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CRITERIA

STRUCTURAL

GENERAL
CONTENTS

1.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

2.

DESIGN CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS


2.1
State and Local Laws
2.2
Basis of BART Design Criteria

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BART FACILITIES STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

GENERAL

1.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of these Criteria is to establish the minimum design standards for the
structures of the BART System. These Criteria shall govern the design of BARTowned facilities including aerial guideway structures, cut-and-cover subway
structures, tunnels, passenger stations, earth-retaining structures, buildings and
miscellaneous structures such as pedestrian bridges, vehicular bridges, culverts,
sound walls, and equipment enclosures.

2.

DESIGN CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS

2.1

State and Local Laws


The structural design shall meet all applicable portions of the general laws and
regulations of the State of California and of the respective local authorities.
In addition, the design of structures to be built as part of the BART project but owned
by other agencies or private owners, shall meet the requirements of the agencies
which normally have jurisdiction over such structures.

2.2

Basis of BART Design Criteria


These Criteria are based on existing codes, which are referenced at the beginning of
each Section, as applicable, and on BART-specific requirements. The principal code
applications are shown in the following matrix:
Structure Type

CODES
CBDS

Aerial Structures

CBC

AREMA

Railway Bridges

ACI

AISC

AWS

Underground Structures

Above-ground Stations

Buildings

Vehicular Bridges

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BART FACILITIES STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

The abbreviated code names refer to the following codes:


CBDS:

California Department of Transportation ("Caltrans") Bridge Design


Specifications, including applicable revisions, of the following
documents:

Memo to Designers
Bridge Design Practice
Bridge Design Aids
Bridge Design Details
Standard Drawings
Seismic Design Criteria

CBC:

The California Building Code.

AREMA:

American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association,


Manual for Railway Engineering.

ACI:

American Concrete Institute, Building Code Requirements for


Reinforced Concrete, ACI 318.

AISC:

American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction,


Part 5 ASD Specifications and Codes, or Part 6 LRFD Specifications
and Codes..

AWS:

Structural Welding Code, Steel, ANSI/AWS D1.1.

END

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BART FACILITIES STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

BART TRAIN LOADS


CONTENTS

1.

GENERAL

2.

LIVE LOAD (LL)


FIGURE 1 - STANDARD BART TRAIN LOADING

3.

IMPACT
3.1
Items to Which Impact Applies
3.2
Items to Which Impact Does Not Apply
3.3
Vertical Impact Force (Iv)
3.4
Transverse Horizontal Impact Force (IH)

4.

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE (CF)

LONGITUDINAL FORCE (LF)

6.

WHEEL LOAD DISTRIBUTION

7.

DERAILMENT LOAD

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BART FACILITIES STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

BART TRAIN LOADS


1.

GENERAL
The loads and forces defined in this Section shall apply to all structures or parts of
structures designed to carry BART trains. These loads and forces are associated with
the operation of BART trains and include the static vehicle weights referred to as
Standard BART Train Loading and the associated impact factors and horizontal
forces.

2.

LIVE LOAD (LL)


Live Load is comprised of the maximum vertical static vehicle loads, including
passenger crush load, referred to as the Standard BART Train Loading.
The axle spacing, axle loading, and car spacing of the standard BART train are as
shown in Figure 1. One train consists of either not less than two or more than ten
cars. The Standard BART Train Loading shall be used for all stress calculations.
Eighty percent of the Standard BART Train Loading, representing a nominal, seated
capacity load, shall be used for all deflection calculations.

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BART FACILITIES STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

FIGURE 1 - STANDARD BART TRAIN LOADING

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

3.

IMPACT
For design of those structures or structural elements listed below, the Standard BART
Train Loading shall be increased for impact effects due to moving trains.

3.1

Items to Which Impact Applies


Superstructure, including steel or concrete supporting columns, steel towers, legs of
rigid frames, and generally those portions of the structure which extend down to the
main foundation.
The portion above the ground line of concrete or steel piles that support the
Superstructure directly.
Underground structures and culverts having a cover of less than three feet. See
Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Cut and Cover Underground Structures,
for impact on underground structures.

3.2

Items to Which Impact Does Not Apply


Abutments, retaining walls, wall-type piers, and piles except those described in
Article 3.1, above.
Foundations, footings, and base slabs which are in direct contact with earth.
Safety walks.
Culverts and underground structures having a cover of three feet or more.

3.3

Vertical Impact Force (Iv)


Impact force, "Iv", shall be applied as a concentrated vertical load at the axle
locations. The magnitude of Iv shall be determined as follows:

For simply supported longitudinal girders with a span length of 100 feet or
less:
Iv = 30 percent of the Standard BART Train Loading.

For simply supported longitudinal girders with a span length greater than 100
feet and up to 160 feet:
Iv = 40 percent of the Standard BART Train Loading.

For continuous girders and other multi-span structures:


Iv = 30 percent of the Standard BART Train Loading.

For simply supported longitudinal girders with a span length greater than 160 feet, the
District will determine the applicable vertical impact force on a case-by-case basis.

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BART FACILITIES STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

3.4

Transverse Horizontal Impact Force (IH)


Impact force, "IH", of 10 percent of the Standard BART Train Loading shall be
applied as concentrated loads at the axle locations, in a horizontal plane 3.5 feet
above the top of low rail, and normal to the track. The horizontal force component
transmitted to the rails and supporting structure by an axle shall be concentrated at
the rail having direct wheel-flange-to-rail-head contact.

4.

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE (CF)


Centrifugal force, "CF", as defined below shall be provided in all regions of
horizontal track curvature.

For regions where the radius of curvature is less than or equal to 2340 feet:
CF = 18.3 percent of the Standard BART Train Loading

For regions where the radius of curvature is greater than 2340 in feet:
CF = (42800/R) percent of the Standard BART Loading.
where R = radius of curvature of the centerline of track in feet.

This force is a radial force and shall be applied to the train as concentrated loads at
the axle locations in a horizontal plane 3.5 feet above the top of low rail. The
horizontal force component transmitted to the rails and supporting structure by an
axle shall be concentrated at the rail having direct wheel-flange-to-rail-head contact.
5

LONGITUDINAL FORCE (LF)


Longitudinal force, "LF", due to train acceleration and deceleration shall be provided
as follows:

LF = 21 percent of the Standard BART Train Loading for decelerating trains.

LF = 16 percent of the Standard BART Train Loading for accelerating trains.

This force shall be applied to the rails and supporting structure as a uniformly
distributed load over the length of the train in a horizontal plane at the top of the low
rail. Consideration shall be given to various combinations of acceleration and
deceleration forces where more than one track is carried by the structure.
6.

WHEEL LOAD DISTRIBUTION


Where the wheel load is transmitted to the track-supporting slab through rail pads
placed directly on the slab, the wheel load shall be uniformly distributed over the
bearing area of one rail pad.

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BART FACILITIES STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

Where the wheel loads are transmitted to a slab through ties and ballast, the axle load
shall be uniformly distributed on the slab over an area directly beneath the tie of the
following dimensions:

7.

Width normal to rail:

TL + DB, but not greater than the width of the


bottom surface of the ballast

Length parallel to rail:

DB + 3 feet

where:

TL = tie length
DB = minimum depth of ballast under tie

DERAILMENT LOAD
Where a BART track is supported by a structural slab, that slab shall be designed for
a derailment load represented by a single concentrated load of 13.75 kips, uniformly
distributed over a square area of one square foot and positioned so that it will cause
the maximum stress in the slab. Load Group A, without impact, shall be used for this
design.
If BART tracks terminate on a structure, the design of that structure shall provide for
the possibility of a train accidentally overshooting the end of the track.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

REINFORCED CONCRETE
CONTENTS

1.

DESIGN CODES

2.

MATERIAL STRENGTH
2.1
Concrete
2.2
Reinforcing Steel

3.

DESIGN METHOD

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL
REINFORCED CONCRETE

1.

DESIGN CODES
Reinforced concrete design for bridge-type structures shall meet the requirements of
the CBDS and ACI.
Reinforced concrete design for buildings and miscellaneous structures shall meet the
requirements of the CBC and ACI.

2.

MATERIAL STRENGTH

2.1

Concrete
The minimum 28-day compressive strength of concrete for reinforced concrete
structures shall be 3,000 psi.

2.2

Reinforcing Steel

2.2.1

Reinforcing steel for concrete reinforcement including spiral reinforcement shall


conform to ASTM A706/706M, Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and
Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement.

2.2.2

Plain wire for welded wire fabric shall comply with ASTM A82, Specification for
Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement.

3.

DESIGN METHOD
Design shall be by the Strength Design Method.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
CONTENTS

1.

DESIGN CODES

2.

MATERIAL STRENGTH
2.1
Concrete
2.2
Prestressing Steel

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
1.

DESIGN CODES
Prestressed concrete design for bridge-type structures shall meet the applicable
requirements of the CBDS and ACI.
Prestressed concrete design for buildings and miscellaneous structures shall meet the
applicable requirements of the CBC and ACI.

2.

MATERIAL STRENGTH

2.1

Concrete
The minimum 28-day compressive strength of concrete for prestressed concrete
structures shall be 5,000 psi. The minimum compressive strength of concrete at the
time of initial prestress shall be 4,000 psi.

2.2

Prestressing Steel
Prestressing steel shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A416/A416M, ASTM
A421, or ASTM A722. Prestressing strand or wire shall be low relaxation.
Prestressing steel system shall be either bonded or coated (unbonded) tendons.

3.

DESIGN

3.1

Tension stresses in the concrete under design load are not permitted.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

STRUCTURAL STEEL
CONTENTS

1.

DESIGN CODES

2.

FATIGUE

3.

DESIGN METHOD

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

STRUCTURAL STEEL

1.

DESIGN CODES
Structural steel design for bridge-type structures shall meet the requirements of the
CBDS.
Structural steel design for buildings and miscellaneous structures shall meet the
requirements of the AISC and CBC.
Design of beam-to-column moment connections in moment resisting frames shall be
in accordance with AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings.

2.

FATIGUE
All structures carrying Standard BART Train Loading, as defined in Facility Design,
Criteria, STRUCTURAL, BART Train Loads, FIGURE 1 STANDARD BART
TRAIN LOADING shall be designed on the assumption of being subjected to over
2,000,000 applications of maximum design live loads over the life of the structure.

3.

DESIGN METHOD
Structural steel design can be either by the Allowable Stress Design Method or the
Load and Resistance Factor Design Method, unless otherwise noted.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

FOUNDATIONS
CONTENTS

1.

SOIL DATA

2.

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
2.1
Design of Shallow Foundations

PILE FOUNDATIONS
3.1
Design of Pile Foundations

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

FOUNDATIONS
1.

SOIL DATA
A.

The applicable Final Geotechnical Engineering Report shall provide


recommended soil properties to be used in design, including densities,
strengths, and compressibility. Also included in this report shall be
recommendations for earth pressures, sliding resistance, allowable bearing
capacities, allowable pile capacities, foundation types, settlement estimates,
seismic characteristics, excavation slopes, and construction methods where
applicable.

B.

The soil properties recommended in the Final Geotechnical Engineering


Report shall be compatible with the method of design and the factors of safety
specified in these Criteria. Actual soil data derived from structure site-specific
geotechnical exploration, sampling, and testing is included in the Final
Geotechnical Engineering Report.

C.

For the calculation of hydrostatic pressures and flotation factors of safety, a


ground water density of 62.4 pounds per cubic foot shall be used.

2.

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

2.1

Design of Shallow Foundations

2.1.1

Allowable Bearing Pressure and Settlement. Shallow foundations shall be


designed to limit total settlement of any footing to a maximum of 1.0 inch, and to
limit differential settlement between adjacent columns to a maximum of 0.5 inch.
The recommended allowable bearing pressures for shallow foundations are provided
in the Final Geotechnical Engineering Report. The recommended allowable bearing
pressures shall be based on a minimum factor of safety of 3 under the Group A Load
Combination for Service Load Design. The allowable bearing pressure may be
increased by 25 percent under the Group B or Group C Load Combination for Service
Load Design.
For Group A, B and C Load Combination for Service Load Design, refer to Facility
Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Aerial Structures, Table-1 and Table-2.

2.1.2

Benching. Where footings are to be constructed on inclined surfaces, the surface


shall be benched.

2.1.3

Distribution of Pressure. Footings shall be proportioned under Service Load Design


as follows:

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

A.

For group loadings which include only permanent loads and live loads, the
resultant of the vertical soil pressure shall fall within the middle third of either
footing dimension.

B.

For all other group loadings, except those which include seismic loads or
design flood loads, the resultant of the vertical soil pressure shall fall within
the middle 42 percent of either footing dimension and the maximum soil
pressure shall not exceed 125 percent of the allowable bearing value.

C.

For group loadings which include seismic loads, see Facility Design, Criteria,
STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design.

2.1.4

Size of Footing. The size of the base area of a footing on soil shall be determined
from the Service Load Design based on a governing Load Combination Group A or
Group B or Group C with the allowable bearing pressure specified under the Article
2.1.1, herein.

2.1.5

Strength Design of Footing.


A.

For strength design of a concentrically loaded foundation, the soil reaction


shall be based on the applied factored loads divided by the base area of the
footing as determined from the unfactored loads and the allowable bearing
pressure.

B.

For strength design of an eccentrically loaded foundation, the factored loads


shall be applied over the base area of the footing as determined herein. To
avoid relocation of the resulting eccentricities and lead to pressure distribution
that are in principle different from those obtained under the unfactored loads,
the soil pressure distribution under the footing shall be based on the resulting
bearing pressure distribution from the Service Load Design multiplied by an
average load factor of 1.6 for loading combinations without seismic load and
average load factor of 1.4 for loading combinations with seismic load.

PILE FOUNDATIONS

3.1

Design of Pile Foundations

3.1.1

Design Codes. The design of piles shall be in accordance with the CBDS for aerial
structures and bridges, and with the CBC for buildings. The CBC special detailing
requirements for Seismic Zones 3 and 4 shall also be applicable to the pile design for
aerial structures and bridges.

3.1.2

Ultimate Pile Load Capacity. The ultimate pile load capacity shall be determined
on the basis of appropriate values of skin friction plus end bearing developed from
the results of site-specific geotechnical investigations, and shall be verified by test
piles.

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

3.1.3

Uplift. Uplift shall not be allowed in any pile except for an intermittent uplift load
from load combinations that include wind or seismic load.
Provisions shall be made for uplift, should any loading or combination of loadings
produce uplift on any pile. The pile-to-pilecap connection and footing shall be
designed to resist imposed forces.
In sand, the ultimate capacity in uplift shall be limited to 70% of the corresponding
ultimate skin friction in compression, plus the effective weight of the pile. In clay,
the ultimate capacity in uplift shall be limited to 90% of the corresponding ultimate
skin friction in compression, plus the effective weight of the pile. Pile end bearing
shall not be included in the determination of ultimate or allowable uplift capacities.
Particular attention shall be paid to the connection between the pile and the pile cap,
and to the pile's ability to transmit the uplift load to the soil. Loading in uplift shall
not exceed the structural tensile capacity of the pile.

3.1.4

Lateral Loads. When the lateral resistance of the soil surrounding the piles is
inadequate to counteract the horizontal forces transmitted to the foundation, or when
increased rigidity of the entire structure is required, battered piles shall be used in a
pile foundation. Battered piles shall not be farther out of plumb than one horizontal
unit in three vertical units

3.1.5

Design Load Capacity of Piles. The allowable load capacity of a pile for aerial
structures and bridges for service loads shall be based on a minimum factor of safety
of 2.5 relative to ultimate pile capacity. The allowable load capacity of a pile when
considering combined loads that include earthquake shall be based on a minimum
factor of safety of 1.15 relative to the ultimate pile capacity. For buildings and other
structures refer to the CBC.

3.1.6

Indicator Piles. An adequate number of indicator piles shall be installed in advance


of production pile installation to confirm the required pile lengths and driving criteria.
Indicator piles shall be located so that, barring unforeseen circumstances, they will
cover all conditions of pile type, pile capacity, and soil conditions which will be
encountered.
Generally, indicator piles shall be located on the following minimum basis:

3.1.7

A.

One test per 100 piles.

B.

One test per pier for aerial structures.

C.

One test at each pile location isolated by a distance of 500 feet or more from
other pile locations.

Test Piles. An adequate number of pile tests shall be specified. These shall include
advance piles tested to ultimate load to verify design assumptions. The location and
length of test piles shall be shown on the plans. Test piles shall be located so that,
barring unforeseen circumstances, they will cover all conditions of pile type, pile
capacity, and soil conditions which will be encountered.

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

Generally, test piles shall be located on the following minimum basis:


A.

One test per 300 piles.

B.

One test per 1000 feet of line structure.

C.

One test at each pile location isolated by a distance of 500 feet or more from
other pile locations.

The static load capacity of piles shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D1143 and
ASTM D3689 for compressive and tensile load.
Names of ASTM Standards referenced herein:
D1143 Test Method for Piles Under Static Axial Compressive Load
D3689 Test Method for Individual Piles Under Static Tensile Load
3.1.8

Handling Loads. In computing stresses due to handling, the computed static loads
shall be increased by 50 percent as an allowance for impact.

END

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BART FACILITY STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES


CONTENTS

1.

SCOPE AND APPLICABLE CODES


1.1
Scope
1.2
Applicable Codes

2.

LOADS
2.1
General
2.2
Lateral Earth Pressure
2.3
Load Factors

3.

BASE PRESSURE AND STABILITY


3.1
Base Pressure
3.2
Stability

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BART FACILITIES STANDARDS


FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES


1.

SCOPE AND APPLICABLE CODES

1.1

Scope
The criteria set forth in this Section govern the static load design of retaining walls,
U-walls, abutments, and wing walls for bridges.

1.2

Applicable Codes
The design shall conform to the applicable requirements of the CBDS, CBC, ACI,
AISC and AWS, except where such requirements conflict with these Criteria.

2.

LOADS

2.1

General
Recommended soil parameters, earth pressures and loads due to surcharges are
provided in the Final Geotechnical Engineering Report.
For structures adjacent to operating railroads, both the vertical and lateral surcharge
shall be based on Cooper's E-80 railroad surcharge loadings. Also refer to the
standards of the subject railway.
When highway traffic can come within a distance of one-half the wall height from the
face of the wall or abutment, a live load surcharge equal to not less than 2 feet of
equivalent weight of earth shall be added to the earth load. When determining the
maximum load on the heel of wall footing, the live load surcharge shall be excluded.

2.2

Lateral Earth Pressure

2.2.1

For structures retaining drained cohesionless (granular) soil, lateral earth pressure
shall be determined in accordance with the following paragraphs of these Criteria.

2.2.2

Yielding Walls. For the purpose of these Criteria, yielding walls are defined as walls
which, at the top, are unrestrained and free to move a distance of at least 0.004H,
where H is defined as the height of the wall from the base of the heel to the finished
grade directly above the heel.
For yielding walls, the static lateral soil pressure shall be determined using the active
lateral pressures expressed as equivalent fluid soil pressures. Recommended values
shall be provided in the Final Geotechnical Engineering Report.

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

For the determination of seismic lateral loading of yielding walls, see Criteria,
STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design
2.2.3

Rigid Walls. For the purpose of these Criteria, rigid walls are defined as walls which
are restrained at the top so that the amount of deflection required to develop active
pressure conditions is not possible. Furthermore, all cantilever walls less than 15 feet
high and founded on rock or piles shall be considered rigid walls.
For rigid walls, the static lateral soil pressure shall be determined using the at-rest
lateral pressures expressed as equivalent fluid soil pressures. Recommended values
are provided in the Final Geotechnical Engineering Report.
For the determination of seismic lateral loading of rigid walls, see Facility Design,
Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design.

2.3

Load Factors
For earth retaining structures, the load factors for load combinations without seismic
load shall be in accordance with ACI.
See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design, for seismic design
criteria.

3.

BASE PRESSURE AND STABILITY

3.1

Base Pressure
Recommended allowable soil-bearing pressures are provided in the Final
Geotechnical Engineering Report. In order to minimize differential settlement and
excessive outward tilting of walls, walls shall be proportioned so that the base
pressure on soil under the footing is as nearly uniform as practical under the long
term loading.

3.2

Stability
Overturning. Stability against overturning shall be provided by conforming
to the requirements of Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL,
Foundations.
Sliding. Safety against sliding, under permanent loads, shall be provided by
using a minimum factor of safety of 1.50. The factor of safety shall be the
ratio of the forces resisting sliding to the total horizontal thrust. In
determining sliding resistance, the passive resistance of the upper 1.5 feet of
soil above the top of the base slab shall be ignored.
Overall Stability. The overall stability of the medium containing the earth
retaining structure shall have a minimum factor of safety of 1.5 under
permanent loads.

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

Seismic Loads. For requirements involving seismic loads, see Facility


Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design.
END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

AERIAL STRUCTURES
CONTENTS
1.

SCOPE

2.

DESIGN CODES

3.

LOADS AND FORCES


3.1
Dead Load (DL)
3.2
BART Train Loads
3.3
Earth Pressure (E)
3.4
Buoyancy (B)
3.5
Stream Flow (SF)
3.6
Wind Loads
3.7
Earthquake Forces (EQ)
3.8
Shrinkage Force (S)
3.9
Thermal Forces (T)
3.10 Walkway Loads
3.11 Collision Loads
3.12 Variable Loads

4.

COMBINATIONS OF LOADS
4.1
General
4.2
Load Factor Design
4.3
Service Load Design

5.

SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
5.1
General
5.2
Vibration Limitation
5.3
Horizontal Alignment
5.4
Trackwork
5.5
Clearances
5.6
Walkway
5.7
Vertical Alignment
5.8
Sound Walls
5.9
Drainage

6.

SUBSTRUCTURE
6.1
Footings
6.2
Foundation Settlement

TABLE - 1

FACTORS FOR LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

TABLE - 2

FACTORS FOR SERVICE LOAD DESIGN

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CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

AERIAL STRUCTURES
1.

SCOPE
The criteria set forth in this Section govern the design of aerial guideway structures
and all other bridge-type structures which support BART trains.

2.

DESIGN CODES
Aerial structure design shall meet the requirements of the CBDS, ACI, AISC and
AWS, except where such requirements conflict with the provisions of these Criteria.

3.

LOADS AND FORCES

3.1

Dead Load (DL)


The dead load shall consist of the weight of the entire structure and all permanent
installations, such as trackwork, safety walks, sound walls, electrification and other
utility services. The following unit weights shall be used to calculate dead load:

3.2

Rails and fasteners (no ties)

150 pounds per foot of track

Electrification
(third rail system and fastenings)
Cable splice boxes
(30 feet maximum length)
Concrete (plain or reinforced)

150 pounds per foot of track

150 pounds per cubic foot

Timber (treated or untreated)

50 pounds per cubic foot

Ballast

120 pounds per cubic foot

160 pounds per foot of track

BART Train Loads


See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, BART Train Loads.

3.3

Earth Pressure (E)


Substructure elements including abutments shall be proportioned to withstand earth
pressure. Wherever highway, railway, or BART train traffic can come to within a
distance of 1.5H from the structure (where H stands for the height of the structure),
the applicable live load shall be considered in the design.

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3.4

Buoyancy (B)
The effects of buoyancy shall be considered in the design of the substructure,
including piling.

3.5

Stream Flow (SF)


The stream flow pressure on a pier shall be computed from the following formula:
P = K V2
Where :

P = uniform pressure, in pounds per square foot


V = velocity of water, in feet per second
K = a constant, being 1.375 for square ends, 0.5 for angle ends where
the internal angle is 30 degrees or less, and 0.67 for circular piers.

3.6

Wind Loads
Wind loads (W) on superstructure and substructure shall be derived from wind
pressures determined by CBC formula with Basic Wind Speed of 80 miles per hour,
Exposure C, and Importance Factor 1.15.
Wind loads on live loads (WL) shall be 270 pounds per linear foot of train applied
transversely and 60 pounds per linear foot of train. These loads shall be based on the
length of train as seen in elevation normal to the longitudinal axis of the structure and
shall be applied simultaneously. The transverse wind load shall be applied to the
train as concentrated wind loads at the axle locations, in a plane 5.75 feet above the
top of low rail, and normal to the track. The horizontal force component transmitted
to the rails and superstructure by an axle shall be concentrated at the rail having direct
wheel-flange-to-rail-head contact. The longitudinal force shall be applied to the rails
and superstructure as a uniformly distributed load over the length of the train in a
horizontal plane at the top of the low rail.
In addition to the horizontal wind load, an upward wind load shall be applied at the
windward quarter point of the transverse width of the superstructure. This vertical
load shall have an intensity of 20 pounds per square foot of the plan projection of the
structure, including walkways.

3.7

Earthquake Forces (EQ)


See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design.

3.8

Shrinkage Force (S)


In concrete structures provisions shall be made for stresses and movements resulting
from concrete shrinkage.

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

3.9

Thermal Forces (T)


Provisions shall be made for stresses and movements resulting from temperature
variations. The design shall allow for the following values of temperature rise and
fall and the coefficients of thermal expansion:

3.9.1

Concrete
Temperature Rise = 30 degrees F.
Temperature Fall = 30 degrees F.
Coefficient of Expansion = 0.0000060/degree F.

3.9.2

Structural Steel
Temperature Rise = 50 degrees F.
Temperature Fall = 50 degrees F.
Coefficient of Expansion = 0.0000065/degree F.

3.9.3

Rail Forces
Design shall provide for transverse and longitudinal forces due to temperature
variations in the structure and in the running rails. These forces shall be applied in a
horizontal plane at the top of the low rail, and shall be calculated as follows:

Transverse Force. The transverse force "T" may act in either direction. Its
magnitude in kips per linear foot of structure, per rail, shall be assumed as
follows:
T=

176/R

(Where R = radius of curvature, in feet)

Longitudinal Forces. For structures carrying direct-fixation trackwork, the


thermal rail/structure interaction shall be investigated for the entire structure
configuration between abutments, and including at least 200 feet of at-grade
track beyond each abutment. Thermal structure movements and stresses shall
be calculated on the basis of the maximum temperature differentials specified
in Articles on 3.8.1 and 3.8.2, herein. For the trackwork components, the
following design parameters shall be assumed:
(a) Rails: Type 119RE; cross section = 11.65 square inches; yield strength =
75,000 pounds per square inch minimum.
(b) Direct fixation rail fasteners: Spacing is 36 inches center to center;
longitudinal elastic spring constant is 35 kips per inch; maximum holding
capacity is 2.5 kips (slipping occurs in lieu of further load increase).
(c) Rail fasteners for ballasted track: Spacing is 30 inches center to center;
fasteners are rigid; maximum holding capacity is 2.5 kips (slipping occurs
in lieu of further load increase).

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Two analyses shall be performed: One, with all rails continuous over the structure
and beyond. The other, with one of the rails assumed broken at a point of maximum
rail stress according to the first analysis.
The broken rail analysis shall be made for the expected minimum temperature
condition, using a 66 degree Fahrenheit drop in the temperature of the rails. The
broken rail gap shall be calculated on the basis of static equilibrium.
The results of the interaction analyses shall include the following information:
1.

Thermal forces acting upon the structure

2.

Holding (= shear) forces of the rail fasteners

3.

Thermal interaction stresses in the rails.

4.

Longitudinal displacements for the structure and the rails.

5.

Magnitude of the static-equilibrium rail gap for the broken rail assumption.

Items 1 and 4 are relevant for the design of the aerial structures. Items 2, 3, 4 and 5
are relevant for the design of the trackwork, and shall be applied accordingly.
3.10

Walkway Loads
Maintenance and emergency walkways and their immediate supports shall be
designed for a live load of 100 pounds per square foot of walkway area, or for a
concentrated live load of 1,000 pounds applied anywhere on the walkway and
distributed over a 2 feet by 2 feet area.
Safety railings shall be designed to withstand a horizontal force of 50 pounds per
linear foot applied at right angles to the top of the railing. The mounting of handrails
and framing of members for railings shall be such that the completed handrail and
supporting structure shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds
applied in any direction at any point on the top rail. These loads shall not be
combined with the 50 pounds per linear foot. For the design of structure components
which support train loads and a walkway, the walkway live loads shall not be applied
simultaneously with the train loads.

3.11

Collision Loads

3.11.1

Highway Traffic
Piers or other guideway support elements that are situated less than 10 ft from the
edge of an adjacent street or highway shall be designed to withstand a horizontal
static force of 225 kips, unless protected with suitable barriers. This force is to be
applied on the support element at an angle of 10 degrees from the direction of the
road traffic and at a height of 4 ft above ground level. This condition occurs with the
dead load of the structure but need not be applied concurrently with other applied
loadings.

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3.11.2

Railway Traffic.
The District will provide design instructions, on a case-by-case basis, for aerial
structure piers which are situated within 25 feet of a railroad track centerline. The
instructions will be in conformance with the applicable agreement, if any, between
the District and the railroad owner, will take into consideration the operational
characteristics of the railroad.

3.12

Variable Loads
Variable loads, such as live load, buoyancy and wind load shall be reduced or
eliminated from a load group whenever such a reduction or elimination will result in
a more critical loading for the member under consideration. For members supporting
two or more BART tracks, BART train loads (LL, IV, IH, CF and LF) shall be
imposed on each track in such a manner as to produce the most critical loading for the
member under consideration.
Horizontal earth load shall be reduced by 50 percent when such a reduction will result
in a more critical loading for the member under consideration.

4.

COMBINATIONS OF LOADS

4.1

General
The following groups represent various combinations of loads and forces to which a
structure may be subjected. Each component of the structure shall be proportioned to
withstand safely all group combinations of forces that are applicable to the particular
site or type. Group loading combinations for Load Factor Design and Service Load
Design are given by:
Group (N)

= G [bDL DL + bLL LL + bIV IV + bIH IH + bLF


LF + bcf CF + bE E + bB B + bW W + bWL
WL + bPS PS + bRST (R+S+T) + bEQ EQ]

where:
N
G
b
DL
LL
IV
IH
LF
CF
E
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=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Group designation
Gamma load factor, see Tables 1 and 2
Beta coefficient, see Tables 1 and 2
Dead Load
Live Load
Vertical Live Load Impact
Transverse Horizontal Live Load Impact
Longitudinal Force from Live Load
Centrifugal Force from Live Load
Earth Pressure
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B
W
WL
PS
R
S
T
EQ
4.2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Buoyancy
Wind Load on Structure
Wind Load on Live Load
Prestress
Rib Shortening
Shrinkage
Temperature
Earthquake

Load Factor Design


The gamma and beta factors given in Table-1 are only intended for the design of
structural members by the load factor concept. The load factors are not intended to
be used for checking of the foundation pressure and stability (safety factors against
overturning and sliding) of a structure.

4.3

Service Load Design


For Service Load Design, the gamma and beta factors are given in Table-2. When
earthquake loads are applied, Load Factor Design shall be used to analyze their
effects.

5.

SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN

5.1

General
The aerial guideway superstructure shall support the BART tracks by direct fixation
or on ties and ballast. The superstructure may consist of steel, concrete, or a
combination of both. All substructures such as bents and abutments shall be concrete
construction.
For concrete column, reinforcing ratio shall not exceed 4 percent for main column
reinforcement. Spiral reinforcement shall be continuous. Splices in spiral or hoop
reinforcement shall be by welding or mechanical couplers, except that only welded
splices shall be used in the column plastic hinge zones.
Splices for main column reinforcement shall not be allowed within a distance 1.5 D
from a zone of plastic hinging, where D is the maximum column dimension. Splice
locations for column bars shall be detailed on the plans.
All top and bottom bent cap main reinforcement shall be continuous if possible. If
splices are required, a minimum 75 percent of reinforcement shall be continuous at all
sections. No lap splices of main cap reinforcement shall be allowed. No splices shall
be allowed over a distance of twice the structure depth on each side of a column or
within the limits of a column. Splice locations for bent cap bars shall be detailed on
the plans. Reinforcement shall not be cut off anywhere in the cap.

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Standard girders for simple spans, and supporting a direct-fixation single track, have
been pre-designed and shall be utilized to the greatest feasible extent. These standard
girders range in length from 20 ft. to 100 ft. With minor standardized modifications,
standard girders of the appropriate length shall also be utilized as track-supporting
girders within stations.

5.2

Vibration Limitation
To limit dynamic interaction between aerial structure longitudinal girders and transit
cars, all simple-span girders which support BART trains shall be designed so that the
unloaded natural frequency of the first mode of vibration of the girders in a vertical
plane through the longitudinal girder axis is not less than 2.5 Hertz.
For simple-span girders with a uniform distribution of mass and stiffness, the
criterion of 2.5 Hertz is met if the calculated maximum girder deflection under its
own weight plus all permanent loads is less than 2.0 inches.
For limitations applicable to girders and bents which support pedestrian traffic as well
as train loads, see Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Passenger Stations and
Buildings.

5.3

Horizontal Alignment
For Standard Aerial Structures, the longitudinal axis of the deck slab shall not deviate
laterally from the corresponding track centerline by more than 0.5 inches.

5.4

Trackwork

5.4.1

Ballasted Track Structures

5.5

The structural deck shall be protected by a waterproofing membrane, with two


3/8-inch layers of protective planking over the membrane

The minimum vertical distance between top-of-rail and the top of the
structural deck shall be 26 inches.

For structural design purposes, the weight of a two-inch layer of ballast shall
be added to the actual dead load. This provision allows for future trackwork
adjustments.

Clearances
Clearance requirements for aerial structures are specified in BART Facilities
Standards, Introduction, Common Requirements, Trackway Clearance.

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5.6

Walkway
Walkway requirements for aerial structures are specified in BART Facilities
Standards, Facility Design, Criteria, CIVIL, Basic Design Policies.

5.7

Vertical Alignment

5.7.1

Superelevation
Provisions for superelevation shall be made. Where a girder is used to support a
direct fixation, superelevated track, the entire girder may be rotated about its
longitudinal axis by an amount sufficient to provide the required superelevation; for
girders which support a track with a centerline alignment consisting partly or entirely
of a transition spiral, the entire girder may be rotated by an amount sufficient to
provide the required superelevation at the end farthest from the circular curve.

5.7.2

Girder Camber
Aerial structure girders shall be constructed so that their ultimate in-place position,
under primary plus superimposed dead load, and, in the case of prestressed concrete
girders, under the effects of prestressing and long-term creep, is as follows: The
girder soffit shall be arched upward, with a "target" camber of 0.01 inch per foot of
girder length, measured vertically at mid-span. Girder construction cambers shall
therefore be calculated as follows:

Steel girders shall be constructed with a camber equal to the target camber
plus total dead load deflection.

Concrete girders shall be constructed with a form camber equal to the


algebraic sum of the target camber, the dead load deflection, prestressing
camber and long-term creep camber, with the latter two normally having
negative values.

It shall be noted that live load deflection does not enter into these calculations.
5.7.3

Rail Profile Grade


The running rails shall be installed according to the theoretical top of rail profile,
independent of the position of the supporting girder and deck. In areas of horizontal
track curvature, with the exception of reverse curves, the low rail shall be positioned
at the theoretical profile grade, and the high rail shall be superelevated as required.
For direct fixation track situations, the interface between the track components and
the supporting aerial structure shall consist of variable-height second pour concrete
rail pads.

5.7.4

Girder Bearing Elevations


For direct fixation track situations, the girder bearing elevations shall be calculated so
that the shortest distance between the top of the rail and the bottom of the second
pour concrete rail pad anywhere along the aerial structure shall not be less than the
absolute minimum distance of 15.25 inches. This calculation shall consider the

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profile grade elevation, the superelevation, if any, the long-term girder camber and
girder dead load deflection, the girder depth, all applicable construction tolerances,
and an allowance for error in the prediction of the long-term camber growth.
For ballasted track situations, the girder bearing elevations shall be calculated so that
the provisions of Facility Design, Criteria, CIVIL, Trackway, will be met.
5.7.5

Access to Bearings
Unless otherwise approved by the District, structure configurations shall be such that
superstructure bearings will remain accessible for purposes of inspection and
maintenance.

5.7.6

Long-Term Creep and Track Adjustment


The design shall be such as to minimize the effect due to creep deformations. The
construction contract provisions shall require that if the amount of girder creep
subsequent to track installation should cause track misalignment beyond allowable
limits, the rail supports shall be adjusted; for direct-fixation track this will, in effect,
change the profile grade.

5.8

Sound Walls
Where parapets are used as sound walls, they shall be designed to withstand dead
load, wind load or earthquake force, force due to thermal expansion and contraction,
and, where applicable, shrinkage force. The clearances from centerlines of tracks to
the sound walls shall be in accordance with Facility Design, Criteria, CIVIL, Basic
Design Policies.

5.9

Drainage

5.9.1

General
The superstructure deck shall be designed to provide sufficient drainage. Runoff
shall be computed in accordance with the provisions of Facility Design, Criteria,
CIVIL, Drainage.

5.10

Approach Slab
To provide a smooth transition from at-grade sections to the aerial structure, an
approach slab shall be provided at all abutments. The approach slab shall have a
length not less than 20 feet nor less than that computed from the following formula:
L = 1.5 h tan (45o -o/ /2)
Where:
L = minimum length of approach slab from center
of slab seat
h = vertical distance from bottom of slab to bottom
of abutment (top of footing)

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of abutment (top of footing)


o/ = angle of internal friction of backfill soil, in
degrees.
The slab shall be assumed to receive no support from the backfill for a
distance not less than 13 feet nor less than h tan (45o -o/ /2) from the back of
the abutment.
6.

SUBSTRUCTURE

6.1

Footings

6.1.1

Spread Footings
A.

Benching:
Where footings are to be constructed on inclined surfaces, the bearing surface
shall be benched.

B.

Distribution of Pressure:
See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Foundations for distribution of
pressure.

6.1.2

Pile Footings
See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Foundations, for requirements.

6.1.3

Drilled Shafts
See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Foundations, for pile foundation
design requirements.

6.2

Foundation Settlement
In all cases, the foundations of the aerial structure shall be so designed that the
calculated differences in settlement of adjacent piers do not cause a break in rail
profile with an ordinate greater than 1/2400 of the sum of the lengths of any two
adjacent spans.
END

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TABLE - 1

FACTORS FOR LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

BETA FACTORS (b)


GROUP

GAMMA

DL

FACTOR (G)

LL+

WL

PS

R+S+T

EQ

IV+IH+
CF+LF

1.3

bDL

1.67

bE

0.77

1.3

bDL

bE

1.0

1.0

0.77

1.3

bDL

bE

0.5

0.5

0.77

1.00

bE

1.00

E*

1.30

1.67

bE

0.67

bDL

= 0.75 when checking columns for maximum moment or maximum eccentricities and
associated axial load; and when dead load effects are of opposite sign to the net effects of
other loads in a group.
bDL = 1.00 when checking columns for maximum axial load and associated moment.
bDL = 1.00 for flexural and tension members and for culverts.
bE = 0.50 for checking positive moments in rigid frames.
bE = 1.00 for vertical earth pressure and for rigid culverts.
bE = 1.30 for lateral earth pressure (not for culverts).
bE = 1.50 for flexible culverts.
*Group E applies only to culverts. Other groups do not apply to culverts except that Group D shall
also be considered for culverts whose structural integrity is necessary for continued operability of
the BART system following an earthquake.

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TABLE - 2

FACTORS FOR SERVICE LOAD DESIGN

This Table 2 not applicable for culvert design; use Load Factor Design for culvert design.

BETA FACTORS (b)


GROUP

GAMMA
FACTOR
(G)

DL

1.0

1.0

1.0

LL+

E+B

WL

PS

R+S+T

100

1.0

1.0

125

0.5

0.5

125

IV+IH+
CF+LF

When EQ loads are applied, Load Factor Design shall be used to analyze their effects.
The basic unit stresses for various materials are specified in Facility Design, Criteria,
STRUCTURAL, Sections in Reinforced Concrete, Prestressed Concrete, and Structural Steel.
% Indicates percentage of basic unit stress.
No increase in allowable unit stresses shall be permitted for members or connections carrying
wind loads only.

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

CUT - AND - COVER UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES


CONTENTS
1.

SCOPE

2.

APPLICABLE CODES

3.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

4.

LOADS AND FORCES


4.1
General
4.2
Future Traffic Loads
4.3
Alternative Traffic Loading
4.4
Earth Pressure
4.5
Hydrostatic Pressure (Buoyancy)
4.6
Flotation
4.7
Earthquake Forces
4.8
Load Factors
4.9
Subway Walkway Cover Live Loads
4.10 Live Loads and Equipment Loads for Ventilation Structures

5.

WATERPROOFING OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES


5.1
General
5.2
Station Structures
5.3
Line Structures
5.4
Electrical Rooms
5.5
Waterstops and Sealants
5.6
Bentonite

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CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

CUT - AND - COVER UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES


1.

SCOPE
The criteria set forth in this Section govern the static load design of all cut-and-cover
underground structures with the exception of pile foundations, which are covered in
Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Foundations.
The cut-and-cover
underground structures include subways, cross-passages, sump pump structures,
stations, building basements, vaults, ventilation structures, and other structures of
similar nature.

2.

APPLICABLE CODES
The design of structures within the scope of this Section shall be in accordance with
the provisions set forth in these Criteria and shall also meet the requirements of the
CBDC, CBC, ACI, AISC and AWS, except where such requirements are in conflict
with these Criteria.

3.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
Structural system for cut-and-cover line structures shall be single and/or multi-cell
reinforced concrete box structures, with walls and slabs acting one-way in the
transverse direction to form a continuous frame. Temporary excavation support
systems shall not be used as whole or part of the permanent walls. Expansion or
contraction joints are required at locations of major change in structural sections such
as from line structure to station. All construction joints shall have continuous
reinforcing steel, non-metallic waterstops and sealants.
Driven steel or concrete piles, cast-in-place drilled hole piles, and prestressed or nonprestressed soil anchors are not allowed for resisting uplift or flotation.

4.

LOADS AND FORCES

4.1

General
The following are in addition to the applicable loads and forces described in Facility
Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Aerial Structures

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4.2

Future Traffic Loads


An area surcharge shall be applied at the ground surface both over and adjacent to
underground structures. The vertical surcharge shall be considered as a static
uniform load applied at the ground surface as follows:
a.

600 psf for x < 5

b.

600-40(x-5) psf for 5 < x < 20

c.

0 for x > 20

x = Vertical distance from the top of subway roof to ground surface, in


feet.
The above surcharge shall not be applied, when
a.

The alternative traffic loading specified in Article 4.3 is applied, or


when

b.

A specific, applicable building surcharge as described in Articles


4.4 and 4.5 is applied.

Recommended coefficients for horizontal surcharge loading shall be presented in the


Final Geotechnical Engineering Report.
The surcharge shall be applied to all underground structures, line and stations, unless
(1) positive and recognizable means are provided at the ground surface to ensure that
the above types of loading cannot occur and (2) the District specifically permits, in
writing, the application of a surcharge of lesser magnitude.
4.3

Alternative Traffic Loading


For the underground structures beneath or adjacent to operating railroads, both the
vertical and lateral surcharge shall be based on Cooper's E-80 railroad surcharge
loadings. Refer to the standards of the subject railway.
For the underground structures adjacent to existing State bridge overcrossings, both
the vertical and lateral surcharge shall be based on the operating loads from the
Contractor's equipment with a minimum surcharge loadings equivalent to a 100-ton
crawler crane.
For underground structures beneath highways, city streets or planned roadways, the
applied vehicular live load shall be based on the HS 20-44 loading according to the
CBDS. The distribution of this live load shall be in accordance with the following:
a.

Fill height less than two feet - live load shall be applied as
concentrated loads directly to the top of the slab.

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b.

Fill height greater than two feet - concentrated live loads shall be
distributed over a square area, the sides of which shall equal 1.75
times the depth of the fill.

c.

When distribution areas overlap, the total load shall be uniformly


distributed over an area defined by the outside limits of the
individual areas.

For design of the top slab of underground structures supporting the alternative traffic
loading, impact loading (I) shall conform to the following:
0 ft. to 1.0 ft. fill height

= 30 percent of LL

1.0 ft. to 2.0 ft. fill height

= 20 percent of LL

2.0 ft. to 3.0 ft. fill height

= 10 percent of LL

more than 3.0 ft. fill height

= 0 percent of LL

The fill height shall be measured from the top of ground or pavement to the top of the
underground structure.
4.4

Earth Pressure

4.4.1

Vertical Earth Pressure. Depth of cover shall be measured from the ground surface
or roadway crown, or from the street grade, whichever is higher, to the top of subway
surface. Saturated densities of soils shall be used to determine the vertical earth
pressure. Recommended values shall be presented in the Final Geotechnical
Engineering Report.

4.4.2

Lateral Earth Pressure. See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Earth


Retaining Structures. For the purpose of these criteria, cut-and-cover subway box
sections are defined as structures with rigid walls, which are restrained at the top so
that the amount of deflection required to develop active pressure is not possible.

4.5

Hydrostatic Pressure (Buoyancy)


Structures shall be checked for both with and without buoyancy to determine the
governing design condition. Maximum design flood levels are indicated in the
Hydrology Report. If Hydrology Report is not part of the preliminary engineering
documents provided by the District, Designer (or its Geotechnical Engineer) shall
research and determine applicable levels.

4.6

Flotation

4.6.1

General
For design flood levels and flood zone, see the Hydrology Report, if applicable.

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4.6.2

4.7

Factor of Safety

The structure shall have a minimum factor of safety against flotation at any
construction stage of 1.03, excluding any benefit from skin friction.

The structure, when complete, shall have a minimum factor of safety against
flotation at up to the 100-year flood level of 1.07 excluding skin frictional
effects.

The structure, when complete, shall have a minimum factor of safety against
flotation at the 500-year flood level of 1.00 excluding skin frictional effects.

The dead weight of the structure used in the flotation calculations for the
underground structures shall exclude the weight of:
1.

Any building above the structure,

2.

Any live load internal or external to the structure,

3.

Any loads which may not be effective at the time, and

4.

2 feet of backfill over the roof except when checking against the 100year and 500-year flood levels.

Earthquake Forces
See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design, for the requirements
for seismic design of underground structures.
Temporary structures shall be designed as permanent structures under earthquake
loadings except in areas determined by the District where a lower load factor may be
allowed.

4.8

Load Factors
The cut-and-cover underground structures shall be designed for the following static
loading conditions:
1.

U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7H

2.

U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7H + 1.7B


Where U

Minimum required strength to resist factored loads or


related internal moments and forces.
Dead loads including structural components, gravity
load of soil, water in soil, and structures directly
supported on the subway structure.
Live loads including BART system live load,
impact due to moving trains, centrifugal force,
longitudinal force where applicable, vertical aerial

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4.9

surcharge at the ground surface to simulate the


roadway and sidewalk live loads, and all other
miscellaneous live loads as specified.
Lateral loads due to horizontal pressure of soil,
design groundwater in soil, horizontal surcharge
from the surface live loads and additional pressure
from existing adjacent buildings or structures.
Vertical hydrostatic pressure (Buoyancy)

3.

All factors in the loading combinations specified in these Load Factors shall be
changed to 1.0 when design groundwater load is replaced by load due to 500year flood.

4.

Design flood loadings shall not be combined with seismic load.

Subway Walkway Cover Live Loads


Stationary and hinged cover assemblies shall be designed for a minimum uniform live
load of 100 pounds per square foot or a concentrated live load of 1,000 pounds over
a 2 feet by 2 feet area. Deflection at center of span under 100 pounds per square foot
uniform live load shall not be more than 1/8 inch. Hinged cover material shall
comply with NFPA 130 requirements.

4.10

Live Loads and Equipment Loads for Ventilation Structures


See Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Passenger Stations and Buildings, for roof and floor
live loads and equipment loads for ventilation structures.

5.

WATERPROOFING OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

5.1

General
Provisions shall be made to collect and drain water seeping through the roof, walls,
or floor whether such structure components are waterproofed or not. The leakage
through non-waterproofed structural elements shall be limited to a maximum of 0.2
gallons per minute per 250 feet of single track line structure, or per 10,000 square
feet of continuous interior surface.

5.2

Station Structures

5.2.1

Roofs. Station roofs shall be completely waterproofed. Waterproofing and the


boundary condition details at reglets and flashings shall be provided.

5.2.2

Walls. Exterior station walls shall be completely waterproofed when exterior station
walls are below the design ground water table. Mezzanine walls enclosing public
areas and entrance walls shall be furred out, and provisions shall be made for
collecting and draining seepage through these walls. The depth of the furring shall be
governed by the space required for the placing of fare collection and other equipment,

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and architectural requirements, such as the minimum thickness of the wall finish.
The fastening of the finish to the wall shall be such that water can drain off the walls
freely and that it will not corrode the fasteners.
5.2.3

Floor Slabs. For station floor slabs, no special waterproofing provisions shall be
made where the water can drain freely into the floor drainage system, and where
such a leakage and drainage is not objectionable from an operational or visual
standpoint.
Drainage shall be provided at public areas of the station floor slab.

5.2.4

Base Slabs. Waterproofing shall be applied under station base slab when the station
base slab is below the design ground water table.

5.2.5

Differential vertical movements of the station body and its


Appendages.
appendages, such as wings or entrances at shafts, due to ground re-expansion as a
result of returning of ground water, may cause cracks at joints and other locations.
Special attention shall be given to design detailing to mitigate this problem. Where
such movements cannot be avoided, properly designed waterproof joints between
such appendages and the station body shall be provided.

5.3

Line Structures

5.3.1

Subway Box. Exterior membrane waterproofing shall be applied to the top of the
subway box. The waterproofing shall extend to the sides of the box to a point 12
inches below the bottom of the roof slab. Waterproofing boundary condition details
shall be shown on the Contract Drawings. Any seepage through the walls or the
floor shall be carried away by the track drainage.

5.3.2

Transition Structure. For subway daylight transition structures, where U-sections


with exposed sidewalls are used, special attention shall be given to controlling
shrinkage cracks in sidewalls between construction joints.

5.4

Electrical Rooms
Electrical rooms include spaces that house train control facilities, substation facilities,
switchgear, ventilation fans, pumps, and other electrical equipment.

5.4.1

Train Control and Auxiliary Equipment Rooms. Rooms or spaces shall be


completely waterproofed, including all wall and roof surfaces in contact with earth.
Floor drains shall be provided and floor waterproofing may be omitted. Refer to
Facility Design, Criteria, MECHANICAL, for floor drains.

5.4.2

Substations, Switchgear, Fan Rooms, and Similar Equipment Rooms. Rooms or


spaces shall have roof surfaces in contact with earth waterproofed.
No
waterproofing is required for walls more than 18 inches in thickness and for floor
slabs, except where walls are used for direct mounting of electrical equipment. Floor
drains shall be provided as required in Criteria, MECHANICAL.

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5.4.3

Pump Rooms. No waterproofing is required. However, floor drains shall be


provided to prevent the accumulation of seepage as required in Facility Design,
Criteria, MECHANICAL.

5.5

Waterstops and Sealants


Waterstops and sealants shall be used in all construction joints in exterior walls,
floors, and roofs.

5.6

Bentonite
Bentonite waterproofing shall not be used where the site is exposed to infiltration of
seawater, which may inhibit formation of the bentonite gel or cause long term
deterioration. In such locations, butyl or built-up membranes may be used, and
injection shall be limited to epoxy type materials.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

PASSENGER STATIONS AND BUILDINGS


CONTENTS
1.

SCOPE

2.

DESIGN CODES

3.

STATION STRUCTURE VIBRATION LIMITATIONS


3.1
General
3.2
Structures Supporting Pedestrian Traffic Only
3.3
Platform Girders
3.4
Transverse Station Supports

4.

LOADS AND FORCES


4.1
Summary

5.

PARKING STRUCTURES
5.1
Structural Systems
5.2
Structural Frame
5.3
Ramps and Slabs
5.4
Vehicle Barriers

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CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

PASSENGER STATIONS AND BUILDINGS


1.

SCOPE
This Section includes design requirements for the static design of above-ground
BART passenger stations, including electrical, ventilation, mechanical, train control,
communication and traction power facilities, and station parking structures. For
seismic design requirements, see Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Seismic
Design.

2.

DESIGN CODES
The design shall conform to the applicable requirements of the CBC, ACI, AISC, and
AWS, except where such requirements conflict with these Criteria, these criteria shall
govern. In addition, structures which support, or contribute to the support of BART
train loads, the design shall also meet the provisions of Facility Design, Criteria,
STRUCTURAL, BART Train Loads and Aerial Structures.

3.

STATION STRUCTURE VIBRATION LIMITATIONS

3.1

General
The purpose of the provisions of this Section is to limit objectionable vibrations in
structures carrying pedestrian traffic.

3.2

Structures Supporting Pedestrian Traffic Only


To avoid the possibility of resonant vibrations induced by pedestrian traffic, the
natural frequency of the unloaded structure shall be not less than 2.0 cycles per
second. (For spans of uniform section, this criterion is satisfied if the dead load
deflection, for any span length, does not exceed 2.5 inches.) To avoid vibrations that
may be objectionable to patrons, the calculated live load deflection (in inches) shall
be limited to L/67 (where L = span length in feet), or to one inch, whichever is the
lesser value.

3.3

Platform Girders
Aerial station platforms shall be supported by primary longitudinal supports which
are structurally independent of the guideway girders, to avoid train-induced
vibrations of the passenger platforms. Where this is not possible, the calculated static
deflection (in inches) due to the train live load, shall be limited to L3/900,000 (where
L = guideway girder span length in feet) to satisfy the vibration and deflection
limitations specified in Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Aerial Structures.

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

3.4

Transverse Station Supports


In aerial stations, transverse frames or girders supporting both pedestrian traffic and
guideway girders, shall be designed to meet the following deflection limitations:

The deflection (in inches) due to pedestrian loads only shall not exceed L/67
(where L = span length of transverse girder in feet) or one inch whichever is
the lesser value.

The deflection (in inches) due to train loads only shall not exceed L3/900,000
(where L = average span length of the guideway girders supported on the
transverse girder, in feet).

4.

LOADS AND FORCES

4.1

Summary
All components of passenger stations and station parking structures shall be
proportioned to withstand the following applicable loads and forces, in addition to
those listed in Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Aerial Structures.

4.1.1

Roof and Floor Live Loads.


The following are the minimum uniform live loads which shall be used in the design.
In certain areas such as areas with equipment hatches, and areas accessible to trucks,
using concentrated loads from heavy equipment and/or AASHTO HS20-44 truck
loading plus impact allowance may control the design rather than using the uniformly
distributed live loads. In such cases, structural members shall be designed to
withstand the heavier loading condition.
Station Roof and Canopy Roof Live Load

20 psf

Station Mezzanine Floor Live Load*

100 psf

Station Platform Floor Live Load

100 psf

Train Control Room

100 psf

Equipment Rooms

Equipment load or 350 psf

Storage Area Live Load

100 psf

Stairs and Walkway Live Load

100 psf

Station Parking Structure Floor Live Load

50 psf or a concentrated load of 2,000


pounds or two or more concentrated loads
spaced 5 feet on centers in accordance
with provisions of CBC.

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Pedestrian Bridge

100 psf

*Areas where cash carts are used shall be designed to accommodate a point live load
of 350 pounds per wheel. Wherever station configuration requires that cash carts
cross pedestrian bridges, bridges shall be designed to accommodate this live load
Roof live load reduction shall be in accordance with the provisions of CBC. No
reduction of floor live loads will be allowed except for parking structures, for which
the reduction shall be in accordance with the provisions of CBC.
4.1.2

Wind Load. In accordance with the provisions of CBC, with basic wind speed of 80
mph, Exposure C and Iw = 1.15.

4.1.3

Earth Pressure. See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Earth Retaining


Structures, for requirements.

4.1.4

Earthquake Load. See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design,


for requirements.

5.

PARKING STRUCTURES

5.1

Structural Systems
The structure shall be of Type I or Type II construction in accordance with the CBC
criteria and shall utilize conventional methods of construction such as cast-in-place
reinforced concrete or prestressed post-tensioned concrete.
Floor slabs shall be post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete or cast-in-place reinforced
concrete. Slab joints shall be watertight. Columns and frames shall be located so as
to maintain visibility throughout the structure and shall be integrated into the parking
pattern. The connections of rigid elements such as elevator shafts, stairs and
stairwells, and interior concrete masonry walls to the floor slabs shall account for
temperature differential, prestress shrinkage differential, and lateral loadings.
Expansion joints shall have a system of double columns and beams, and shall be
designed against leaking for a minimum of five years. Expansion joint spacing shall
not exceed 300 feet. The joint shall meet CBC Section 1633.A.2.11, Building
Separations, and shall be designed for normal automobile traffic. To minimize noise,
the joint shall be designed for vehicular traffic without the use of metal plates and
anchors.

5.2

Structural Frame
Long-span construction is required to provide flexibility in the structure over the life
of the facility. The design shall minimize the encroachment of columns into the stall
areas. Stall width modifications are contemplated and columns shall not restrict
potential restriping. Columns shall not be permitted in any drive aisles. All vertical
elements (i.e., pipes, etc.) shall be located up tight to columns. All columns and
adjacent vertical elements shall have corners armored to protect them from spalling if

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struck. Seismic resisting elements shall be located so that they do not interfere with
drivers lines of sight at points of aisle intersection.
5.3

Ramps and Slabs


Floors, ramps, and grade slabs shall be concrete slab surfaces with medium swirl
finish. Provide adequate slab thickness for embedment of electrical conduits inside
the concrete floor slab as required. Minimum thickness for post-tensioned slabs shall
be 5 inches. Post-tensioned slab shall be tensioned in two directions to a minimum of
225 psi average compression at the roof slab and a minimum of 200 psi in the
principal direction and 125 psi in the secondary direction at all levels below the roof.
Maximum long-term deflection shall be L/400. Fill pouring strips with concrete 30
days after the slab is stressed and provide silicone sealant between the pouring strips
and the stressed slab. ACI tolerances shall be used. Design of floors and ramps shall
provide uniform surfaces for drainage and maintenance. Ramps containing parking
stalls, and/or used by pedestrians for exiting shall not exceed a maximum slope of 6
percent. Minimum slope of all floors shall be 2 percent for drainage. Slabs on grade
shall be reinforced concrete.
Parking structure surfaces exposed to the sky shall be rendered watertight. Traffic
deck coating shall be applied on the surface exposed to the sky as follows: pour strips
of the post-tensioned concrete floor slab or over the entire surface of the reinforced
concrete floor slab. Traffic deck coating shall also be applied on the surface of the
floor slab directly over rooms such as electrical equipment room, security monitoring
room, communication equipment room, elevator machine room, and concession
rooms.

5.4

Vehicle Barriers
The exterior spandrels, rails, and their connections shall be designed for a minimum
horizontal ultimate load of 6,000 pounds applied at 18 inches above the floor, over
one square foot area of the barrier.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

HIGHWAY BRIDGES
CONTENTS
1.

SCOPE

2.

DESIGN CODES

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

HIGHWAY BRIDGES
1.

SCOPE
The criteria set forth in this Section govern BARTs design of vehicular bridges
which, in the event of their failure, have the potential for endangering BART
facilities, or to interfere with BART operations.

2.

DESIGN CODES
The design of structures within the scope of this section shall be in accordance with
the provisions set forth in these Criteria, and shall also meet the requirements of the
CBDS, ACI, AISC, and AWS (See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL,
General, Article 2.2, Basis of BART Design Criteria), except where such
requirements are in conflict with these Criteria.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

RAILWAY BRIDGES
CONTENTS
1.

SCOPE

2.

DESIGN CODES

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

RAILWAY BRIDGES

1.

SCOPE
The Criteria set forth in this Section govern BARTs design of railway bridges which,
in the event of their failure, have the potential for endangering BART facilities, or to
interfere with BART operations.

2.

DESIGN CODES
The design shall be in accordance with the provisions set forth in these Criteria, and
shall also meet the requirements of the AREMA, ACI, AISC, AWS, and the standards
of the subject railway, except where such requirements are less stringent, these
Criteria shall govern.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES
CONTENTS
1.

SCOPE

2.

DESIGN CODES

3.

PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES
3.1
Live Load
3.2
Deflection and Vibration Limitations

4.

VISUAL WALLS/SOUND WALLS


4.1
Design Method
4.2
Wind Load
4.3
Earth Pressure
4.4
Earthquake Load
4.5
Loading Combinations

5.

LIGHT STANDARDS
5.1
Wind Load

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES
1.

SCOPE
The Criteria set forth in this Section govern the design of all miscellaneous structures
of the BART System.
Miscellaneous structures shall include pedestrian bridges, visual walls/sound walls,
and similar structures not covered in Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL,
Sections on Earth Retaining Structures, Aerial Structures, Cut-and-Cover
Underground Structures, Passenger Stations and Buildings, Highway Bridges, and
Railway Bridges.

2.

DESIGN CODES
The design shall conform with the applicable requirements of the following codes,
except where such requirements conflict with these Criteria:

For pedestrian bridges and miscellaneous structures subject to vehicular


traffic loads (such as culverts): CBDS, ACI, AISC, and AWS.

For all other structures: CBC, ACI, AISC, and AWS.

3.

PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES

3.1

Live Load
Pedestrian bridges shall be designed for a live load of 100 pounds per square foot.
Refer to Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Passenger Stations and Buildings,
for additional live load requirements where pedestrian bridges will be required to
support cash carts.

3.2

Deflection and Vibration Limitations


See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Passenger Stations and Buildings, for
requirements.

4.

VISUAL WALLS/SOUND WALLS

4.1

Design Method

Cast-in-place concrete and precast concrete: ACI 318, Ultimate Strength


Design.

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4.2

Reinforced masonry: CBC Ultimate Strength Design.

Wind Load
In accordance with the provisions of CBC, with basic wind speed of 80 mph,
Exposure C and Iw = 1.15.

4.3

Earth Pressure
See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Earth Retaining Structures, for
requirements.

4.4

Earthquake Load
See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design, for requirements.

4.5

Loading Combinations
Except as specified below, the required strength U, for loading combinations, shall be
in accordance with the applicable provisions of CBC. The required strength U, when
combined with earthquake load, shall be determined from the following equation:
U
Where:
D
E
EQ

D + E + EQ

=
=
=

Dead load of the sound wall


Earth pressure
Earthquake load according to Section on
Seismic Design of the STRUCTURAL,
Facility Design, Criteria

5.

LIGHT STANDARDS

5.1

Wind Load
In accordance with the provisions of CBC, with basic wind speed of 80 mph,
Exposure C and Iw = 1.0.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

SUPPORT AND UNDERPINNING OF EXISTING STRUCTURES


CONTENTS

1.

SCOPE

2.

DESIGN CODES

3.

DEPTH OF SUPPORT STRUCTURES

4.

METHODS
4.1
Pier, Pile or Caisson Method of Underpinning

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

SUPPORT AND UNDERPINNING OF EXISTING STRUCTURES


1.

SCOPE
This Section includes design requirements for the support and underpinning of
existing structures to remain over or adjacent to new BART System facilities.
Refer to Standard Specifications Section 31 40 00, Shoring and Underpinning.

2.

DESIGN CODES
The design shall conform to the applicable requirements of the CBDS (where
highway bridges are involved), AREMA (where railway bridges are involved), CBC
(where buildings are involved), ACI, AISC and AWS except where such
requirements conflict with the criteria.

3.

DEPTH OF SUPPORT STRUCTURES


Underpinning walls or piers which support buildings or other structures and which
also form a portion of the excavation support system shall extend to a minimum depth
of two feet below the bottom elevation of the excavation.

4.

METHODS

4.1

Pier, Pile or Caisson Method of Underpinning


If soil conditions, structure size and proximity to an excavation dictate piers, piles or
caissons for underpinning of an existing structure, such piers, piles or caissons shall
extend below a sloping plane which is defined as follows: The plane passes through
a horizontal line which is located two feet below the bottom of the excavation, and
which is also located within the vertical plane containing the face of that excavation
closest to the structure foundation to be underpinned; the plane shall slope upwards
and away from the excavation at an inclination which shall be established by the
Designer, on a case-by-case basis. The supports shall be founded on stable soil mass
and extended beyond the slope of the soil wedge failure plane.

END

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

SEISMIC DESIGN
CONTENTS

1.

SCOPE

2.

DESIGN POLICY

3.

DESIGN CODES

4.

STRUCTURE TYPES

5.

DESIGN EARTHQUAKES/ DESIGN GROUND MOTIONS


5.1
Design Ground Motions
5.2
Design Time Histories

6.

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES


6.1
Bridges
6.2
Aerial Passenger Stations
6.3
At Grade Passenger Stations
6.4
Underground Passenger Stations
6.5
Buildings
6.6
Earth Retaining Structures
6.7
Cut-and-Cover Subway Line Structures
6.8
Bored Tunnel Linings
6.9
Equipment and Equipment Supports

7.

SEISMIC INSTRUMENTATION
7.1
Seismic Triggers/Alarms for Elevators and Escalators
7.2
System Seismic Sensing Instrumentation/Alarms

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FACILITY DESIGN - CRITERIA

CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL
SEISMIC DESIGN

1.

SCOPE
All structures, equipment, and equipment supports shall be designed to resist the
ground motions and meet the acceptance criteria specified in this document. All
components in the District are intended to meet, as a minimum, the provisions in
applicable State and National codes, which are generally focused toward life safety.
Applicable State and National codes are used as much as possible, however
modifications for enhanced performance are made that reflect the importance of the
BART system and the importance of specific types of structures and equipment for
restoration and maintaining operability of the system following future earthquakes.
Different structures and equipment have different functions and importance to system
operation. Structures with greater importance will be designed for higher reliability
through use of higher ground motion levels and/or more restrictive acceptance
criteria.

2.

DESIGN POLICY
The goal of these criteria is to ensure safety, and to provide post-earthquake
performance consistent with the function and importance of the facility or equipment.
It is the goal of this policy to avoid prolonged interruption of BART operations due
to structural failure or damage, and to protect the massive capital investment
represented by BARTs permanent stationary facilities. The criteria reflect the lack
of redundancy and importance of operability of the BART system.

3.

DESIGN CODES
These Seismic Criteria make reference to, or incorporate (with or without
modification) the following principal design codes (Latest Edition):

CBC - The California Building Code

ACI - American Concrete Institute, Building Code Requirements for


Reinforced Concrete, ACI 318

AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel


Construction, Allowable Stress Design, Part 5 Specifications and Codes; and
American Institute of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design.

AWS Structural Welding Code, Steel,


Bridge Welding Code ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1.5

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4.

CBDS California Department of Transportation ("Caltrans") Bridge


Design Specifications, latest edition. The CBDS shall be understood to include
the following documents:

Bridge Memo to Designers Manual

Bridge Design Practice Manual

Bridge Design Aids Manual

Bridge Design Details Manual

Standard Drawings

Seismic Design Memorandum

Seismic Design Criteria (SDC)

STRUCTURE TYPES
Seismic design requirements and procedures are given in Article 6. herein, which has
nine subdivisions. These subdivisions deal with the respective seismic design for the
following nine structure types:
1)

BART Aerial Guideway Structures, pedestrian and other BART bridges


crossing over BART tracks are collectively referred to as "Bridges". For
discussion of requirements for bridges by outside agencies over BART tracks,
see Seismic Design section in BART Facilities Standards Facility Design Guidelines.

2)

Aerial Passenger Stations.

3)

At Grade Passenger Stations.

4)

Underground Passenger Stations.

5)

All other Above-Ground Structures, including station parking garages,


buildings, sound walls and miscellaneous structures, collectively referred to as
"Buildings".

6)

Earth Retaining Structures, including U-walls and retaining walls.

7)

Cut-and-Cover Subway Line Structures.

8)

Bored Tunnel Linings.

9)

Equipment and Equipment Supports.

Passenger Station Type is defined by the elevation of the tracks entering the station.
When the tracks are on aerial structures the passenger station is designated as an
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Aerial Station; when the tracks are at grade, the passenger station is designated as an
At-Grade Station; when the tracks are in a cut-and-cover structure or bored tunnel,
the passenger station is designated as an Underground Station.
5.

DESIGN EARTHQUAKES/ DESIGN GROUND MOTIONS

5.1

Design Ground Motions


The higher ground motions from a site specific 10% in 50 year probabilistic analysis
or the median plus 0.5 deterministic ground motions from the San Andreas moment
magnitude 8.0 event shall be used in the design of bridges and revenue structures.
Revenue structures are structures whose structural integrity is necessary for continued
operation of trains, and include aerial guideways, passenger stations, tunnels, cut-andcover subway line structures, ventilation structures, and earth retaining structures
along track alignments.
Two horizontal (fault normal and fault parallel) and vertical response spectra shall be
developed. Methodology for response spectra development is discussed in the
Design Guidelines, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design.
The consultant shall retain the services of a seismologist approved by BART for peer
review of the process/methodology used for developing Design Ground Motions,
Design Time Histories, and other ground motion parameters.
Buildings, equipment and equipment anchorage shall be designed using the
methodology and ground motions in the CBC (See Article 3. herein) except as noted
in Articles 6.5 and 6.9 herein.

5.2

Design Time Histories


Time histories will be required to perform analysis when specified in these Criteria.
Time history analysis shall be performed using a minimum of three sets of spectrum
compatible time histories, unless otherwise noted. When three time histories are used
for analysis/design, the maximum response from the time histories shall be used in
analysis/design.
Each set shall contain fault-normal, fault-parallel, and vertical time histories. The
fault-normal and fault-parallel time histories should be transformed into time histories
corresponding to the longitudinal and transverse axis of the structures designed or
analyzed when not doing so will result in significant over or under prediction of
forces and displacements.
Methodology for development of the time histories and transformation to axis of the
structures is discussed in the Design Guidelines, STRUCTURAL, Seismic Design.

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6.

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES

6.1

Bridges
These provisions are applicable for the seismic design of bridges in which the
structural members resisting seismic loads are reinforced concrete. For mainline
aerial bridges and new BART bridges that cross over the mainline tracks, the intent is
to limit strains, deflections and damage under design ground motions such that these
bridges are capable of being returned to operation within 72 hours without repair or
shoring.
Bridges, whose function is less critical to the operation of the BART system, such as
those associated with the Oakland Connector, may be designed for life safety in lieu
of the functionality limits noted above.

6.1.1

Code Application. Design details for seismic design of bridges shall be in


accordance with the CBDS, ACI-318, and AISC (see Article 3. herein), except where
the requirements conflict with the provisions of this document.
Reinforcing steel shall comply with ASTM A706.

6.1.2

Seismic Performance Evaluation and Requirement. The displacement demand,


D, shall be less than the displacement capacity C given in Article 6.1.2B. Different
methods shall be used to determine displacement demand for different structure
types. Three types of structures have been defined as follows:
Type A - Simple Structures. These are structures that can be adequately modeled as
single-degree-of-freedom oscillators for horizontal motion, such as the typical BART
aerial guideway structures with single column piers or double-column bents, where
most of the structure mass is concentrated at a single level. For these structures
displacement demand and capacity shall be expressed in terms of a generalized,
controlling deflection of the structure at the top-of-the-deck elevation.
Type B - Double Level Track Structures. These are structures which carry two levels
of train tracks, but which are essentially uncoupled in the two mutually perpendicular
horizontal directions of the framing system. For these structures, displacement
demand and capacity shall be expressed in terms of a generalized controlling
deflection of the structure at the top-of-the-deck elevation of the lower track level.
Structural members above the lower track level shall remain elastic.
Type C - Complex Structures. These are structures that are strongly coupled in the
principal horizontal directions. Multiple span structures on curved alignment shall be
designed as complex structure.
All seismic performance analyses modeling shall be based on effective section
properties, accounting for cracking.

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A.

Displacement Demand (D)


The BART train load (LL) need not be considered as contributing to the
dynamic mass.
Type A - Simple Structures. The displacement demand, D, may be
determined using the corresponding response spectrum analysis, in accordance
with Article 6.1.3. The displacement demand D shall be that value obtained
from the response spectrum analysis multiplied by an adjustment factor C as
follows:
for T/T0 1 :

C = [0.8/(T/T0)] + 0.2

for T/T0 > 1 :

C=1

Where T is the fundamental natural period of vibration of the structure


including the foundation flexibility, and T0 corresponds to the peak of the input
energy spectrum, which may be taken as the intersection of the nearly constant
velocity and nearly constant acceleration ranges of the elastic response
spectrum.
Displacement demand D shall be verified as per Article 6.1.4.
Type B - Double Level Track Structures. For structures of this type, the
displacement demand D shall be determined by nonlinear time history
analysis as described in Article 6.1.4.
Type C - Complex Structures. The displacement demand for these structures
shall be determined through use of three dimensional non-linear time history
analyses as described in Article 6.1.4.
B.

Displacement Capacity (C)


The displacement capacity, C, shall be determined by non-linear static
pushover analysis as described in Article 6.1.5. The displacement capacity of
these structures shall be defined as the generalized, controlling structure
displacement that occurs when any member of the structure reaches its
allowable capacity in the pushover analysis. Member allowable capacity shall
be considered to be reached when the concrete or steel reaches the allowable
strains specified in Article 6.1.2C.
The displacement capacity, C, shall include all displacements attributed to
flexibility in the foundations, bent caps, and other elastic and inelastic member
responses in the system.
All structure members and connections shall also satisfy the strength
requirements under the Group D combination of loads. The earthquake load,
EQ, appearing in the Group D combination of loads shall be the internal forces

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occurring in the respective member or connection when the displacement


capacity is reached.
C.

Allowable Strains
Allowable tensile strain for Grade 60 reinforcement (su):
su = 0.09 #10 bars and smaller
su = 0.06 #11 bars and larger
Concrete allowable strain (cu) shall be defined as 2/3 the value calculated as
per Section 3.2 of SDC.

D.

Allowable Displacement
The maximum displacement demand, D, shall be less than the displacement
capacity C.
The maximum residual deflection for normal height structures (less than 25
feet above ground) shall also be limited to 6 inches. For normal height
structures for which non-linear time history analysis is not required or
performed, a maximum transient deflection of 12 inches may be used as the
limiting deflection in lieu of trying to determine residual deflections. Residual
deflections are limited because of the perception on safety of columns that are
out-of-alignment, and to improve ability to restore post-earthquake service.
Higher deflections are allowed for higher structures. Deflections shall not
result in a higher drift angle than allowed for normal structures.

6.1.3

Response Spectrum Analysis. The following requirements shall be met:


A.

A sufficient number of modes shall be included to account for at least 90


percent of the total mass in the horizontal directions; the modal response
contributions shall be combined with the CQC method.

B.

To account for effects of earthquake loading in mutually orthogonal three


directions, the maximum response for a single component quantity shall be
obtained by combining the response spectrum analyses using the SRSS
method. The three directions of earthquake input are the longitudinal (L),
transverse (T) and vertical (V) directions. The maximum earthquake response
(E) of a particular scalar quantity shall be calculated from:
E = ( EL2 + ET2 + EV2 )1/2
where EL, ET and EV are the responses due to longitudinal, transverse
and vertical direction earthquake inputs, respectively.
Seismic loading in the vertical direction does not need to be considered in
combination with horizontal loading for design/analysis of foundations or
piles. Accept for the provisions in Section 7.2.2 of the SDC, vertical seismic

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loading may be neglected for those bridges that are not critical to mainline
BART service. Vertical seismic loading in the above equation could be
neglected for mainline bridges when justified by case-by-case determination of
the effect of vertical seismic loading, however the provisions of Section 7.2.2
of the CBDS are still applicable.
C.

In certain instances the SRSS method will be conservative. The designer has
the option of using the "100/40/40" vector rule in lieu of the SRSS
combination. According to this rule, the following combinations shall be
considered:
(1) 1.0EL

0.4ET +

0.4EV

(2) 0.4EL

1.0ET +

0.4EV

(3) 0.4EL

0.4ET +

1.0EV

For seismic loading in the vertical direction see 6.1.3B.

6.1.4

D.

Appropriate linear stiffness shall be assumed for abutments and expansion


hinges. Analyses shall be performed for compression models (abutments
active, gaps between frames closed) and for tension models (abutments
inactive, gaps between frames open), to obtain a maximum response envelope.

E.

Abutment stiffness shall be determined in accordance to Section 7.8 of the


SDC.

F.

Additional modeling and analysis considerations are shown below under


Article 6.1.6.

Nonlinear Time History Analysis. Nonlinear time history analysis is required for
Double Level Track and Complex Structures. In cases when it is necessary to
conduct a nonlinear time history analysis for the calculation of displacement demand,
D, as explained in Article 6.1.2.A., the analysis shall conform to the following.
At a minimum, the non-linear time history analysis shall comply with the following
guidelines:
A.

Dead and live loads shall be applied as an initial condition. Trainloads need
not be included in the dynamic mass.

B.

Nonlinear time history analyses shall be performed three times for each
structure, each time using a different set of time histories. The design shall be
based on envelopes of the three sets of results obtained from these analyses.

C.

After completion of each time history analysis, it shall be verified that those
structure members, which were assumed to remain elastic, and which were
modeled using elastic material properties, do in fact remain elastic and satisfy
strength requirements under the Group D combination of loads.

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D.

Additional modeling and analysis considerations are given in Article 6.1.6.

E.

The designer shall develop a Non-Linear Time History Analysis Plan to be


submitted to BART for review and comment. The plan should provide details
of the proposed analysis including analysis software, modeling assumptions,
and modeling techniques that will be employed.

Nonlinear time history analysis shall be performed for representative Type A


structures using the controlling time history and a simplified non-linear model to
verify that there are not characteristics of the structure or near field ground motion
that would result in a significant under-prediction of displacements by use of the
response spectra analysis. For Type A structures, simplified representations of elastic
and inelastic elements may be used, with elastic elements reduced to lumped masses,
equivalent stiffness elements and/or boundary conditions, and plastic hinges
represented by simple discrete non-linear elements. When the controlling time
history is not apparent, all three time histories shall be used. Methodology, selected
representative type A structures, and results shall be reviewed by BART.
6.1.5

6.1.6

Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis. When nonlinear static pushover analysis is


used to determine displacement capacity, C. The following procedures shall be
followed:
A.

Dead loads and live loads shall be applied first.

B.

The applied lateral loads shall be proportional to the first mode inertial loads;
the displacement shall be increased by increasing the applied lateral loads until
the material strain reaches the specified allowable strains.

C.

Double level track structures shall be designed in accordance with the weak
first story concept where no yielding is allowed in the second story structure,
i.e., the portion of the structure above the lower track shall remain elastic
throughout the push-over analysis.

D.

After completion of the push-over analysis, it shall be verified that those


structure members, which were assumed to remain elastic, and which were
modeled using elastic material properties, do in fact remain elastic and satisfy
strength requirements under the Group D combination of loads.

E.

Additional modeling and analysis considerations are shown below under


Article 6.1.6.

Other Considerations for Modeling and Analysis.


A.

Foundation Flexibility: Soil-foundation-structure interaction effects shall be


considered. The foundation model shall include consideration of the stiffness
of piles and footings, with appropriate representation of the effects of soilstructure interaction. The seismic input for the analysis shall be compatible
with the soil/foundation/structure model selected.

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B.

Boundary Conditions: In cases where the structural analysis model includes


only a portion of the whole structure, the model shall also contain appropriate
elements at the boundary, included to capture mass and stiffness effects of the
portions of the structure left out of the model.

C.

Displacement amplification and column strength reduction due to P- effects


shall be applied.

D.

Control of yielding: No plastic hinging shall occur in beam members that are
in the gravity load path of the BART trainloads.

E.

Yielding in foundation structural elements, i.e., footings (pile caps), piles,


shafts is not permitted. Foundation elements shall be detailed with sufficient
strength to force plastic hinging in the columns under all design conditions
including pushover analysis.

F.

Foundation rocking of pile footings is not allowed.

G.

Pressures under spread footings shall not exceed the allowables given in the
Geotechnical Report.

6.1.7

Joint Internal Forces. Continuous force transfer through the column/superstructure


and column/footing joints shall be ensured. These joint forces require that the joint
be sufficiently reinforced and of adequate size to ensure essentially elastic behavior in
the joint regions and that brittle failures are precluded under the effects of the design
ground motions.

6.2

Aerial Passenger Stations

6.2.1

Design requirements and procedures. Track carrying portions of the station that
are similar to bridge structures shall be designed according to the provisions for
bridges given in Article 6.1. The difference in longitudinal stiffness between adjacent
aerial structures and the aerial station shall be considered in design. Other portions of
the station, such as independent stair towers or ground-supported enclosures below
the aerial bents, shall be designed according to the provisions in Article 6.3.

6.3

At Grade Passenger Stations


For passenger stations on BARTs mainlines, including at grade passenger stations,
the performance goal is to limit structural damage under design ground motions to a
level that would not preclude returning the stations to operation within 72 hours
without repair or shoring. This requires the structural system to retain the capacity to
safely accommodate dead, live, and seismic loads, including train and passenger
loads following design ground motions.
Stations that are not on the main passenger lines, such as those on the Oakland
Connector, may be designed for life safety in lieu of functionality under design
ground motions.

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6.3.1

Code Application. Seismic design of At Grade Passenger Stations shall be governed


by the provisions of the CBC (see Article 3. herein), except as noted in this section.

6.3.2

Design Ground Motions. Design accelerations for structures shall be determined


from site specific response spectra developed as per Article 5.1.
Time histories shall be developed as per Article 5.2, if deemed required for analysis
or design.

6.3.3

Importance Factor. The importance factor "I", as defined and used in the CBC,
shall be 1.5.

6.3.4

Restrictions on Structural Systems and Configurations. Restrictions on structural


systems and configurations shall meet the provisions of the CBC. To help ensure
functionality goals can be obtained, the following structural systems and
configurations are also prohibited for the building vertical and lateral load carrying
systems.
Prohibited Structural Systems:
A.

Light steel framed bearing walls with tension-only bracing.

B.

Concentric braced frames, except frames employing buckling-restrained braces


or friction dampers installed in series with the braces.

C.

Masonry moment-resisting wall frames.

D.

Concrete Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames.

E.

Ordinary Steel or Concrete Moment Resisting Frames.

F.

Dual systems employing Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frames.

G.

Cantilevered Column structures.

H.

Shear wall-frame interactive systems.

I.

Vertical or lateral load carrying concrete tilt-up panels.

J.

Precast concrete columns.

K.

Undefined Systems.

Prohibited Configurations:
A.

Weak story structures.

B.

Soft story structures.

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On a case by case basis, BART may approve use of a structural system or


configuration described above, however the designer must demonstrate adequate
provisions in design and detailing have been taken to ensure desired functionality.
6.3.5

Peer Review. An outside reviewer, approved by BART, shall be retained by the


consultant/contractor to perform limited peer review of BART at-grade passenger
stations. The reviewer shall be a licensed Structural Engineer with extensive building
design and analysis experience. Involvement in the development of seismic
provisions in the building codes, and participation in earthquake investigations is
desirable. The reviewers duties are to ensure that the proposed system, configuration
and connection details have the appropriate redundancy, ductility, margin, load path
and compatibility to meet BARTs performance goals. The reviewer shall be
involved in the conceptual stage, and will probably not need to have much, if any,
involvement past the conceptual stage. The responsibility for structural design still
remains fully with the Engineer of Record.

6.4

Underground Passenger Stations

6.4.1

Code Application. Design details for the seismic design of reinforced concrete
underground passenger stations shall be in accordance with the provisions of ACI318 (see Article 3), and shall also comply with the following requirements:
A.

The amount of main vertical reinforcement in walls and transverse horizontal


reinforcement in slabs shall not be less than the lesser of: (1) 0.004 times the
gross concrete area of the member, and (2) 1.33 times the area of
reinforcement required by ultimate strength design.

B.

The minimum area of longitudinal (temperature and shrinkage) reinforcement


shall be 0.002 times the gross concrete area for slabs and 0.0025 times the
gross concrete area for walls. This temperature and shrinkage reinforcement
area need not exceed 0.79 in2/ft placed at each face regardless of the thickness
of the wall or slab.

C.

The reinforcing bar spacing shall be in accordance with the provisions of ACI.

D.

The maximum steel ratio in each face across the wall sections shall not exceed
two percent.

E.

The minimum thickness of exterior walls and top and bottom slabs of box
structures shall be 24 inches. These components shall also be of sufficient
thickness to resist shear due to static loads only without shear reinforcement. To
ensure ductility capacity of these walls, #4 bar crossties shall be provided
within a distance of twice the wall thickness from each interior corner. The
crosstie spacing shall be 6" maximum vertically, and 12" maximum in
longitudinal direction.

F.

The reinforcement shall be placed in two curtains, one at each surface.

G.

Reinforcing steel shall comply with ASTM A706.

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6.4.2

Seismic Loads. Transverse seismic effects on underground structures take the form
of deformations that cannot be changed significantly by stiffening the structures. The
structure should instead be designed and detailed to withstand the imposed
deformations without losing the capacity to carry applied loads and to meet the
performance goals for the structure (continued safe operation following the design
ground motions, and prevention of excessive cracking that will lead to unacceptable
levels of water infiltration). Shear capacity degradation and compressive strains shall
be evaluated. If necessary, additional confinement reinforcement shall be added to
increase ductility and shear capacity. Interior columns and longitudinal interior walls
shall be designed and detailed to accommodate transverse racking displacements.
Interior columns and transverse walls shall also be designed to resist dynamic forces
in the longitudinal axis of the station.
Underground structures often have abrupt changes in transverse stiffness. Examples
include locations of stairwell, elevator and end walls. Design and detailing of the
stiffer elements and adjacent roof and floor slabs shall accommodate these differences
in stiffness, or flexible joints shall be used to allow deferential movement.
The transverse displacement of the structure will depend on soil properties, particle
velocity, shear wave propagation velocity, and relative stiffness of the soil and
structure. Transverse structural displacement can be determined from soil structure
interaction analysis.
Free-field displacements and soil properties for soil structure interaction analysis can
be determined using a computer program such as SHAKE. Input ground motions
shall be from bedrock or a firm soil layer surface, or if bedrock or firm soil is too
deep, from the ground surface. The structural displacements can then be determined
using a soil-structure interaction analysis. When the structure is not as stiff as the soil
it replaces (most often the case), the structural displacement will be much larger than
the free-field displacement (up to 3 times the displacement for deep structures and
possibly larger for shallow structures). The largest displacement obtained from three
time histories that have been transformed to the transverse direction of the structure
shall be used.
In lieu of SHAKE and soil-structure interaction analysis, the designer may propose a
method to conservatively estimate free-field displacements, use a conservative
multiplier for structural displacements, and then show structural adequacy for this
displacement. The method shall be reviewed and approved by the District.
Vertical accelerations based on ground level response spectra will be conservative for
buried structures. Vertical seismic loads should be based on soil structure interaction
models when use of ground level response spectra leads to overly conservative
designs.
When design ground motions specified at the bedrock or at a firm soil layer at depth
are used as the input motions for design of a partially or fully embedded structure,
such motions shall be propagated upward through the free-field soil column at the site
using an appropriate convolution site response analysis procedure.

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When design ground motions specified at the ground surface at a site are used as the
input motions for design of a partially or fully embedded structure, such motions shall
be propagated downward through the free-field soil column at the site using an
appropriate deconvolution site response analysis procedure. The convolution or
deconvolution site response analysis shall be performed using a site-specific soil
column with appropriately defined soil profile and dynamic soil properties. The
analyses, both horizontal and vertical, shall generate free-field soil response motions
over the depth of the buried portion of the embedded structure that are needed for
seismic design of the structure.
An equivalent linearized one-dimensional site (convolution or deconvolution)
response analysis procedure as implemented in the computer program SHAKE may
be used. Such analyses shall follow the guidelines given by the District. When
performing a vertical site response analysis using a computer program such as
SHAKE, the constrained elastic moduli (or compression wave velocities) of soils
instead of the shear moduli (or shear wave velocities) shall be used and the analysis
shall be conducted without strain-compatibility iterations.
Furthermore, in
performing the analysis, the fully saturated soils below the ground water table at the
site shall have a compression wave velocity not less than the compression wave
velocity of water which is about 4,800 ft/sec.
In the soil structure analysis, the gross moment of inertia (Ig) shall be used for slabs
and half of the gross moment of inertia (0.5 Ig) shall be used for walls.
6.4.3

Combination of Loads and Load Factors. The seismic loads shall be included in
the following combination of loads, with a load factor of 1.0 as shown:
U = 1.0 (D + L + H + (EQ/1.5)), where
D = Dead loads
L = Live loads
H = Loads due to weight of overburden materials
EQ = EQ1, or EQ2, or EQ3 Earthquake loads
EQT = Earthquake loads in transverse direction
EQV = Earthquake loads in the vertical direction
EQL = Earthquake loads in the longitudinal direction
The following three seismic load cases shall be applied:
EQ1 = EQT + 0.4EQV + 0.4EQL
EQ2 = 0.4EQT + EQV + 0.4EQL
EQ3 = 0.4EQT + 0.4EQV + EQL

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In most cases EQ3 will not control and can be eliminated by inspection. Also
influence of EQL will in the vast majority of cases be minor and can be eliminated in
calculation EQ1 and EQ2 of by inspection. Exception may be the out of plane bending
check of tall interior transverse walls.
6.4.4

Allowable strains. Strains in exterior walls shall be below 2/3 of the ultimate strains
given in Article 6.1.2 C.

6.4.5

Interface Joints. Where passenger stations connect to cut-and-cover subway line


sections, a flexible joint shall be provided. The amount of relative interface
movement (transverse, vertical and longitudinal) that such a joint shall be able to
accommodate is 4 inches.

6.5

Buildings
The criteria and performance goal for a specific building depends on the importance
of the building to the function of the BART system. For buildings whose integrity is
essential to the operation of the BART system, the minimum performance goal is to
limit damage under CBC design events such that reoccupancy of the building within
72 hours is not precluded, and reoccupancy would not require major repairs or
shoring. For other structures (also known as Non-Essential or Ordinary Buildings),
the minimum goal is life safety under CBC design events. Because of the desire to
protect BART capital investment, a higher design force is specified for Ordinary
Buildings than required by the CBC. Parking structures are non-essential, however
because of the relatively poor performance of many parking structures during past
earthquakes, more restrictions and requirements are placed on parking structures
relative to other Non-Essential Buildings.

6.5.1

Code Application. Seismic design of buildings (see Article 4. for definition) shall be
governed by the provisions of the CBC (see Article 3) as modified in Articles 6.5.3
through 6.5.7.

6.5.2

Ground Motion. The design ground motions and forces shall be as specified in the
CBC.

6.5.3.

Importance Factor. The importance factor "I", as defined and used in the CBC,
shall have the following values:

I = 1.50: For structures whose integrity is essential to the normal operation


of BART trains. These buildings will be called Essential Buildings.

I = 1.25: For all other structures. These buildings will be called Non-essential
or Ordinary Buildings.

Buildings where I = 1.5 is applicable shall be identified in the bid documents.


6.5.4

Restrictions on Structural Systems and Configurations. Restrictions on structural


systems and configurations shall meet the provisions of the CBC. To help ensure
functionality goals can be obtained, the following structural systems and

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configurations are also prohibited for the building vertical and lateral load carrying
systems of essential buildings.
Prohibited Structural Systems:
A.

Light steel framed bearing walls with tension-only bracing.

B.

Concentric braced frames, except frames employing buckling-restrained braces


or friction dampers installed in series with the braces.

C.

Masonry moment-resisting wall frames.

D.

Concrete Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames.

E.

Ordinary Steel or Concrete Moment Resisting Frames.

F.

Dual systems employing Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frames.

G.

Cantilevered Column structures.

H.

Shear wall-frame interactive systems.

I.

Vertical or lateral load carrying concrete tilt-up panels.

J.

Precast concrete columns.

K.

Undefined Systems.

Prohibited Configurations:
A.

Weak story structures.

B.

Soft story structures.

On a case-by-case basis, BART may approve use of a structural system or


configuration described above when the designer demonstrates adequate provisions in
design and detailing have been taken to ensure desired functionality.
6.5.5

Peer Review. An outside reviewer, approved by BART, shall be retained by the


consultant/contractor to perform limited peer review of BART Essential Buildings.
The reviewer shall be a licensed Structural Engineer with extensive building design
and analysis experience. Involvement in the development of seismic provisions in the
building codes, and participation in earthquake investigations is desirable. The
reviewers duties are to ensure that the proposed system, configuration and
connection details have the appropriate redundancy, ductility, margin, load path and
compatibility to meet BARTs performance goals. The reviewer shall be involved in
the conceptual design stage, and will probably not need to have much, if any,
involvement past the conceptual design stage. The responsibility for structural design
still remains fully with the Engineer of Record.

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6.5.6

Parking Structures. Parking structures are classified as non-essential, and shall be


designed with an importance factor of 1.25. Due to the poor performance of many
parking structures during past earthquakes, design of parking structures shall comply
with the provision of Articles 6.5.4 and 6.5.5. In addition, design analysis shall
account for the behavior of ramps on lateral structural response, and any forces
transferred between diaphragm levels by ramps shall be included in the design of
these elements unless specific provisions are made to isolate ramps from participation
in the lateral force resisting system.

6.5.7

Sound Walls. Earthquake loading for sound walls, Fp, shall be determined in
accordance with Section 1632A.2 of the CBC. The following value shall be used for
parameters Ip:

Ip = 1.5 for sound walls located at a distance less than 1.5h from the nearest
BART track centerline,

Ip = 1.25 for sound walls located at a distance equal to or greater than 1.5h
from the nearest BART track centerline,

In the above:
h = height of the sound wall above grade.
6.6

Earth Retaining Structures

6.6.1

Code Application. Reinforced concrete earth retaining structures shall comply with
the provisions of ACI-318 (see Article 3). Reinforcing steel shall comply with
ASTM A706.

6.6.2

Soil Types. Soil parameters shall be determined through site specific geotechnical
evaluations. A project specific Geotechnical Report shall be developed that includes
soil parameters, and static and seismic earth pressures. For structures retaining
drained cohesionless (granular) soils, lateral seismic earth pressure shall be
determined in accordance with Articles 6.6.3 and 6.6.4.

6.6.3

See Facilities Design, Criteria,


Seismic Loading on Yielding Walls.
STRUCTURAL, Earth Retaining Structures for the definition of yielding walls. The
total lateral soil pressure for yielding walls subject to seismic loading shall be
determined by adding a seismic pressure to the static pressure (active pressure case,
see Section Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL, Earth Retaining Structures).
The seismic earth pressures on the yielding walls shall be calculated using
Mononobe-Okabe analysis assuming horizontal ground acceleration equal to one half
of the peak ground acceleration. Vertical accelerations can be ignored in determining
the seismic soil pressures. The resultant force shall be assumed to act at a distance
0.6h (h = height of wall) above the base of the wall.
The seismic loading shall also include the inertial force of the wall itself assuming an
acceleration of one half the peak ground acceleration.

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6.6.4

Seismic Loading on Rigid Walls. See Facilities Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL,


Earth Retaining Structures for the definition of rigid walls.
The total lateral soil pressure for rigid (non-yielding) walls subject to seismic loading
shall be 1.5 times the pressure determined for yielding walls. Rigid retaining walls
shall be designed such that they behave in a ductile manner.

6.6.5

U-Walls. U-walls shall be classified as either yielding or rigid walls in accordance


with the deformability and rigidity criteria given in Facility Design, Criteria,
STRUCTURAL, Earth Retaining Structures and subsequently shall be designed in
accordance with Article 6.6.3 or 6.6.4, as applicable.

6.6.6

Soil Bearing Pressure. Under seismic loading, soil bearing pressure need not be
considered in the sizing of a spread footing when the spread footing has a minimum
factor of safety (FS) of 3.0 against bearing capacity failure under dead and live loads.
However, the footing strength, in flexure and shear shall be adequate to resist
ultimate bearing pressures.

6.6.7

Overall Stability. The stability against overturning of an earth retaining structure


under seismic loads shall have a factor of safety of at least 1.1. The stability of the
earth retaining structure against sliding under seismic loads need not be considered;
however, the magnitude of sliding displacement of the earth retaining structure under
the design earthquake ground motion shall be evaluated to ensure that such
displacements will not adversely impact the operational requirements of the structure
(such as infringement on the train dynamic envelope).

6.6.8

Combination of Loads and Load Factor. The seismic loads shall be included in the
following combination of loads, with a load factor of 1.0 as shown:
U = 1.0 (D + L + H + EQ), where
D = Dead loads
L = Live loads
H = Loads due to weight of overburden materials.
EQ = Earthquake loads (as defined above in Articles 6.6.3 and 6.6.4).

6.7

Cut-and-Cover Subway Line Structures

6.7.1

Design requirements and procedures. Cut-and-cover subway line structures shall


be designed according to the provisions of Underground Passenger Stations, Article
6.4 herein. In addition, for cut-and-cover and bored tunnel subway structures longer
than 1500 feet, deformations/stresses due to horizontally traveling seismic waves
shall be considered in seismic design and/or detailing.

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6.7.2

Seismic Stresses/Deformations and Joint Movement of Long Continuous


Underground Structures Due to Horizontally Travelling Waves
Stresses and/or joint movements can be significant in long underground structures.
For cut-and-cover structures and bored tunnels less than 1500 feet long, or bored
tunnels consisting of short longitudinal sections with relatively flexible connections,
like BARTs existing steel panelized bored tunnels, the stresses that can be built-up
and movement at joints are small and can be neglected. For other cut-and-cover
structures and bored tunnel configurations, stresses and joint displacements shall be
assessed.
An upper bound assumption for stresses is to assume that the structure will move with
the soil (structural stiffness is relatively small compared to that of the soil) and the
friction between the structure and soil is high. In this case, the structure will deform
with the free-field soil medium in which the structure is embedded. The maximum
strain in the axial direction of the structure (amax) may be estimated by dividing the
maximum free-field soil particle velocity in the axial direction, va max, by the apparent
horizontal traveling wave velocity, C, i.e.,
amax = (va max)/C
The maximum bending curvature of the structure, bmax, may be estimated by dividing
the maximum free-field soil particle acceleration in the transverse direction of the
structure, ab max, by C 2, i.e.,
bmax = (ab max)/C 2
High unacceptable strains and stresses can be mitigated through providing joints
along the length of the cut-and-cover structure or bored tunnel.
Joints shall be designed to accommodate movement between the structures joined.
Joint movement shall be determined by considering friction between the structure and
surrounding soil, soil structure interaction, and spatial variation of ground motions.
Spatial variations should be included in the form of seismic input time histories to the
structures at sufficiently close spacing along the structural alignment with timephasing of the time-histories consistent with an apparent horizontal wave-propagation
(or wave-passage) speed of 2.5 km/sec.

6.7.3

Interface Joints. Where a cut-and-cover subway line section connects to a more


massive structure (such as a passenger station or ventilation structure), a flexible joint
shall be provided. The amount of relative interface movement (transverse, vertical
and longitudinal) that this joint shall be able to accommodate is 4 inches minimum.

6.8

Bored Tunnel Linings

6.8.1

Design Method and Code Application. Design details for the reinforced concrete
tunnel linings shall be in accordance with the provisions of the ACI (see Article 3),
and structural steel design shall be in accordance with the provisions of the AISC (see
Article 3); however, the following requirements shall have precedence:

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A.

Structural steel for tunnel linings shall comply with ASTM A36.

B.

Connection bolts of concrete or steel lining segments shall be heavy hex


structural bolts with heavy hex nuts and shall comply with ASTM A325.
Connection details shall be designed so as to provide access to the bolts for insitu inspection and replacement, except for bolts covered by invert concrete.
Connection inspection shall be carried out after a major seismic event.

C.

Reinforcing steel shall comply with ASTM A706.

D.

The reinforcement ratio for concrete linings shall not be less than 0.004 in
either direction (longitudinal and circumferential). The reinforcing bar spacing
shall not exceed 12 inches, nor a distance equal to 1.5 times the wall thickness.
The reinforcement shall be continuous and evenly distributed around the
section, and shall be placed in two curtains, one at each surface. These
requirements are to ensure against excessive cracking and leakage into the
bored tunnel. These requirements may be modified if it can be demonstrated
to the satisfaction of the District that there is adequate control of cracking and
leakage.

E.

For segmental tunnel concrete or steel lining construction, the capacity of the
connection between adjacent rings in the longitudinal direction shall be
equivalent to, or greater than the following minimum requirement: One oneinch-diameter bolt per 7.5 degrees of arc. Bolts connecting the segments in a
single ring shall be designed as moment-resisting joints, in accordance with
Article 6.8.4.

6.8.2

Seismic Loads. The effects of ovaling (racking) and vertical seismic shall be
determined according to Article 6.4.2. Design of bored tunnels shall take into
consideration deformations incurred during construction as well as those from dead,
live and seismic loads. The analysis should take into consideration that the maximum
stress/strain in the bored tunnel from seismic and non-seismic ovaling will occur at
different locations.

6.8.3

Effects of seismic traveling waves. Stresses due to seismic traveling waves along
the longitudinal axis of long tunnels need to be mitigated. For steel tunnel segments,
joints generally offer enough flexibility such that longitudinal stresses are small and
can be neglected.
Stresses in concrete tunnels can be mitigated through installation of flexible joints
between segments of the tunnel. If sufficient joints are not provided, the concrete
tunnel shall be designed to accommodate these stresses.
The impact of traveling waves shall be assessed as per Article 6.7.2.

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6.8.4

6.8.5

Special Requirements.
A.

The radial joints of segmental tunnel linings shall be designed as momentresisting joints. No yielding is allowed in the joints, either in the bolts or in the
end plates of the steel lining.

B.

The tunnel lining design as a structural system shall be adequate to resist


flexure, shear and buckling, including buckling of the reinforcement in
compression.

Interface Joints. Where a bored tunnel line section connects to a more massive
structure (such as an underground passenger station or ventilation structure), a
flexible joint shall be provided.
The amount of relative interface movement (transverse, vertical, and longitudinal),
which such a joint shall be able to accommodate, is 4 inches minimum.

6.9

Equipment and Equipment Supports

6.9.1

Code Application. Seismic design of equipment, and equipment supports and


anchorage shall be governed by the provisions of Section 1632A.2 of the CBC (see
Article 3). The Importance Factor "Ip" shall have a value of 1.5 for essential
equipment. Essential equipment is defined as equipment required for safety
(including fire protection, vent fans, emergency power) and/or the operation of trains
(including UPS, batteries, inverters, power control equipment). Non-essential
equipment and equipment supports and anchorage shall be designed using an
Importance Factor of 1.0.
Equipment that is deemed essential and fragile may require dynamic analysis or
shake table tests. BART will identify equipment that requires dynamic analysis or
shake table testing in the specifications.

6.9.2

Minimum Anchorage. The following minimum requirements shall apply for floor
anchorage of the equipment and for anchorage of the equipment-supporting
structures:
A.

The minimum anchorage to the floor shall consist of at least two half-inch
diameter bolts at each support point, and at least four half-inch diameter bolts
per piece of equipment.

B.

The embedment of anchor bolts in concrete shall be sufficient to develop the


strength of the bolt, both in pullout force and in shear.

7.

SEISMIC INSTRUMENTATION

7.1

Seismic Triggers/Alarms for Elevators and Escalators


Seismic triggers/alarms shall be installed for specific new elevators and escalators in
buildings, parking structures, passenger stations, and other facilities to automatically

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trigger shut-down when a specified level of acceleration is reached. See section on


communications and seismic sensor of the BART Facilities Standards, Facility
Design, Criteria, Architecture, Passenger Stations.
7.2

System Seismic Sensing Instrumentation/Alarms

7.2.1

Location of alarms. Seismic sensing instruments/alarms shall be placed in specific


passenger stations for the purpose of assisting in making immediate post-earthquake
decisions on operation of trains. Not all stations will require seismic sensing
instruments/alarms. When required at a passenger station, only one seismic sensing
instrument/alarm per station shall be installed. See project specific documents for
seismic sensing instrument/alarm locations.

7.2.2

Seismic Sensing Instrument/alarm requirements. The instrument/alarm shall meet


the following minimum functional requirements.
The instrument shall be capable of measuring horizontal ground accelerations in two
perpendicular directions. An alarm shall be triggered when acceleration in either
horizontal direction exceeds 0.1g.
The instrument/alarm shall be capable and wired to perform the following function
when triggered at 0.1g:

Providing an indication in the Station Agent Booth.

Sounding an audible gong six times over the station public address system.

Providing an audible gong at the power support desk in the Operations


Control Center, and an indication on the CRT that shows where the alarm
was triggered.

The instrument/alarm shall have no effect on the Train Control System at this
time. Provisions for future vital link to the Train Control System shall be
provided.

Wiring diagrams shall be provided in project specific documents by BART.

END

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CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

VEHICULAR BRIDGES
CONTENTS
1.

SCOPE

2.

DESIGN CODES

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CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL

VEHICULAR BRIDGES
1.

SCOPE
The criteria set forth in this Section govern BARTs design of vehicular bridges
which, in the event of their failure, have the potential for endangering BART
facilities, or to interfere with BART operations.

2.

DESIGN CODES
The design of structures within the scope of this section shall be in accordance with
the provisions set forth in these Criteria, and shall also meet the requirements of the
CBDS, ACI, AISC, and AWS (See Facility Design, Criteria, STRUCTURAL,
General, Article 2.2, Basis of BART Design Criteria), except where such
requirements are in conflict with these Criteria.

END

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