longer exposures, and faster lenses. More serious is the
effect of scattering, which produces a haze so that a considerable amount of
light not reflected from the subject enters the camera and destroys contrast.
The Admiralty Scientific Group have made a number of studies on this
subject, particularly in relation to camera work by frogmen operating under
natural illumination. They set up a large underwater step-wedge (see p. 163) and
then by taking a series of pictures under varying conditions while approaching
it, the effect on picture quality of water clarity, object tone, altitude of the sun,
and working depth, were all investigated. The most important factor is clarity of
the water; in the clearest water, with transmission greater than 90 per cent. per
half metre, objects are recognizable at 10 metres. Below transmission values of
80 per cent. per half metre the working range drops sharply, becoming limited to
a few metres, and there is a great reduction in picture quality. With regard to the
tone of the object, the whites are always brighter than the sea back ground and
the blacks always darker, whilst fairly dark greys match the sea in brightness
even at close range. Under direct sunlight, greater ranges are obtained with
white than with black objects, but the visibility of the latter is improved by
looking towards the sun, when all parts of the target become darker than the
surroundings, the black tones becoming more, and the white tones less visible.
Using natural light, however, there is little that can be done to ensure good
picture quality except to choose the right time and place to take the picture.
These workers found there was no advantage in using a polarizing filter,
although an attempt was made to detect a critical angle; a light haze filter was
found to be of some benefit in clear water.
With artificial light, we must consider the scattering of direct light from the
outgoing beam and that scattered on its way back to the camera from the
illuminated subject. Scattering of the outgoing light can be reduced by
illuminating as little as possible of the water between camera and subject, and

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this involves putting the lights well away from the former and near to the latter;
little can be done to reduce scattering of the return light other than to minimize
the distance between subject and camera. Except for short viewing distances, the
best arrangement leads to a cumbersome lighting rig; a compromise must
therefore be struck between the quality of picture that is acceptable (in relation
to the distance one wishes to view and the particular problem in hand) and the
cumbersome character of the equipment which can be worked under any given
set of conditions.
Apart from the question of haze, there is the problem of the correct type and
form of lighting. Under uniform illumination a picture depends upon the contrast
inherent in the optical properties of the various parts making up the scene; if
only such contrast is utilized, the picture is flat and often difficult to interpret.
To recognize solid shapes both adequately and easily it is necessary to have
shadows and modelling effects whilst still ensuring that the former are not so
dense as to reduce all contrast in the darker parts of the picture. From this point
of view uni-directional lighting, particularly from directly above the subject, is
inadequate; both top and side lighting are necessary, as is well known from
studio work. Again it is a question of compromise. A multi-lighting system with
the individual units under separate control is cumbersome, but to ensure good
picture quality as much flexibility of this kind as can be accepted is desirable.
Commonly, a single light placed somewhat to the side is used, but it is then
found that in general the foreground is over-illuminated and the background
under-illuminated.
Various types of artificial light have been used, both continuous source such
as a tungsten filament lamp, or discontinuous, such as flash bulb and electronic
flash discharge. When working to moderate depths power losses of the cable are
insignificant and handling of the latter is relatively simple; there is then much to
be said for continuous-source lamps supplied by power from the ships mains.
Such lamps are cheap and easily replaced, no high voltages are involved, and no
separate case (or an enlarged camera case) is required to house a separate
lighting unit. There is some difference of opinion as to whether anything is
gained by the use of mercury or sodium discharge lamps in comparison with the
simple tungsten filament variety. The latter are simpler and cheaper because
they require neither a warming-up period nor accessories such as chokes,
transformers or ballast resistances.
The selection of equipment
For deep-water work, power losses and the difficulties involved in handling long
cables become overriding considerations and a self-contained lighting unit with
either flash bulbs or electronic flash equipment is almost invariably used. The
use of flash bulbs severely limits the number of pictures that can be taken at one
lowering and they have been largely superseded by electronic flash equipment.
It might be added that with flash photography, if the number of repetitions in
one place is limited, abnormal animal behaviour due to the effect of light is less

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likely to occur.
For shallow and moderately deep water there is much to be said for a camera
either remotely controlled from the deck or actuated when it contacts the
bottom, but in both cases with the necessary power supplied by cable from the
ship. Problems of spillage of batteries and their accommodation in a watertight
case are thereby eliminated, and the apparatus can be quite small and therefore
easy to make and handle,
Shallow-water work
When working to moderate depths it is only necessary to put a

Figure 96
Two views of underwater camera for moderate depths, developed by
Mr R.E. Craig of the Scottish Home Department. Above,
interior view. Below is seen its window mounted
eccentrically on the case and the reflector for the electronic
flash lamp
(Courtesy of Mr R.E. Craig)

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camera in a suitable watertight case and to provide a lighting system giving a


form easy to handle. It is convenient to mount a Robot-type camera in a
watertight case, usually fastened to a pole (Figure 99). A single light, a battery
of floodlights or electronic flash equipment may be attached to this pole. For
pictures

Figure 97
Photograph of a shell-covered bottom in Loch Creran by Mr Craig.
The triggering weight is seen in the top centre. Ophiuroids,
starfish and algae prominent
(Courtesy of Mr R.E. Craig)

of the bottom the camera and flash-light are actuated by a foot switch mounted
at the bottom of the pole, or by a weight attached to the lever of a mercury
tipping switch. When the foot or weight hits bottom, the mercury switch is
tipped and this then activates the solenoid in the camera case and when
electronic flash is used it is flashed; on completion of the circuit the shutter is
released and the film automatically wound on. At the same.time acamera
ammeter on deck gives a reading, a frame counter is actuated and a buzzer may
be arranged to alert the crew.
The apparatus is lowered on a wire warp and speed reduced when nearing
bottom; if continuous-source lighting is used, the lamps are then switched on.
The camera is gently lowered on to the bottom, the foot plate or weight contacts
and a picture is taken. For detailed survey of an area the apparatus is then lifted
off the bottom and the ship allowed to drift; the process may be repeated as
required, so that a series of pictures can be taken on the line of the ships drift

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which is subsequently plotted on a chart. For recognition and counting, the


negatives are examined under a binocular microscope or enlargements are made
(Figure 97).
Deep-water equipment
In deep-water work two types of apparatus must be considered, namely freefloating and captive. In the former, the apparatus is made lighter than water by
the addition of floats and taken down under ballast; on contact with bottom a
picture is taken, the ballast is released and the camera comes to the surface. In
the second type, the apparatus is lowered on a cable as with shallow-water gear.
The advantage of the former is that no cables are required and no time is wasted
in loweringan important factor when depths of say several thousand metres
are being worked; the camera can be put overboard and the ship is then free to
carry on with other work until it returns to the surface. Picture quality is good
because the exposure is made while the apparatus remains motionless prior to
release of ballast; there is no strain, as with a suspended type. On the other hand,
only a single picture of the bottom is taken at one lowering although it is
possible to arrange for the apparatus to take pictures on the way down. The ship
will drift while the apparatus is out and marker buoys must be put out to
facilitate return to the shooting position.
A free-floating camera which takes a single picture at each lowering has been
described by Ewing, Vine and Worzel. The camera case is mounted on a pole
below the lighting unit. Two types of ballast release have been used; in one,
contact with the bottom actuates a trigger that releases a clockwork mechanism
in the camera and after two pictures have been taken the ballast is let go by an
electromagnetic mechanism. In an alternative and less precise method, a bag of
salt is attached to the gear and, when the former has dissolved, the containing
bag is pulled through a hole, thus dropping the ballast; protection from solution
during descent is effected by a shield plate that falls away when bottom is
reached. For depths not exceeding 100 fathoms glass or metal floats of
conventional design may be used, but for deep water a flexible fabric or
neoprene bag containing petrol is convenient; such a liquid float readily adjusts
its volume to pressure and temperature changes during descent.
The limitation of a single picture at each lowering is a very severe drawback
with this type of camera and in recent years the suspended-cable type has been
largely preferred. The freefloating variety may still be of use as an occasional
instrument, for example, to take a bottom photograph whilst other work is in
progress at a station; in general, however, for an intensive bottom survey a large
number of photographs over an area or on a transect is required.
Two deep-sea cameras of modern design will be described. The USNEL Deep
Sea Camera (Figures 98 and 99) was designed at the U.S. Navy Electronics
Laboratory and has been largely used by the personnel of the Scripps Institution,
California. It is designed for depths up to 1,400 fathoms and takes 40 exposures
at a single lowering, each picture covering 30 sq. ft. The camera is a 35 mm.

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robot with a spring operated film advance and a 37.5 mm. f28 SchreiderKreuznash lens. 100 A.S.A. film is used, working at f63-f80 and a shutter
speed of
second. The light source is a commercial electronic flash. with a
repeating condenser discharge; the unit automatically recharges in about 7
seconds and gives up to 100 flashes before it is necessary to recharge the
batteries. The camera and lighting unit are housed in separate cases of special
construction (Figures 98 and 99), the camera case being so designed that its
cover needs less than two complete turns for the proper seating; it can be quickly
opened and closed. Both units are mounted on a vertical frame (Figure 99a), the
whole apparatus weighing 400 Ib. in air and 300 Ib. in water. The camera
mechanism is actuated on

Figure 98
The USNEL Deep Sea Camera and lighting unit

touching bottom by the tripping foot and mercury switch as already described
for shallow-water cameras.
The Deep Sea Benthograph (Figure 100) developed by the Hancock
Foundation has both the lighting unit and camera

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146

Figure 99
a) USNEL camera being put over
b) c) Camera

contained in a single case which can rest on the bottom; there is no subsidiary
framework. The apparatus is larger than that just described, since it was
designed so that it could easily take other deep-sea equipment. The watertight

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housing consists

Figure 100
The Benthograph
(K. O. Emery, The Scientific Monthly 1952; Redrawn from original)

of a hollow steel ball 39 in. in diameter with 1 in. walls, four legs at the bottom
and five holes for cable attachment, all forming an integral part of the casting.
The sphere has five openings, the largest of which is a 15-in. diameter access
door closed by a cast steel plate bolted in place and sealed by two neoprene Orings. Three other similar ports are available with windows 3 in. thick and 6 in.
in diameter, and hollow extension arms can be inserted in these ports and the
windows then moved to their outer ends. The fifth opening is a pressure-release
valve. The weight fully equipped is 3,300 Ib. in air and 2,150 Ib. in waterfar
greater than the USNEL apparatus. The winch by which the equipment has been
handled takes 12,000 ft. of
in. non-spin cable; about 10 minutes is required
per 5,000 ft. lowering and 35 minutes for hauling the same distance. The best
results have been obtained with exposures of
second at f56 when using
Agfa Plus X film or at f45 with Agfa colour films. When fully loaded, the
camera holds 100 ft. of 70-mm. film and gives 25 exposures at a single
lowering, the exposures being made at 30-second intervals. The large size of the

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sphere allows much bigger film to be used and the negatives are less grainy
than those from a smaller 35-mm. type of camera. Electronic flash-lighting with
a G.E.C. flash-tube is again employed, the camera mechanism being
synchronized to the flash. Instead of using a bottom release to start the camera, a
time-delay mechanism, set for the depth at which it is intended to work, is used:
with this arrangement no cables need be brought outside the pressure case.
When in use, the benthograph is lowered rapidly until near the bottom and then
more slowly: after touching bottom, as indicated by a cable-strain meter, it is
raised to wash off mud, then lowered to within 10 ft. of the bottom and pictures
taken as the lowering proceeds and the ship rides to the waves.

UNDERWATER TELEVISION
Underwater television is one of the latest techniques of marine biology. In 1947
a few isolated tests were made in America at the Cornell Aeronautical
Laboratory, but the possibilities were not further explored. Independently in
1948 a programme was initiated at the Millport Marine Station and the
possibilities of the technique from the marine biological point of view were
demonstrated at the London Zoo. It is regrettable, in the light of subsequent
events, that some British manufacturers could then see no future in underwater
television. Whilst these developments were taking place and equipment was
being prepared for marine biological work, underwater television was
dramatically brought before the public. Soon after the tragic loss of H.M.S.
Affray early in 1951, it became apparent that search for the wreck could be
resolved into the problem of identification of the Affray from amongst many
unknown wrecks which had been detected and positioned as a result of an
intensive acoustic survey following the accident. Scientists of the Royal Naval
Scientific Service, who were already thoroughly versed in underwater camera
techniques, rapidly designed and built a strong underwater casing to hold a
television camera supplied by the Marconi Company. The Affray was eventually
recognized on June 14th, 1951, and underwater television had come to stay.
Since then, the Royal Navy has continued to use and develop the technique
for its own rather specialized purposes and underwater television equipment
may now be considered part of the standard gear of a really modern vessel fitted
for deep-diving work such as H.M.S. Reclaim, on which the original Navy
apparatus was installed.
Here we are concerned more with its application to marine research: as a
result of the preliminary experiments already outlined above, His Majestys
Treasury in 1949, on the advice of the Development Commissioners Advisory
Committee on Fisheries Research, made a special grant from the Development
Fund to the Scottish Marine Biological Association for the development of
underwater television. The laboratory of this Association at Millport on the
Clyde is, in many ways, particularly well suited for such development work;
near at hand is deep sheltered water oceanic in character and, therefore, much

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less turbid than is usually found in coastal regions. Since this project was begun,
developments of a similar character have taken place elsewhereand in the
field of freshwater biology the Canadians have used underwater television in
work on their lakes.
The principles of the television camera
In principle, underwater television is simple; once the necessary electronic
equipment became available it was a logical development of remotely controlled
underwater photography. It is only necessary to enclose a television camera in a
suitable watertight casesufficiently strong to withstand the pressures at the
maximum required working depthto provide lights for illuminating the
underwater scene, to bring up the signals generated, and re-constitute these into
the original picture. The circuit is a closed one with no radio link. In order to
understand its advantages, we must look a little more closely into technical
details.
The physical requirements for the reproduction of a scene are, first, a method
of focusing the scene on to a sensitive recording surface, and secondly a means
of re-constituting the original. In the photographic camera the scene is focused
on the sensitive surface by adjusting the distance of the lens from that surface
and the amount of light passing through the lens is controlled by an iris
diaphragm placed immediately behind the lens. All these adjustments are
usually made mechanically. The film is the sensitive surface and its individual
elements are the light-sensitive granules of silver salts (together with other
substances), which undergo a chemical change in relation to the intensity of
light falling on them; this change allows, through the action of developer and
fixer, the tone values of the original scene to be made permanent in the finished
negative. The tonal values are, of course, reversed in the negative; the exposure
of this to sensitive printing paper and subsequent development gives the positive
print in which the tonal values of the original scene are reproduced. The
resolving power is determined by the size of the individual sensitive granules.
The illusion of movement in cin work is only obtained by throwing successive
still pictures on a screen at such a rate that the eye, as a result of the persistence
of vision, is unable to detect the discontinuities.
All these features are present in a television camerabut it has the great
advantage over cin work that the scene can be transmitted virtually
instantaneously. Lenses similar to those used in photography focus the scene on
a sensitive surface, the so-called mosaic of the television tube (see Figure 102a),
but focus is effected by moving the sensitive surface in relation to the fixed lens.
The light-sensitive surface is again a mosaic consisting of a large number of
elementsbut in this case the light does not produce a permanent chemical
change in these elements; on each element there develops an electrical charge
proportional to the light intensity. This phenomenon is termed the photoelectric
effect and it depends upon the property possessed by certain substances of
releasing electrons (either internally or externally) under the action of light. The

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saturated photoelectric emission of any picture element is proportional to the


light falling upon it, that is, to the brightness of that picture element. In practice,
these minute photoelectric elements are associated with a micro-condenser on
which a charge is built up. It is, therefore, possible to reproduce the tonal values
of all the picture elements of a scene in terms of electrical quantities of
equivalent magnitude. The most that any television system can do is to
reproduce the average brightness over each mosaic element, any gradation in
detail within a single element being lost. The greater the number of picture
elements and the greater the number of tone gradations that can be produced
between black and white, the more perfect will be the reproduction obtained. As
with other methods, the size of the individual picture elements determines the
ultimate theoretical limit of the resolving power of the systemalthough in
practice other factors limit the resolution before such a theoretical possibility is
attained. The mosaic of the C.P.S. Emitron tube, for example, is made up of a
large number of these photosensitive elementsabout 2.5l06 elements in a
mosaic area of 35x44 mm. In a 625-line picture of 43 format there are some
5l05 picture points, which gives about 5 mosaic elements to each one.
The C.P.S. Emitron sensitive mosaicor target as it is often calledis
prepared in situ that is, inside the evacuated camera tube. The most efficient
photoelectric surface for the visible spectrum is a layer of antimony treated with
caesium to form an alloy. The target, a sheet of transparent insulating dielectric
such as mica, is backed by a transparent metal layer (the signal plate) which
faces the glass window through which the scene is focused on to the mosaic.
The sensitivity of such a transparent antimony-caesium photo-surface is between
30 and 40 micro amperes per lumen (A/lumen). After allowing for light losses
at signal plate and dielectric, the overall net sensitivity is of the order of 1017
A/lumen.
Scanning and picture regeneration
To regenerate the visual picture, the scene present on the mosaic in terms of
electrical charges must be converted back into light intensities. The basis of this
conversion in modern television practice is the cathode ray tube, one type of
which has already been described (see p. 82).
We have seen that in a television camera tube the scene is built up in terms of
electrical charges on the elements of the tube mosaic; these must be transmitted
to the receiver. It is not possible to transmit all these picture elements
simultaneously and the picture is, therefore, dealt with in an agreed order, the
process being known as scanning. This order is similar to that involved when
reading a page of printeach element is taken from left to right in a line and
each line is taken successively downwards. Scanning then begins again at line
one (Figure 101).
The cathode ray tube constitutes an excellent scanner and so the mosaic is
built into a tube rather like a cathode ray tube but with the mosaic replacing the
fluorescent screen; an electron beam moved by deflecting coils scans the target.

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The extent of the deflection is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field
at right angles to the axis of the tube, and therefore to the strength of the current
in the deflecting coils. To scan one line it is necessary to deflect the beam to the
left-hand edge of the rectangular area to be occupied by the picture. This current
must then be reduced to zero and beyond to an equal strength in the reverse
direction. Then it must be rapidly reversed to bring the spot to the start of the
next lineto the left-hand edge again. At the same time it is deflected
downwards to the beginning of the next line at its left-hand edge. Each complete
picture is called a frame and the number of complete frames per second is the
frame frequency. In practice, a system of so-called interlacing is used. First the
odd lines are scanned and then the even lines. In this way, although the full
detail of the picture is spread over
second, the flicker frequency is only 50
per second (selected in relation to ordinary mains frequency) and this is too high
to be noticeable even with a bright picture.

Figure 101
The scanning process
The electron beam scans line 1 across from A to B; it is then returned
to the left-hand edge, the signal being suppressed while
doing so; it then scans line 2 from C to D. At the end of the
frame E it returns to line 1 at A during frame suppression

At the receiver the train of electrical impulses resulting from scanning of the
mosaic is applied to the grid of an ordinary cathode ray tube with a fluorescent
target so that the brightness of the receiver spot varies with that of the camera.1
In order to keep transmitter and receiver in phase, there are synchronizing
signals both at the end of each line and each frame, all of which are kept lower

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than black level and therefore not seen on the viewing screen.
1 In image orthicon

cameras the system is somewhat different; the mosaic itself is not


scanned but only a secondary target. Further, several stages of electron multiplication are
interposed before the impulses are passed to the receiver.

The Millport equipment


We shall now describe the equipment which has been used especially for marine
biological work in Britain and in which the C.P.S. Emitron system of E.M.I.
Research Laboratories Ltd. is employed. In other underwater cameras image
orthicon tubes have been used; both systems have their own special advantages,
and neither would appear to be perfect for all types of work.
The camera tube with its scanning coils, the head amplifier which magnifies
the original signals, together with the scanning unit, are mounted (via antivibration mountings) on a movable carriage, so that the scene can be focused on
the mosaic by the lens (Figures 102b and c). The whole camera tube assembly is
moved backwards and forwards in relation to the fixed lens by a magslip motor
mounted under the carriage (Figure 103). This, as already mentioned, is in
contrast to photography, where the sensitive surface is kept fixed and the lens
moved to bring the scene in focus on the film or plate. The anti-vibration mounts
are particularly essential on board ship; they reduce spurious signals due to any
mechanical vibration of the valves. All the connections are taken to two plugs at
the back of the camera. A revolving turret (Figure 102b) is mounted at the front
of the camera and carries six lenses which are held by bayonet fittings and
locking rings. A lens is selected by rotation of this turret, which is driven by a
motor situated at the rear. The diaphragms of the lenses are controlled through
gears by a motor on which the turret itself is mounted. All the lens diaphragms
turn together so that when a lens change is made at any given aperture, then that
aperture is maintained during and after the change.
The signals from the camera (housed, of course, in its cylindrical watertight
case) as well as the supplies to it and the circuits of the various control
mechanisms are connected to the equipment via a 32-core P.V.C. cable, which is
2 cm. diameter and has a double-walled outer covering both for added strength
and as protection against rough handling.

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The six camera-control units are of very compact design

a) C.P.S. Emitron camera tube. The mosaic can be seen through the
front windows

b) The camera. Removed from water-tight case

c) The camera. Side view with head amplifier removed


Figure 102

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154

Figure 103 The camera. Underneath view

with carrying handles, and they are housed on board ship (Figure 104). The
names of these units indicate their function, and we can only deal with them
briefly. The voltage-control unit regulates the mains input and so supplies the
equipment

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Figure 104
Inboard unitsmounted in ships laboratory

with stabilized alternating current at the appropriate voltage. The waveform


generator produces the necessary pulses for the whole camera channel. The
camera-control unit contains all the electronic control circuits for the camera.
Power to the camera itself is supplied from a fourth unit, known as the visionpower unit.
This set-up seems very complicated but in practice, once the channel has been
set up, only the camera-control unit requires adjustmentand this usually only
to a limited extent. On this unit is a small 6-in. cathode ray tube used to check
the picture quality during preliminary adjustments. It is from this small tube that
film or cin pictures are taken.
The various remote controls are mounted in the fifth unita junction and
control box, and adjustments can very rapidly be made. A large 15-in. viewing
monitor with its own controls is housed on the top of the junction box.
It is essential to be able to control certain camera mechanisms during viewing
and since the camera may be 600 ft. under the water, this must be done by
remote control. There are three such remote controls, namely, optical focus, lens
aperture, and lens selection. The control knobs for all these are mounted on the
front panel of the junction box (that is, directly under the main viewing monitor)

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where they are readily reached by the viewer.


The iris motor controlling the lens aperture is a split-phase A.C. induction
type fitted with a reduction gear and this will rotate in either direction depending
upon which winding is phase-displaced with respect to the incoming mains.
Control is achieved by a pair of micro-switches mounted on the front panel of
the junction box. By means of a calibrated logarithmic potentiometer coupled to
the shaft, the iris setting is known. Focus is achieved by a magslip control
which, as has already been pointed out, moves the tube-carriage and not the lens.
The receiving magslip is suitably geared to the carriage and the transmitting
magslip with both coarse and fine controls is housed in a detachable unit on the
junction box. A divided drum is fitted to the focus control, each section being
calibrated in object distance for a given lens; indicator lamps illuminate the scale
relating to the lens in use, the appropriate lamp being selected by the lenschange switch. In this way, with the control knob in any given position, the
distance at which the lens is focused may be read. The turret in which the lenses
are mounted is rotated by a motor similar to that used for the iris control and the
circuit has been arranged so that the turret rotates from any given position in a
direction which gives the shortest route to each lens.
The camera is housed in a watertight casing strong enough to stand the water
pressure at the deepest working level. A simple steel cylinder 18 in. diameter
and 30 in. long with flanged ends has guide rails on which the camera slides into
position, being held firmly by brackets and captive screws. Both ends of the case
are domed bronze pressure castings seated on rubber gaskets and fastened by a
ring of stainless-steel studs. The plate-glass window (10 in. diameter and 1 in.
thick) in the front casting is mounted axially in alignment with the operational
lens. It is seated on a rubber gasket and clamped in position by a bronze ring and
pressure gasket. The rear end casting has a small service port some 10 in. in
diameter secured by quick release studs so that minor adjustments can be
quickly carried out without removing the heavy rear cover. Two bags of silica
gel held at the sides of the camera unit keep the air inside the case dry and
prevent condensation of water, which would fog the window and lenses. A
simple leak detector is fitted inside the casing; this is made from two brass plates
which are insulated from one another and separated by a small gap; if this air
gap is bridged with sea water, a current -passes between the plates and warning
is given on a buzzer in the junction box. In this way a leak may be detected
before any serious damage is done.
Eight eyebolts are welded on the case and take bridles for either vertical or
horizontal suspension, the bridles being taken from the appropriate eyebolts to a
single shackle. Eight symmetrically placed hollow lugs are also welded to the
case and into these short pieces of scaffold pole can be fitted. It is from these
that the lighting gantry is built up. The lighting distribution box is mounted on
top of the case (Figure 105).
For experimental purposes a flexible lighting system is desirable, so that
changes in the lighting set-up can be made and their effects observed. This has
been achieved by building up a frameworkor gantryfrom standard scaffold

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tubing and swivel clamps (Figures 105 and 106). This framework projects from
the camera casing and it is stayed from the short pieces of scaffold tubing
attached to lugs on this case. Such a framework can be built up to various sizes,
the angles of the outriggers always being set off to be rather greater than that of
the widest angle lens to be used. With the large frame, which may rest on the
bottom, an area of some 5035 in. can be viewed with more or less lateral
lighting when using the widest angle lens (2 in.). For some types of work, for
example, examination of fish in

Figure 105
Equipment resting on deck of M.V. Calanus

mid-water, the greater part of the framework is dispensed with; the lamps,
projecting directly forwards, are mounted round the camera case.
Fourteen standard tungsten Siebe Gorman divers lamps each with 150-watt
floodlight projection bulbs can be mounted anywhere on the gantry; by means of
a lighting switchboard mounted adjacent to the main channel controls in the
labor atory, the lamps may be switched independently in six pairs and two
singles. It has already been stressed (see pp. 1734) that the correct lighting of

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the subject is of great importance. A large

Figure 106
Equipment on board M.V. Calanus
The camera and lighting cables can be seen leading inboard. The gear
is rigged for bottom survey work and is carried lashed to
the rail in good weather

frame and control over the individual lamps is therefore a great asset in
producing a high picture quality.
The television equipment alone takes about 2 kw. of power at 230 volts, and
this is derived from a small convertor, permanently installed in the forward
hatch of M.V. Calanus (the research ship of the Scottish Marine Biological
Association); the lights are run from the ships D.C. supply.
The assembly and dismantling of the gantry takes a considerable time,
particularly in view of the large number of cables joined to the distribution box.
Further, when the best arrangement of the lights has been determined for any
particular type of work it is desirable to keep the lamps undisturbed. The whole
assembly is, therefore, kept together as a unit, being hoisted directly from
aboard the ship on to a barrow, on which the apparatus is kept when not in use.
The gear is worked from the fore deck in front of the trawl winch, with all

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cables flaked in a deep box on the starboard quarter, the inboard ends being
taken to the lower laboratory, in which the units are housed and where all the
control equipment is installed. It is lowered over the port quarter on a 3.5 cm.
non-spin steel rope, worked from a small auxiliary drum fitted to the trawl
winch; great care is taken in paying out the cables, particularly the camera cable,
because apart from being expensive to renew, any damage to this cable would
allow direct ingress of water into the camera case. For convenience in paying
out, the camera and lighting cables are kept permanently lashed together at
about every 2 metres and, to avoid strain, they are lashed to the suspension wire
every 20 metres.
During the descent instructions are always relayed from the lower laboratory
to the man at the winch by a microphone and talk-back system, and particular
care is taken when nearing the bottom. However, with the ship at anchor danger
of hitting bottom and so damaging the gear is small, since the proximity of the
bottom is readily appreciated by the increased brightness on the viewing monitor
resulting from the reflection of light back into the camera. A further check on
the position of the gear can also be made by the echo sounder since an adequate
trace of the descending gear is seen.
No attempt has been made to control the orientation of the camera. There are
two distinct problems; first, the orientation of anything seen on the viewing
monitor may be required with respect to a fixed direction, and secondly, one
may wish, particularly when using the camera horizontally, to position it in a
selected direction. The second problem involves not only a knowledge of the
orientation of the immersed camera but

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Figure 107
Inshore ground, Firth of Clyde
Stones, shells and gravel at 10 fathoms. A large anemone (Bolocera
eques) in the centre. Top right, small crab Munida
bamffica. Camera about 6 ft. from the ground. (4? lens)

Figure 108
Firth of Clyde
A muddy bottom at 30 fathoms. Note tracks and other surface
marking. Fish, bottom right corner. (2? lens)

Photography and television

161

Figure 109
English Channel
A gravelly-stone bottom (20 fathoms) with dense population of brittle
stars (Ophiothrix fragilis). Note the variable pattern in the
central disc.
Camera about 2 ft. from the ground. (4? lens)

Figure 110
English Channel
Horse-mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). The fish are about 810 in.
body length and some were 8 ft. away from the vertically
rigged camera. (4? lens)

Oceanography and marine biology

162

also necessitates a means of rotating it into the required direction. Movement of


the camera by remote control about the axis of suspension could readily be
obtained by the provision of a remotely controlled underwater motor and fins, as
has been done on the Canadian equipment. However, it would seem that in the
biological applications of underwater television such control over orientation is
not of great importance and no provision for it has been made. To know the
orientation of objects seen on the bottom when working vertically is, however,
quite important in certain types of marine problems,particularly those of a
physical nature. For example, it is of considerable interest to relate the character
of the bottom, say orientation of sand ripples or sedentary organisms, to physical
topography, to coast-lines or to currents. For such purposes it is only necessary
to have a compass mounted in the equipment and to know the direction of north
in relation to the particular objects under consideration. Various systems could
be devised, some complicated and expensive using remote-indicating
compasses, but we have merely mounted an ordinary liquid compass in the field
of view of the camera and orientated subjects in relation to magnetic north.
Comparison of television and photography
The problems associated with underwater television are in many ways similar to
those of remotely controlled cameras; these problems have already been
discussed in detail (see p. 171 et seq.). It remains, however, to consider the
relative merits of television and photography.
Underwater television has the great advantage over underwater photography
that the scene can be viewed continuously and records made at the time by the
biologist. The viewing can, so to speak, within the limits of human endurance
and the financial and technical resources of maintenance, be virtually
continuous. This also has technical advantages;because the scene is continuously
under view, adjustments may be made by the remote control mechanisms so that
the best picture may be produced of a given scene during viewinga feature not
present in underwater photography. This ensures better picture quality and
makes recognition of details in the subject far easier than is the case when they
have to be interpreted later from photographs.
The Millport equipment has been used for a variety of investigationsin local
waters, the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channeland representative
pictures are shown in Figures 107110.

EPILOGUE
PROGRESS in any field of natural science is intimately bound up with the
technical resources available. Nevertheless, all tools are restricted in their use
and as soon as they begin to give diminishing returns it is time to look for new
ways of seeking information.
It is a truism that scientific books are never completely up to date when they
reach the reading public; this one is no exception. Technical progress in the
instrumentation of oceanography continues, and we may briefly note some of
the recent developments in the fields that have been covered in the preceding
pages.
A new net has been described by Currie and Foxton; this is for vertical hauls
and has a depth and water-flow meter in the mouth. The flow meter is a
calibrated geared propeller and depth is recorded by a Bourdon spiral as in the
bathythermograph. The propeller turns a smoked slide on which the stylus
attached to the Bourdon gauge writes, so that a continuous record of water
filtered and depth is obtained. In this way any clogging of the net during its
ascent becomes known.
Swallow has recently developed a new technique for measuring deep currents;
a small simple type of sound transmitter is carried in a long buoya cylinder of
metalwhich can be adjusted to float at a pre-determined depth. This buoy is
tracked by means of the sound waves given out by its transducer and picked up
by hydrophones hung over the ships side. J.B. Hersey and his colleagues have
described a new echo sounder; in this the transducers can be focused at about 5
10 feet, and when the instrument is under water, echoes can be obtained from
single organisms. This instrument has been used to investigate the deep
scattering layer and new evidence suggests that fish are responsible for many of
the single echoes recorded. Recently this sounder has been mounted on
underwater television equipment and, for the first time, it has been possible to
see a fish responsible for a specific echo trace. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service scientists have recently mounted an underwater television unit both
inside and outside a commercial trawl and have been able to watch the
behaviour of fish as they pass back into, or escape from, the cod end. New
cameras have been described and in one contact with the bottom is indicated by
a change of the pinging rate of a small sound source attached to the unit.

REFERENCES
THERE are chapters on equipment in some of the standard textbooks and most
expedition reports include an account of the gear used. Except for a Russian
text, however, there is no single account of the equipment used in oceanography
and marine biology. The following references are, therefore, to journals; they
include not only work specifically referred to in the text but other papers of
particular interest and importance. For convenience they are collected under the
sectional headings of the text.

1. Sampling the living organisms


Anderson, A. W., and Lyman, L. (1952). Oceanographic instruments, their use
and application in marine biology. Bull. Gulf and Caribbean Fish. Inst., p.
103, April 1952.
Arnold, E. L. (jr.). (1952). High speed plankton samplers. 1. A high speed
plankton sampler (Model Gulf 1-A). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Spec. Sci.
Rept., Fish., No. 88.
Barnes, H. (1953). A simple and inexpensive closing net. Mem. Ist. Ital
Idrobiol., vol. 7, p. 189.
Boden, B. P. et alia. (1955). A depth telerecording unit for marine biology. J.
Mar. Res., vol. 14, p. 205.
Clarke, G. L., and Bumpus, D. F. (1940). The plankton sampleran instrument
for quantitative plankton investigations. Limnol. Soc. of America Spec. Publ.,
No. 5.
Currie, R. I., and Foxton, P. (1956). The Nansen closing method with vertical
plankton nets. J. Mar. biol. Ass. U.K., vol. 35, p. 483.
Currie, R. I., and Foxton, P. (1957). A new quantitative plankton net. J. Mar.
biol. Ass. U.K., vol. 36, p. 17.
Dakin, W. J. (1907-8). Methods of plankton research. Trans. Lpool. Biol Soc.,
vol. 22, p. 500.
Dakin, W. J. (1908). The filtration coefficient of plankton nets. Lanc. Sea Fish.
Lab. Report, No. 17, p. 126.
Ekman, V. W. (1905). An apparatus for the collection of bottom samples. Publ.
Circ. Cons. Explor. Mer, No. 27.
Emery, K. O., and Champion, A. R. (1948). Underway bottom sampler. J.
Sediment. Petrol., vol. 18, p. 30.
Emery, K. O., and Dietz, R. S. (1941). Gravity coring instrument and mechanics
of sediment coring. Bull. geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 52, p. 1685.
Forster, G. R. (1953). A new dredge for collecting burrowing animals. J. Mar.
biol. Ass. U.K., vol. 32, p. 193.
Gardiner, A. C. (1943). Measurement of phytoplankton populations by the

References

165

pigment extraction method. J. Mar. biol Ass. U.K., vol. 25, p. 739.
Gibbons, S. G. (1939). The Hensen net. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, vol. 14, p.
242.
Gibbons, S. G., and Fraser, J. H. (1937). The centrifugal pump and suction hose
as a method of collecting plankton samples. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, vol. 12,
p. 155.
Glover, R. S. (1953). The Hardy Plankton Indicator and sampler: a description
of the various models in use. Hull Bull. Mar. Ecol., vol. 4, p. 7.
Hardy, A. C. (1936). The continuous plankton recorder, with an appendix: test
of the validity of the continuous plankton recorder method by A. C. Hardy
and N. Ennis. Disc. Rept., vol. 11, p. 457.
Hardy, A. C. (1939). Ecological investigations with the continuous Plankton
Recorder: object, plan and methods. Hull Bull Mar. Ecol., vol. 1, p. 1.
Hardy, A. C. (1956). The Open Sea and the World of Plankton. Collins, London.
Harvey, H. W. (1934). Measurement of phytoplankton populations. J. Mar. biol
Ass. U.K., vol. 19, p. 761.
Harvey, H. W. (1935). Note concerning a measuring plankton net. J. Cons. int.
Explor. Mer, vol. 10, p. 179.
Holme, N. A. (1949). A new bottom-sampler. J. Mar. biol. Ass. U.K., vol. 28, p.
323.
Holme, N. A. (1955). An improved .vacuum grab for sampling the sea floor. J.
Mar. biol Ass. U.K., vol. 34, p. 545.
Hvorslev, M. J., and Stetson, H. C. (1946). Free-fall coring tube: a new type of
gravity bottom sampler. Bull. geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 57, p. 935.
Jenkins, J. T. (1901). The methods and results of the German plankton
investigations, with special reference to the Hensen nets. Trans. Lpool. biol.
Soc., vol. 15, p. 279.
Kemp, S., Hardy, A. C., and Mackintosh, N. A. (1929). Discovery
investigations. Objects, equipment and methods. Disc. Rept., vol. 1, p. 141.
Kofoid, C. A. (1911). On a self-closing plankton net for horizontal towing. On
an improved form of a self-closing water bucket for plankton investigation.
Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 8, p. 311.
Kullenberg, B. (1947). The piston core sampler. Svenska hydrogr.biol. Komm.
Skr., Ser. Hydrogr., vol. 1, p. 2.
Kullenberg, B. (1955). A new core-sampler. Gteborgs Kungl. vetenskaps-och
vitterhets samhlles Handl., Sjatte Fljden, Ser., vol. 6, No. 15, 17pp.
Mclntyre, A. D. (1956). The use of trawl, grab and camera in estimating marine
benthos. J. Mar. biol. Ass. U.K., vol. 35, p. 419.
Moore, H. B., and Neill, R. G. (1930). An instrument for sampling marine muds.
J. Mar. biol. Ass. U.K., vol. 16, p. 589.
Nielsen, E. S. (1933). Uber quantitative Untersuchung von marinen Plankton mit
Utermohls umgekehrtem Mikroskop. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, vol. 8, p. 201.
Ostenfeld, C. H., and Jespersen, P. (1924). Standard net for plankton collections.
Publ. Circ. Cons. Explor. Mer , No. 84.
Petersen, C. G. J. (1918). The sea bottom and its production of fish food. I.
Apparatus for investigation of the sea bottom. Danish biol. Station Rept., No.
25, p. 1.
Pettersson, O. (1928). A new apparatus for the taking of bottom samples. Sven.
Hydrogr.-Biolog. Komm. Skr., N.S. Hydrogr. Vol. 4, p. 6.

References

166

Piggot, C. S. (1937). Core samples of the ocean bottom. Ann. Rept. Smithsonian
Inst., 1936, p. 207.
Pratje, O. (1950). Eine neue Lotrhre und ihre erste Erprobung. Dtsch. hydrogr.
Z., vol. 3, p. 100.
Smith, O. R., and Ahlstrom, E. H. (1948). Echo-ranging for fish schools and
observations on temperature and plankton in waters off central California in
the Spring of 1946. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Spec. Sci. Rept., Fish., No.
44.
Smith, W., and Mclntyre, A. D. (1954). A spring-loaded bottom sampler. J.
Mar. biol. Ass. U.K., vol. 33, p. 257.
Tonolli, V. (1951). Un nuovo apparecchio per la cattura di plancton in modo
continuo e quantitativo : il 'Plancton-Bar'. Mem. Ist. Ital. Idrobiol., vol. 6, p.
193.
Wiborg, K. F. (1951). The whirling vessel. An apparatus for the fractionating of
plankton samples. Rep. Norweg. Fish. and Mar. Investig., vol. 9, No. 13.
Wickstead, J. (1953). A new apparatus for collecting bottom plankton. J. Mar.
biol Ass. U.K., vol. 32, p. 347.
Wimpenny, R. S. (1928). A transparent bucket with a detachable bottom for use
with Ostenfeld and Jespersen's standard net for plankton collection. J. Cons.
int. Explor. Mer, vol. 3, p. 94.
Wimpenny, R. S. (1937). A new form of Hensen net bucket. J. Cons. int.
Explor. Mer, vol. 12, p. 178.
Zo Bell, C. E. (1941). Apparatus for collecting water samples from different
depths for bacteriological analysis. J. Mar. Res., vol. 4, p. 173.

2. The use of sound waves


Balls, R. (1934). A revolutionary development in herring fishing. Fish Trades
Gazette, Nov. 24th, p. 19.
Balls, R. (1946). Fish on the spotline. Marconi Int. Mar. Comm. Co. Ltd.
London, Leaflet.
Balls, R. (1951). Environmental changes in herring behaviour: a theory of light
avoidance, as suggested by echo-sounding observations in the North Sea. J.
Cons. int. Explor. Mer, vol. 17, p. 274.
Craig, R. E. (1954). Echo-sounding in marine biology. Advanc. Sci. Lond., vol.
11, p. 51.
Craig, R. E. (1945). The use of echo-sounder in fish locationa survey of
present knowledge, with notes on the use of Asdic. Rapp. Proc-Verb., vol.
139, App. II, p. 32.
Cushing, D. H., Devold, F., Marr, J. C, and Kristjonsson, H. (1952). Some
modern methods of fish detection. Echo-sounding, echoranging and aerial
scouting. F. A. O. Fish. Bull, vol. 5, No. 3-4, 27 pp.
Cushing, D. H., and Richardson, I. D. (1955). Echo-sounding experiments on
fish. Fish. Investig. Lond., Ser. II, vol. 18, No. 4, 34 pp.
Dietz, R. S. (1948). Deep scattering layer in the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. J.
Mar. Res., vol. 7, p. 430.
Everest, F. A., Young, R. W., and Johnson, M. W. (1948). Acoustical
characteristics of noise produced by snapping shrimp. J. acoust. Soc. Amer.,

References

167

vol. 20, p. 137.


Fish, M. P. (1954). The character and significance of sound production among
fishes of the western North Atlantic. Bull Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 14,
Art. 3, 109 pp.
Fisher, A. (1821). In W. E. Parry. Journal of a Voyage for the discovery of a
north-west passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific H.M.S. Hecla and
Griper. London, 1821, p. 35.
Fisher, A. (1821). A journal of a voyage of discovery to the Arctic regions in
H.M.S. HecIa and Griper in the years 1819 and 1820. London, 1821, p.
73.
Hersey, J. B., and Moore, H. B. (1948). Progress report on scattering layer
observations in the Atlantic Ocean. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 29, p.
341.
Hodgson, W. C. (1950), Echo-sounding and the pelagic fisheries. Fish. Investig.
Lond., Ser. II, vol. 17, No. 4.
Johnson, M. W. (1948). Sound as a tool in marine ecology from data on
biological noises and the deep scattering layer. J. Mar. Res., vol. 7, p. 443.
Johnson, M. W., Everest, F. A., and Young, R. W. (1947). The role of snapping
shrimp (Crangon and Synalpheus) in the production of underwater noise in
the sea. Biol Bull., Woods Hole, vol. 93, p. 122.
Kane, E. K. (1854). The U.S. Grinnell Expedition in search of Sir John Franklin.
New York, 1854, p. 359.
Marshall, N. B. (1951). Bathypelagic fishes as sonic scatterers. J. Mar. Res., vol.
10, p. 1.
Moore, H. B. (1950). The relation between the scattering layer and the
Euphausiacea. Biol. Bull, Woods Hole, vol. 99, p. 181.
Raitt, R. W. (1948). Sound scatterers in the sea. J. Mar. Res., vol. 7, p. 393.
Richardson, I. D. (1952). Some reactions of pelagic fish to light as recorded by
echo-sounding. Fish. Investig. Lond., Ser. II, vol. 18, No. 1.
Schevill, W. E., and Lawrence, B. (1949). Underwater listening to the white
porpoise (Delphinapterus leucas). Science, vol. 109, p. 143.
Tucker, G. H. (1951). Relation of fishes and other organisms to the scattering of
underwater sound. J. Mar. Res., vol. 10, p. 215.

3. Some properties of the water itself


Anderson, E. R., and Burke, A. T. (1951). Notes on the development of a
thermistor temperature profile recorder (TPR). J. Mar. Res., vol. 10, p. 168.
Arx, W. S. von (1950). An electromagnetic method for measuring the velocities
of ocean currents from a ship underway. Mass. Inst. Technol. Meteorol.
Papers, vol. 11, p. 3.
Arx. W. S. von, (1950). Some surface measurements of ocean current velocities
obtained from a ship underway by means of the geo magnetic electrokinetograph. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 31, p. 331.
Arx, W. S. von (1950). Some current meters designed for suspension from an
anchored ship. J. Mar. Res., vol. 9, p. 93.,
Bidder, G. P. (1905). Account of some experiments on bottom trailers. Rapp.
Proc.-Verb., vol. 4, July.

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Bowden, K. F. (1954). The direct measurement of subsurface currents in the


oceans. Deep-Sea Res., vol. 2, p. 33.
Brooks, C. F. (1926). Observations on sea temperatures. U.S. Dept. of Agric.,
Weather Bur. Monthly Weather Rev., vol. 54, p. 241.
Brooks, C. F. (1928). Reliability of different methods of taking sea surface
temperatures. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 18, p. 525.
Carruthers, J. N. (1924). A new drift indicator. Nature. Lond., vol. 114, p. 718.
Carruthers, J. N. (with Garrood, H. J., and Edser, J.) (1926). A new current
measuring instrument for the purposes of fishery research. J. Cons. int.
Explor. Mer, vol. 1, p. 127.
Carruthers, J. N. (1928). New drift bottles for the investigation of currents in
connection with fishery research. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, vol. 3, p. 194.
Carruthers, J. N. (1928). The flow of water through the Straits of Dover as
gauged by continuous current meter observations at the Varne Lightvessel
(50 56' N. 1 17' E.). Fish. Investig. Lond., Ser. II. vol. 11, No. 1, 109 pp.
Carruthers, J. N. (1930). Further investigations upon the water movements in the
English Channel. Drift bottle experiments in the summers of 1927, 1928 and
1929, with critical notes on drift bottle experiments in general. J. Mar. biol
Ass. U.K., vol. 17, p. 241.
Carruthers, J. N. (1935). A 'vertical log' current meter. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer,
vol. 10, p. 151.
Carruthers, J. N. (1947). Practical proposals for a continuous programme of
thick-layer current measuring in all weathers, with remarks on relevant wind
observations and other related matters. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, vol. 15, p.
13.
Carruthers, J. N. (1955). Some simple oceanographical instruments to aid in
certain forms of commercial fishing and in various problems of fisheries
research. F.A.O. Fisheries Bull., vol. 8, No. 3, p. 130.
Church, P. E. (1932). Surface temperatures of the Gulf Stream and its bordering
waters. Geographical Rev., vol. 22, p. 286.
Ekman, V. W. (1905). On the use of insulated water bottles and reversing
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Ekman, V. W. (1926). On a new repeating current meter. Publ. Circ. Cons.
Explor. Mer, No. 91.
Ekman, V. W. (1932). An improved type of current meter. J. Cons. int. Explor.
Mer, vol. 7, p. 1.
Garbell, M. A. (1947). Fins for aerological instruments. J. Meteorol., vol. 4, p.
82.
Hamon, B. V. (1955). A temperature-salinity depth recorder. J. Cons. int.
Explor. Mer, vol. 21, p. 72.
Kalle, K. (1948). A new method for measuring surface currents at sea from
anchored ships. Dtsch. hydrogr. Z., vol. 1, p. 164.
Kirk, T. H., and Gordon, A. H. (1952). Comparison of intake and bucket method
for measuring sea temperature. Mar. Observer, vol. 22, p. 33.
Knudsen, M. (1929). A frameless reversing water bottle. J. Cons. int. Explor.
Mer, vol. 4, p. 192.
Lumby, J. R. (1927). The surface sampler, an apparatus for the collection of
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Lumby, J. R. (1928). Modification of the surface sampler with a view to the


improvement of temperature observation. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, vol. 3, p.
340.
Lumby, J. R. (1929). A surface sampler for temperature observations. J. Cons.
int. Explor. Mer, vol. 4, p. 281.
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (1932). Current meter work. Fisheries
Notice, No. 17.
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (1931). Drift bottles. Fisheries Notice, No.
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Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (1939). Current meter work. II. The
vertical log current meter and its use. Fisheries Notice , No. 26.
Mosby, H. (1944). The thermo sound. An oceanographic temperature recorder.
Bergens Museum rbok (1943). Naturv. rekke, No. 1, p. 1.
Olson, F. C. W. (1951). A plastic envelope substitute for drift bottles. J. Mar.
Res., vol. 10, p. 190.
Olson, R. A. (1941). A rapid response thermocouple of high sensitivity for the
determination of temperature stratification in natural waters. Chesapeake Bay
Biol Lab., Publ. No. 45.
Pettersson, O. (1905). Beschreibung des Bifilar-Strommessers. Publ. Circ. Cons.
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Pettersson, O. (1929). Current meter for determination of the direction and
velocity of the movement of water at the bottom of the ocean. Sven. Hydrogr.Biolog. Komm. Skr. N.S. Hydrogr., vol. 13, p. 9.
Pritchard, D. W., and Burt, W. V, (1951). An inexpensive and rapid technique
for obtaining current profiles in estuarine waters. J. Mar. Res., vol. 10, p. 180.
Spilhaus, A. F. (1937-8). A bathythermograph. J. Mar. Res., vol. 1, p. 95.
Spilhaus, A. F. (1940). A detailed study of the surface layers of the ocean in the
neighbourhood of the Gulf Stream with the aid of rapid measuring
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Spilhaus, A. F. (1949). Bathythermograph sea sampler. Ass. d'Ocanogr. Phys.
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Spilhaus, A. F., and Miller, A. R. (1948). The sea sampler. J. Mar. Res., vol. 7,
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Tait, J. B. (1932). The surface water drift in the northern and middle areas of the
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4. Photography and Television


Anon. (1952). Underwater photography of the seine net whilst fishing. World
Fishing, vol. 1, p. 329.
Backus, R. H., and Barnes, H. (1957). Television-echo sounder observations of
midwater sound scatterers. Deep-Sea Res., vol 4, p. 116.
Baird, R. H., and Gibson, F. A. (1956). Underwater observations on escallop
(Pecten maximus L.) beds. J. Mar. biol. Ass. U.K., vol. 35, p. 555.
Baker, A. de C. (1957). Underwater photographs in the study of oceanic squid.
Deep-Sea Res., vol. 4, p. 126.
Barnes, H. (1952). Underwater television and marine biology. Nature. Lond.,
vol. 169, p. 477.
Barnes, H. (1952). Television for marine research. The Listener, Dec. 25th,
1952.
Barnes, H. (1953). Underwater television and the fisheries. The Fishing News,
No. 2089, May 2nd, 1953.
Barnes, H. (1953). Underwater television and marine research. Discovery, vol.
14, June 1953.
Barnes, H. (1953). Underwater television and research in marine biology,
bottom topography and geology. Part I. A description of the equipment and its
use on board ship. Dtsch. hydrogr. Z., vol. 6. p. 123.
Barnes, H. (1954). Symposium on New Advances in Underwater Observations.
Advanc. Sci. Lond., vol. 11, No. 41, p. 49.
Barnes, H. (1954). Underwater television pictures. Discovery, vol. 15, No. 5.
Barnes, H. (1955). Underwater television and research on marine ecology,
bottom topography and geology. Part 2. Experience with the equipment.
Dtsch. hydrogr. Z., vol. 8, p. 213.
Barnes, H. (1956). Underwater television and dockyard practice. Journ. Inst.
Civil Eng., Nov. 1956.
Chesterman, W. D. (1950). Photography under the sea. Funct. Photogr., vol. 1,
p. 5.
Collins, J. B. (1950). Underwater photography. Photogr. J., vol. 90B, p. 24.
Emery, K. O. (1952). Submarine photography with the Benthograph. Sci. Mon.,
N.Y., vol. 75, p. 3.
Ewing, M., Vine, A. C, and Worzel, J. L. (1946). Photography of the ocean
bottom. J. opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 36, p. 307.
Hahn, J. (1950). Some aspects of deep-sea underwater photography. J. Phot.
Soc., Amer. Sect. B. Photo. Sci. Tech., vol. 16, p. 27.
Harvey, E. N., and Baylor, E. R. (1948). Deep-sea photography. J. Mar. Res.,
vol. 7, p. 10.
Laughton, A. S. (1957). A new deep-sea underwater camera. Deep-Sea Res.,
vol. 4, p. 120.
Margetts, A. R. (1952). Some conclusions from underwater observation of trawl
behaviour. World Fishing, vol. 1, p. 161.
Swallow, J. C. (1957). Some further deep current measurements using neutrallybuoyant floats. Deep-Sea Res., vol. 4, p. 93.

INDEX

Aerial photography, 12631


Aerial photography and fisheries, 1314
Aerial scouting, 131, 133
Agassiz trawl, 289
Ahlstrom, E.H., 161
Allan Hancock Foundation, 142
Amplification, 57
Anchor dredge, 30
Anderson, A.W., 160
Anderson, E.R., 163
Antarctic Ocean, 5, 17, 62, 64
Aqualung, 131
Arnold, E.L. (Jr.), 160
Arrago, Jean F., 52
Asdic, 70
Atlantic Ocean, 256, 51, 82, 103
Backus, R.H., 165
Bacteria, 13;
counting of, 3
Baird, R.H., 165
Baker, A. de C., 165
Balls, R., 65, 162
Barnes, H., 160, 165
Bathythermograph, 938
Baylor, E.R., 166
Beach profiles, 12631
Beam trawl, 289
Benthograph, 1424
Bidder, G.P., 163
Boden, B.P., 160
Bokn, Skipper, 65
Bottom fauna, 28, 1347
Bottom sediments, 28, 134
Bottom trailing bottles, 102
Bourdon spiral, 938
Bowden, K.F., 163
Brightness profile, 12631
British Army Photographic Research Unit, 126
Brooks, C.F., 80, 163

Index

172

Bumpus, D.F., 160


Burke, A.T., 163
Burt, W.V., 164
Calanus finmarchicus, 24
Canadian underwater television, 157
Candacia armata, 25
Carruthers, J.N., 113, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120, 163
Carruthers drift indicator, 1157;
vertical log, 116, 11920
Cathode ray tube, echo sounders, 58, 61;
scanning, 147
Champion, A.R., 40, 160
Chesapeake Bay, 712
Chesterman, W.D., 166
Chrysochromalina minor, 4
Church, P.E., 82,164
Clarke, B., 4
Clarke, G.L., 160
Clarke-Bumpus sampler, 102
Clogging of nets, 6, 234
Closing devices, 10
Closing net, 9
Coalfish, 66
Cod, 65, 66
Collins, J.B., 166
Conductivity cells, 93
Continuous plankton recorder, 17 28
Continuous recording current meters, 10824
Core, 50
Core-length, 46
Corer, Emery-Dietz gravity, 424;
Hvorslev and Stetson, 44, 45;
Kullenberg piston, 4750;
Moore and Neill, 389
Corethron criophilum, 5
Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, 145
Counting, bacteria, 3;
diatoms, 5;
zooplankton, 15, 16
C.P.S. Emitron tube, 146, 1489
Craig, R.E., 139, 162
Crangon, 734
Croaker noise, 712
Current meter, Ekman, 1048;
Jacobsen, 1135;
von Arx, 10912
Current meters, continuous recording, 10820

Index

173

Currents, methods of measurement, 99124, 159;


continuous recording of, 10812;
flow methods, 1048;
long period measuring, 11220
Currie, R.I., 159, 160
Cushing, D.H., 67, 162
Dakin, W.J., 160
Decapod larvae, 26
Decca, 104
Dechevrens, Marc, 120
Deep scattering layer, 6970, 159
Deep-sea cameras, 1404
Devold, F., 162
Diatoms, 1, 56;
counting of, 5
Dietz, R.S., 43, 44, 160, 162
Discovery Expeditions, 18, 62, 65
Dogger Bank, 26
Dredge, anchor, 30
Dredges, 30
Drift, 99
Drift bottles, 1004
Drift indicator, Carruthers, 1157
Earths magnetic field, 120
Echo signals, recording of, 12061
Echo sounder, 5270, 159;
and fisheries, 625
Echo trace and fish species, 658
Edser, J., 163
Eicher, G.J., 132, 133
Ekman, F.L., 42
Ekman, V.W., 42, 160, 164
Ekman current meter, 1048
Electrokinetograph, geomagnetic, 1204
Electromagnetic induction, 109, 120
Emery, K.O., 40, 42, 43, 44, 134, 144, 160,166
Emery-Dietz gravity corer, 424
E.M.I. Research Laboratories Ltd., Hayes, 148
English Channel, 103
Envelopes, plastic, 104
Everest, F. A 77, 162
Ewing, M., 141, 166
Faraday, M., 120
Filtration coefficient, 6
Fish, M.P., 162

Index

174

Fish noise, 712, 745


Fisher, A., 70, 162
Forster, G.R., 31, 160
Foxton, P., 159, 160
Fraser, J.H., 160
Frogmen, 132
Garbell, M.A., 164
Gardiner, A.C., 160
Garrood, H.J., 163
Geomagnetic Electrokinetograph (G.E.K.), 1204
Gibbons, S.G., 160
Gibson, F.A., 165
Glover, R.S., 15, 161
Gordon, A.H., 164
Grab, Holme, 312;
Petersen, 31;
Smith-McIntyre, 345;
vacuum, 35, 378;
van Veen, 31
Grabs, 315
Gravity-corer, Emery-Dietz, 424
Gulf Stream, 82, 99, 124
Haemocytometer, 3, 5
Hahn, J., 166
Hamon, B.V., 164
Hardy, Sir Alister C., 17, 20, 161
Hardy plankton indicator, 114
Harvey, E.N., 166
Harvey, H.W., 6, 161
Hauls, horizontal, 710;
vertical, 7
Heezen, B.C., 135
Hendey, N. Ingram, 5
Hensen, V., 6, 16
Hensen net, 7
Herdman, H.F. P., 65
Herring, 656, 68
Hersey, J.B., 159, 162
Hodgson, W.C., 66, 162
Holme, N.A., 32, 37, 161
Holme sampler, 32
Horizontal hauls, 710
Hvorslev, M.J., 45, 51, 161
Hvorslev and Stetson corer, 45
Hydrographic Service, British Navy, 52
Hydrophone techniques, 53, 70, 758

Index
Image orthicon tube, 147, 148
Insulated water-bottle, 814
Inverted microscope, 5
Jacobsen current meter, 1135
Jenkins, J.T., 161
Jespersen, P., 161
Johnson, M.W., 77, 162
Kalle, K., 164
Kane, E.K., 71, 163
Kelez, G.B., 131
Kelvin and Hughes, 54, 63
Kemp, S., 161
Kirk, T.H., 164
Knudsen, M., 84, 164
Knudsen frameless water-bottle, 8891
Kofoid, C.A., 10, 161
Kristjonsson, H., 162
Kullenberg, B., 43, 47, 48, 49, 161
Kullenberg piston-corer, 4650
Langevin, P., 53
Laughton, A.S., 166
Lawrence, B., 163
Light penetration, 129
Lighting for underwater cameras, 1378
Loran, 104
Loye, D.P., 72
Lumby, J.R., 80, 164
Lumby sampler, 801
Lyman, L., 160
Mclntyre, A.D., 34, 35, 161
Mackerel, 66
Mackintosh, N.A., 161
Magneto-striction effect, 534. 56
Manton, I., 4
Marconi Company, 60, 65, 145
Margetts, A.R., 166
Marr, J.C., 162
Marshall, N.B., 163
Messenger, 3, 10, 11, 85, 88, 90
Microscope, inverted, 5
Miller, A.R., 165
Millport Marine Station, 145

175

Index

176

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft, 8, 65, 66, 68, 107, 114, 164
Modern echo sounder, 5461
Moore, H.B., 38, 70, 161, 162
Moore, J. Grange, 126, 129
Moore and Neill Corer, 389
Mosaic, 146, 147
Mosby, H., 91,164
Mosby thermo-sound, 912
-flagellates, 34
Munk, W.H., 127
Nannoplankton, 1, 4
National Institute of Oceanography, 65, 113
Neill, R.G., 38, 161
Nets, Hensen, 7;
plankton, 615;
stramin, 9
Nielsen, E.S., 161
Noise, croaker, 712;
fish, 75;
shrimp, 734;
whale, 70
North Sea, 246, 103
Olson, F.C. W., 164
Olson, R.A., 164
Ostenfeld, C.H., 161
Otter trawl, 28
Paravane, 9
Parke, M., 4
Penetration, coring, 46
Penetration of light, 129
Peridinians, 5
Petersen, C.G. J., 31, 161
Pettersson, O., 109, 161, 164
Phleger, F.B., 51
Photography, aerial, 12631;
underwater, 13245
Photography and underwater television, 157
Piezo-electric effect, 53
Piggot, C.S., 43, 161
Pigment extracts, 6
Pigment unit, 6
Pilchard, 66
Piston-corer, Kullenberg, 4650
Plankton, 128;
nets, 616;

Index

177

pumps, 15
Plastic envelopes, 104
Plating method, 3
Plymouth Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association, U.K., 30
Pollack, 66
Pratje, O., 47, 161
Principles of television camera, 1457
Pritchard, D.W., 164
Production of ultrasonic sound waves, 524
Protected thermometers, 88
Protozoa, 5
Proudfoot, D.A., 72
Radio buoys, 104
Rae, K.M., 14, 18, 21, 25
Raitt, R.W., 163
Receiving oscillator, 56
Recording of echo signals, 5661
Rees, C.B., 25, 26
Resistance thermometers, 92
Reversing thermometers, 878
Reversing water-bottle, 8491
Richardson, I.D., 68, 162
Royal Naval Scientific Service, 145
Runnstrm, S., 68
Salinity, 79, 91, 93, 96, 99
Sampler, Clarke-Bumpus, 102;
Lumby, 801;
underway, 39 42
Scanning, 147
Schevill, W.E., 163
Scientific Service, Royal Naval, 145
Scope of underwater cameras, 1327
Scottish Home Department, Aberdeen, 66, 132
Scottish Marine Biological Association, 18, 145
Scripps Institution, La Jolla, California, 141
Sea sampler, 938
Seine net, 132
Shallow-water underwater camera, 13840
Shrimp noise, 724
Smith, O.R., 161
Smith, W., 34;
Smith-McIntyre sampler, 335
Snapping shrimp, 738
Speed of sound in water, 52
Spilhaus, A.F., 93, 165
Sponge beds, 76

Index
Sprat, 66
Stempel pipette 16
Step wedge, 1289, 137
Stetson, H.C., 45, 51, 161
Stramin net, 8
Strm, K.M., 164
Sub-surface temperatures, 8199
Sund, Oscar, 65
Surface temperatures, 7981
Swallow, J.C., 159, 166
Synalpheus, 734
Synoptic plankton picture, 1628
Tait, J.B., 165
Taylor, M.A., 127
Television, underwater, 14558
Temperature, sub-surface, 8199;
surface, 7981
Tester, A.L., 68
Thermistors, 92
Thermometers, protected, 88;
resistance, 92;
reversing, 878
Tonolli, V., 162
Transmitting oscillator, 546
Trawl, Agassiz, 28;
beam, 28, 29;
otter, 28
Trawls and dredges, 2831, 159
Tucker, G.H., 163
Tully, J.P., 165
Ultrasonic sound waves, 524
Underwater cameras for deep water, 1404;
shallow water, 13840;
scope, 1335
Underwater noise, 708
Underwater photography, 13145
Underwater television, 14558, 159;
and underwater photography, 157;
camera and controls, 14852;
casing, 152;
lighting
unit, 1524;
principles of, 1457;
Canadian, 157;
Pictures, 1556
Underway sampler, 3942

178

Index

179

U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory, 141


USNEL deep-sea camera, 1402
University College, Hull, 18
Vacuum sampler, 34, 378
van Veen, J., 31
van Veen grab, 31
Vaux, D., 165
Vertical hauls, 7
Vertical log, Carruthers, 11520
Vertical migration, 24
Vine, A.C., 141, 166
von Arx, W.S., 109, 111, 112, 120, 122, 124, 163
von Arx current meter, 10912
Water-bottle, for bacterial sampling, 13;
insulated, 825;
Knudsen frameless, 8891;
reversing, 8591
Whale noise, 70
Whales, 5, 70
Whirling vessel, 17
Wiborg, K.F., 162
Wickstead, J., 162
Wimpenny, R.S., 162
Witting, R., 108, 165
Wood, A.B., 53
Woods Hole, 120
Worzel, J.L., 141, 166
Young, R.W., 77, 162
Zo Bell, C.E., 1, 2, 162
Zooplankton, 628;
counting, 16

Index

180

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Index

181

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OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE BIOLOGY
AN ANNUAL REVIEW VOLUMES 16
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