Mechanics of Deformable Bodies

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Mechanics of Deformable Bodies

© All Rights Reserved

- Strength of Materials- Combined Stresses- Hani Aziz Ameen
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A hollow steel tube with an inside diameter of 100 mm must carry a tensile

load of 400 kN. Determine the outside diameter of the tube if the stress is

limited to 120 MN/m2.

Solution:

P = A

where:

P = 400kN = 400000N

= 120 MPa

A=

A=

(D 10000)

Thus,

400000 = 120 [

(100)

(D 10000)]

400000 = 30 D 300000

D = 400000 + 300000 30

D = 119.35 mm

answer

Problem 105

A homogeneous 800 kg bar AB is supported at either end by a cable as shown

in Fig. P-105. Calculate the smallest area of each cable if the stress is not to

exceed 90 MPa in bronze and 120 MPa in steel.

Solution:

By symmetry:

=

= 12(7848)

= 3924N

= 3924N

For bronze cable:

=

3924 = 90

= 43.6mm

answer

=

3924 = 120

= 32.7mm

answer

Problem 106

The homogeneous bar shown in Fig. P-106 is supported by a smooth pin at C

and a cable that runs from A to B around the smooth peg at D. Find the stress

in the cable if its diameter is 0.6 inch and the bar weighs 6000 lb.

Solution:

MC = 0

5T + 10(

T) = 5(6000)

T = 2957.13lb

T=A

2957.13 = [

= 10458.72psi

(0.6)]

answer

Problem 107

A rod is composed of an alu

minum section rigidly attached between steel

and bronze sections, as shown in Fig. P-107. Axial loads are applied at the

positions indicated. If P = 3000 lb and the cross sectional area of the rod is 0.5

in2, determine the stress in each section.

Solution:

For steel:

=

(0.5) = 12

= 24ksi

answer

For aluminum:

=

(0.5) = 12

= 24ksi

answer

For bronze:

=

(0.5) = 9

= 18ksi

answer

Problem 108

An aluminum rod is rigidly attached between a steel rod and a bronze rod as

shown in Fig. P-108. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. Find the

maximum value of P that will not exceed a stress in steel of 140 MPa, in

aluminum of 90 MPa, or in bronze of 100 MPa.

Solution:

For bronze:

= 2P

100(200) = 2P

P = 10000N

For aluminum:

=P

90(400) = P

P = 36000N

For Steel:

= 5P

P = 14000N

For safe value of P, use the smallest above. Thus,

P = 10000N

P = 10kN

answer

Problem 109

Determine the largest weight W that can be supported by two wires shown in

Fig. P-109. The stress in either wire is not to exceed 30 ksi. The cross-sectional

areas of wires AB and AC are 0.4 in2 and 0.5 in2, respectively.

Solution:

For wire AB : By sine law (from the force polygon):

sin40 = W sin80

= 0.6527 W

= 0.6527 W

30(0.4) = 0.6527 W

W = 18.4kips

For wire AC:

sin60 = W sin80

= 0.8794 W

=

0.8794 W = 30(0.5)

W = 17.1kips

For safe load W,

W = 17.1 kips

answer

Problem 110

A 12-inches square steel bearing plate lies between an 8-inches diameter

wooden post and a concrete footing as shown in Fig. P-110. Determine the

maximum value of the load P if the stress in wood is limited to 1800 psi and

that in concrete to 650 psi.

Solution:

For wood:

=

= 1800[

(8)]

= 90477.9lb

For concrete:

=

= 650(12)

= 93600lb

For safe load P,

P = 90478lb

answer

Problem 111

For the truss shown in Fig. P-111, calculate the stresses in me mbers CE, DE,

and DF. The cross-sectional area of each member is 1.8 in2. Indicate tension

(T) or compression (C).

Solution:

MA = 0

24 RF = 16(30)

RF = 20k

At joint F:

FV = 0

DF = 20

DF = 33.333k (Compression)

At joint D:

BD = DF = 33.333k (Compression)

FV = 0

DE =

BD +

DF

DE =

(33.333) +

DE = 40k (Tension)

(33.333)

At joint E:

FV = 0

CE + 30 = 40

CE = 16.666k (Tension)

Stresses: (Stress = Force/Area)

=

= 9.26ksi (Tension)

=

=

= 22.22ksi (Tension)

= 18.52ksi (Compression)

answer

answer

answer

Problem 112

Determine the cross-sectional areas of members AG, BC, and CE for the truss

shown in Fig. P-112. The stresses are not to exceed 20 ksi in tension and 14

ksi in compression. A reduced stress in compression is specified to reduce the

danger of buckling.

Solution:

FV = 0

RAV = 40 + 25 = 65k

AV = 0

18RD = 8(25) + 4(40)

RD = 20k

FH = 0

RAH = RD = 20k

FV = 0

(

)AB = 65

AB = 78.12k

FH = 0

AG + 20 = (

))AB

AG = 20.33k (Tension)

AG =

20.33 = 20 (

= 1.17in

answer

MF = 0

6(

BC) = 12(20)

BC = 72.11k (Compression)

BC =

72.11 = 14

= 5.15in

answer

FH = 0

(

)CD = 20

CD = 36.06k

FV = 0

DE = (

)CD =

(36.06) = 30k

At joint E:

FV = 0

(

)EF = 30

EF = 36.06k

FH = 0

CE = (

)EF =

CF =

20 = 14

= 1.43in

answer

Problem 113

Find the stresses in members BC, BD, and CF for the truss shown in Fig. P113. Indicate the tension or compression. The cross sectional area of each

member is 1600 mm2.

Solution:

For member BD: (See FBD 01)

MC = 0

3( BD) = 3(60)

BD = 75kN (Tension)

BD =

75(1000) =

(1600)

= 46.875MPa (Tension)

answer

MD = 0

4(

CF = 275.77kN (Compression)

CF =

275.77(1000) =

(1600)

= 172.357MPa (Compression)

answer

MD = 0

4BC = 7(60)

BC = 105kN (Compression)

BC =

105(1000) =

(1600)

= 65.625MPa (Compression)

answer

Problem 114

The homogeneous bar ABCD shown in Fig. P-114 is supported by a cable that

runs from A to B around the smooth peg at E, a vertical cable at C, and a

smooth inclined surface at D. Determine the mass of the heaviest bar that can

be supported if the stress in each cable is limited to 100 MPa. The area of the

cable AB is 250 mm2 and that of the cable at C is 300 mm2 .

Solution:

FH = 0

TAB cos30 = RD sin50

RD = 1.1305 TAB

FV = 0

TAB sin30 + TAB + TC + RD cos50 = W

TAB sin30 + TAB + TC + (1.1305TAB) cos50 = W

2.2267 TAB + TC = W

TC = W 2.2267 TAB

MD = 0

6 (TABsin30) + 4TAB + 2TC = 3W

7TAB + 2(W2.2267TAB) = 3W

2.5466TAB = W

TAB = 0.3927 W

TC = W 2.2267 TAB

TC = W 2.2267(0.3927W)

TC = 0.1256 W

Based on cable AB:

TAB = AB AAB

0.3927W = 100(250)

W = 63661.83N

Based on cable at C:

T2 = C AC

0.1256W = 100(300)

W = 238853.50N

Sfave value of W

W = 63661.83N

W = mg

63661.83 = m(9.81)

M = 6489.5kg

M = 6.49Mg

answer

Problem 115

What force is required to punch a 20-mm-diameter hole in a plate that is 25

mm thick? The shear strength is 350 MN/m2.

Solution:

The resisting area is the shaded area along the perimeter and the shear

force VV is equal to the punching force PP.

V = A

P = 350[(20)(25)]

P = 549778.7N

P = 549.8kN

answer

Problem 116

As in Fig. 1-11c, a hole is to be punched out of a plate having a shearing

strength of 40 ksi. The compressive stress in the punch is limited to 50 ksi. (a)

Compute the maximum thickness of plate in which a hole 2.5 inches in

diameter can be punched. (b) If the plate is 0.25 inch thick, determine the

diameter of the smallest hole that can be punched.

Solution:

(a) Maximum thickness of plate:

Based on puncher strength:

P = A

P = 50[14(2.52)]

P = 78.125kips

V = A V=PV=P

78.125 = 40[(2.5t)]

T = 0.781inch

answer

Based on compression of puncher:

P = A

P = 50(14d2)

P = 12.5d

V = A V=PV=P

12.5d = 40[d(0.25)]

d=0.8in

answer

Problem 117

Find the smallest diameter bolt that can be used in the clevis shown in Fig. 111b if P = 400 kN. The shearing strength of the bolt is 300 MPa.

Solution:

The bolt is subject to double shear.

V = A

400(1000) = 300[2(1/4d)]

D = 29.13mm

answer

Problem 118

A 200-mm-diameter pulley is prevented from rotating relative to 60-mmdiameter shaft by a 70-mm-long key, as shown in Fig. P-118. If a torque T =

2.2 kNm is applied to the shaft, determine the width b if the allowable

shearing stress in the key is 60 MPa.

Solution:

T = 0.03F

2.2 = 0.03F

F = 73.33kN

V=AV=A

Where:

V = F = 73.33kN

A = 70b

= 60MPa

Thus,

73.33(1000) = 60(70b)

B = 17.46mm

answer

Problem 119

Compute the shearing stress in the pin at B for the member supported as

shown in Fig. P-119. The pin diameter is 20 mm.

Solution:

From the FBD:

MC = 0

0.25 RBV = 0.25(40sin35) + 0.2(40cos35)

RBV = 49.156kN

FH = 0

RBH = 40 cos35

RBH = 32.766kN

RB = (RBH + RBV)

RB = (32.766 + 49.156)

RB = 59.076kN

VB = BA

double shear

59.076(1000) = B {2[1/4(20)]}

B = 94.02 MPa

answer

Problem 120

The members of the structure in Fig. P-120 weigh 200 lb/ft. Determine the

smallest diameter pin that can be used at A if the shearing stress is limited to

5000 psi. Assume single shear.

Solution:

For member AB:

Length, LAB = (42+42) = 5.66ft

Weight, WAB = 5.66(200) = 1132lb

MA = 0

4RBH + 4RBV = 2WAB

4RBH + 4RBV = 2(1132)

RBH + RBV = 566

Equation (1)

Length, LBC = (32+62) = 6.71ft

Weight, WBC = 6.71(200) = 1342lb

MC = 0

6RBH = 1.5WBC + 3RBV

6RBH 3RBV = 1.5(1342)

2RBH RBV = 6712

Equation (2)

RBH + RBV = 566

Equation (1)

Equation (2)

3RBH = 1237

RBH = 412.33lb

From equation (1):

412.33 + RBV = 566

RBV = 153.67lb

From the FBD of member AB

FH = 0

RAH = RBH = 412.33lb

FV = 0

RAV + RBV = WAB

RAV + 153.67 = 1132

RAV = 978.33lb

RA = (RAH + RAV)

RA = (412.33 + 978.33)

RA = 1061.67lb

V = A

1061.67 = 5000(14d)

D = 0.520in

answer

Problem 121

Referring to Fig. P-121, compute the maximum force P that can be applied by

the machine operator, if the shearing stress in the pin at B and the axial stress

in the control rod at C are limited to 4000 psi and 5000 psi, respectively. The

diameters are 0.25 inch for the pin, and 0.5 inch for the control rod. Assume

single shear for the pin at B.

Solution:

MB = 0

6P = 2T sin10

3P = Tsin10

Equation (1)

FH = 0

BH = Tcos10

From Equation (1),

T = 3P sin10

Thus,

BH = (3Psin10) cos10

BH = 3 cot10

FV = 0

BV = T sin10 + P

Again from Equation (1),

T sin10 = 3P

Thus,

BV = 3P + P

BV = 4P

RB = BH + BV

RB = (3cot10P) + (4P)

RB = 305.47P

RB = 17.48P

P = RB/17.48

Equation (2)

P = (1/3)Tsin10

P = (1/3)[5000 1/4(0.5)2]sin10

P = 56.83lb

Based on shear of rivet (equation 2)

P = 11.23lb

Safe load P,

P = 11.23 lb

answer

Problem 122

Two blocks of wood, width w and thickness t, are glued together along the joint

inclined at the angle as shown in Fig. P-122. Using the free-body diagram

concept in Fig. 1-4a, show that the shearing stress on the glued joint is = P

sin 2 / 2A, where A is the cross-sectional area.

Solution:

Shear area,

Ashear = t(w csc )

Ashear = t w csc

Ashear = A csc

Shear force,

V = P cos

V = Ashear

Pcos = (Acsc)

= Psincos/A

= P (2sincos)/2A

= Psin2/2A

(okay!)

Problem 123

A rectangular piece of wood, 50 mm by 100 mm in cross section, is used as a

compression block shown in Fig. P-123. Determine the axial force P that can be

safely applied to the block if the compressive stress in wood is limited to 20

MN/m2 and the shearing stress parallel to the grain is limited to 5MN/m2. The

grain makes an angle of 20 with the horizontal, as shown. (Hint: Use the

results in Problem 122.)

Solution:

Based on maximum compressive stress:

Normal force:

N = Pcos20

Normal area:

AN = 50(100sec20)

AN = 5320.89mm

N = AN

Pcos20 = 20(5320.89)

P = 113247N

P = 133.25kN

Shear force:

V = P sin 20

Shear area:

AV = AN

AV = 5320.89mm

V = AV

P sin 20 = 5(5320.89)

P = 77786N

P = 77.79kN

For safe compressive force use

P = 77.79 kN

answer

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