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REACTION ENGINEERING
CKB 20104

CHAPTER 1
MOLE BALANCE
Dr. Kelly Yong Tau Len
Section of Chemical Engineering Technology UniKL MICET
Tel: 06-5512051, Email: kytlen@unikl.edu.my,
VLE: CKB20104 - kytlen_MICET

Dr. Kelly Y.T.L (Sept 2016)

Chapter 1

1.1
1.2

Definition of reaction rate


The general mole balance

1.3

Types of reactor in industry

Objectives
Upon the completion of this chapter, students are
able to:
Define the rate of chemical reaction
Apply mole balance equation in reactors systems
Identify commercial/industries reactor system

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Introduction

Dr. Kelly Y.T.L (Sept 2016)

When has a chemical reaction taken place?


When a chemical species lost its chemical
identity and a new compound forms
Configuration

Kind

Number
Chemical
Identity

Introduction
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Dr. Kelly Y.T.L (Sept 2016)

What are the ways a species may lose its


chemical identities?
Combination
Decomposition

Isomerization

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Dr. Kelly Y.T.L (Sept 2016)

1.1 Definition of Reaction Rate


Reactant
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1. After reaction, reactant will


disappear (reacted) while product
will appear (formed).

Reaction
2. The rate at which this occur is called
RATE OF REACTION (or simply known
as REACTION RATE) and it can be
expressed in 2 ways either as:

Product

The rate of DISAPPEARANCE of reactant


or
The rate of APPEARANCE of product

1.1 Definition of Reaction Rate


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The rate of DISAPPEARANCE of reactant A, rA is


the number of moles of A reacting (disappearing)
per unit time per unit volume (mol/volume.time).
The rate of FORMATION of product B, +rB is the
number of moles of B formed (appearing) per unit
time per unit volume (mol/volume.time).
However, we usually use rate of DISAPPEARANCE
of reactant A, rA to evaluate rate of reaction.
Both are functions of concentration, temperature,
pressure and types of catalyst (if any).

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Test Your Understanding 1


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Give one example of unit


for rate of
DISAPPEARANCE
and rate of FORMATION

1.1 Definition of Reaction Rate


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Rate of reaction can be evaluated in other ways too. +r


means rate of formation formation and r means rate of
disappearance.

rA
Rate of DISAPPEARANCE of
reactant A

rA value will be a positive (+)


number because A disappear
E.g. rA = 20 mol/dm3.s

+rA
Rate of FORMATION of
reactant A

+rA value will be a negative ()


number because A disappear
E.g. +rA = 20 mol/dm3.s

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Dr. Kelly Y.T.L (Jan 2016)

1.1 Definition of Reaction Rate


9

Rate of reaction can be evaluated in other ways too. +r


means rate of formation formation and r means rate of
disappearance.

rB
Rate of DISAPPEARANCE of
product B

rB value will be a negative ()


number because B is formed
E.g. rB = 20 mol/dm3.s

+rB
Rate of FORMATION of
product B

+rB value will be a positive (+)


number because B is formed
E.g. +rB = 20 mol/dm3.s

Example 1
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Consider the reaction: A + 2B C + 2D


Given the rate of disappearance of A is 15
mol/L.min at the start of the reaction. At the start of
the reaction:
1. Determine rA
2. Determine the rate of formation of B
3. Determine the rate of formation of C
4. Determine the rate of disappearance of C
5. Determine the rate of formation of A
6. Determine rB

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Example 1
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A + 2B C + 2D

1. Determine rA

Solution: rA is the rate of disappearance of A

A =

15 mol
.

2. Determine the rate of formation of B


Solution: For every 1 mol of A that disappears, 2 moles of B
also disappear. Reactant B is being used up therefore its
rate of formation is a negative number.

+B =

30 mol
.

Example 1
12

A + 2B C + 2D

3. Determine the rate of formation of C


Solution: C is a product that is being formed as fast as A is
disappearing. Because C is being formed, its rate of formation is
positive.

15 mol
+C =
.
4. Determine the rate of disappearance of C
Solution: The rate of disappearance of C is r C. Because C is a
product, its rate of disappearance, -r C, is a negative number

15 mol
C =
.

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Example 1
A + 2B C + 2D

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5. Determine the rate of formation of A


Solution: A is a reactant that is being used up. Therefore, its
rate of formation is a negative number

+A =

15 mol
.

6. Determine rB
Solution: rB is the rate of disappearance of B

B =

30 mol
.

Test Your Understanding 2


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A + 2B C + 2D
Given the rate of disappearance of A is 15
mol/L.min at the start of the reaction. At the
start of the reaction:
1. Determine the rate of formation of D
2. Determine the rate of disappearance of D

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1.2 The General Mole Balance


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A
A

GA

FA0
Rate of flow
of A into the
system
(moles/time)
IN

FA0

FA
Rate of generation
of A by chemical
reaction within
system
(moles/time)
GENERATION

Rate of flow
of A out of
the system
(moles/time)
OUT

Rate of
accumulation
of A within system
(moles/time)
ACCUMULATION

FA

= :
Rate of generation, GA is
a product of variation in
the rate of reaction, r A
throughout the reactor
volume, V

NA represents the
no. of moles of
species A in the
system at time t

1.2 The General Mole Balance


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A
A

GA

FA0
Rate of flow
of A into the
system
(moles/time)
IN

FA0

FA
Rate of generation
of A by chemical
reaction within
system
(moles/time)
GENERATION

Rate of flow
of A out of
the system
(moles/time)
OUT

= :

+ : =

FA

Rate of
accumulation
of A within system
(moles/time)
ACCUMULATION

Basic Equation for


Chemical Reaction
Engineering

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1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Batch Reactors
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Used for small scale operation.


For testing new process.
Manufacturing of expensive products.
Processes that are difficult to convert to
continuous operations.

Advantages:
High conversions obtained by leaving
reactant in the reactor for long periods of
time.
Disadvantages:
High labor costs per batch.
Variability of product from batch to batch.
Difficulty large scale production.

1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Batch Reactors
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TIMXE5FeAy0

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1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Batch Reactors
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Key Characteristics
Unsteady-state operation
because there is NO flow
through the system.
No spatial variation of
concentration and temperature
(well-mixed).
Mainly used for small scale
operation.
Suitable for slow reactions
Has no inflow and no
outflow of reactants or
products while reaction is
carried out.

1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Continuous Flow Reactors
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Continuous
Stirred Tank
Reactor
(CSTR)

Plug Flow
Reactor
(PFR)

Packed
Bed
Reactor
(PBR)

Continuous
Flow
Reactors

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1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

Commonly used in
industrial processing.
Also referred to as
backmix reactor.
Used primarily for
liquid phase reaction.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRMIr6tPVQg

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1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

Key Characteristics
Steady state operation (flow
through the system), hence no
accumulation.
Can be used in series
configurations.
No spatial variation of
concentration or temperature (wellmixed).
Mainly used for liquid phase
reaction.
Suitable for viscous liquid.
Reactants are continuously
introduced into the reactor while
products are continuously
removed.

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1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)

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Commonly used in
industrial processing.
Consists of a cylindrical
pipe
Used more often for gas
phase reaction

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xBVYchEbzGk

1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)

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Key Characteristics
Steady-state operation (flow through the system), hence no accumulation
Consists of a cylindrical pipe which reactants and products can flow
through
Spatial variation in axial direction but not in radial direction
Suitable for fast reaction mainly used for gas phase reaction
Temperature control may be difficult
There are no moving parts

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IN

1.3 Types of Reactor in Industry


Packed Bed Reactor (PBR)
OUT

Key Characteristics
Similar to PFR. Can be thought of as PFR
packed with solid particles, which are almost
always catalysts.
Steady-state operation.
Spatial variation.
Mainly used for gas phase catalytic reaction
although examples for liquid phase reaction
are also known.
Temperature control may be difficult.
There are no moving parts.
Pressure drop across the packed bed is an
important consideration.

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