You are on page 1of 186

y.

THE ART
OF

MUSICAL COMPOSITION
BY

De. S.

JADASSOHN,

PROFESSOR AT THE ROYAL CONSERVATORIUINI OF MUSIC,

PART

LEIPZIG.

PART SECOND.

FIRST.
I

course of instruction in pure

Course of instruction

harmonic writing.
\'o\. I.

Vol.

II.

Vol.

III.

Manual of Harmony.
Treatise on Counterpoint.
Instmction on Canon and

Vol. IV. Manual of Musical Form.


Vol. V.

Manual of Instrumentation.

Fugue.

VOLUME FOUR:

MANUAL OF MUSICAL FORM.

te!lii!J/>ll!'

BREITKOPF AND HARTEL


LEIPZIG,

in the free

style.

BRUSSELS,

LONDON,

i8q2.

NEW YORK.

From the Bequest

of

JOSEPH NICKERSON ASHTON

MANUAL
OF

MUSICAL FORM
BY

Dk. S.

JADASSOHN,

PROFESSOR AT THE ROYAL CONSERVATORIUM OF MUSIC,

LEIPZIG.

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN


BY

E.

THIS

M.

BABBER.

WORK IS

COPYRIGHT.

BREITKOPF AND HARTEL


LEIPZIG,

BRUSSELS,

LONDON, NEW YORK.


i8Q2.

Boston University
College of Musle
Library

58

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
The
by

my

translation of

my

"Formenlehre" has been undertaken

highly-gifted dear friend and former pupil,

Barber, at

my

special wish

and under

my

Mr. Edwin

personal supervision.

Several examples not contained in the German, with the

necessary explanations have been added to the English translation.

gladly take this opportunity of thanking Mr. Barber

for the care

he has bestowed upon

Leipzig, March

13,

my

work.

1S92.

Dr.

S.

JADASSOHN.

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.
In translating

this

work,

have endeavoured

to

employ

the correct terminology as far as our language would permit,

introducing no terms

which have not been previously

made

use of by the best English writers on this subject.


I

trust the

book

will receive that attention

which the Author's opinions merit.


thank Dr. Jadassohn

for his

from the student

In conclusion

wish to

kind and ready assistance.

Leipzig, March 14, 1892.


E.

M. BARBER.

PREFACE.

The

present treatise

to the student in his

for

his

own

intended to offer a helping hand

efforts

of the classical masters

guide

is

to

and

practical

musical form must be

first

study and analyse the works


the

at

same time

work.

to

act as

knowledge

clear

acquired before the realms of

a
of

com-

position can be entered.

As
first

the pupil's acquaintance with

usually small

and limited,

musical literature

have especially selected

majority of cases from Beethoven,

my

examples

we have

for

to

An

easily
in

the

thank

this

master for the more perfect construction of modern


form.

musical

enlarged introduction, a broader Free Fantasia,

extended Coda, the


the mediant in the

entr>^ of the
first

second subject

part of a Sonata in a

addition of the Scherzo in the Sonata,


well as that of

its

at

have only referred to a few

works and those, such as are generally well-known and


obtainable.

is

accompanying Trio

its

in the

an

key of

major key, the

double repetition as

not to mention

other facts to which the attention of the pupil

is

drawn

many
in this


work
all

these are the acquisitions

later

composers are indebted

works are to-day

By numerous
I

still

VI

for the

possession of which

to Beethoven.

Moreover

his

the most popular.

musical examples and additional explanation,

have endeavoured to make

serviceable for self-instruction.

this

work

perfectly

clear

and

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page

Chapter

I.

The development

I.

of

Melody

Different Kinds of Melody, the Motive.

2.

Longer Motives, the Period.

3.

Formation of Melody by Combination of Periods.

4.

Formation of the Close of a Melody.

Chapter
5.

Song and Simple Song- Form


The Melody of a Song.

II.

which each Verse

6.

Songs

7.

Simple Song-Form in Instrumental Music.

Chapter

III.

8.

in

is

set to the

Variation-Form

41

9.

10.

II.

The Subject.
More important Variation-Forms.
The Close of the Variations.

12.

Free Variation-Form.

Chapter IV.

Dance-Form

53

13.

The Contrasted Movement.

14.

Protracted Dance-Form.

The

Chapter V.
15.

protracted,

The Song

Chapter VI.

17.

I'S.

19.

20.

the

Aria,

in

Rondo-Form

The Rondo without Episode


The Rondo with Episode of

Chapter VII.

65
the Ballad,

Arietta,

Chorus

16.

combined Song-Form

with different music to each verse,

Arioso, Cavatina, Romanza, Scena and


Opera and Oratorio.
Protracted Song-form in Instrumental Music.
Aria,

same Music.

Different Kinds of Variations.

25

77
of Contrast.
Contrast.

The Sonata

The Form of

the Sonata in general.

Different Arrangements of the several movements.

87

VIII

Page

The Sonatina

Chapter VIII.
21.
22.

The
The

Chapter IX.

23.

24.

25.

26.

Chapter X.

27.

28.

First

The

The
its

First

First

first

92

Movement
Movement

in a

major key.

in a

minor key.

Movement

of a Sonata

Movement;

Part of the First

connection

109
the

first

Subject

the second.

^\-ith

The Modulation after


The second Subject.
The Coda in the first

the

first

Subject.

Part.

The Second Part of the


The Free Fantasia.
Various Commencements of

First

Movement

128

the Free Fantasia.

of the Movement and the Extended


Coda; the Remaining Movements of a Sonata
The Key of the second Subject in the third Fart.

Chapter XI.

The Third Part

29.

and

30.

Contraction of the

31.

The Extended Coda.

first

Subject in third Part.

Chapter XII

32.

The

148
Prelude, Etude, Capriccio, Fantasia, Suite, Overture, Vari-

Form of
The Concerto.

ations in the
33.

138

a Sonata-Movement.

CHAPTER

I.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MELODY.

Different Kinds of Melody, the Motive.

Every musical composition, be

I.

contain one musical idea.

works contain, as a

This

ever so small, must

it

more than one Subject; and

rule,

Most

the Subject.

called

is

we

shall

more highly developed compositions, such


and Symphonies, that besides the two chief Subother musical ideas will be necessary, in part to connect

find in studying the

as Sonatas
jects,

the Subjects and in part to form a conclusion to a movement,


or

movement.

part of a

the

complete movement can be

developed from one single subject, as

instance

for

in

an

air

with variations.

The Subject

of a composition should always be a rhyth-

mically and metrically constituted

perceive

owing

it,

to

its

where

even

it

melody

let

we hear and we

readily

distinguished

many

Preludes and

manifold adornments, as in

In proof of this assertion

Studies.

for

cannot be

us

turn to

prelude in Bach's Wohltemperirte Clavier and the


of Chopin,

op.

lo.

monic succession

is

Although

in

We
as are

marked

as in Chopin's

distinguish

two

Jadassohn, Manual

Study op.

different kinds of

constructed upon an
of Mus. Form.

initial

first

Etude

both these pieces an har-

only apparently given,

still

in

hear the melody above the broken chords, without


especially

the

first

25.

its

being

I.

melody;

figure,

we

both

firstly

secondly
1

such

such

as

The Development

of Melody.

make use

those which contain a figure, and

progression, to assist the formation of the

but are

still

not strictly developed from an

example of the former we give the

first

of this in

melody

their

as a whole,

initial figure.

As an

subject of Beethoven's

Overture to Coriolanus:
Allegro con brio.

1.
ten.

^m

ten.

'

'fU'
-r--=^=^=^

&f

:i=ti

This example requires no further explanation than that the


n

Subject

is

a development of the figure:

As an example
commencement

the

of the second species


of Schubert's

^fe^}^

Symphony

we would
in

suggest

C:

Andatiti.

2.

i^-^^m^^m

J3

2^-

In this case, the rhythmic figure of the second bar

use of in the third,

fifth,

and

is

made

sixth bars for the formation of the

melody; the augmentation of the figure

in the seventh bar, as

a preparation for the close.

We

also find melodies in

which there are no traces of the

use of a figure for the purpose of development, and

an

example the subject of the


Adagio

3.

cantabile.

we

give as

Adagio from the Sonata pathetique:

Different Kinds of Melody, the Motive.

=H-"

mi^L^

9iiy>

u^'

^
i???^^

9^ ^^^=F'i*~^r~r~i
'

i5b

^B'

This species

is

however most

rarely to

be met

movements

generally found in songs and sustained slow


cantabile nature.

they

still

Compare
first

Should we come across these

in a

retain the character of a slow sustained

the

first

Cantilene in Chopin's

subject of Beethoven's Sonata, op. 28,

the subject of the

Andante

in the

with, being

of a

quick tempo,

song-melody.

minor Scherzo, the

(first

movement), and

same.

Melodies developed from figures, on the other hand, alike

and slow time and both in works of long and short


We must therefore give our attention in
the next place to the Figure or Motive which we must regard
This germ, the
to some extent as the germ of the Subject.

in quick

duration are abundant.

motive,

can be so small,

are unable
in

to

meagre and

insignificant,

which the melody

shall

be formed.

At

we
bar

times the figure or

motive does not even complete a whole bar, as

Sonata op. 31.

that

recognise the key or the division of the

in

Beethoven's

II:

The Development
Allegro.

^E

of Melody.

4^

3i

t-

\r=z3r^^

If
it

we hear

w^hether

this figure alone,

duple or triple time,

in

is

:\^=

it

we are unable to say whether


and the accent alone decides

begins on the strong or the weak beat

^^
4 b.

Only by the
are

we

the key

C minor

^^^

same figure
movement being in |

repetition of the

in the

second bar

time.

Even then

not settled, for the chord in question can equally

belong to the key of


of

thus:

1^^^^^

assured of the
is

t'

major (second degree) or the key

(fourth degree) as a

chord.

But even overstepping

the bar-line, and proceeding two bars further the listener

is

still

key and tempo, not only by the imitation


left in doubt
of the rhythmic parts but also by the melodic design of this imialike as to

tative figure.

Symphony

in

The motive of the first movement of Beethoven's


C minor leaves the audience in doubt whether,

what he hears in the first four bars, is written


or C minor, and further whether it is in duple or
*)

The

initial

figure of the

<

1^

major

triple time*).

Rondo from Beethoven's Sonata


when quoted thus

suggests neither key nor rhythm,

4 c.

in

op. lo

No. 3

Different Kinds of Melody, the Motive.

The motive

derives

most individual

its

characteristics

commencement

from

At
it
Symphony, Beethoven gives the marked rhythm of the movement at first only upon E. This rhythm is to be found alike
in the first and second subjects of the movement and gives to
the rhythm

the whole

the

contains.

Schumann's Symphony

motion.

spirited

its

of the

major, begins with the motive which in the allegro


is

employed

diminution for the structure of the

in

major

in

movement

first

subject.

This motive extending only over the three notes which form
the interval of the major third, distinguishes only the rhythm
and not the key of the subject, for the structure of which it
is employed later.
So far as the melodic design is concerned
major.
the motive could just as well belong to G minor as B
i'

The motives which we have


are

isolated

instances.

movement

general

far

ventured to suggest,

even

with

the

very

which are formed of a few notes, the key of

shortest motives

the

In

so

is

The

clearly defined.
Bach, wohlt.

Fuge

CI.,

Beethoven, Sonata

following short motives

II.

II.

Allegretto.

6.

^^IS^
Beethoven, op. 22.
Allegro con brio.

^e=|
!-

W^
I

Beethoven, op. 31, Nr.


Allegretto.

leave no one in doubt as to

2.

^^_^

the

key;

but

longer

motives,

especially a repetition or imitation through several bars,

leave

The Development

the hearer in

performer

of Melody.

doubt over the rhythm of the

does

not

Beethoven begins

give

his

certain

by

hints

subject

if

the

accentuation.

his

Sonata, op. 14, No. 2, in the follow-

ing manner:
Allegro.

S
M
^m^^^sm^

^^ #=Q ^^^-^
9.

s-

w *

?33

p legato

<

2--

PJ

:5=U

'^1'

1^
-b->-

vt

Unless they were made aware of the strong beat of the

first

bar by the accent of the performer, the audience would in

this

case surely hear the subject with the following false rhythm for
the
til

first

the

I
10.

four bars,

and not become aware of

their mistake

un-

fifth.

3^^#

=fc:

:S^
Itt

'!;:'

m
^

iifi:

^m-

Vr-^

J-i

Different Kinds of Melody, the Motive.

Should the performer display the unskillfulness (no uncom-

mon

occurrence

of accenting in the least degree the highest

note of the motive, which moreover, because

it

is

the highest,

occurs most frequently, the hearer would conceive the

first

bars

of the subject as follows:


i^=^=

i:

^
=#-

::*

Tlt*^

11.

-^

pfetEpEl
vi

EE f

E?;

There are circumstances under which the rhythm of the mocan be correctly enunciated, and even if the motive and
repetition form two whole bars the division of the bar in which
tive

the subject
last

is

written,

movement

strikino'

of

remains a doubt to the

listener.

above-mentioned Sonata

the

instance of this in

its

The

presents

initial bars.

Allegro assai.

S^I^S
12.

The audience

in this case

bar that the subject

13.

is

only become aware in the third

not in duple

:i=^

--N-

^^~

The Development

but in

first

The rhythm

triple time.

time^most

from

distinctly

its

of Melody.

of the motive suggests

threefold

imitation

duple
the

within

bars.

In most cases

however the key of the subject as well as


in fact the whole movement would
defined by the repetition of the initial figure or its

the division of the bar,

be clearly

imitation in the second bar.

r^-fT-^ g=5lJ
:

14.

^^^

9g=i

ii-

3^

In the previous example any doubt of the


set aside at the very

accompaniment.

key and the


the

We

it

is

key would be

the harmonies of the

add yet one more example

in

which the

division of the bar are alike assured not only

strict repetition

motive;

commencement by

of the

notes but

by

the imitation

Rondo

the beginning of Beethoven's

15.

i^E
*

by

of the

op. 49.

I.

^
0i-

*4 ^
pi_^.,_^k^
-&

-^7-

^ m

Even without the additional accompaniment both the key


of the movement can be safely recognised owing to
tempo
and
the imitation of the motive in these two bars.

Longer Motives, the Period.

2.

We

have so

far

only dealt with the shortest motives,

which either do not occupy a whole bar, as


complete the bar as in the first bar of Ex.
extending beyond the

bar-line,

in
i

Ex.

4,

or which

or with such as

do not form a complete bar

in

Longer Motives, the Period.

the

sum

total of their notes, as in

Ex.

12, or finally

which extending also beyond the bar-line, yield


their notes a

complete bar, as

in

Exs. g and

15.

cases can there be an occasional doubt as to


time; as a rule however

two bars
rests

We

key and time are

In longer motives which

short motives.

in part or

with those

in the

sum

of

Only in such
the key and

alike distinct in such

occupy the space of

completely, be they

filled

with notes or

both key and time are distinctly visible in the motive.

add some of the

latter

kind of motives; under Exs. 16 and

17 such as do not complete

two

bars.

Beethoven.
Allegro molto.

16.

gP^^
Mozart.
|2=

I'.^EME
Under Exs.

18

bars are completed

s=^

and 19 w^e find motives


by means of rests.

which two whole

in

Beethoven.
Allegretto.

18.

t=^
SEP

^^

Beethoven.

i=^=^

i
19.

In conclusion
stituent parts

we

i^

:fr-#-

:tv-?-

Efe

give two motives whose rhythmical con-

form exactly two bars.

The Development

10

of Melody.

Mendelssohn.
con

Alles^ro

mo to.

20.

SI
Schubert.
Allegro vivace

-I
We

extending over several bars,

also find motives which,

form the antecedent section of a period of a melody; thus:


Beethoven.
Allegro con brio.

^E^
In this case

-i-

i^

we have

to

^1

(--+

deal with a combination of two

motives, which "dovetail" so to speak, and of which the close


of the former

is

coincident with the

23.

commencement

of the

latter.

^ ^3^^=^^^

54-=E^:
Both motives occur

in the

first

movement

of Beethoven's

C minor Concerto and are employed both as a whole and separately. The second motive which is given out by the drums
towards the close of the movement, forms a most interesting

organ point.

Furthermore we would prove

to the pupil

how

the melody,

movement, can be developed and formed


Each subject of a composition in the free
style must be a rhythmically and metrically constituted whole.
A metre is a part of period whose antecedent or relative sec-

the subject of the

from the motive.

Longer Motives, the Period.

and

tions,

some cases

in

11

the middle section, form and to a cer-

melody; the metre

tain extent give a hiatus or Caesura to the

of music

by

regulated

metre
it

syllabic

The

feet.

terminate with a

We

nant.

just

at least four bars long,

is

may

measured by bars

is

full

major;

whilst in

same

the

on the domi-

Beethoven's Sonata op. 31.


in Chopin's

former

the

effect

is

two-bar

formed by means of a repeIll;

masters Sonata

a two-

Impromptu

in

op. 49.

produced by a transposition

Chopin's Scherzo in

higher octave.

in

metre eight bars;

in four-bar

bar metre, similarly developed,


flat

period

smallest

close or a half close

find a four-bar metre,

tition of the motive, in

we have

the metre of verse

as

to

II,

the

minor, op. 31, con-

flat

example of extended four-bar metre; the first


twenty-four-bar period repeating almost exactly, makes in all
stitutes a

fine

The student will also find examples


and two-bar metres by referring to Beethoven's op. 3 1 II,

a forty-eight-bar melody.

of four

and

symphony

ninth
lied

same master.

of the

"Fahret hin

cedent and

and three-bar metres

illustrations of four

further,

Grillen",

we

shall

If

we look

see

relative section of the period


.

that

at the

in

the

Volks-

both the ante-

end on the chord of

the tonic.

Antecedent Section.

A contrast in

the metre

cond subject of the

first

op. 31. II; in the Marcia

Relative Section.

beautifully illustrated in the se-

is

movement

Funebre from

of Beethoven's
op. 26

a t^vo-bar question and a two-bar answer;


trast

of the

section
section,

the

antecedent
nant,

metre

should

form

is

in op. 31 the

very striking.
contrast

Sonata

almost suggests

with

The
its

con-

relative

antecedent

becomes even more prominent if the


with a half close on the domiFor
section with a full close on the tonic.

contrast
section

the relative

example

2 -{- 2

always

it

ends

The Development

12

of Melody.

Antecedent Section.

X
N=H3^S

J=^:
^=15:

n-i^
2G.

t^

i.

^&

f:

Relative Section.

-^-

B$^

^fefel;

The

case

?^^
-J5^

=.

may however be

^^1

so that the antecedent

inverted,

section of the period contains the

full close,

the relative section

the half close; as in the next example.


Andecedent Section.

IE^
27.

i-

i^'

*--^

^=

Relative Section.

I533

'*4.s>

h"

ii#-

tetiDBgg
fcE
;^

gi

^TT-^gPg
I^E
In this case the period

melody
to

to a

termination.

is

and does not bring the


eight-bar melodies are found

not

Still

be an exception rather than a

final

rule.

Where they do

occur,

Longer Motives, the Period.

13

they require a continuation or a repetition.

independent piece, as

short songs

in

Occurring as an
and choruses, an eight-

bar melody demands a double repetition, in order to


effective

down

toned

The

whole.

they are attached to another

if

Preciosa.

In order to

a satisfactory

close

upon

make

a perfect

The

first.

melody two eight-bar periods


and in these we frequently

generally necessary;

find the relative section of the

the

make

bar.

least are

at

Weber

eight bars of the gipsy's march, adding to this

bars of coda in order to


fifth

is

this

Weber employs
the

strain.

manner with the eight-bar gipsy's chorus in


After the melody has been sung to three verses,

proceeds in

four

make an

of such small pieces

unpleasantness

second period repeating that of

Volkslied, already quoted in Ex. 25, gives us an

example.

1st

Period.

Antecedent Section.
^^-

Relative Section.

^^^^^E^^g^^fe

Mendelssohn

in his beautiful

repeats

the

relative

second; with

this

difference,

larly

lengthen the close.


period

is

usually

This appears
a

different

the case

still

of the subject.

of the

spite

first

period in the

he has added

five

bars to

of this familiar use, the second

employed to form a contrast to the first.


more striking if the second period contains

relative

when

In

song "O Thaler weit," simi-

section
that

:fi3-

section

from the

the second period

is

first;

and

this

is

also

developed from the motive

The Development

14

1st

of Melody.

Period.

Antecedent Section.

^^=#
30.

r-f

-^

'

4^
-

9^^^-^-

^r=t^

Ist

JH"

'-U==U-

\/-

Period.

Relative Section.

|lEEEEfg|iE^^^^E|^^;nTj"1
n*^
Jl

Hnl.
il

J.i-^.-

#.Tl"*'

iii

I
lid Period.

Antecedent Section.
f:

i
is

iS
i^

i.

^.-,4^

fc==^^

f=i^=*^
ts^

dimin.

ji

^u

lid Period.

Relative Section.

:^

^^=P
U1^^

crcsc.

'

Longer Motives, the Period.

In this instance the rhythm of the motive

^5
is

firmly retained

each individual bar of the two periods; a striking contrast


results from the alteration of the melodic plan of this motive as
in

well as from the harmonic changes of the accompaniment which

The

naturally ensue.

show

previous examples 28, 29 and 30 distinctly

that the relative section of each period forms a contrast to

the antecedent section, as well as one period does to the other.

That

this contrast

may be

in force

sections end with a similar cadence,


to Beethoven's Sonata op. 49. II,

the

or

tonic;

further

in

is

when both
proved

in

contrasted
the minuet

where both sections end on


movement of Sonata

second

the

Andante of op. 14. II, in the first movement


and minuet of op. 31. Ill; in all these
cases both sections end with a close on dominant.
The confrom
an
interchange
may
arise
of
trast
dominant and tonic
cadences or vice versa, as in Ex. 30.
Additional examples
may be found in the following of Beethoven's works
Minuet and Trio op. 10. III.
Third movement, second subject op. 10. I.
First movement, first subject op. 10. I.
op. 10.

in the

II,

in the trio

of op. 26,

Rondo
Rondo

op. 13.
op. 49.

I.

Second movement

op. 31.

I.

All these are instances of the

first

dominant; examples of the contrary

and the Scherzo op. 28.


end of the first four bars and a
op. 22

the next four in the

Rondo

section terminating

will

We
full

on the

be found in the Rondo

find a

half close

at

the

close at the termination of

of op. 22.

Another cadential contrast occurs when the antecedent


section terminates in a minor key, the relative section in a
major one; this can be observed in the Marcia Funebre op. 26.

similar effect can

where the

first

be found

four

in the first

bars terminate

movement

of op. 49.

I,

on the subdominant, the

subsequent eight on the dominant.

A contrast may be

effected

section in a major key, as in the


as in the

Adagio

op. 53.

by the entrance of the relative


Andante op. 28, or vice versa

The Development

16

An

effective contrast

may

also

of Melody.

be made by means of trans-

posing a phrase into a distant key, or by placing


in the first

movement

it

higher as

Some-

of op. 57, or lower as in op. 53.

times the contrast arises from the arrangement of the metre


itself as in

the Marcia Funebre,

question and an answer.

where

has the effect of a

it

Similar contrasts

may be

second subject of the Finale of op.

in the

second movement of op.

31.

10. I,

found

also

and

the

in

I.

Formation of Melody by Combination of Periods.

We

3.

have so

far

shown the

how

pupil

a period

is

developed from a motive, and a melody from two periods*).


*) The melody from Preciosa, already alluded to, consists of eight bars,
formed from a conjunction of two four-bar periods. The pupils can learn by
a reference to the works of the best masters that there can just as well be
But whatever kind of uneven
three, four, five, six or seven-bar periods.

metre be selected,

must always contain a repetition of the

it

first

period of the even metre in order to form a correct melody, that


musical idea.
the

idea,

period

We

as

to say a

an extension of

consist of a combination of

specimen of the

certo in

bars

which four-bar periods enter for the first time. A si.x-bar


two three-bar, or three two-bar metre.

after

may

often find a third period of six

or second
is

latter

can be found

in the first subject of Beethoven's

Con-

flat,

First Period of

"3"

Allegro.

31a.

Se^i

iifeE

=*

^m
fe

six bars.

J2z=3=g:

4=C ^^-^
^a

s -?-

"^

5-

e^^^^^B

4^A
f-^


Formation of Melody by Combination of Periods.

We

can only refer to

from a motive, as in Ex.

We

must leave

melodies which do not spring-

this;
3.,

17

are simply inspirations of genius.

an open question whether these

it

sorts

of

Repetition of the same.


i9-

^^^m
"

Pg

Fl

n.

F==^

'1

P-^~^0^

^^

".Fr?3
^-^H

'2

8va,

3a

:^-^

^Z

S^^^

which

is

P5
<g

aj

I^^^^^M^

l^^^i^aHi^

followed by two four-bar periods.

of Mus. Form.

II

^^^^^B^^^

however by no means necessary

p'

t^:

:i^

Jadassohn, Manual

f-'

^^^

In this case the

the second six-bar period consist of a repetition


this is

?*
^

.^.
-^i.

-L-/5'-

^<&

-gi-g

-5^

-^

Second Period.

^-s

^i

=g

7^7

afc=t=
8va.

to the

of the

first

^
first

as well

IJ

as

two-bar metre,

formation of a six-bar period.


2

The Development

18

of Melody.

melodies only arise spontaneously in the imagination of the

composer, or whether perfectly refined

developed
authors

faculty

both

probably

capacitv'

artistic

of

come

creation;

unite

in

the

to

the

in

and most highly

taste

the

case

assistance

of a

construction

of

of

the

great genius

Melody.

In

having received such a number of Beethoven's sketch-books,

we have been
We

permitted to obtain a glance into the intellectual

see in the following

Example Serenade by Dr. Jadassohn,

op. 46, two six-bar


formed from three two-bar metres. The first two-bar
metre however does not repeat; hence the first period is immediately repeated
periods, each of

but with a

which

is

new cadence;
First Period of six bars.

31b.

m
m
#

Second Period.

S^

^^^^f^

-:ir-^

^-^^i
^^^=

'0^-~

tJ^

=fc]:

-^r-^

^^

^^^^^^^
^JTTi

J:

-^ir^

Formation of Alelody by Combination of Periods.

19

workshop of this exalted master. We see from his sketches


how often he altered a subject, re-formed it, and frequently
changed it from its first insignificant form entirely, leaving it
finally as it is employed in the movement of the composition.
We shall never be able to know whether in these cases the
ideal of his melody at first floated indistinctly in the master's

Third Period.
^-^

pgfeizz^

l^

A-l ^i

'^

\?s

d^t

?
^^^K

Close of the 3rd Pe-

riod of six bars.

the continuation consists of four-bar periods.

Seven-bar periods would arise

commencement
period, as shown in

if

the close of a four-bar metre

taneous with the

of a second

bar of the

the

third

31

Symphony, op.

50.

four-bar metre,

in

is

the

simul-

fourth

following example from Dr. Jadassohn's

The Development

20
mind's eye;

or whether

and then became

The

it

was

of Melody.

at

five-bar period

is

similarly fashioned,

the combination of a three-bar

conceived by degrees,

whether Beethoven

still

can also be formed by

it

and a two-bar metre.

five-bar periods are taken from a Concerto

31

first

distinctly recognisable; or

The two subsequent

by Spohr.

d.

E -y8

^=r

'wh-^

p^^^^i^^i^^S
4-4

:^z:-^-K-t:

-ii-

S-

T-0-

m m
m
- -^

-0-

e
9

M-=M=^-=si=&
Just in the

^^^
i

same manner the seven-bar period can consist of the com-

We have purposely avoided mentioning other than four and eight bar periods in the text,
lest we should confuse the pupil and suggest the employment of the rarer
bination of a three-bar and a four-bar period or vice-versa.

and more extraordinary forms


short additional remarks

period-formations.

may

in

his

first

attempts

at

These
more unusual

composition.

serve later as an explanation of the

Formation of Melody by Combination of Periods.

not content with the

laboured at the subject until he

freed and purified the gold of his

depths of his soul, from

This

The

perfect

had no doubt

him

in

many

so

of Beethoven's

no

subjects,

regard the subject in Ex.

only occurs once, as

The same

of the Funeral

if it

3,

we observe

March

that

we

If

highest note

its

were the culminating point of the

principle

is

be found

to

the

in

subject

in the Eroica, in the subject of the vari-

ations in the Kreutzer Sonata,

and

This highest note,

Beethoven.

this

matter

whether they be formed from a motive or otherwise.

melody.

indi-

artistic

assisted

be more apparent as a decided principle pre-

will

sents itself in

dross.

all

viduality of his rich fantasy


case.

worked and
pardon the simile
had
melody, conceived in the

of his inspiration,

fruits

first

21

in

many

other subjects

by

melodic acme of the sub-

this

ject frequently appears first at the close of a period,

subject

of the
classical

In

itself

composers we

the

or even
works of Schubert and other

same

find the

We

principle at work.

possess however no sketch-books from the other masters, and

do not believe that they, though working on the same


have so carefully sketched out
as

Beethoven has done.

their mentally

lines,

developed ideas,

Perhaps his deafness obtaining the

and the impossibility of deciding by ear what


through his mind, compelled him to write down all his

upper hand,
floated

and

inspirations

down

his ideas

their

transformations;

merely to

assist his

perhaps

or

memory.

It

he jotted
certain that

is

other composers have often and substantially altered their


inspirations
Little as

down

even

we

if

they have not committed them

first

to paper.

consider ourselves capable of being able to lay

a principle for the formation of a beautiful and graceful

melody, or indeed of giving a system


to the pupil for his first efforts at
in

all

fact

everything

that

has

for

it,

still

composition

struck

us

as

all

we must
in

offer

our power,

noteworthy and

characteristic in our studies of the classical scores.

book of

this

nature should always suggest problems to

the student,

and should as

means

make

as will

far

as

is

possible,

provide such

their solution easy for him, show^

him how

he can, according to his talent and capacity, obtain a surer

The Development

22

of Melody.

command and control of


method which we recommend

footing and greater freedom in his

Let the purely mechanical


be judged from

them.

for the beginner's use,

this stand-point;

if

the

more-gifted pupil should not require this aid in forming his

and sections, still it would surely render him good


service in rousing and stimulating his faculties, even if he only
regards it as an ingenious invention, serving as a study previous

periods

handling the Variation-form.

to his

The

pupil should

simplest possible,

now

invent a succession

of notes,

the

arranged in an eight-bar period, as shown

below.
31.

Iee

Let him next endeavour to clothe this stiff strain with


rhythmical life, at the same time he may connect the sustained
notes by inserting others between them, thus investing the
original dry frame-work with a more melodious character, as

shown

Ex. 32.

in

q=:1=
ES^E^-gE^

I^EE33

^-*- J

7^-

tEE
53^

-*^ *:

fe

$
The

pupil may, even

by

this

and develope

his taste, delicacy

vary

manner

it

in

different

easy and simple study, show

and artistic insight; and he might


to Ex. 32, by employing other

groupings, until he was enabled to obtain a naturally sequent,

harmoniously melodic succession, which, as an eight-bar period,

now

requires the necessary continuation of a further period of

eight bars.

Because

it

follows as a natural consequence,

this

Formation of the Close of a Melody.

further period will prove easy of construction.

ample

is

a continuation of our

Our next

ex-

last.

^^^^^

88.

23

^^Ee^

gEaof^^^i

-.<5^=-^-

t^

Formation of the Close of a Melody.


This second period gives cause for some remarks.

4.
It

contains nine instead of eight bars;


for the ninth bar

disproportion,

the close of the

upon the

fall

When
let

the pupil has

*)

few isolated exceptions


.

The Adagio of

in,

his

weakest beat of the bar

34

pupil

should take to heart the

must in every instance


a rhythm and a metre *
.

harmony

to this nile

For instance

Sonatas op. 109 and op.


beat.

at

their

plan,

may be found

in the

the second eight-bar period ends

Sonata op. 31.

thus

works of

in the airs to the variations in Beethoven's

II,

ends upon the

on a weak
sixth and

last,

cadence upon the

closed in like manner,

34b.

this

once natural, healthy

This forms the close of three two-bar metres,

have

as Ex. 34 shows.

far fetched;

Mozart and Beethoven.

by no means

modelled a melody upon

with a

it

is

perfect close

part of

first

him surround

and not

The

strain.

fundamental rule:

this

indispensably necessary for

is

it

first

of which the

beat of the third bar.

Had

first

two

the third metre

would have necessitated the addition of

a bar.

The Development

24

of INIelody.

^f
-^^

3=2:

3^^g^

-^v-

-#-#-

i3t

--W
T -g-

-<^-s>-

!>:

..

At

this

we must

warn the student against


be ahvays '"interesting and originar in his first

stage

endeavouring to

^^1
-^

.,_^_

9i

earnestly

tr

IE^
J2=f

:tq=tit=f=

-"'^i^

:3^

i^
^

Let no one imagine for a

The

of a bar.

moment

that

we

evident irregularity of this gently

are suggesting the

fading

cadence

is

apparent to the audience because the performer would surely prolong


if

ever so

the

It

by a ritardando

thus giving the idea that the

final

the
it,

less

even

note

is

of another bar.

first

beat in

little,

insertion

would be more

common

difficult to

give an explanation of a close on the third

time, such as are occasionally

found in Mozart's works.

Such

exceptions usually occur so seldom that they do not call in question the rule

which we have given.


for

what

is

In

this,

correct, beautiful

as in all other questions of art, a natural taste

and symmetrical should alone decide.

The Melody

of a Song.

attempts, or against overloading a simple

bear resemblance to other


learn to

melody with harmonic

Let him however not worry

extravagances.

first

25

known

his

if

The

works.

attempts

student must

work from a model before he can write with


Further, he must strive to adjust
the conception of what is natural, beautiful and

freedom and independence.


his

mind

for

The

symmetrical.

himself imitated,

genius

greatest

perhaps

unawares, the works of his precursors, before he was enabled


to

The

develope a style of his own.

youthful efforts of

all

known, bear a striking and


speaking testimony upon this point. Let any one study the
juvenile works of Beethoven and they will be surprised to
see from what small, insignificant and unlikely beginnings this
The same holds good of the
master-mind had developed.
masters,

other

be they well or

little

well-known masters.

Unassuming

value, nay, the musical ideas themselves


efforts of the

and that

is

masters

as

the

may be

intellectual

in the earlier

one factor stands prominently forward,

the idea of order, symmetry,

the development of a whole,

musical architecture,

the natural context of the indi-

vidual parts, the structure of a composition, in short everything


that

ing

we understand by the term,


chapters, we will endeavour

Musical Form.

In the follow-

to lay this clearly before

the

student.

CHAPTER

II.

SONG AND SIMPLE SONG-FORM.

The melody
5.

The

easiest as well

studies for the pupil

is

of a song.

as

one of the most interesting

the composition of songs.

The

initiate

has in this case a frame-work for the structure of his melody

both in the rhythm and metre of the text; at the same time

he has an opportunity to develope

his

powers of melody.

The

Song and Simple Song-Form.

26

prevailing themes of the

upon

his musical fecundity;

of the

human

on the other hand the narrow range

compels him not to overstep certain

taken that the melody


is

At the same time care must be


good and easy of execution. A dia-

melody.

limits for the vocal

melody

stimulant

voice compared with that of other instruments,

the piano for instance,

tonic

verse act as a favourable

more

is

suitable for singing purposes than a chro-

matic passage or a mere succession of the notes of chords.

We

see from the instrumental works

of the

what a very important part diatonic melodies


of this

we suggest

masters

classic

play.

In proof

the two following from Beethoven's Quartett

op. 59.

Andante con

inoto.

36.

a=?f
*d:
The

first

of these two only contains the diatonic notes of

minor, in fact a range of seven notes; the second

combination of the notes of the scale of

A minor.

is

a diatonic

What an

extra-

what an inexplicable magic they


known to ever}^one. We could produce

ordinarily marvellous effect,

exercise over us,

is

longer themes of this sort whose beauty


for

equally great; take

is

example the second subject of the

first

movement

Chopin's Concerto in

only diatonic notes

of the

scale

third.

These indications may

intervals of a

minor

minor.

the structure of a melody.

of

This contains within eight bars


of

Naturally

E
it

only scale-passages are to be employed.

major,

is

excepting
suffice

two
for

not intended that

We

would emphati-

Songs

in

which each Verse

set to the

is

same Music.

27

warn the pupil against the employment of intervals diffiwhether chromatic or formed from the notes

cally

cult of execution,

of a chord, as

ill

adapted for the purposes of song.

For the benefit of making

we would

the pupil

scale passages the

ago";

an

melody

clearer to

formed on

of melodies

as instances

cite

of

VolksHeder "Liebchen Ade" and "Long, long

founded on the notes of chords, "Tyroler


"Hoch vom Dachstein an", '*Uf en Bergli", "Wann

as melodies

sind lustig",
i

divisions

der

Friih"";

as

sample

melody,

of Instrumental

the

foUowinp-.
^

BE

37.

The

^m

p-

:8=8=r

i--S

m ^^^
is

m
ir

-#-^ ^^*-#

-tusL

p P P
t ^

%=l

best proof of the suitability of a melody for vocal use,

to sing

or to allow

it

it

to

be sung, without the aid of an

accompaniment.

Songs
6.

in

which each Verse

The next problem

songs in which each verse

The

youthful

artist

will

is set to

for the

is

the

student

same Music.
is

to

compose

repeated to the same melod}'.

soon observe,

if

he looks over

the

songs of Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, Weber, Mendelssohn,


Schumann and other masters how many compositions of extraordinary beauty already exist in this narrow, limited frame-work.

We
zieht

will

only mention Mendelssohn's wellknown song,

durch mein Gemiith".

We

"Leise

would further recommend

the selection of text, verses for children and national lyrics.

accompaniment requires
pass should not

extend

to

be as simple as possible; the

beyond ten or eleven

touching melody of the Russian

air

"Seht

ihr

notes.

for

The
comThe

drei Rosse"

is

Song and Simple Song-Form.

28

limited to a minor tenth; whilst the

compass of "Schone Minka"


Melodies which do not

does not exceed a minor seventh.

met

overstep an octave or a ninth are constantly to be

The

opening- strain

a great and

of Schubert's

its

with.

proves that

melody which entrances us with

this

and mystical magic,

all lies

in

Ex.

its

The

within a minor seventh.

theme from Beethoven already quoted


out

in

noble musical thought can be expressed within

the smallest range;


secret

Symphony

through-

35, has

range, not an extensive compass.

^^i^^^^^^^^

38.

some variety to his work the pupil can,


after he has written a number of solo-songs with piano accompaniment, compose some duets and afterwards some trios
for female and children's voices
always working on the same
model; passing later to four-part songs for mixed voices, to
come at last to four-part songs for male voices. We would
recommend as a pattern for the latter, Mendelssohn's lovely
four-part song "O Forest deep and gloomy"; at the same time
however advising a searching inquiry into all the good music
The pupil should learn to know the best works
of the kind.
of all the different composers, for only by this means can he
In order to give

guard against imitating or copying the style of one author

whether intentionally or otherwise.

particular,

young

artist

best avoid falling into the "mannerisms"

favorite author.

Any

peculiarity of a

work

is

in

So would the
of his

hardly ever

made

clear by studying the compositions of one author only; this

generally gained only

by

a deep research into the works of

is

all.

This warning appears to us so much the more necessary


at the

commencement of this manual and


many youthful aspirants

position, since so
"favorite

author" on whose pattern

their style.

positively
this

This

is

not

difficult

to

in

beginning com-

persist

account

for;

taken possession of by the works of

composer overpowers him

in

in

having a

they would alone

mould

the pupil
'his'

is

master;

such a manner that he finds

Songs

no attractions

in

which each Verse

in the

set to the

is

works of any

same Music.

other, in fact

29

an indifterence,

indeed under certain circumstances, a positive abhorrence of


them.

every

respect

In this

and the younger ones are

man

is

the child of his

this in a greater

epoch,

degree than their

Our students of to-day are often attracted and impressed by the important composers of the present to such a
elders.

degree that they exhibit a certain distaste against those authors

who belong

dawn of musical history. That the


become one-sided, that the prominent works of

nearer to the

studies then

celebrated masters are neglected because "they are too


these are

common

dry",

occurring every day, which any practi-

facts,

The pupil should however be brought


up to a knowledge of the beautiful in Art. That which makes
the most impression for the moment is not always the noblest
and most beautiful; even were this the case, the student must
learn to know the Good and Beautiful of all composers and all
epochs, if he himself wishes to soar to the heights of his art.
For the better comprehension of this form of composition
we add a list which we would advise the pupil to refer to.
cal teacher will confirm.

a.

Simple Song-Form, consisting of one period and two sections.

1.

Bald grass ich

2.

Kommt

3.

Seht

am

Neckar.

a Vogerl geflogen.

ihr drei

Rosse

(perfect eight-bar period

and repe-

tition of last section).

b.

4.

Die Sonn' erwacht

5.

Wo

6.

Leise zieht durch mein Gemiith.

7.

Es

(Preciosa).

a klein's Hiittl steht.

bestimmt

ist

(t\vo

five-bar periods^

Simple Song-Form of two periods,


the
1.

Steh nur

auf, steh

the eight contain the


2.

3.

4.

Muss

Und
God

repetition of

nur auf

(a

four

and eight-bar period,

first four).

denn, muss

schau ich hin


save the

the second containing a


first.

denn

(8+16

Queen

(ditto).

the latter contains the former).

(one six-bar, one eight-bar period).

Song and Simple Song-Form.

30

Simple Song-Form with three periods.

c.

Haydn's

Hymn

Combination of three and four periods.

d.

Der rothe

Emperor.

to the

Sarafan.

Five Periods.

e.

Wer

hat dich, du schoner VVald.

Simple Song-Form
Before

7.

we

in Instrumental

Music.

introduce the pupil to the protracted song-

form, in which each verse requires distinct and characteristic


let us show
employed in instrumental works.
most usually found in slow move-

music, as in the Ballad, the Aria or the Cavatina,

how
The

the simple song-form

simple song-form

ments,

with variations, also in rondos, minuets and

in the air

movements.

final

is

is

It

moreover also employed

is

movements of some of

in

the

first

the greater works, but only under cer-

For instance, when a slow introduction precedes


movement, strictly so-called; or when the first movement begins with a moderate tempo, as for example in the first
Allegro in Mendelssohn's A minor Symphony; or again, if the
tain conditions.

the

first

movement be

first

in

We

example,

Sonata

is

the case

in Beethoven's

in

only occupies one eight-bar period.


the beginning
flat,

op.

Sonata

fefc^

of the

We

give as

Adagio from Beethoven's

'22.

-j^r^^^^jgj^fe

Adagio con molt"

39.

as

divide simple song-form into four different kinds; the

first of these

an

slow,

sharp minor.

espressione.

Simple Song-Form in Instrumental Music.

The

four

cadetitial

bars

following

this

form a codetta, added to the main idea

making a
the

first

close:

period.

song-form we

^-^^4^-

^^^Ei^^

first

^=^^

^g-5-

expressed in

kind of simple

^5^

U
&

-r^-

<-<^
-g!v-s^

f^=i:pkJ^^=i.

<

the

M^rr-t-

> >

-^t.^^

W
^

the purpose of

for

clearly

is

period

eight-bar

"Die Sonn' erwacht" from Weber's Preciosa.

insert

n
40.

The main idea itself


As another example of

31

3t=f=^

'm

Song and Simple Song-Form.

32

Necessary repetition

in

pieces

exemplified in Mendelssohn's Gruss;

of short

duration

we submit

well

is

example,

this

frequently referred to as "Leise zieht durch mein Gemiith".

M-=t

--^

^fe^^

^=i

41.

ft
^^-^-^

:^^Tt-^

-p^^

-^H-i
nf^'H^

s:

S!

s^^^3^

3t-?i!

&

w%

a:h#-

S?
as

i^

;*-^b1:a=i: IT71,

Pi:

^%

J=^
:P^

^
J

:^

^j(:

As an example
sohn's "Es

42.

ist

of two five-bar periods,

bestimmt

II

we

give Mendels-

in Gottes Rath".

Simple Song-Form

in Instrumental Music.

i
S3: t* 4i
i*^H^ete3^^
-m-^

-r-^irs,

33

--

** 4

ife

m
^1

J.
f2^

-#

^-

-3^-

-rfBeethoven's Adagio in op.


with a repetition;

in his

contains an

Sonata op. 49.

II,

song-form

shortest

difficult

task for the pupil,

will

no doubt prove a

because

complete musical idea

that a

is

it

clearly

his

is

very instructive, particularly

Since however the

in arousing

and exercising
relative to

it.

is

repeated with a varied cadence.

The

first

period

major key generally terminates with a half close, but some-

on the dominant; in a minor key the


period may end with a cadence on the dominant or in the

times with a
first

somewhat

second kind of simple song-form consists of an eight-bar

period which
in a

Mi-

represented within the

powers of invention, we cannot forego the tasks

The

di

requires so manipulating

scanty frame-work of an eight-bar period.

study

Tempo

The development

nuetto has a four-bar period with a repetition.


of this

eight-bar period

the

relative

major.

key of the

close

full

The second

piece.

Jadassohn, Manual

We

period always terminates

give an example taken from the

of Mus. Form.

,'{

in

the

com-

Song and Simple Song-Form.

34

mencement
op. 14.

I.

of the Allegretto in Beethoven's Sonata in

The

minor

period ends in this case with a half close

first

on the dominant; the repetition of this period


to the principal key by means of a full close.

effects a

return

Eight-bar period ending with a half close on the dominant.


Allegretto.

43.

m
P ^^W^W^w^^^^^
<^

-^^^^3^^
^
mE^^m^^^^^^
sf

Repetition of the period with

IS

a full close on the Tonic

The

pupil will find another striking

example of

this

kind

in a major key by referring- to the first sixteen bars of the


Adagio in Beethoven's Sonata in C minor, op. 10. I. We would

also refer to

op.

in

which the Rondo contains a four-bar

period repeated; the same occurs in the

Rondo

of op. 31, and

^
Simple Song-Form

in the

Scherzo of op.

in Instrumental Music.

35

as well as in the air

31. Ill,

with vari-

where the eight-bar period is repeated.


The third kind of simple song-form is that formed by
means of two distinct periods. The second period must always
form a contrast to the first, even if it repeats a metre from the
first.
The first period can close at discretion, either upon the
tonic, dominant or by means of an interrupted cadence upon
a related key; the second period must close upon the tonic
ations, op. 26,

By way

only.

of example

we submit

the

first

Andante from Beethoven's Sonata in G, op.

14.

portion of the
II.

cadence on the Dominant.

First period with a perfect

First half period.

two-bar metre.

First

Andante.

^
44.

s -?-

"r^-^

:ft=:

2=t
i
* -r

<^

^-

P=rt

-?-p

First period with a perfect

N 7

cadence on the Dominant.

First half period.

--

-S-

-7-^-7-

_U,_t:-

i}!c

*^--a-

r^

^^s^^^^^^H^^^
First period with a perfect

cadence on the Dominant.

I^E^^I^^Spg^^^i^
.v/

'if

crcsc.

1:h

>

'-

Song and Simple Song-Form.

36

Second Peiiod.

^^^^

t|:=t

-0

Efcfe

^
B

:t:

t.

^^

t:

h-

h-|

Second Period.
First metre of the

first

period repeated,

pil^^^^^l

^^g

:tv^-:!v5:

^^

-?--^-S-?=

-?-5-^--^-?-

-$^u

Perfect close on the tonic.

,N

;=^^

i
sf

tt^

t
Irf:

=ti-

f-

feE=l=

Another good example can be found


Beethoven's Sonata op. 57;

in

in this case the first

the

Andante of

period ends in

major. For further examples we would


Largo of Beethoven s Sonata op. 10. Ill;
here we find two four-bar periods, the first of which closes on
the subdominant; the Minuet of the same work contains two

the principal key,

flat

refer the student to the

eight-bar periods, the

first

dominant; and also to the


op. III.

concluding with a half close on the


airs

with variations in

op. 109

and

Simple Song-Form in Instrumental Music.

The

37

fourth kind of simple song-form presents

combination of three or four periods, of which the


of a repetition of the

we

turn to

find the principal idea

This period

is

is

(A

flat)

leading

in the relative

to the

back

repetition

close in the

tonic.

If

we

full

given out in the

first

eight-bar period.

repeated exactly but an octave higher, and with

a richer accompaniment.

mencing

with a

of Beethoven's Sonata Pathetique

first,

the Adagio

itself as

last consists

A six-bar

dominant (E
to

first

flat).

key,

the principal

of the

period follows, which

com-

minor, leads through the principal key

second period of
is

six bars,

attended by an

eight-bar period.

We

exact

subjoin a short

example of four four-bar periods, taken from Beethoven's Sonata in G, op. 49.

I.

The

first

period closes in the fourth bar

on the dominant and repeats in order to


terminate with a full close on the tonic. A period of four bars
with a half close on the first inversion of the dominant seventh
with

half close

means of connection, and then comes the

follows as a

of the second period with a

full

close

in

repetition

the principal

key.

example of simple song-form,


composed of three connected parts, which can be found.
This

is

perhaps the

shortest

First period with half close

on the dominant.

45:

Repetition of the

first

period with a close on the tonic.

I^^^^^ii^^

a:

-^

Inserted Period of four bars.

^^E^E^ife^E^E^

Song and Simple Song-Form.

38

Repetition of the second period with a close on the tonic.

^ i^

ioe=B=t

This fourth kind of simple song-form


varieties,

as the pupil can

We

example we
first

manifold

observe in the works of the best

only hint at some of them at present.

For
Andante of Beethoven's Sonata op. 28,
period of eight bars, which closes in the minor mode

masters.

presents

will

find in the

The subsequent

of the dominant.
a middle portion,

is

period of eight bars, forming

occupied uninterruptedly upon the domi-

To this is added a third


and new period, commencing with and developed from the
motive of the first; this comes to a conclusion in the principal
key, and the whole constitutes an example of threefold simple
nant seventh of the prevailing key.

The

song-form.

be found

in

Ex

repetition of the second

and

third periods will

45 b.

First Period.

Andante.

45b.,

First Period.

EJ^feEg

S^-=^^

Simple Song-Form

in Instrumental Music.

39

Modulation to second

First Period.

period.
Jma_

II.

^^

]=H-ii=^=H-=

fr^

-*^

|^=sa^^^^
#^
S

b^

5:

1'^

Second Period.

~^^^^^^3i*=t
5-

t:s^

ii

i^^
r=Jl

IT

0-0-

---

!----

-0-0-

v-p-0--m----p-

Second Period.

0-0-0-0-000-0
-- -

r-mm-m-wmm-m-m
Y-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0

m-m

v
t

Third p eriod.

NJI'

SE^S^

i
F

^J-#-

''=?^=P^=r

!;

'(*

Song and Simple Song-Form.

40

Third period.

Ima

Ilda

m]

The second movement of Beethoven's Sonata in E minor,


commences with a four-bar period, which is immediately

op. 90,

repeated an octave higher.

Both periods close

These two periods which together occupy eight


likewise closes

in

the

We

in the tonic.

have

this,

in the key of
These eight-bar

tonic.

by

periods are repeated, and followed

period of four bars, and

bars, give place

which beginning

to a second eight-bar period,

the dominant,

the tonic.

in

a repetition of the

first

with a slight alteration, also ends

in this instance

key within thirty two bars;


rarely to be met with.
original

six

as

this,

full
it

closes

stands,

is

the

in

a case

The pupil may now collect from the classical works as


many instances of the simple song-forms as possible, and
afterwards make some attempts to write examples of these
four species.

new and
work for

It

would repay him best

varied at each effort,


his

ideas.

to

compose something

not relying upon his previous

The more he

exercises

his

imaginative

more they will prove capable of doing. In order


power of imagination and not to fall into beaten
tracks, let him change the key and tempo of his short movements more frequently. He should seek to give a different
faculties, the

to stimulate the

character to each piece,

so that each

The pupil should imagine that he


commencement of a serious Adagio
of bright rondo or

own powers
doubt more

in

minuet

every

difficult

in

has
in

triple

imaginable

new tempo.

requires a

now

time,

way.

to

compose the

now

duple time,

and thus
This

is

that

test

without

his

than to help one's self out with melodies

The
already employed;

and

useful

fresh

besides

it

is

more

41

praiseworthy

interesting,

new

develope

and

seek

to

Kinds of Variations.

different

material

for

ever>'

trial.

We

shall

have occasion

speak of protracted song-

later to

form, in which the twofold and threefold combinations receive


the addition of a lengthened coda,

Adagios;

C minor,

in

instance

for

op.

op. 31.

Ill,

also in the

at this point

II;

find

in

of Beethoven's

many
Sonata

again in the Largo of his Sonata in

lo. I,

major, op. lo.

we

such as

the Adagio

in

it

Adagios of op.

would be too

early,

26,

op. 31.

into our practical course, besides interrupting the exercises

work of the

Ill,

and would break


and

student.

CHAPTER

III.

VARIATION-FORM.

The
Just as the

different

Kinds of Variations.

works of the

festations to us of the

masters are the mani-

classical

innermost workings of Art, so are their

and preparations a precedent to us which we ourselves


and which we should present to our pupils in

studies

should study,

order that they


youthful

Beethoven,

some on
and

may

efforts
is

to

of

reach their destined goal.


that

great

airs of his

we

noblest

Amongst
of

be found an immense number of

own

composition,

in the astonishing series of

poser,

and

variations,

some on those of

immortal works by

the

tone-poets,

this

others;

com-

find the variation-form constantly occurring in ever)'

imaginable class of work.

Granted that

all

the other classical

Haydn, Mozart, Schubert, Weber,


Mendelssohn, Schumann and others have written numerous and
charming movements in variation-form, still none of thpm have
employed this form with such peculiar charm as Beethoven
Handel,

masters,

Bach,

himself.

Variations have a place in every possible description

Variation-Form.

42

is

of

Symphony, he

sufficient

even

from his pen:

of instrumental composition
field

did not despise

proof for the fact that

this

its

form

in

the wide

employment.

This

capable of taking-

is

as high a place as any, despite the fact that

had almost run

it

work produced in an age not


long past. This shallow ware which was partly intended for
in part also as a means to show the techteaching purposes
performer
upon 'his' instrument, we can hardly
of
the
nique
call an art-form, any more than we could call certain fashionable
owing

to ruin,

to the superficial

pieces,

which hardly deserve the

title

of Potpourri,

Fantasias.

The Fantasias of Bach. Mozart, Beethoven, Mendelssohn and


Schumann show us what we ought really to understand by
this title.

Mendelssohn and Schumann were the


variation-form; the former

and important of

beautiful

works,

by

the

latter

by

his

first

to reinstate the

his Variations Serieuses, the

gifted

this

lovely

composer's

variations

for

most

pianoforte

two

pianos.

Although both composers have written other movements in this


form, still we have just selected these two prominent works,
because we considered them generally best known.

The means for constructing variations are manifold; of the


many we would mention the alteration of the motive contained
upon a motive, the repetition of the
subject wnth melodic adornments as employed by Bach, the
alteration of both motive and subject as in the 'working out"
in the air,

of a

etude-variations

symphony

or sonata.

Further developments

may be ob-

tained b}^ an alteration of the motion yet retaining the rhythm,

by a change of both harmony and rhythm by a change of


key and by the employment of the major and minor modes.
If we introduce to the more lengthy composition of varia,

tions the pupil so

following grounds.

every one of

its

soon

The

we do
now employ a

after his first efforts,

pupil must

possible changes;

certain extent prepared the

way

so on the
subject in

by so doing he has

for the free fantasia or

to

'work-

he must out of one and the same subject gain a


number of new forms which are merely developments of it. As
in one variation he is still held within the boundary of a form,
ing out';

The

Subject.

43

narrow but easy to surveyj so the number of combined variations always appears to him as an extended whole.
The

must not of course be placed next

individual variations

to

one

another spontaneously, but must follow naturally, thus consti-

How

tuting an artistic entirety.

endeavour

should be

We would first call attention


between two different kinds of

"classics".

distinguish
1.

this

done we

will

to lay clearly before the pupil with the help of the

Those

to

the

that

fact

we

variations: viz.

which the melody of the subject being but very


by means of the rhythm, remain easily

in

slightly altered

recognisable throughout

all

their variations, in

which case

harmony for the most part also remains the same.


Those in which the melody of the subject furnish the
material for new melodic developments, which are formed

the
2.

so unlike the subject, that

it is

hardly possible to recognise

the theme in the variations except as the primary


of what

it

has

Let us proceed

As

to construct.

germ

produced.

itself

to study the former

kind which

is

easier

a brilliant example that even in this form the

most noble works may be constructed, we would suggest the


variations from Beethoven's Sonata Appasionata, op. 57.

we

pass to

most

this,

let

Before

us say a few words concerning the subject

suitable for variations.

The
9.

Beethoven has proved

variations in

movement

Subject.

minor, that

it

is

in his

charming and wonderful

possible to construct a splendid

upon a subject of only eight bars


made up of two eightbar periods would be more suitable. At times we find subjects
duration.

in

As

this

form

a rule however subjects

with even three periods in which

reproduction of the

first,

of Beethoven's Sonata

as for

op. 26.

case the third

selves less suited to the strict variation-form.

be short and

easily intelligible

distinct musical idea.

period

is

example in the first movement


Longer melodies prove them-

The

subject should

and should contain a

clear

and

Variation-Form.

44

The

shortness of the

repetition of the periods

By

when

easily recognised

Beethoven

and

it

more

is

readily grasped

appears in the

treats the subjects of the

and many

1 1 1

most cases a

in

which form the divisions of the

means the melody

this

melody requires

melody

others, as a

different

variations

subject.

and more
variations.

log

op. 57,

in

of two periods of eight

bars each, each of which forms a distinct portion of the subject,

and the

repetition of each portion

written out in

is

we
we

If

full.

give our attention to the above mentioned Sonata, op. 57,


shall see a

melody, magnificent, sublime and pathetic, which

is

composed of only a few notes, and whose range does not exIn a melodic, harmonic

ceed an octave.

and rhythmic respect,

the second period presents a decided contrast to the

little

altered in the variations that

able throughout.

The

is

so

remains distinctly recognis-

it

variations consist

of the accompaniment; and the

only

first;

The melody

the final bars of both periods are similar.

only of an alteration

harmony continues

for the

most

part the same.

The

first

variation

presents

melody and harmony

in

sometimes quavers, sometimes

staccato notes of equal value,

semiquavers, whilst the bass by means of syncopation follows


with sustained quavers.

The second

variation produces a pas-

sage in semiquavers, where the melody

We

above the broken chords.

is

distinctly perceptible

represent this in the following

manner.
45

I^1^^
Mwrnw^w^^
te^=

The motion
pared with the

of this variation

first.

To

this

is

etc.

doubly accelerated as com-

another double acceleration occurs

where the subject is accompanied by demisemiquavers, altered


for the most part by s}'ncopation, but the notes of the melody
are faithfully reproduced in the
of the

first

period

we come

syncopated notes of the

left

quaver figure of the right

first

period.

across the

hand

At

the repetition

melody both

in

the

as well as in the demisemi-

in the first

and second bar:

in

the

The
fourth

45

however they only appear


This is shown below.

second bar

quaver of the

above the demisemiquavers.

45 d.

Subject.

Beethoven makes the entrance of the melody stand out


prominently
the

first

by means of

repetition

is

the

sforzando.

The connection

of

readily recognised as taken from the figure

in the bass.
Subject.

46.

m^

Sfcfe
Variation.

At

the close of the third variation Beethoven produces the

subject

in

altered in the third


still

notes just as at

sustained

and fourth bars

first,

only

the

bass

is

which

to demisemiquavers,

allow the notes of the melody to be easily recognised.


Subject.

^f^
48.

Variation.
.0
0-

^^^^^-A=^^
A

similar treatment occurs in the seventh

but the period does not repeat.

almost

unaltered

terminate,

but

shape,

forms

the

To

second

this

period

is

and eighth

bars,

attached in an

which does not

by means of a diminished seventh a

connecting link with the Finale.

The
after the

return to the subject in

various accelerations

it

its

originally placid

motion

has undergone, or at least a

Varation-P'orni.

46
return

a calmer motion than in

to

repeatedly, and

the last

occurs

variation

every instance with a good

in

effect.

We

can

mind the variations in Beethoven's B flat major


Trio, op. 97, where the subject, with some harmonic alterations
is reproduced in tempo primo, and the movement is brought
here only

call to

to a close in a steady time in the gentle


triplets.

Many

similar instances will

noisseur of musical literature, and

it

is

at

motion of quavers

in

once occur to a con-

therefore unnecessary^ to

quote further examples.

The pupil's exercises should now consist of composing a


number of variations upon a given melody, the alterations to
be formed by varying the rhythm and motion and in no wise
to be made so striking or so difficult as to hide the subject. We
consider

better at the present stage to give the pupil a sub-

it

ject

than to allow him to choose or construct one for himself

The

pupil would in this

way

learn

how

apparently unpretending material.

regarded as so
nical,

much wasted
operation

spiritless

and

motion

from

This practice should not be

time or as a more or less mecha-

on the contrary,

manner

to develope all

of forms through an alteration of rhythm

this sort

work

of

should always prove an excellent technical stimulant to composition,

so

the talented could here find opportunities to

that

power of construction and wellyoung student should not regard

display their tastes, imagination,


cultivated ear.

Of course

such work as so

many

the

dry school exercises, but should rather

take trouble upon every occasion to put forth his best

efforts.

Volkslieder whose melodies form two periods of eight

bars,

vom

should be chosen as a subject for variation, such as "Hoch


Dachstein",

may

"Morgen muss

construct his

own

ich fort

The second

The

hier', etc.

pupil

subject on these lines later.

More important
lo.

von

Variation-forms.

of the two Kinds of Variations already

mentioned, in which other melodic forms are to be developed

from the subject,


poser

still

further.

will tax the

In

imaginative faculty of the

such variations

we

change of both key and time-signature; and

frequently
it

is

usual,

comfind
if

the

The Close

key be major,

to

of the Variations.

have a variation

47

minor mode generally

in the

"Minore"; should the key however be minor the reverse

marked

occurs and

Towards the termination of

entitled 'Maggiore'.

it is

may

a long series of variations a fugue or a fugato-movement

Mendelssohn

sometimes appear.

Variations

his

in

has placed a fugato-movement in the middle but

employed

as a fugue-subject, since the longer

constituted

ally

this is

Naturally the subject or even a period of

tional.

subjects

of this

Serieuses,

and more metric-

form are not adapted to the


Better for this pur-

construction of the fugue or fugal device.

pose would be to extract a motive, preferably the


should not end with a fugal device, as the

first,

The

the subject and employ this as a fugue-subject.

style

The

termination should be in the free

ject

as well

polyphonic

strict

as

the whole

is

in

st^'le

conceived.

which the sub-

pleasant change

might be introduced amongst a number of variations

by the employment of canonic

The Close
As we have

11.

longer piece, even

should

of

of the Variations.

here to do for the

in

first

time with a

movements, we
general and of the

consist of several small

if it

variation-movement

terminate

in the free

imitation.

must add a few remarks on the close


close

in

in

Every piece

particular.

such a manner that

ear a feeling of perfect completion.

It

abruptly, and an insufficient close

would

close gives the

its

should

not

make

break

respects.

In Italian music of the present day

repetitions of the

increases in speed.

full

close,

especially

we

off

a substantial

deduction from the charm of a composition, beautiful

49.

from

variations

only intended to serve as a change in the variations.

is

style,

excep-

cannot be

it

in other

find frequent

where each

repetition

Variation-Form.

48
This

perhaps a very ordinary but

is

means of giving the


from

this that the

Longer

pieces,

a very

still

feeling of completion.

It

requirement of a perfect close are undeniable.

movements

particularly final

more or

require a

independent coda*).

less

The

termination

movement

of the

requirements of a perfect close


object of a coda.

symphony we

If

we

is

the

satisfying

the

ordinary
so

a presto,

coda

that

close.

In the

its

repetition of

monies of the tonic and dominant are alone employed.

The

nant.

first

repetition

we have
of the

still

four

bars forming the

ginning with the

harmonies than

the

half

repetition accelerates

The subsequent twenty -six

more.

At

a half close on the domi-

show an increase of speed, the second

close

the motion

its

shows a certain

it

sixteen bars of the presto, the har-

first

twelfth bar from this point

fifth

accelerating

relationship to the foregoing Italian cadence in


full

of the

most important

always the

turn to the Finale of Beethoven's

find

shall

speed and passing to


the

suitable

appears to us

bars be-

motive of the subject, contain no other

initial

The

of the tonic and dominant.

those

last

twenty-nine bars of the symphony are made up entirely of the

common

chord of C, which terminates

The whole

unison.

in

the

bar in a

last

of the presto presents nothing

more than

immense final cadence, which Beethoven found necesmonumental structure of his gigantic work.
we return after this digression to the final movement

a single,

sary for the


If

of variations,

we

always find

shall

preceding ones because


close;

not,

of course,

that

it

is,

it

longer than any of the

requires the addition of a lengthened


if

the

movement

is

final

as in the Sonata Appasionata, lead to another.

variation of Beethoven's Trio in

flat

major,

op. 97,

and does

The

last

presents

*) Concerning the coda of longer movements we shall have to speak by


and by, when we come to the Sonata. The completed coda was strictly speaking, first introduced by Beethoven; but we find traces of it both in Haydn

and Mozart. Beethoven had by this means provided the keystone for the
development of the classial forms, and Codas such as are to be found in the
seventh and ninth symphonies and in many other of his works, were never
written before.

Free Variation-Form.

49

an example of an enlarged close, although the variation-move-

ment

leads

directly

the

to

The

finale.

first

movement

Beethoven's Sonata in Aflat major, op. 26, contains in the


twenty-six bars a

even

distinct,

The

the last variation.

if

only small coda arising from

idea

etc.

quite

enters

motive,
natural

fresh,

movement

attached to the

is

it

neither derived from the subject nor

is

it

of
last

the purpose

idea for a coda, for

only;

is

it

quite

of preparing a close

and lengthening and bringing the movement to an

artistic

con-

clusion.

This

by no means necessary

is

the pupil should see to

it

that he does not conclude his last variation as in the foregoing

which would undoubtedly require further additions.


last variation as seems best suited to him.

instance,

He may

prolong his

This

is

chords of a

by means of a limited repetition of the


rhythm or by richly conceivfull close, or by the addition of a natural

possible

full

close with varied

ed alterations of a

The

close in the form of a coda.

be determined by a feeling

The

pupil

will

at

first

err

for

length of a close can alone

what

is

correct and symmetrical.

by doing too

by doing too much; by degrees he


extent and proportion
closing variations

in

little,

of a close, especially

the

classical

later

if

perhaps

grasp the

clearly

will

he studies the

works, carefully and atten-

tively.

Free Variation-Form.
12.

third

and

hoven.

It

only remains for us

last

We

now

to

call

attention

to a

form of variations, mostly employed by Beet-

will

only do

this

speaking of the slow movement

en passant and return to

in

in this

variations

not separated from one another,

but con-

nected by means of intermediary phrases.


Jadassohn, Manual

it

The

form should not be exacted from a beginner.


in this species are

work

in sonata-form, as

of Music. Form.

By way
4

of example

Varation-Form.

50

we would suggest the slow movement of Beethoven's fifth


Symphony and analyse it for the purpose of illustrating the
form to the student. The first thing that catches the eye in
studying the above-mentioned Andante,
subject but two

preference

is

are

employed

given to the

The Andante begins


accompanied by a bass

mencing with the


with the

first

The second

bars.

The

only.

period takes
repeats

small melodic alteration.

metre the same as

in the

is

its
its

The second

bar.

the

first

although

commences with

rise

from the third quaver


four-bar metre with a

of the

first

brought

is

the

commences with

After the previous

perfect

this subject as a continuation of

key of the tonic and

enters at once in the

a dotted figure,

subject.

repeated twice in

to a close with

subject also in Aflat major

it

period of ten

major chord in the eleventh and twelfth

cadence we can hardly consider


the

is

of the twelfth bar.

third beat

and concluding

then repeated with

The harmony remains in the second


first.
The final cadence between the

following bars, and the subject

A flat

is

first

eighth and ninth bars of the second period

repetition of the

two-bar metre, com-

last

we have an extended

that

of the tenth bar and

Still

with an eight-bar melody which

third quaver of the sixth bar

so

not only one

that

first.

quaver of the eighth bar,

harmony

a fuller

is

manifold variations.

in

imitative

of the

initial

figure

In the eighth bar of this subject Beethoven

already introduces the key of the major third, in which he so


often

The pupil can


movements of op. 31

has his second subjects.

second subjects

in the first

other of Beethoven's works.

to

the

op. 53

and

refer
I,

This subject enters with a richer

harmony and an accompanying motion of semiquavers in triplets,


which at the same time form a kind of variation to the melody.
This motion ceases in the fourth bar; then follows that wonderfully effective

time,

diminished seventh entering pianissimo the

and passing

now appears amid

into the

key of C major.

subject

a glancing fortissimo of trumpets, horns

oboes; the violins and violas varying

ment

The second

as the violins alone did before.

an adjunct of two bars and

it

with the same

The

first

and

move-

subject here shows

sustains the third e

g,

Free Variation-Form.

which an analagous section enters on the diminished seventh,


and D ^.
This section considerably lengthened,

after

51

G B7
,

passes through the chords:

bd

--

!5te;te3tEte^;El

:2fc

-P^3^se^i^^iP^
the dominant

to

variation of the

seventh of Aflat major;


ten-bar period of the

first

and now the


first

first

com-

subject

mences with semiquavers below a sustained clarinet part, which


shares the motion in the seventh bar.
The second period
shows but a

variation in

slight

otherwise

solo;

it

is

semiquavers of the

the

To

given exactly as before.

flute

this follows

subject with an accelerated motion of demisemi-

the second

quavers on the violas, which at the same time forms a variation


of the subject, and
the

fifth

rious

bar of

effect

violins

and

The

is

commences once more

produced by the tremulant

transition to

key are

C major and
efiected

In

on the second

same time varying motion

anything,

semiquavers.

the continuation of the sub-

manner similar to the first


that the accompanying and at

in a

time, only with this difference

if

major.

second subject, a myste-

this variation of the

violas.

ject in that

the

A flat

in

in the

violins

and

violas

adds,

an increased acceleration by means of the demi-

A corresponding figure to

that given in Ex. 53 takes

place whilst a modulation to the dominant seventh occurs on the


violoncellos.

Next follows the second

variation of the

first

eight-

bar period without the addition of the two-bar metre; as in the


4'

Variation-Form.

52
first

variation, the violoncellos

The

motion.
clarinet

in

is

this

and the bassoon.


variation of the

and

instance allotted to the

At

first

up the varying

violas take

part given in the

obligate

variation to the

first

first

flute,

the oboe

the eighth bar a fijrther repetition of this

period commences.

The

first

violins repeat

almost note for note the varied figure which the violoncellos and

With

had previously.

violas

a slight deviation (probably written

sake of an easier execution), the violoncellos and double-

for the

basses then take up a second repetition of the variation, which

comes

an end upon a half close on the dominant. After the


pause a free episode is introduced, for which the initial figure of
the

to

first

subject, without retaining

material.

enters in

The episode
C major and

without other motion than

period

of the

subject

first

Aflat minor for ten bars;


first

period in free

a short

without any variation.

now

character of a

now

follows as

a fourth variation

canonic style, succeeds

episode, but in

Andante

dotted rhythm, provides the

it

now

originally

After a short transition the third variation of the

contained.
first

its

leads to the second subject, which

follows

major.

From
what

movement

'"Minore" in

manipulating the
the

minor

The second period


piu

mosso

appears

to

the

evidently

is

after

added

end of the
to

bear

containing two varied subjects.

the

The

meet with other slow movements in this form, for


Adagio in the ninth symphony. The foregoing
analysis of the Andante of the fifth symphony will no doubt
suffice to give a clear insight into this more rarely employed
variation-form.
The work relative to this form, as has already
been remarked, is not yet to be exacted from the pupil.

pupil will

instance the

The Contrasted Movement.

CHAPTER

53

IV.

DANCE-FORM.

The Contrasted Movement.


Dance-form

is

developed from the third and fourth varie-

of simple song-form.

ties

movements

or contrasted ot these

called the Trio.

must

Dient

is

every

in

song-form; the second

in

The principal niove-

repeated after the

be

case

com-

usually however presents a

It

bination of two different

same key as

Trio,

even

should the

Trio

movement.

Smaller dance-forms which only yield small pieces

be ivritteu

the

in

the principal

of two portions, no matter whether they be formed of two or


four periods, can hardly serve for other than the practical pur-

poses of dancing; they would never bring about a satisfactory


result

owing

meagre form.

to their too

Short dances of only

when

several of them in
Thoroughly delightful and charming as the waltzes for four hands by Schubert
are, one of these, if played alone, would never give a perfectly
tsvo

portions alone produce a piece

succession form an uninterrupted whole.

satisfactory

result;

heard as a

whole.

in

the works

performed successively however, they are


Pieces of two portions

older masters;

of the

constantly occur

they are to be found

in

Sarabands, Gigues and Courantes.

But these

are then only portions of a Suite.

Should such a movement,

say a gigue, occur at the close of a


parts requires in

most cases

necessity for repeating the

the

remark

pieces,

at

the

close

headed Gavotte

repeated.

It

forms the

trio

is

first

movement

of the

is,

second

and Gavotte

II,

How

of the

t^vo

strong the

can be seen from


of

two

that the

evident that in this case the

In dance-form

pieces

each of the

suite,

be continued.

to

t^vofold

successive

first

must be

second Gavotte

first.

all

effective

pieces are not alone to sen'c

the purposes of the Terpsichorean art, as indeed

Tyrolienne, Galop, Minuet

etc., are,

the Waltz,

but are also written as pieces

Dance-Form.

54

chamber music and concert music, as the Scherzo,


Even the March has no other form

suitable for

Capriccio and Impromptu.

than that already explained.

observe

shall

the trio,
it

most cases

we

regard this form closer,


the

that

shorter than the principal

is

may be

render

in

If

of an

this

movement,

contrasted

one,

on

occasions

rare

equal length, but never longer.

we

In order to

form as clear as possible to the pupil, we

shall

Symphony in Eflat major.


movement consists of two

here quote the Minuet from Mozart's

The

first

of the

part

principal

periods of eight bars each, the


of two four-bar

This part terminates with a

full

Part

Period

first

of which

is

a combination

metres, the second of four two-bar metres.

Metre

close

on the dominant.

I.

Period

I.

Metre

II.

II.

I.

:J4
1=1
z^-^^-^zir*

Part

f=F=

The Contrasted Movement.

The second

55

portion consists of a period of eight bars, to

which however the whole of the first part


an altered cadence leading back to the

The

last

period

is

extended

strengthening the close.

key of the

four bars

for

Next comes the

added, but with

is

trio,

tonic.

the purpose of

for

whose

first

part

consists of a period of eight bars; this has a half close

on the

dominant

second

at

metre does

the end of

its

first

four-bar metre,

not, as usual, close in

Metre

E
I.

55.

the

major,

flat

fe

i
Metre

II.

^^^^^pm^m

EEE

but, after the repetition of this portion,

beginning, and then passes


the trio, to which

it

directly

returns at once to the

to the

second portion of

forms a contrast in a melodic, harmonic,

rhythmic, and metrical respect.

We

have

for the first six bars

nothing but one-bar metres, to which a two-bar metre


for the sake of

is

added

completing the period.

Metre

I.

Metre

II.

Metre

III.

Metre IV.
Lb-

:t=

5G.

The period

ends, strictly speaking,

of the seventh bar;

=E^E

upon the

the last two additional

finst

crotchet

bars form a tran-

Dance-Form.

56

sition to the first portion of the

which

trio,

complete the second portion of the

Minuet and Trio

is

to

be repeated, save that

movement

of the principal

now added

is

Each

trio.

to

of the

part

in the repetition

the trio, the reproduction

after

of

the separate portions does not take place.

may

This Minuet of Mozart's

form on small

Small as

lines.

serve as a pattern of dance-

it

is,

remains in

still

it

itself

an

independent piece, which by the additional four bars in the

second period of the second portion of the principal movement

The

forms a satisfactory conclusion.


satisfaction

which

receive

w^e

the fact that the whole piece

This occurs also

if

a trio in the major

in

the

Minuet

Beethoven's

when

mode

in

Symphony

a Minuet in a major key

major,

op.

2. II.

in the case of

is

followed

in

not in

is

minor and

trio

is

in the

minor

same key belongs

The

necessity of formso pressing as

itself

more extended movements

in protracted

retain the trio in the

the Minuets and Scherzi written in the

more

same key

limited

and ninth Symphonies, of Sonata


II,

op.

and of the Sonata op.

principle in the

other masters,

Mozart's Jupiter

Symphony.

for

We

left

entirely

to

the authors

7,

106.

of the fourth,

We

instance

in

find

it

The

will

permit

pupil find no hard and fast

here, which will prove absolutely infallible

With regard

to

this

of

should in every instance

trio.

down

same

the

fancy, whether he will retain

a change of key for the

cases.

or

fifth

the Minuet

movement, or whether he

all

II

of the Violin Sonata,

the key of the principal

rules laid

in

forms,

do not advance the absolute

necessity of changing the key of the trio;

be

is

but he also carries out the same principal in the

much broader conceived Scherzo movements


op. 30.

it

forms.

such as those mentioned above or in Sonatas op. 27.


op. 31. Ill,

in

gained

Scherzo of Beethoven's Sonata

movements.

Beethoven does not merely

minor

similar effect

persistence in the

another key

trio in

in

followed by a

is

in the

to the nature of very small

ing the

movement

Sonata, op. 2.1.

form of the same key, as

in

of the same key; as for example

of Mozart's

first

partly

lies

written throughout in one key.

is

the principal

by

reason of the feeling of

from the Minuet

point

we can

only show

for

how

The

Contrasted Movement.

57

masters have proceeded in such cases,

the

i.

e.

what keys

they have employed where a change in the key of the

does take place.

be found to be the
op.

relative

Minuet op.

Ill,

2.

trio

a major key these will most generally

In

minor

Beethoven's Scherzo

(see

and Scherzo

22^

op. 28),

more

rarely

subdominant (Beethoven's Minuet op. 10. III.


Scherzo op. 26, Schubert's Scherzo op. 100), and frequently the
major key of the submediant (Beethoven's 7'^ Symphony,
the key

of the

Scherzo,

Schubert's

movements

Symphony

in

major.

In

Scherzo).

minor key we most frequently find the

in a

in the

major

mode

of the

minor

sixth.

trio

key, or in the major mode


As examples of those movements which
have their trios in the major mode of the original key we have
already cited Mozart's G minor Symphony and Beethoven's
C minor Symphony; as instances of those which form their
trios in the major key of the minor sixth
we would mention

of the same

from

Beethoven's

the Allegretto
op. 27.

from

op.

the

14.

from op.

Allegretto

10.

II,

I,

and the Allegro

molto from

number of small

pieces with

I.

The

pupil can

upon the

trios,

Sonatas,

do best

to

now work

instructions

he has so

far received.

He would

begin with dances such as Waltzes, Tyroliennes,

Galops and Polkas and to compose such as might really be


employed for dancing purposes.
Of course he could then
only compose in uniformly regular periods, and would then
exercise himself to a certain extent upon a fixed model.
This is in any case very useful practice for the beginner who
thus learns to confine himself to a
form.

The more

the

better

and

freer forms.

will

he be enabled

But even these small,


hberties

strictly

limited

and small

makes at first, so much


work in broader conceived

studies of this sort he


to

strictly limited

and present manifold exceptions

forms allow manifold


to

Mozart's Minuet,

analysed above.

It is

not always necessary that the trio should

have two

We

find in Beethoven's

parts.

Sonata op.

part trio which really contains one and the

bars repeated six times:

28, a

same period of

twofour

Dance-Form,

58
Trio.

teg==^^?##^
57.

<

#-

:^

PS^I_^
is

seeee
-JL.

-#

Wk

seconda parte una voUa.

-^

i
#-

^
A

-^

1^

^--*-

^Irt^

iijEfEfe

a*

-*

:-gS

_^'-

-^#-

^ *

1^

^i^

^^t-

^1i^r^.t=f= -rt-i-uaja=Ti
--I-

^ #

^-

feEEiS^SEE*

-^

-G>--

^r^?^

Za

+-

:i-^

ls=SEEi?=EES
^i * *

t:

"^

-^

Protracted Dance-Form.

59

These two parts are indeed separated from one another


by the double bar, still in the main they form but a single
for the musical

portion,

which according to

the principal

the two parts

exactly the

is

the

last

movement,

nature should ever be smaller than

its

movement, has only one

however we constantly
larly

in

In many dances, marches and characteristic pieces the

same.
trio,

idea

period of the second

for the

On

part.

the other

hand

find extensions of the periods, particu-

of the

portion

principal

purpose of perfecting and emphasising the

formation of the close.

Even

in the midst of a part

an inserted

period might occur, which would have a modulatory and pre-

such as the inserted period of twelve bars

paratory character,
in the

the

Scherzo of Beethoven's Sonata, op. 26.

It is difficult to enumerate all the different liberties, which


composer may take even in this small form. Good taste

and an

ments of

this

some

slight

introduce the correct

study of the

move-

kind in classical works the pupil will discover

that all these pieces,


in

know how to
Upon a careful

intuitive faculty will

thing in the right place.

even though they

differ

from one another

measure, are yet formed upon one and the same

principle.

Protracted Dance-Form.

for

which
find

14.

After the pupil has

purposes of dancing, he

it

shall

composed a number of pieces


write some in dance -form

may

have merely a musical end

necessary to deviate from the

in view.

strict,

He

will

soon

regular periods

of

Dance-Form.

60

Now

dance-music.

he must lengthen his

last

purpose of forming a cadence, as was shown


from Mozart, again he
part

by way of preparing an

or of repeating the

first

frequently be the case

is

shown

in

extract

in the

second

new

period,

effective entrance of a

portion, as

the

in

have to insert a period

will

period for the

Ex.

This

58.

if

the trio closes in a different key

from the principal movement.

Beethoven introduces the repe-

w^ill

tition of the

principal

movement,

in the Scherzo of the Sonata in

after
flat

the close

of the

trio,

by means

major, op. 26,

of the following- four bars

Modulatory four-bar period formed from two metres.

Close of the
Trio.

Metre

pis
^^313X1
i^i^

^^

-*!'

feEEfep

-bi-

also serve to prepare

different

entirely

-^--

^F^

-tS^

Such an inserted period can


part which has an

II.

-^

4-.

5^S

59.

Metre

I.

rhythm.

new

Beethoven pro-

gresses from the trio to the Scherzo in the ninth

Symphony

through the two following bars:

CO.

1^

These two bars contain the motive of the Scherzo four


times, in this concentrated form.

Metre

61 a.

iE^^=g

Beethoven has
op. 31.

II,

Metre

I.

that a

also

coda

proved

II.

^
in

the Minuet of the

after the repetition of the principal

Sonata

move-

Protracted Dance-Form.

ment

of short

necessary in pieces

also

is

61

following case only the rhythmical

initial

In

duration.

motive

is

the

employed

about a termination of a plagal cadence on a pedal.

to bring

Coda.

9-0-

-=-

-=-

5-#-

-^.fci=|^^=EB=t=H=^t4

61b.

9i^^=#=iz=zzz=|=:|==|=|^=|=|
S?:^
i

C^

^ygv=pp=gEE|;p

In other cases

come

U CTTn

i.n

At

we

find a short

i.-i

new

=t=^=l=t:

independent idea forming

the close of the Funeral

across such a

i.H

^=fpP^= H=F=,=T^

1^- -^
^^^=J

itel
the coda.

L^

:i

March

The March

in

op. 26,

we

any
alteration after the trio until the final bar, then however
These bars
Beethoven adds the subsequent bars as coda.
contain an idea which is neither found in the march nor in the
trio, and which only derives its uneven rhythm on the weak beat
from the main

idea.

repeats without

idea.

Close of the second part


of the March.

Coda.

____

P5:
gE^^^^_g^g^

K*

--r*-

//

G2.

g^te

gnzrr^j^

"I

Dance-Form.

62

tX^L-L,^.^-^^-^'^
sf
-J

Mi^-w-

JkbLj.^-^^-

,:

.-^

f-f

&S

l5ZI

S^ EE

3^:

1^:

decresc.

|gi=i

<s^'

Sometimes a portion of a

trio

is

purpose of forming a coda.

for the

Sonata op.

14.

I,

repeated and employed

This occurs

in the final bars expressly

in

Beethoven's

marked Coda.

In

commencement of the coda is in a different key


the movement. The key of E minor does not enter

this case the

to that of
until the

eleventh bar.
Coda.

3=td==SE3q?E^iE=:
63.

aj^^E^gg^

-2-

'

=*-^

^
V

^5>-

1-

PP

decresc.

iE^^ii=^=l

Protracted Dance-Form.

g3

manner Beethoven employs the main idea of


the trio in the Scherzo of the ninth Symphony, where he allows it to appear once more after the repetition of the Scherzo
and then concludes the movement with the two bars shown in
In a similar

Ex. 60 to which the

final

The re-appearance

bar

of the

is

added.

trio,

as well as the repetition of

the trio after the final performance of the principal

was

first

cify

it

introduced

as a

by Beethoven; and we must

movement,

likewise spe-

for which we have


Beethoven thereby emphasises the

development of musical form,

to thank this great genius.

principle that nothing of importance can appear only

movement.

In the fourth

once

in

Symphony, both Scherzo and Trio

The

are repeated after the Trio and finally the Scherzo again.

following idea in the coda concludes the

movement:

*-t^^iiMi^^^
The

case

is

similar

in

the Scherzo

of the seventh

Sym-

Here again after the double repetition of the principal


movement, a reminiscence of the Trio is recalled in the coda
for the third time by the reappearance of its initial figure:
phony.

We

occasionally find two separate trios in the later masters,

such as Mendelssohn and Schumann.


these masters and their w'orks

With

we cannot now

all

due respect

for

discuss this form.

For the repetition of both trios would, even if only partially


given, have a tendency to be more wearisome than a threefold
repetition of the principal movement; and the omission of the
repetition of both trios
cipal

movement,

after

contradicts

the
the

second hearing of the prinprinciple

that

important idea must occur twice in a movement.

every

fresh

This twofold

Dance-Form.

g4
presence

of the

main ideas compels us then


work in dance-form; and it

individual parts of a

repeat

to
is

the

a matter of

be represented by the usual


be written out in full, or whether it be
varied.
We cannot and dare not wilfully

indifference whether the repetition

or whether

signs,

it

exact or slightly

omit the repetition of any portion marked "Repeat"', without

Should we omit the repe-

disturbing the form of the whole.

of such a portion,

tition

thereby render

The

we would

shorten

whole, and

the

imperfect.

it

pupil can

now proceed

with his compositions in dance-

form; and can gradually venture to extend the individual portions;

cannot happen by lengthening the parts in a mere

this

The

haphazard fashion.

musical idea must

itself

rather contain,

in a greater or less degree, the condition necessary

Every musical idea regulates

extension.

ing to
musical

contents.

intellectual

its

upon the same

ideas

If this

principle,

further

to

own form

its

accord-

happens then
it

will

be

to

all

difficult to

two pieces of short duration and treated in a free style,


somewhat more extended than mere dance-form, which are
exactly alike in their plan, structure and in the number of the

find

bars

whole as

of the

well

as

of the

structure of a composition resembles in


orsfanic

We

forms.

parts.
this

The
point

internal
all

other

never find two leaves in an oak forest

exactly alike, nor yet two human-beings perfectly resembling-

each other, although leaves and human-beings originate and

develope upon the same

principle.

Nature

creating

on her

grandest scales only produces resemblances but hardly ever an


exact copy.

contained

We

in

the

are only able to extract from the revelations

works

of the

masters

the

principles

upon

which we must compose, and only from the fact that we feel
and recognise the true art in the classical creations are we
enabled to assimilate the art forms. This cannot be attained
by a slavish reproduction of one or more patterns. Only when
the

meaning of the organic forms has been awakened and


within us, are we able to compose according to

aroused
our
left

own
by

free

fancy and, even then, only after the patterns

the masters.

jealous research into the classics will

The Song with


in

different

case alone prove

this

model of

limited

length for

its

Mnsic to each Verse, &c.

of true

advantage.

dance-music we cannot

strict

individual parts,

65

Since

the

for

up a fixed

set

nor fixed rules for a regularly-

recurring order of modulation, or for the length of the principle

and contrasted movements, we are

be
more ex-

far less in a position to

able to give definite exercises for the composition of

tended works constructed on broader

We

will

not

attention of the

fail

lines.

at the close of this chapter

young

artist

wandering

in

counterpoint, that in the second part of the principle

more extended dance-forms he can begin

of the

draw the

to

the labyrinths

of

movement
employ

to

The second portion of the Minuet in


Symphony even in its slight form, as well
G minor Symphony and in those of many of

contrapuntal devices.
Mozart's

Jupiter

as in that of his

Haydn's Symphonies and Quartetts, not to mention the works


of other masters, already present highly interesting contrapuntal

now and then,


Symphony in G minor),

combinations which

(particularly in the

of Mozart's

lend the second part the

Minuet

character of a free fantasia in a small desrree.

CHAPTER

V.

THE PROTRACTED, COMBINED SONG-FORM.

The Song with

music to each verse, the Ballad,


Romanza, Scena and
Aria, Chorus in Opera and Oratorio.
different

the Aria, Arietta, Arioso, Cavatina,

As
whose

are

poems, whose individual verses,

at

single lines,

do not permit from the nature of

their

tents of

there

being expressed musically

precedes or follows, the composer


several verses with varied

of Mus. Form.

is

the

same way

compelled

to

as

con-

what

clothe the

Should the meaning exthe most part the same throu^h-

music.

pressed in the text, remain for


Jadassohn, Manual

in

times

The

-56

Song-Form.

protracted, conibined

out the poem, and should another idea only occasionally present

itself,

would be

it

melody of the song

principal

composer

as well for the

new

express a

verse, different in

first

repeat

to

Should the poem


character

its

new musi-

insert a

such as the text requires.

cal idea

Much
cedes,

idea after the

which precedes, the composer must

to that

and

as far as possible

only deviating where the text permits.

it,

to retain the

new musical

as this

must terminate

still it

may

idea

differ

from what pre-

naturally; the final portion of the

composition must also be rendered in the same key as

clude
it

it

in

in

the

We may

beginning.

major,

or in

commence a song in E minor and conbut we can nev^er begin one in F and end

To

any other key.

poem,

prevailing in the

express musically the ideas

to adapt the

words rhythmically, the

and verses metrically, to pay constant attention in effecting


joint
connection with the sister-art so that the music does not
a
this must ever be regarded as
disturb the flow of the verse
lines

Beyond

the highest aim in the union of lyric poetry and music.


all

considerations the unity of the key must be

An

when

exception occurs

recitative

first

guaranteed.

precedes the Aria or

Such a case is to be found in Schubert's Wanderer


where the portion which precedes the words "Ich wandre still"
which introduce the melody in E major, are to be regarded as
Furthermore the composer must see that
"quasi recitativo".
song-.
o

the musical form

and

that

it is

so far as the text allows of any,

neatly rounded off

of the principal melody.

not

lose

sight

of the

by bringing about

is

The composer must above

fact

that

in

produce a perfect composition, that

suitable

a repetition
all

things

song-form he has to
must be invested with a

this

this

musical form and that this form, so far as

is

compatible with the

idea presented in the text, should approach as nearly as possible


that of simple song-form.

Should the poem

in

the course of

progress express two or more entirely different ideas, the


composer must then work out so man}' different movements in
song-form, which in their musical connection form a complete

its

whole.
In these protracted songs the accompaniment will play an

The

Song; with different Music to each Verse,

important part

in

illustrating

67

Sec.

This however should

the text.

never be carried to such an excess that the accompaniment

brought into undue prominence whilst the voice part

demned

How

play a secondary part.

to

accompaniment, completely subordinate


a characteristic

effect,

can be seen

The accompaniment

in

rauschen' subordinates

and

carries

it

on,

now

ing brook,

still

may have

songs of the masters.

Teh

Schubert's

is

con-

very frequently an

to the voice,

in the

is

hort

ein

Bachlein

the voice, yet supports

itself perfectly to

presenting us with a picture of the purl-

rushing headlong,

now

placidly calm.

If

we

turn to this accompaniment which proceeds with an even motion

throughout the song.

6.

-4-J

it

l-i

^ 1 d

'

presents but a slight difference

Schubert's "Gretchen

67.

am

1-*

to

l-d

i-

the

accompaniment of

\~d

Spinnrade"

lL_T
^Tfci
CI
!>8-

-S>^-

^-Jl

The

68

protracted,

combined Song-Form.

which expresses so characteristically, not only the act of spinning

The

but the anxiety and troubled unrest of Gretchen herself

tempo
difference
means so marked
in

different are

the beginning of both songs

at

two

the

that

though

so

entirely

brought into prominence and characterized by a

motion

substantial acceleration of the

The

parts,

by no

is

difference

lies

in

the

first

in either

one or the other.

place in the major and minor

harmonies with which the two songs are clothed

in the

second

place in their rhythms.

The

calm, regular rhythm of the

68.^

first

mentioned song,

:t5=q

3:

decided contrast to the restless throbbing of the

presents a

second
69.

-#

'

0-

-s^
:f=

even the rhythm of the semiquaver figures


for

distinct;

if

both

in

is

quite

Schubert does represent the figure


70.

as a sextuplet,
clearly

in

reality

it

is

only a double

be seen from the bass.

n.

5^23^

triplet, as

can

The Song with

On

Music to each Verse. &c.

dift'erent

other hand the semiquavers

the

in

69

Gretchen's

song

present a sixfold figure, divisible thus:

The
florid

observe from a comparison of these two

pupil will

accompaniments,

how

well

Schubert,

the

paniment with small means

and

this

accompaniment

the text permits, the

song somewhat
expresses to

period

the wandering miller,

would

fain see

Ich

made

musical forms, which resemble,

perfectly constituted

first

from

Both these songs of Schubert are examples of

song.

protracted song-form and in both the master has

the

far

and ennobling

injuring the voice-part has the effect of supporting

the

great song-

understood the art of forming a characteristic accom-

writer,

st>-le

of simple song-form.

use of

so far as

we study

If

melody of the first eight-bar


us in the first place, the happy mood of
who, attracted by the purling of the brook,
closer, the

it.

hort'

ein

Bach-lein rau-schen wohl

aus

dem

Fel - sen-

^
~^^
quell,

We

hin - ab

zum Tha-Ie

can almost believe

rau-schen, so frisch und

we

that the

see

the stream,

- hell.

hear the hasty elastic step of

the youth in the four quavers of the


a desire to

wun-der

and fifth bar. He feels


same time a dim suspicion

first

at the

brook may be the cause of an important fatal


The poet remarks this in the words
life.

turning-

point in his

"Ich weiss nicht, wic mir wurde,

Noch war den Rath mir

gab",

Schubert characterised the feeling of perplexity by means of


the hesitating and restless rhythm at the beginning of the second
period.

The

70

protracted,

combined Song-Form.

t?H d^

74.
Ich

mir wiir - de,

wie

weiss nlcht

etc.

nocTi

The interruption which the melody suffers at the commencement of the second beat by the omission of a note has a
striking effect, which would certainly never have been attained
if Schubert had set the text to the same melody, only with a
regular rhythm, as follows:
JL.

The Song with

which

a slight variation

is

Music

different

to

each Verse, &c.

71

of the four previous bars.

At

the

words, "Lass siiigen, Gesell, lass rauschen", he adds a coda.

We
an

have analysed
for

illustration

be found not only

The

pupil.

upon and

form, grounded

model of protracted song-form as

this

the

ballad

songs of the masters but

in the protracted

also in their arias, ariettas, cavatinas

The

less

is

of developing a

principle

similar to the simple song-form, will

and romanzas.

adapted to compositions in protracted

song-form on account of the narrative character of

The composer must

its

contents.

construct different tone-pictures in dimin-

utive simple song-form, according to the contents of the several

verses;
in

these tone-pictures will not resemble one another and

most cases

will

that

it

in

such as

is

used

form

this

presents a complete unity.

declamation,

Nevertheless he

not bear repetition.

be able to fashion a ballad

in

He may employ

in recitative,

may

such a manner

but that

musical
will

not

How
is
be achieved, depends upon the
power and refinement of the composer. In Schubert's
Erlkonig the poem commences with a narration; then the

alone

to

this

suffice.

inventive

speeches of the

The

father, the

father begins

son and the Erlkonig are introduced.

by questioning and then calming and appeas-

ing his frightened child

who

is

paralysed with fear and cries

out with deathly agony; the Erlkonig

is

introduced with sweet

misleading words of love, breaking out at


sion of intense passion.

and
all

The

susceptibilities of the dramatis


lie

with an expres-

pcrsonae of Goethe's poem,

which from

within the range of a musical composition,

beginning

to

end

retains

the

accelerando towards the close


terminates in the same key in
characteristic initial fissure

79.

last

narrative as well as the feelings

same rhythm and up to the


and which
the same tempo
which it commenced; even its
,

The

72
is

protracted,

not merely introduced at

combined Song-Form.

but re-enters in the middle

first,

D minor

and again, towards the close, in G minor.


Even the number of keys through which the composition moves
of the song in

somewhat limited. From this the pupil will discover that a


change of key, time-signature and tempo is by no means always
By a too frenecessary to express a new idea in music.
is

quent use of such changes the unity of the piece


Compositions of

this description easily obtain

destroyed.

is

an appearance of

patchiness and scrappiness, in other words a want of musical

Even

"Form".

the

if

and we are pleasantly


a piece,
of

its

and

still

individual
affected

portions are really beautiful,

by

all

the separate portions of

may

the composition as a whole

formlessness,

inseparably connected that are the soul and

on account

In music form and idea are not

satisfactory^ effect.

being.

not,

musically speaking, a beneficial

exercise,

composition without form

is

body

in the

more

human

as difficult to imagine

body without a soul. Let the youthful artist make no


such mistake, as to seek to arrive at the truth of expression

as a

beauty and symmetry of musical form. The


arias in Mozart's and Beethoven's operas, in Handel's, Haydn's
and Mendelssohn's oratorios, and in Bach's Cantatas, Masses
at the cost of the

and Passion Music prove that the grandest truth of expression,


the very depths of feeling can be described within the limits
of

strict

musical form.

The grand Scena and Aria

in

operas usually consists of

several short simple song-forms strung together.

commence

with a recitative which

ment, and the

movement.
text.

The

w^hole

known

They

generally

followed by a slow

move-

brought to a conclusion by a quick

This of course depends upon the nature of the

movements may be

several

connected by short
well

is

is

recitatives.

to all our readers,

in Freischiitz,

either

separated

or

As an example of this form


we would suggest Agatha's Aria

"Wie nahte mir der Schlummer, bevor

ich ihn

gesehn".
In conclusion

we

w^ould

mention that the more lengthy

and extended independent choral-movements


are not

composed

in simple

in

operas which

song-form, are usually designed

in

Protracted Song- form in Instrumental-Mnsic.

The

the form at present under consideration.

many motets and

find

73

pupil will also

choruses in the oratorios written in the

protracted song--form.

Protracted Song-form in Instrumental-Music.

We find the protracted, combined song-form very


employed in instrumental music.
Mendelssohn has
written quite a number of beautiful pieces in this form in his
Lieder ohne Worte but long before his time the earlier masters
had composed instrumental "Lieder ohne Worte", sometimes
with the title "air" or "aria", and sometimes without it. We do

6.

largely

not hesitate to describe the fourth, eighth, ninth, tenth, twelfth,

twenty-second and others of the preludes from the

The

of Bach's Wohltemperierte Clavier, as such.


prelude,

us a

despite

without words

duet

accompaniment
Lied

the fact that

even

if

the

(op. 38. VI;,

volume

written a 3 voce, seems to

soprano and alto with a bass

for

is

it

first

twenty-fourth

A flat

has not like Mendelssohn's

it

We

of "Duet".

title

lay clearly

will

before the pupil the protracted song-form employed in instru-

and choose

music

strumental

which

repetition

principal

given

is

first

to Aflat

the

in

A flat

E major.

The
first

movement

the second

is

initial

upon

close

Aflat

to

next eight bars

and

Then

follows

motive returns

in eight

to a conclusion.

minor whose

This

the

its

part of the

and thence makes a return


in

idea,

first

together with

succeeded by a short modulation back


of the

first

part

now

repeats, at

retaining the triplet motion of the episode in the

The

accompaniment.
to the

3),

forms the

full,

repeats

The whole

major.

same time

7,

part

brings the principal

bars to

in

(Ex.

begins in

The

an episode

period

The next t\velve bars form


F minor and proceeds to a

movement.
this

the dominant in bar

major.

well-known and

the

this,

Adagio from the Sonata Pathetique.

beautiful

consisting of an eight -bar

portion;

for

last

seven bars of the Adagio form a coda

movement.

We

find

the

Sonata, op. 10.

movement,

mysterious,

Ill, is

formed

contracted

and

slow

movement

in a similar

with

some

manner.
slight

of Beethoven's

The

principal

alterations,

is

The

74

Song-Form.

protracted^ combined

episode beginning in

repeated after the

F major, and

immediately succeeded by an extended coda.

from

the

motive

initial

of the

principal

accompaniment of demisemiquavers
duces in

its

in

This

movement

sextuplets,

this is

is

taken

with an

but repro-

course the passionate demisemiquaver-motive from

the episode, which enters

upon a

six-four

chord of the tonic.

e 2i t^*
80.

<^

<*

A
the

codetta

now

follows and begins with the final

notes of

motive.

initial

te

81.

Adagio of Beethoven's Sonata in B flat major,


somewhat less extended. This has
finally no other coda than that already employed at the close
The following four bars
of the principal movement.

The form

in the

op. 22^ will be found to be

^^^^^^^^^m
sf

82.

^1tSi^f^

'Jfl'

^^^^-

:^

;^"fXZLl

4.

>. ^

\^\

4.'

p^
I

g-^tad

#tjt

'I

=J==

Protacted Song-form in Instnimental-Mnsic.

when transposed

E flat

to

Adagio

bring- the

75

to a close. Further

coda than that employed at the conclusion of the principal mov^ement (Ex. 82), is not required in this instance. Concerning the
episode there

is

nothing further to remark than that

it

is

the

motive of the principal movement.

worked out

new

in a contrapuntal st>de, that

is

to say,

new idea.
principal movement

produced

in

shapes, but introducing no

The

repetition of the

adorned with

variations.

be introduced
In

many

in the

very frequently

Sometimes an accelerated motion

will

accompaniment.

cases Beethoven produces several climaxes in the

accelerated motion and returning,


original placid

is

tempo;

once more with the

closes

at other times

he

will retain the increase

movement. A good example


Adagio of the Sonata for piano and

of speed until the very close of the

of this can be seen in the


violin, op.

30.

Beethoven's more extended

whether they be written

in

tinguished almost throughout

by a great

The beginner should remember


similar kind of

slow movements,

song or variation-form

no matter
,

are dis-

multiplicity of motion.

that a lengthy

motion has a wearisome

effect

employment of a
even

in a

quick

be not interrupted in time this is much more the


case in a slow movement. The most beautiful melody with the
richest and most interesting harmonic accompaniment would in
this case, where an equal motion is retained for a long time,

movement,

if it

prove wearisome.
requires

long slow movement more than any other

change of motion; by this, a change of


not to be understood.
To this end let the pupil

a frequent

tempo is
compare the Adagio of Beethoven's Sonata, op. 30, or that of
his fourth Symphony or any other of his Adagios which contain no change of tempo, and he will be astonished at the
wealth and variety of the motion in these movements.
So far we have only exhibited the employment of the
protracted song-form in slow movements, but we also find it
in

quick ones

when they

are not of too

great a length.

.All

The

7()

protracted,

combined Song-Form.

Mendelssohn's Lieder ohne Worte in quick tempi are written


in

song-form and many

tracted song
so. far as

entirely.

in

It

resemble the pro-

structure

their

almost seems surprising to us, that

we know, no one

of the distinguished

poets has suggested the idea of supplying

modern

some

lyric

of the most

and melodious of these songs with words.

beautiful

The melody

E major,

of the "song" in

op. 35.

could,

Ill,

if

transposed a third lower, be very easily sung by a soprano;


the last five bars of the Lieder are especially adapted to form
a conclusion in the accompaniment.

Lieder and

in

Bach's Preludes,

employed

also

in

small instrumental

(op. 70.

song-form

Etudes, Caprices, Fantasias, and in other

movements both

G sharp

in

quick and slow tempi.

Study

in
I;,

minor,

(vol.

La Gondola, many

Henselt's Etude,

of Field's

stiicke,

Just as in Mendelssohn's

find the protracted

V), Chopin's Etude in Aflat major (op. 25.

Cramer's Study in

A minor,

we

IT, Moscheles'

of Schumann's Fantasie-

and Chopin's Nocturnes, should be

strictly

speaking called Lieder ohne Worte.

The next

exercise

for

consists in constructing

the pupil

short as well as extended pieces, in the form under considera-

some

tion,

models

in

cited

some in quick tempo, answering to the


above. The compositions should not be merely
slow,

confined to pianoforte use alone; pieces for piano and violin or


violoncello, piano
for

and

clarinet, for

two

an orchestra of strings only or

present a varied

field

violins, for string quartet,

for a small orchestra,

of operation for the beginner.

should remember that

it is

would

The

pupil

for

of very short duration cannot be

pieces

orchestral purpose,

not good to employ too complicated

a machinery for the performance of pieces of no great length,


that

unless

several

suitably written

consecutive

pieces are

grouped as a whole. In this case it would be as well to interchange the form of the several small pieces, as can be seen in
the suites of the classic masters.

ought
form

first

for

to write a

In

number of small

any case the beginner


pieces in combined song-

piano alone, before he proceeds to the composition

of extended

movements

plete orchestra.

for several

instruments or for a

com-

'

The Rondo without Contrasting Episode.

77

CHAPTER VL
RONDO- FORM.

The Rondo without Contrasting Episode.


The Rondo

main

requires frequent repetition of the

These may

interspersed with several episodes.

either

idea,

be epi-

sodes of contrast, episodes of development, or very often only

Episodes of contrast, such as the Trio

episodes of transition.
in the

dance-form repeat

partially at least, after the recurrence

of the principal subject, or are suggested either


of the
It

it.

main idea

can happen "however that the

neither repeated nor in

case in Beethoven's

The

episode

Rondo

special reason for this

in the

to

is

Sonata in

be sought

is

is

the

major, op. 53.

in the

The

This

development

subject suggested,

^S^

contains a twofold repetition of


its

repetition

of contrast

any way even suggested.

of the melody of this episode of contrast.

84.

by the

or of a characteristic motive of

the Trio

in

first

The

six bars.

eight-bar period, proceed to

period

is

To

this a

the

first;

its initial

motive in

C minor

within

following two bars, which complete the

flat

major whereupon the whole

repeated with triplets in semi-quavers in the bass.

new period succeeds which is certainly formed from


ends in C minor;
it commences in A flat major and

the triplet passage

Motive

in

is

flat

then given to the upper

major.

Motive

in

minor,

part.

Motive modulating
C minor.

Blg^gfe^^^g^P

s-SS:?:

to

jg


Rondo -Form.

78

Even

period

this

not only repeated but the last four

is

bars suffer a further repetition.

Finally the two last bars repeat

twice before the episode of contrast concludes with the follow-

ing passage.

86.

ff

<^

m^
fizz*
=1=

t^^
decresc.

m6^ ?^
:$

^=^=t

a.=

In this instance the idea of the episode of contrast, formed


from a threefold repetition of the motive, repeats frequently, so
to speak, within

itself,

rence unnecessary.

and thereby renders an additional recursimilar grounds Beethoven does not

Upon

allow a repetition of the

from the Rondo

episode of contrast in

-&^^-

1^3

iai

1=6

=i-

he does not even permit

its

in a

Rondo

is

The

five-fold repetition of the

sufficient for his purposes.

evident that the stirring episodes here alluded

to,

It

is

but really independent episodes of contrast,

ductive of a

new

an episode of contrast

No one would
to the

quite

are not merely

modulator)^,

idea.

recurrence anywhere in employing

the motive of the leap in fourths.

main idea

major,

flat

t ^1

-A-

-p^-:^

i=

S6a.

Sonata Pathetique:

in the

pro-

assign the character of

short modulator>' transition

be-

The Rondo without Contrasting Episode.


ginning- in

op.

lo.

79

major (in the Rondo of the Sonata in


which however, does not occur again.

flat

Ill),

No one

could imagine the following four bars taken from the

lends

its

it

the stamp of a

new independent thought,

contained in the subject.

^^t^

first

id

9fc

then the

syncopated

gi^:

the

Still

E.^:

succession of ground basses with


86 b.

Rondo

major op. 31, as an episode of contrast; for


difference of character from the main idea, which

of the Sonata in
despite

major,

motive

recurs in a

rhythm;

IV
1^^
-

3=1^^=11

idea follows immediately and

is

continued in the

next four bars.

The whole double-period

is

thereupon repeated three times

in succession.

The

recurrence of the

principal

subject does

require to be produced in the key of the tonic;

be given

at

one time unaltered,

at

not always
it

another varied.

may

also

Compare

Rondo-Form.

80

the entrance of the principal subject in

accompaniment of quavers

in

op. 5

The

I.

triplets,

in

Beethovens Sonata

episodes are almost always placed in a diffe-

rent key to that of the principal subject; but

give

major, with an

flat

it

The tempo,

them a new time-signature.

is

not good

to.

ritardandos and

accelerandos excepted, should remain the same throughout the

movement;
its

and
a

for the

completeness,
in a striking

Rondo

is

if

form of the Rondo usually so small, loses


the time

an exception to

case of a long extended

is

changed

manner.

at leisure, or frequently

change of time

at

the close of

Here, particularly in the

this rule.

Rondo-form with episodes of developin accelerated


is added as a Stretto

ment, a protracted coda


tempo, such as we
op. 31

and op.

We

find,

Beethoven's Finales in

for instance, in

53.

two kinds of Rondo-form I. Rondos without episodes of contrast, whose episodes, as unimportant parts
of the movement, must not be repeated no matter whether
they

distinguish

be

episodes

development

of

or

transitory

episodes;

Rondos with episodes of contrast which are often only


repeated in part or more frequently only to a certain extent
concisely alluded to by suggestion.
We will next present two models, one of each kind and
for these choose movements which Beethoven has expressely
11.

described as "Rondos".

may be

gained from

Sonata in

major, op.

very distinct idea of the

study
10.

III.

of the

The

developed from the short motive

in

Rondo

in

first

kind

Beethoven's

principal subject which

is

Ex. 87

87.

i^li^^^
upon the first crotchet of the ninth-bar; this is followed
by the second portion in D major, which after eight bars proceeds

closes

to an eight-bar episode of transition

which begins as follows:

The Rondo withont Contrasting Episode.

81

-fc^

88.

'II

fUl

1$^

"-

&c. to

f'

#-

ii

and which comes to a conclusion with a pause on the first


inversion of the dominant seventh.
After the pause the repetition of

the principal subject begins, this closes in

with an interrupted cadence in the

ninth-bar.

flat

major

Here we have

a transitory part of twelve bars, which ends with a pause, thus.

t?^89.

The

third entry of the subject

and modulates
a foreign
tition

key

to

minor.

now

follows in

flat

major

to a certain extent the forerunner of the repe-

is

of the whole of the principal part of the

occurs later in the tonic,

produced

This somewhat imperfect entry in

major.

The motive

Rondo which
of the subject

in the third bar.

90.

^9-^

-r^

Fi^i

^?E^

f
is

then employed within the ne.xt six bars for the purpose of

modulating to

91.

^t^z^

major.

^^^mm

Jadassohn, Manual

of Mus. Form.

Rondo-Form.

S2

-^zrttresc.

are

The perfect
now begun;

'I

^t-

'

repetition of both the

the subdominant and then

modulates to

episode of development

now added,

motive of three quavers

92.

parts of the

first

Rondo

the second portion progresses to the key of

is
is

employed

B
in

minor.

which the

in the following

short
initial

manner.

<

feSSi^^^

l^ff:

3=L
-\/

VP

PV

1^^^

:*J'-'

^4

tE^E^^^^^SEm^

^SE&rjrr.^
Sf

sf

sf

sf

m^^^
*^^^

The Rondo without Contrasting Episode.

83

^^^mm
^
^^E^^^^^^E^^

m.

iz^z

l*-3

sf

Pir
'm

-t

?7^-^-z=t

**-^
new

After the pause a

entr}^

of the principal subject

is

introduced with the followino- alterations.

lEE
93.

=i-^rr
ffi^=4=^^^
s
i

^--^1

l**-^!

-^^^

=g
l^-'

gjfes^^ 4=^'^=n^-" -7=1 i#^fc


J

Rondo-Form.

84

m^

2:

;NS
^

^s^^g^g^i^iis'^^

i^^^F^^
&c.

^^E^^^E^^^^
*>
I

An

episode of transition developed from the three quaver-

motive again follows and proceeds to a chord of the dominant


seventh.

^ ^ p^
v^s

94.

The
the

initial

small coda, which follows,

is

developed from

directly

motive, with the exception of the modulatory deviation

of four bars given in syncopated rhythm.


In this

Rondo we

see the principal subject occurring five

Of these one
is strictly an episode of development but none of them is reThe study of this Rondo in
produced even by suggestion.
particular is the more easy and instructive for the pupil, be-

times,

and four episodes

cause

the

individual

assist in

parts

reproducing

of the

whole

it.

are

so

frequently

bounded by pauses and thereby made more


Finale of op. 28 and of op. 31. I, are formed in quite a
way. They are more extended however and contain a

distinct.

as final coda.

The
similar

Stretta,

The Rondo

-with

Episode of Contrast.

The Rondo with Episode

85

of Contrast.

For the study of the Rondo with an episode of


contrast we select the Finale of Beethoven's A major Sonata,

op.

2.

and

8.

The

II.

is

subject

vious to

time in the

first

character of a Trio in dance-form.

that of the

usual sign,

sixteen bars pre-

episode

presents

of the subject,

character totally different to that

we may

portion of this '*Trio", as

sixteen bars;

first

last

This

of contrast.

episode

the

given out in the

is

repeated for the

The

call

first

represented by the

out in

written

is

the

repetition of the
is

it,

second portion

bears

it

full,

because a modulation of eight bars follows a half close on the

and

dominant;
2"''

modulatory portion

this

repetition of the

subject,

bars in the key of

major.

the subject in this portion in

the

repetition in the

first

however

first

succeeded by the

is

again entering with

We

find

the

same

the third

Rondo;

part of the

of transition,

developed from the

in this

case

further episode

motive in

initial

of

we found

position as

appears varied for thirteen bars.

it

sixteen

its

repetition

major,

leads after thirteen bars to a second inversion of the chord of

flat.

partial repetition of the

and

here,

to

somewhat

fourth, but

attached a
is

Trio for eight bars occurs

modulation of four

now brought

manner.

distinct parts,

to

bars

to

close with a

varied repetition of the subject.

Finale of Beethoven's Sonata in

in a similar

free,

is

The movement

major.

The

this

In this

Rondo we

flat,

op.

7,

find a Trio

is

formed

with two

The somewhat
movement to

which are both to be repeated.

but partial repetition of the Trio brings the

a close in
It is

subject

is

characteristic of

both kinds of Rondo-form that the

presented in a distant key.

at times

seen in the

Rondo

flat.

Rondo

of the

1^^

flat

Sonata, op.

of Beethoven's Concerto in

the foreign key

is

flat.

7,

As

This can be

and

also in the

a rule, however

very quickly quitted, and the classical com-

poser returns again to his principal key after a deviation of a

few bars.
this

If

the

Rondo

must present a

possesses a real episode of contrast,

distinct antithesis to

the principal

subject.

Rondo-Fonn.

80

The episode
op.

2.

of contrast in the Finale

major Sonata,

has in comparison with the lovely, cheerful subject,

II,

a restless, passionate

Sonata,

of the

op. 7,

stands forward

character.

the heroic

of the

of the

episode

flat

of contrast

more prominently on account of the tender and

graceful character of the

first

Although most pieces in


gretto or Allegro moderato,
in slower

Rondo

In the

nature

part.

Rondo-form are written


still

this

form

may be employed

movements; and although most compositions

form usually present a cheerful, pleasing

Alle-

in

in this

subject,

initial

still

there are not wanting those which bear a melancholy or pas.sionate character.

serious

Rondo

in

We can only call


A minor by Mozart,

mind at present the


surely wellknown to all

to

our readers.

The

pupil should not endeavour at

tended pieces

in the first

first

compose ex-

to

kind of Rondo-form.

Later he

may

strive to imitate the second kind; for pieces in this form con-

within

tain

themselves

pupil will discover

but

all

many

the

necessity

of

prolongation.

varieties in his studies of the

The

Rondos

pieces of this kind will undoubtedly refer themselves

Rondo-form which we have suggested.


student
more
advanced
may seek to effect a change in
The
his work,
by occasionally composing a Rondo for piano
and violin. As a pattern to work upon we would suggest
Beethoven's Sonata for piano and violin, op. 24, the Finale;
back

to the t\vo kinds of

but the pupil should of course,


other

Rondos

of this kind.

carefully

.study

and analyse

The Form

of the Sonata in General.

CHAPTER

VII.

THE SONATA.

The Form
The Sonata

is

of the Sonata in General.

a musical composition consisting of two or

The

more movements.

movements should form a

individual

complete musical combination, although their contents

An

differ.

external relationship sometimes exists between the t\\o last

movements,

if

the second last,

connected with the

by a

last

usually

a slow

movement,

is

meaiis of communication.

direct

But even without any such means,

composition

at

times

demands an immediate continuation bet\veen two of its movements. This is particularly noticeable when the previous movement is of no great length. At the close of the Adagio soste-

nuto in Beethoven's Sonata in

sharp minor, op. 27.

"Attacca subito

find the injunction,

seguente*', that

il

we

II,

to say,

is

begin the following movement at once.


This
tonic,

is

as in

not merely the case with movements in the same


the previous example

major, but a direct connection

movements

in

different

modulatory passage
first

if

proceeds with

the

This

keys.

its

for

the

minor;

flat

can

happen without

will permit.

Beethoven's

first

first

immediate continuation

the

words "Segue

heard fading away.

literally,

major, op. 58, in the Andante con moto, con-

cludes on a chord of

demanded by

sharp minor and

the final chord of the previous, and the

chord of the following movement

Concerto in

is

sometimes necessary between

is

chord of

il

is

and the Rondo


the chord of E minor

rondo",

after

This however mu.st not be accepted too

chord

of the

directly after the cessation of the

Rondo must be

semi-quaver

bar of the Andante, somewhat in this fashion;

rest in

struck

the

last

The

88

Sonata.

Atidante con moto.

Vivace.

H-;

1^
*"*

05.

i3=i
In

:*-?-

.^

such cases, a pause, even

all

if

^^

ever so short,

say as

deep breath requires, must be made, and this


must happen even if the very last note of the previous movement is prolonged by means of a pause. A short pause
would even in such a case be necessary
a breathing space
between the close of one and the commencement of the other
long" as taking a

movement.

As

a general rule a Sonata has three movements, in which

case the

and

first

tempo.

Sonatas are to be found with

two or four movements and then


be

first shall

nata in

in

it

every instance the


op. 26,

flat,

a rapid tempo, the middle

last are written in

in a slow

one usually

does not follow that the

quickest.

Beethoven's So-

has four movements and

the

first

is

Andante con variazioni, whilst his Sonata, op. 54, has only
two movements, and is superscribed in the first movement "in
tempo d'un menuetto", and accordingly proceeds at a moderate
pace.

his

single

movement

with the

title,

"Sonate",

is

to

be

it be correct or not,
however Moscheles called one of
noblest productions, consisting of a single movement, "So-

found

we

A
in

one exceptional instance, whether

leave an open question;

nate Melancolique".

Amongst Beethoven's

thirty Piano Sonatas

we

find

the

only four of them with

two small Sonatas, op. 49, excepted


two movements, and most of them have three as is the rule
with similar works of his predecessors. The movements of a
Sonata when
as follows

it

the

contains four of them,

first,

or Minuet and the final


op. 109,

in

its

are arranged as a

rule

quick, the second slow, the third a Scherzo

Finale

movement
entitled

quick.

"Andante

Beethoven's Sonata,

molto cantabile ed

Difterent Arrangements of the several Movements.

89

of a final slow moveAndante con Variazioni the tempo changes

expressive", presents a single instance

ment;

in this

still

and we

two variations

find

however
tema".

We

call this

the

pupil that
in op.

go.

One

movements.

We

an

initial

11;

refer to the

op.

14.

or a

contains only two

strict

Adagio cantabile of four

20.

op. 31.

I;

Andante.

bars,

Arrangements

The form

op. 78

Ill;
it

has four

which contains

II

a Scherzo Allegretto vifinale

con

presto

takes the place of a slow movement,

major,

Different

slow movement,

Adagio although

Sonata op.

say an Adagio
op. 78,

Arietta

as can be seen in

moderato e grazioso and a

The Menuetto

fuoco.

lo.

of these has no

movement, marked Allegro,

a Minuet

v^ace,

The

most part a quick movement.

Adagio or Andante;

Beethoven's Sonatas op.

and op.

for the

is

totally destitute of a

is

to say, a strict

is

whole

the

"in

the "only" instance.

is

it

1 1
1

At times a Sonata
that

On

time.

tempo I del
an exceptional case but would give the

hint to

con Variazioni

rapid

in

movement and concludes

a slow

it is

sharp

after the

short

The Sonata

movements,

in

and both are quick movements.

of the several

Movements.
movements

of the Sonata with three

frequently employed in the composition

of

trios.

is

Mozart has

indeed written one of his most beautiful symphonies, that in

major without a Minuet,

a Sonata in four

in

only three movements.

movements be used

Should

in the construction

of a

composition for a solo instrument or for a combination of instruments or for an orchestra, the position of the middle move-

ments can occasionally be changed

movement second

or

third.

in order to

The

short,

have the slow

quick

movement,

whether a Scherzo or Minuet, can just as well precede as

fol-

flat,

low the slow movement.


op. 26,

Beethoven

in

his

Sonata in

places a lively Scherzo in front of the Funeral March.

The reason

for this

second

movement to follow the 'Andante con Variazioni'.


movements of any great length would

Two

.slow

is

successive slow

soon prove wearisome.

easy to see;

he would

not

allow

The

90

Sonata.

Sometimes a short Adagio

espressione in the Sonata in

song-form is introduced
example the Adagio con

in simple

middle of the Sonata, as

in the

for

flat

major, op. 27.

I,

or

we

find

an extended introduction written in a slow tempo, such as the

Adagio molto

op. 53,

in

which

Short Adagios of

duzione".

is

this sort

marked

expressly

"Intro-

always connect themselves

with the following movement; and Beethoven indeed expressly

mentions

two Adagios already mentioned,


is a matter of course, and

this in the case of the

although the immediate continuation

remark "Attacca subito TAllegro"

the

"Attacca subito

il

Introductory
a slow

tempo

of a

Sonata.

are

the

in

one case and

Rondo" in the other, is superfluous.


movements of longer or shorter duration in
of rare occurrence before the first movement
,

Beethoven's

In

Sonatas

Piano

lengthy

intro-

ductions in slow time only occur in the Sonata Pathetique and


That the principal idea of the slow movement can
in op. III.

be reproduced

also

in

flat

the

in

first

movement,

major, op. 47, and in

strictly

so called,

Schumann's Quartett
Schubert's C major Symphony.

Sonata Pathetique,

in the

can be seen

in

Shorter slow preludes, of less than eight bars, are seldom

met

Beethoven only employs such a short prelude once,


mentioned in his Sonata in F sharp major, op. 78.
one would regard the introductory chord in the D minor
with.

as already

No

Sonata, op. 31.

II

as a prelude.

Lar^o

SipeEii

Occasionally an introductory cadenza


the
his

first

movement.

greatest

richly

Concerto,

that

in

flat

employed before

is

Beethoven opens the

first

major,

movement

of

with a passage

ornamented with the dominant, subdominant and tonic

chords.

As

a rule an introduction to the

first

not requisite,

but under certain circumstances

then however

it

must stand

in direct

it

movement
is

is

necessary;

connection with the

first

Different

movement
movement

Arrangements of the several Movements.

Sometimes the subject of the first


already suggested and prepared in the intro-

following
is

91

it.

duction, whilst a characteristic motive of the subject forms the

commencement
for

it,

as,

for

of the introduction and provides the

example,

Schumann's Symphony

may

in

is

flat

case

the

in

major.

material

introduction

motive of

to

this sort

only occasionally occur in the course or towards the close

of the

Indeed

introduction.

motive of the second subject


his

the

Leonore overtures,

The

Beethoven already presents the


in the

Allegro

movement

more
movement.

contents of the introduction, as a rule, are usually

independent and more freely preparatory to the

Even

of both

in the introduction.

the Finales of

many

first

of the longer works in Sonata-form

frequently have a prelude or introduction in slow time before


the real quick final

the

same

movement; these

principles as

are then

the introduction to a

worked out on
movement,

first

except that they are generally somewhat curtailed.


In the
form, which

movement

first

we

lines in the following

we meet

of a Sonata

will describe in a

The movement

manner.

parts, the first containing the

with a

few words and give

two principal

comprising the working out, the third

its

new
out-

consists of three

subjects, the

second

the repetition part, to

is

which

Before
is added in works of any great length, a Coda.
we study the form of a movement of a Sonata so constructed,
let

us

as

we

first

turn our attention to

find

them

it

in the Sonatina.

in

its

diminished proportions,

The

92

Sonatina.

CHAPTER

VIII.

THE SONATINA.

The

as

The Sonatina is
At times it consists

21.

Sonata.

movements.
it

movement

first

its

name bespeaks

of only two

first

a short

at times also of three

movements

the Sonatina consists of only two

If

not always necessary that the

is

major key.

in a

should be Allegro, and

Andante or Adagio. Should the Sonatina have three


movements it is generaly arranged in the usual form, a quick,
The first movement,
a slow, and a final quick movement.
the second

according to the kind of key in which


different order of modulation.

If

it

is

written, presents a

the major key be employed, the

key of the dominant,


Beethoven however
introduces the second subject in another key than that of the
dominant in his greater works which contain movements in
Sonata-form, and which, in the corresponding movements of his
Piano-sonatas, sometimes comprise a second principal idea:
second subject almost always appears
with which the

but

we

first

in the

part then concludes.

return

speak

of this

The

first

part

movements differ substantially in


broader development and more lengthy representation

their

will

of one

of his

to

pressing a greater wealth


tina

movements;

The

alike.

first

later.

larger

of idea, from the

in general principles

first

however they are formed

small Sonata movements, even

very important intellectual purport, are


Sonatina movements;

as can

be seen

ex-

small Sona-

in

quite

they have a

if

similar to

the

first

the

movement

of op. 78.

The whole
this the

of the

first

part of the Sonatina

"working out" part or

free fantasia

should be kept within bounds, and in no

an extension similar

is

is

repeated; to

attached, which

way allowed

to that of the first part.

There

is

to

have

scarcely

The

room here

for

movement

first

in a

major key.

93

extended contrapuntal device, development of

one or another of the principal subjects or motives detached


from them must suffice, representing them as varied as possible

and then proceeding

manner

second subject

that the

so that the

the tonic

is

The

movement.

to the third part of the

third part brings about a repetition of the

part in such a

first

reproduced in the key of

movement ends

in this

key

either with

or without the addition of a Coda.


If

or

the

we

turn to

the

first

movement

more properly speaking Sonatina,


subject given out in the

first

ma non

II,

we

Sonata,

shall

find

four bars.

first

First subject in the principal

Allegro

of Beethoven's
op. 49.

movement

troppo.

tr

w^^^33^m

^^-

98.

Seee^
The
b, d),

bass completes the four bars with three quavers,

after

which a repetition of the

higher, follows with a richer

99.

-!^-

tB^-

first

(g,

period, an octave

and more extensive accompaniment.

^^^mm^mm
To

this is

of which the
in that of the

attached a continuation of two three-bar periods,

first

closes in the

key of the

tonic, the

dominant.
First

period with a close

in the tonic.

second

The

94

Sonatina.

Second period with close

dominant.

in the

101.

9^r,tj;=|==j=g
The

first

subject

combined with a second episode of three

two-bar phrases now enters:


"sT ^

the figure

and closes

at

taken up in
triplet.

clusion

iipzz

the

episode

is

accompanied with quavers

the sixth bar, in which the

D major,

on the dominant of

triplets,

second subject

is

its

first

eight-bar period to a con-

D major.
First period of the

i2.^%e^3i :J=lJ=i
P ^

'

second subject

J^

First period of the

First period of the

lE^Et

-^-

its

in

the dominant, at the up-beat of the last

This subject brings

Upon

developed from

nr^
second subject.

second subject.

reproduction this period returns to

D major,

thirteen bars of an extended close, which, like the episode,

in
is

The

first

movement

accompanied by quavers in
a Coda of four bars, which

major key.

in a

This

triplets.
is

is

95
then followed by

developed from the motion of

the episode.

^^^^

Coda.

z^103.

<^

^^igsis^^i^^^^
t^^=d=^j

lii^g^EE^E^
If

we look

into this

that the strict idea

bar

is

repeated

duction of the
final

chord

is

of

and

Coda more

it

to this

to

this

is

shall observe

This

added a two-fold repro-

further

first

bar of the Coda; the

We

find the

same

principle at

work

Codas; the idea in the Coda repeats immediately and


is

added

its

final

motive.

in

F major,

op. lo.

II.

Sometimes the repetitions


example of a somewhat

striking

extended Coda can be found in the

104.

we

over one bar.

strengthened by striking the second and third

contain small variations.

Sonata

closely,

extends

crotchet of the

last

crotchets of the last bar.


in other

only

^^]

-\r-

first

movement

of Beethoven's

The

96

Sonatina.

Subject in Coda.

Repetition of the same.

Repetition of the same.


tr

Repetition of the last motive.


.tr

The whole

3^

^^^pl

idea in the

Coda sometimes repeats more than

once, particulary

found in the Coda

if it

be

short.

An

example of

of Beethoven's Sonata in

this

can be

minor, op.

2.

I;

the idea contained in the Coda only occupies t^vo bars, but

is

>

The

repeated hvice and


tition in

first

is

movement

in a

major key.

somewhat lengthened on

Repetition of the same.

^^

i^
h^^^tf=^^^=i^^^^^=^h^
^ CT^K^g^

^H^

=t

it:^

sf

con espress.

second repe-

its

order to form a close.

Subject in Coda.

105.

97

.-H1^

Second Repetition.

H-

r=^i*

2 -.^^

+--

77-

4=1^

v/

//;

PSEp=Pffi=3^^=l
E
3^
itr

j^l

The subject of the Coda, concentrated and shortened, is


sometimes repeated several times successively, as for instance
in

Beethoven's Sonata in

G major,

op. 31.

I.

Repetition of same
in Major.

Subject in Coda.

Repetition of
in minor.

same

lU >

106.

^^F=*

~sr

Repetitions in diminution.

^1=^
Jadassohn, Manual

'0
I

q=J^
-
of Mus. Form.

7-p-^J=F

The

98

Among

other results

is

produced by the

is

exemplified in the

E minor,

Sonatina.

however the

of termination

feeling

dilator}- repetition of the last


first

movement

This

motive.

of Beethoven's Sonata in

op. 90.
Final Motive.

:|=^:

107.

sf

=i:

*F*

f^^

*=*

^]

=it

"I?-

PP'

.1.

dimin.

"n

-tSI^-

-^

3.

An

independent idea

imperative.

Beethoven

for the

in his

Coda

Sonata

is

in

however not always

F sharp

major, op. 78,

employs a motive from the termination of the second subject


for the construction of the

Coda, thus.
Second

subject.

^^^p^SSS

The

first

movement

major key.

in a

99

^#g^g|%#E|
In

nating
is

Coda of example io6 we see the idea


between minor, major and minor.

the

repeatedly

alter-

This

a characteristic quite peculiar to the great master, Beethoven,

instances of which are often to

He however

be met with

in other places.

does not always allow the whole of the idea

the Coda to change

its

mode; frequently he only uses the


This can be seen

motive of

it

movement

of Beethoven's Sonata in

for

this

purpose.

flat

in the first

major, op. 22.

:e^
109.

in

last

Final Motive.
<

i^

-J

I*-

25*

^^^
zr-^*

^ri

--

T--^

\'-r6

'

'^T^ ^

-'-^ :^-o^^-f-^
'^^-rr.

The

100

The

alteration

ofgto g

Sonatina.

flat

motive has

in the final

case, the effect of a change from major to minor.


Frequently the reproduction of the final motive

employed simultaneously with the return


the

first

the

is

also

repetition of

part or with the introduction of the second: a distinct

of this

idea

to

in this

may be

obtained from the close of the

first

part

of Beethoven's Sonata, op. 53.

110.
;^--ri-

ii^E

1^^^^^
PI'

^te
~^

^It
iH-i

^^

#--

:SzS.is.zi.

^^:t^

II da.

p^^ii^^^^^^
^ Sj=i=i3^

--^

-ZISL

^^z^.-:^-^-:^-^-:::

Commencement
"1

of

free fantasia.

^r0^-^
Pi>

^=i-

5t=*

#E

The
Still

more

first

movement

interesting

is

in a

major key.

101

the repetition at the

close of the

third part of the first movement, where, upon a complete reproduction of the motive of the Coda, the harmonies of F major and
minor enter alternately, and the transposition of the last motive

modulates to

minor

tended Coda, and

in the

fourth part which

finally brings the

movement

forms an ex-

to a conclusion.

major.

Final Motive in
F major.

major.

5t4=i
I

_j

i--/^t~

\
F

IT

y
The

102

i^

Sonatina.

r^

g-j^^jT^.-b^
:)?r-^

F:I

The

^
PIJ

Dflat

IV

pupil can easily observe from the figuring

example, as well as from

in the last

all

suggested, that manifold repetitions of a

harmony of

basis of the
to

op. 49.

and obtain a

II,

the close of the

We

minor.

"working out";

first

distinct

part in

major,

After

of

Sonatina

the

in

major, the second begins in


strict

Free Fantasia or

merely a transposition of the main idea to

the minor, without a thematic development in contrapuntal

bination entering with the whole idea

we find
movement as a

or

Instead of a working out part


further

ing

weaving of the

new forms by

the motives of a theme.

much

minor to

mony

of

whole, without develop-

first

The second
word there

continuation of the

minor and from

minor.

it.

mere continuation, a

part,

part,

or from

is

first,

because

no 'working out' but

first

minor

one of

in the present in-

shorter in comparison with the

in the strict sense of the

only a two-fold

com-

from

motive

contrapuntal combinations from one or other

of the themes and motives of the

stance, proves

the

after this

view of the second part.

cannot here speak of a


it is

close form

full

Let us now return

a Coda.

consideration

deviation

of chords

the Codas previously

to

subject;

the

viz:

from

dominant har-

After this continuation, occupying six bars,

a pedal of four bars

duration

enters

on B, and

this

contains

no trace of any connection with the subjects or the other


The figure, developed from the pedal, proceeds by
motives.

means of the following sequence

to the third part.

The

112.

<^

first

movement

in a

1^:
^s^^^^^

major key.

103

'-^f^=i=^i^^=^

Beginning of the third part.

The

third part contains a faithful reproduction of the

with this difference, that the second subject

key of the

the

by

tonic,

is

first,

now produced

major, and that the Coda

is

in

extended

further repetitions for the purposes of developing as perfect

a close as possible.

^E^-

^^^

:?=i=^

^'^<7

113.

^/-*t-

:^^

'

'

:^,tptz=^

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
g-^-^

t^ri

a^^^^^^g^^jg^gg^^^

The

"104

The

should

movement

first

Should the

22.

a minor key

it

Sonatina.

first

minor key.

in a

movement

of a Sonatina

commence

in the relative major,

mode

well as the minor

of the second

part then closes in every instance

as that in which the second

the

first

after the

and conclude the

first

dominant prove themselves

of the

equally suitable for the representation


first

in

But the major mode of the minor sixth, as

part in this key.

The

begin

regarded as a rule that the second subject

is

Beethoven concludes

written.

is

part of his Sonata in

minor, op. 57, in

second subject had entered

in

subject.

same key

the

in

flat

Not only

major.

flat

minor,

the episode which follows the second subject and prepares the
close of the

are in

and

first

In Beethoven's Kreutzer Sonata for piano

violin, op. 47, the

part of the

dominant,

second subject

movement

Allegro

first

but also the Coda terminating- the part

part,

minor.

flat

major, but

is

The

part

is

closed with a

op.

major

flat

first

is

Coda

the

part,

second subject,
one,

that

is

to

mode

the
if

it

say,

down

of the minor third,

for

had been
in

the

order by this means to

in

the proportionately small

flat

minor:

repetition

its

introduce

usually

major key,

same key
obtain

however an isolated
and prin-

to the rules

the

as

the

utmost

a minor

first

subject,

unity

of ke)'

extended form of a

in

in

the

first

move-

and C minor
greater works, and Beethoven also

ment.

Mozart proceeds thus

and

many

other of his

in

is

Upon

him.

composers

older

in

in

In the Sonata

entering later in the closing portion and in

previously laid

third

of the

minor, in which

in this key.

case.

ciples

produced.

Coda concluding the first part. This


The pupil will do best to adhere

the

mode

the major

first

Beethoven introduces the second subject

13,

completely in the minor

Introduced in the

soon transposed to

the splendid idea at the close

Pathetique,

in

is

in his

Sonatas

in

The
in

his

first

small Sonata,

op. 49.

recognise as a Sonatina.

procedure in his

later

movement

in a

minor key.

which we

I,

105

at the

same time

Beethoven however departs from

this

works; and produces the second subject,

mode, upon its repetition in the third part,


same major mode, or in another corresponding major
key, and then returns by a modulation to the principal key of
In cases where
the movement in order to conclude in it.
Beethoven does not at all permit the second subject, no matter
whether it stand in the first part in a major or minor key, to
be repeated in the same key in the third part of the movement as in the first, still he chooses the best corresponding
key for the repetition, that is to say, the subdominant, and
then returns to the key of the tonic. To make this thoroughly
distinct we give two examples from op. 10. I and from op. 13.
written in a major
in the

I.

First Subject in

115.

minor.

f:'
-r-f*-'

3=A

lE^a^

4^

<^

^^^^0^-=k

4=^
&c.

Second Subject

in

first

part in

flat

major

Ig^ll
in third part in

B:
I

major.

feS^^l=E^

tr-

4-5i

2nd Subject transposed to

C minor

&c.

in third part.

h
Pfetefe
^-4-

-f-#-^

#-#-A
&c.

The

106

Sonatina.

First Subject in

minor.

-J-n

iS3E
116.

-^-

2nd Subject in

first

part in

flat

minor

^^^^^^^m^^^^m]
.fee.

if-

in 3rd part in

minor, modulates to

minor.

f-r-^^,#-r--^^#-T^

2nd Subject later in

Frequently a

^-1-^

fir,st

:1ijij=:=*=:::^:=:

movement

&c.

minor.

^^^^1^
S
=i=
-^

'

in

minor

key

J &c.

concludes

upon the harsh chord of the major form of the tonic, although
the second subject as well as the Coda are written in the minor
mode. Beethoven employs this at the close of the first movement of the Sonatina, op. 49. I.
Coda transposed

to (1 minor.

r^^E^di^j
117.

<

^b^eeS^

]=E:
#-^

The

first

movement

in a

Extension of the same.

t:

.*.

^j.

107

Additional close.

.c^ ....

hj.

^^

minor key.

?JP*-'-^^
Conclusion on the major
chord of the key.

m
^^^^^^
m^

n^^z^z:
7s^

It

but rarely happens, that the third part, from where the

second subject
in this

is

transposed into the major, remains completely

mode; but

this

occurs in movements of greater breadth

is shown in the
These are the important differences bet\veen a minor movement and one in the

than the Sonatina.


last

example,

major.

In

is

all

termination,

constantly to be

met

such as
with.

other respects they are

similarly

formed.

The

second and third movements of a Sonatina are enveloped

in

known to the student. A Minuet or a short


movement written in song-form forms the middle movement, a
Rondo the Finale. Beethoven in his Sonatina op. 49. I, presents
the first movement in the moderate time of an Andante, whilst
the Finale is a lively Rondo in G major. In his next Sonatina,
op. 49. II, the first movement is a gay Allegro, whilst the

forms already

Finale

is

C major
ations

a stately Minuet, also in

consisting of only one part.

would not

movement

easily adapt itself to the

because the variations, even

if

on a short

with vari-

form of a Sonatina,

subject,

soon acquire

Such a movement would be out of prothe other short movements of the whole work.

too great a length.


portion then to

major, but with a Trio in

The

1Q8

The form

of the

first

Sonatina.

movement

of a Sonatina adapts

itself,

although in an exceedingly limited fashion, to the composition


of Marches of considerable length by means of the following

The first movement of the Sonatina forms the principal


movement of the March in two parts; then follows a Trio
device.

of a March

corresponding to the enlarged proportions

after

which the March and under certain circumstances, the Trio or


a part of

it

repeat:

and

to this

an enlarged Coda

is

added.

In

So then we meet
movement of a
Sonatina in the utmost extension of the dance-form. The pupil
should only then first seek to employ these sorts of pieces in
mixed forms if he has successfully written a number of Sonatina
movements. The beginner will find striking examples for study
and analysis in Mozart's Sonatas no. ii, F major; no. 14,
a similar

manner

a Scherzo can be formed.

with the smallest possible form

of the

first

15, C major (Peters' Edition), and in Haydn's


Models of the combination of Sonatina-movement
and dance-form, which we have just explained above, can be

major;

no.

Sonatinas.

found in the larger Marches of Schubert arranged as duets.

As
fect

it is

of importance that the pupil should acquire a per-

mastery over the form of the

he might

after successful

tinas for piano-duets

work

and even

movement

first

for

of a Sonatina,

piano solo, compose Sona-

for a

Trio of

violin, violoncello

and piano, so that he should not weary himself with constantly


repeating the same work.

The

ofvariet}Mn styles with a study

makes useful preparatory


chamber music.

pupil thus combines a practice


in

studies

form and
for

his

at the

future

same time

attempts

at

The

part of the

first

first

movement; &c.

CHAPTER

109

IX.

THE FIRST MOVEMENT OF A SONATA.

The

part of the

first

We

23.

movement; the

first

have already remarked that every musical idea

own form according to its intellectual


many pieces we find movements which possess
regulates

subject and

connection with the second.

its
^

first

its

contents.

In

besides the

and second subject, a third subject in the episode connecting" them, as w^ell as a Codetta which follows the second
subject and moreover contains a new and independent idea,

first

and

finally

part.

of a

has a Coda-motive for the conclusion of the

first

movement, such

Sonata for piano and


in

first

This would be without doubt the most extended form

particular,

immense difference
movement, so far as

The

quote

in

Beethoven's

this

movement

conditionally

ideas, richer

and more

even upon

their first

between the movement of a Sonatina

be found

in

the

that

fact,

the

in

latter

the

lavish of contents in themselves, require

appearance in the

extended representation;
the

its

concerned.

is

will

as

example

We

the form of the latter with

chief difference

such

find for

show the pupil unmistakeably what an


there is between a Sonatina and Sonata-

and Sonata

part,

we

to

just

extended contents

as

violin, op. 47.

with

their

concomitant

and independent ideas, modulatory passages.

more

members

so that the other

episodes

part,

first

of the

motives

Codettas

and

Codas, must be proportionately more significant and extensive.


Besides the change from the key of the tonic
jectj.

(for

the episodes enter in other related keys.

Beethoven introduces

ment of

his

Sonata

foUowinsf bars:

in

to the

second subject

major, op.

2.

Ill,

the

first

In this

in the first

sub-

manner
move-

beginning with the

The

110

118.

First

Movement of

<^

^^^^-^
^
the

a Sonata.

M.

iqs:

=1?F

^^

following independent idea

in

1^
d

minor

in

an

&c.

extended

episode.

m^

l-j,^t^f^^^-

119.

iM

^^

fe

'^

-^

p-0'

i^E^P^
Subject repeated in

minor.

8va,,^.

|^^^^=^^^=^^^

^^M^

^^--~#-p-h-*F*-*^^

-p'-^^-

i*E^
2=SiQ-

The

first

part of the

movement; &c.

first

Modulation to

|^_te^i_1fe

Ill

minor.

1^^

mm^^^^^^
This idea

fifth

repeated and concludes with a modulation to

is

then a transitory episode of

minor;

bar to the dominant (D) of the key,

subject,

shown

reproduction

in

C minor and C major

major

ideas

in

the

which the second

Upon

first part.

third

part,

correspond to the keys of

the

the

keys

of

minor and

in the first part.

In the Sonata, op. lo.

followed

in

Ex. ii8, enters in the

of both

bars leads in the

five

by an episode

Ill,

in the

the

first

relative

subject in

minor,

major

minor.

is

This

episode contains at the same time a perfectly distinct and in-

dependent

idea,

which repeats within the episode.

Subject in Episode.

^^sztzrB
120.

^te

-0

P'irst

-1^

i^-

^^^

period of the subject repeated with


close in F sharp minor.

^^p^i^^


The

112

Movement

First

of a Sonata.

First period repeated.

^i^

BZl
"-^-\

'

^^^=4

ip

f^\ F= ^
!

transition immediately leads to a

which key the second subject

commencement

give the

121.

'

Id

close

in

'J

major, in

We

in the first part.

of the second subject in Ex. 121

Motive of the Subject,

lE^

produced

is

iP
#

-^M?

^1?=^

Sj^SEEt:

-^^m

jSl

ms

-t

-t=

e
'

^j^z

L-Cj:^EJEgEtp

This second subject

in its

=i^

development from the motive

S^^S

122.

partakes less indeed of the character of a principal idea than


that of the episode

nata in

shown

major, op. 28,

independent subject.

It

^=y

^^

PP

-##-

Beethoven

Ex. 120.

begins

in

in

his

So-

sharp minor as follows:

U--

^:

U\
123.

in

likewise presents an episode with an

3=1:

rr
r

The

The second

First Part of the First

is

124.

in

113

major does not enter

till

later.

^3;^^^
?^

-^

We

subject in

Movement; &c.

-g^

-sH-::#

-j^

SEd

&c.

meet with episodes containing independent ideas


the key of the dominant; as an example we give the subject
also

of the episode from Beethoven's Sonata in

Hz

&j^

125.

It

is

:E

flat

major, op. 22.

X&c.

impossible to regard this idea as the second subject

movement, although after an introduction of six bars on


a pedal on the Dominant (C), it enters quite naturally in
F major and after eight-bar closes in this key; the second subof the

ject itself

melody;

does not appear until


it

commences

after the close of the incidental

as follows:

^^^^^^^Tt^J3^

126.

&c.

Independent ideas in episodes are also to be met with in


key of the first subject, as is shown in the next example
from Beethoven's Sonata for piano and violin, op. 47.
the

Piano.
Viol.

|jJit^:eL-1gyp f-f--f-

##--1,^ -i#

127.

i ^^

0-

is

i^-^-ii-0-

-^

* f

'

Piano.

S-

:^.
^H"i# f

fT,,

I*

f:

#.

^
_ \j
_

Viol.

Jadassohn, Manual

of Mus. Form.

The

114

Movement

First

This idea appears again

somewhat

of a Sonata.

Coda of

in the

the

first

but

part,

curtailed.
Piauo.

128.

pm^^^^^mmm
Viol.

similar occurrence

Sonata, op. 53.

be found

to

is

The motive

in

Beethoven's Piano

occurs in a modulatory episode

as follows:

^^
and

found again in the Coda of

is

130.

From

^e^

2i=&c.

this part thus

?^f-5i

-f#^-i^t:
K
cS:c.

the foregoing examples

it is

evident that independent

ideas in the episodes, can be introduced in the


related keys of both subjects.

pendent character, which are

Ideas or

be found

to

same or nearly

motives of an indein

an episode oc-

cupying a position bet\veen the second subject and the Coda,


are always placed like the Coda itself, in the key of the second
Episodes of

subject.

this sort

character of a Codetta, as
In individual instances

we

always bear in themselves the

call

we even

it,

find

in distinction to the

two Codas

Coda.

at the close of

the

first

part; as the pupil can see in the last thirteen bars of

the

first

part of the

flat

first

movement

of Beethoven's Sonata

in

major, op. 22.

The Modulation
24.

It

after the First Subject.

appears from what has already been said

that

there are Sonata-movements which contain other independent

The Modulation

after the First Subject.

115

first part besides the two subjects, but this howby no means a necessary condition of the Sonata. In
Beethoven's Sonatas we find movements of short, moderate and

ideas in the

ever

is

very great extension, which only possess two subjects and a


limited form of Coda.
op. 53, op. 90

The

first

The Sonata,

they only contain two subjects.

an idea

parts of his Sonatas

op.

2.

and op. 106 are of very varied lengths but

op. 53, presents

Coda, developed from the motive occurring

in the

a transitory episode, such as

we have shown

I,

still

in

and

in Exs. 129

This principle, of presenting only two themes, Beethoven

130.

adheres to most firmly in by


compositions

in

far

the greatest

number of

Sonata-form, and does not even forsake

it

his
in

most important and extensive works for the piano, for a


combination of instruments or even for the orchestra itself The
manner in which he introduces his subjects, how he employs
his

them

in

connection with one another, in what keys he places

key of the dominant


employed in a movement in a major key, these are some of the
We
points upon which we will seek to obtain a nearer view.
have already remarked that Beethoven very rarely and exceptionally inserts lengthy introductions in a slow tempo before the first
the second subject, over and above the

movement,
in

his

strictly so called, in his pianoforte

Sonatas for piano and

violin.

We

Sonatas, or even

will

at

once

take

up the consideration of

The

First Subject.

Beethoven sometimes only allows the


of the subject to enter

with a pause, as

'"

we

first,

see in Sonata, op.

characteristic motive

this

to

a termination

1 1 1

JiiM^^rpEgEE^E^
//

or in the

and brings

Symphony

in

minor.

132.
8*

The

116

First

Movement of

a Sonata.

In his Sonata, op. io6 the motive

immediately repeated

is

a third his/her.
8va,

4?* *

^^1
133.

note of the motive, or after

last

and the pause

motives are vividly expressed;

All three

upon the

it,

as

it

is

shown

in

the previous example, allow the audience to retain the motive


firmly

in

memory.

their

Beethoven frequently

lets

pause

upon a rest after the first subject has been given out,
upon the last note of the subject. This is exemplified in

follow

or

the following pianoforte Sonatas: op.


II

and

III;

I,

106, as well

and piano, op.

47, the

C minor and

major Symphonies and

appearance as

and

op. lo. Ill; op. 31.

and op.

as in the Sonata for violin

2. I;

op. 53, op. 57, op. 90, op. loi,

in

other works.

intrinsic value of his ideas,

grasp the main idea of

upon themselves.
then follows and

As
its

his

first

has almost the

allowed the audience time to

movement and

a rule a short

repetition

to

Beethoven

may be

that in this

impress

it

of the subject

continuation to the dominant

such key as the second subject


characteristic of

It

Beethoven convinced of the vast importance

if

harmony of

presented

in.

It

is

modulatory episode he

almost invariably leaves the key of the movement immediately,

and hastens as rapidly as possible to his desired dominant


harmony.
Reluctant as we undoubtedly are to make use of plans of
musical forms at any great length, still we will employ numbers

show the pupil in how far our


the annexed table, which is merely

in this exceptional instance to

assertion

is

correct.

In

intended to assist in aiding his analysis of the first part of the


we present him with
first movements of Beethoven's Sonatas
,

many

striking examples.

The Modulation

after the First Subject.

Length of the
Sonata
first

op.

2.

part.

Point of departure

from the

tonic.

117
Entry of the

Dominant-harmony.
bar.

The

118

Movement

First

of a Sonata.

Eight-bar pedal.

S^ir-^-t!--

t^^4t^=ife^^fe

Similar preparations of the second subject or of a subject

occurring in the key of the dominant in a transitory


idea

before the entry of the

in

motive introduced by a pedal, constantly occur

works; for example


op. 10.

I,

bars 48

to 21;

op.

bars 23

29;

At
tonic;

in the first

50;

14. II,

movement

op. 13. bars 34

bars 19

op. 57,

24;

bars 24

of op.

40;

op. 22,
35,

episode

second subject, or of a

the

and

Beethoven's
bars 35

7.

16

39;

I,

bars 17

21;

op. 53,

op. 14.

bars
in

in

many

other works.

times Beethoven places the modulatory episode in the


this

episode

and proceeds

at

is

in

most cases found

to

be very short,

once to the key of the dominant,

second subject occurs, as

in the first

movement

Viol.

135.

Piano.

W-W-k

L.^

in

which the

of op. 30.


The Modulation

after the First Subject.

Modulatory episode in

mIm

fe^S
^=5

minor.

=1=^=1:

fr
fr

119

^ ^E^EtEE^^&^

--^

^0.

&^=^f

--^

tt

'^^^^^^^

5E -g<g'f-

t^-^

Dominant chord

in

2nd Subject in

flat.

fc=t=^=i=l=i^=i=

:.^t
fe
?

flat

major.

-^

ii

a rr-FJ
^rT'^

p^

ti

1^

:*=^

mi^.

&C.

In other cases, where a strict modulatory episode with an


idea or motive of an independent character

is

wanting, Beethoven

developes the modulation to the second subject from a motive


of the

in

But in such cases we always see the

first.

strike as

which the second subject

preceded

it

from op. 31.

and

^^^
gSEjE^f

shall enter,

To shew

at once.

Motive of

136.

effort

to

soon as possible the dominant harmony of that key


this,

and

to leave

we add examples taken

III.

first

Subject.

bi

fe+-

what has

P
The

120

Movement of

First

l^^ggiS
B:T

a Sonata.

2nd Subject.

^^

fe- >-

&c.

Motive from
first

137.

Dominant chord

Subject.

^^

in

major.

^i

Symphony

is,

the

first

that

t=F

in a similar

if

manner

C minor and

in

it

is

&c.

in the first

other works.

move-

From

all

surely evident that the head

we may be allowed

the

expression,

that

subject with the modulatory episode, in case there

should be one,
part;

_r

previously said

of the first part,

-1 ?L
fri ^P

|-

Beethoven proceeds
that

#*_**
-H
^

PI

we have

major.

--

:^^

2nd Subject

his

^'*' cresc.

ment of

in

in

only occupies

case

of

smaller

the

lengthy

of the

first

episode,

this

half

modulatory

dominant as shown

should either be in the key of the

in

is
same
not given in the key of the dominant, as shown in Ex. 129,
or in another key nearly related either to the first or second
In most
subject, as can be seen in examples 120 and 123.

Ex. 125, or

in the

as the second subject, in case this

cases Beethoven sets the

first

part

in

motion

after

the pro-

The

duction of the

employed

at

follow in the

Modixlation after the First Subject.

subject more in another key than in that


commencement, even if its episode should

first

the

Let us now turn our attention to

same key.

The Second
This should, even

25.
to the

subject,

first

still

if it

Subject.

Wherever

by

some

bears

internal relationship

present a contrast to

insert a diftiisive discussion here, nor

our proofs.

121

is

it

it.

We

need not

necessary to tabulate

the pupil only seeks, there he will find

works of the masters, that the second sub-

studying- the

ject bears in itself a character entirely distinct from that of the

and this is even the case when a motive of the first subemployed in the construction of the second, as in the

first;

ject

is

first

movement

of Beethoven's Sonata, op. 57:


First subject.

Motive.

^4-*-

138.

&C.

^^^^
3.

:?'

Second Subject.
Motive.

^EB^
--^^=^
or,

when

paniment
phonies.

139.

<^

wm

the motive
to

the

-ft

of the

^.

^^^

first

&c.
->!

subject enters as an accom-

second, as in the

fifth

of Beethoven's sym-

The

122

movement

In a

of the

first

carries

its

minor key the change from the minor


the relative major of the second ahvays
This change of key cannot occur in

contrast.

movement:

a major

of a Sonata.

in a

subject to

own

Movement

First

in the repetition of the first part after

Free Fantasia, both subjects moreover would appear

the

most

for the

same key.
The contrast bet^veen the subjects
harsh
or
violently forced.
should never be
The internal relationship of both is represented in most of the best works of
the masters by the fact that they are written in the same
Any important difference in tempo between the two
tempo.
subjects would disturb the organic structure of the whole;
small, unnoticeable miances would not have this effect, these,
as a rule, are not written out, and it is left to the taste and
feeling of the performer or conductor, to decide whether and
where he shall allow the same to enter. We have not the
part

the

in

many
ing,

of speaking

intention

slightest

of the willingness with which

performers give expression to their superabundance of feel-

and

still

less of

approving of the arbitrary, unwritten alter-

tempo of both subjects which, even to-day, many


virtuoso-conductors, no matter on w^hat grounds, take a delight
in.
The noble heights of the true masterpieces need no such
The movements of
interpretation and do not even suffer it.
such works proceed as a rule, ritardandos and pauses excluded,
in the same tempo and are so most correctly represented.
ation in the

We

have already mentioned

in the explanation of the first

part of the Sonatina, that the second subject of a

key

a minor

in a

subject

part

first

in

can be placed in various keys.

major movement

may

key than

another

also

that

of

movement

be produced
the

in

But the second


in

the

dominant.

In

Beethoven's Sonata in C, op. 53, we find the second subject


in E major, and similarly the second subject of the Sonata in

G major,

op. 31.

I,

in

major.

This

is

not a rare occurrence;

both instances just mentioned the Coda

in

Even

the

in

subject from

ninth bar.
the

first

G major
B major

to

B minor

In the two great

subject

is

given in the minor.

Sonata, a transposition of the second

enters

in

can be found already

Leonore Overtures, Nos.


major, the second in

in the

and

3,

major, in

The Modulation

after the

Second Subject.

123

which major key the first part concludes. Example 140 shows
the final chord of the first part and the bars introducing the
Free Fantasia of the Leonore Overture, No.

3.

Final chord.

Modulatory bars.

*^=fei|EtaEEti -P
S=EE

140.

^-i^'

#-

di?/i.

Modulatory bars.

33^J=^^:^JeS
VP^

dim.

Beginning of Free

Modulatory bars.

Fantasia.

^P^gp^pl^j^

%%

&c.

In the Hammer-Clavier Sonata op. 106, Beethoven produces

key of the major

the second subject in the

mediately followed by the charming

-^-

final

sixth;

this

episode in

>i

^i

is

im-

G major;

w^^^^^^^w.

--

rj-

an abridged Coda

added

is

to

T3

the above with a

full

close in

G major.
Close of Coda.

141b.

^^E^
M"^

Schubert

in his

second subject

minor of

G major.

=ii=| j

TZBLZ

C major symphony,

in the

Close of part.

:b

at first

minor key of the major

I.

&c.

introduces the

third, the relative

The

124

Movement

First

of a Sonata.

2nd Subject in

E minor
&c.

Afterwards he employs
part in

G major

in

it

We

key of the dominant.

the

To

exceptional case.

allow the second subject to enter in the

key of the subdominant

Wald Symphony,
major mode of the

or

and closes the first


mention this as an

as

the

in

first

movement

minor movement

in

E minor

tonic as in Chopin's

We

regard as a totally unnatural proceeding.


right

to

the major key

have as

part in a minor

first

On

of the dominant.

same subject

little

in a

minor key placed

movement,

in

we see
minor mode of the

other hand

the
in the

which key the first part then terminates. This


example in the D minor Sonata op. 31. II, in the
as well as the third movement, and in the E minor Sonata,

dominant,
occurs
first

we

Concerto,

harbour the idea of giving the whole of the second

subject and the close of the

the

of RafT's

enter in the

to

in

for

op. 90,

and

In the

in other works,

both of Beethoven and other masters.

majority of cases

major movement
solely in the

we

usually in the relative

The

second subject

key of the dominant,

in the

after that

in a

almost

minor movement,
major, more seldom in the minor mode

key of the major

of the dominant.

find the

in a

third;

pupil will observe that we, neither here

nor in other places, wish to lay

down hard and

fast rules.

We

suggest from the works of the great master that which has

given us proof of his genius;

we

feel

and the Truth and we merely hint

at

this to be the Correct


what we have found in

the classical masterpieces.

The Coda

very

proceeds

Nevertheless the second subject

26.

to the

in the First Part.

Coda

short.

in

very few cases, and only then

An

episode

is

if

the

first

directly

part

is

found, as a rule, between the end

of the second subject and the Coda, which


Codetta.

This Codetta contains

motive.

In Sonatas for the piano

at times
it

is

we have

called the

an independent idea or

frequently represented in

The Coda
the

125

in the First Part.

form of rapid arpeggio-passages.

In

Sonatas

of greater

length t\vo such Codettas can succeed each other and to these
a

Coda may even be added.

This can be seen in the

example, taken from Beethoven's Sonata

in

E flat

next

major, op.

7.

First Codetta of 18 bars

113.

tatfizz]:

M_
Second Codetta of 16

&c.

bars.

^^^^^^^^fc
Coda of 10

^m
"

bars extending to close of

-ft^-

^' ^'J

:U:

&c.

1-

Sonata, op. 53, has in the

somewhat broadly worked out

Codetta,

part.

-^^^

^-

The C major

first

&c.

first

part only one

twenty four bars, in

in

the form of an agitated passage on the harmonies of a cadence

extending over the chords of the


sixth degrees of the scale.

It

first,

fifth,

commences

first,

fourth

and

as follows.

Beginning of Codetta.

WM
f^-*^

IM.

^m

i=^rh-J^^^^

Lfte|
The Sonata
which

in

&S:

minor, op. 57, has a Codetta of ten bars

succeeded by a Coda of

is

&c.

four.

Beginning of Codetta.

1^5.

^^^^=^^^^^^^^^^^

'^$

&c.

The

t26

First

Movement

of a Sonata.

Beginning of the Coda.

III

pt^E;:
I

The

F=i

shorter Sonata-forms in op. 78 and op. 90 possess no

Codetta.

The F sharp major Sonata

from the

final

op. 78 developes

its

Coda

Motive of the second subject, as has already

been mentioned

in

The E minor

Ex. 108.

Sonata, op. 90, adds

an independent Coda immediately upon close of the second


subject.
Close of 2"d Subject,

Beginning of Coda.

ue.a^^fe^^

^gii

Concerning the Coda concluding the

first

already said sufficient in the seventh chapter.

we have

part

only remains

It

to be mentioned that the first part of a Sonata contains


no contrapuntal development, because it has really only to give
out the subjects, from which the Free Fantasia in the second
still

part

the

It is possible to form another new idea in


by connecting a previous subject by means

formed.

is

first

part,

of a motive

from the

same;

otherwise a subject

or

motive

should not be presented in contrapuntal combination, repeated


with

development

a thematic

similar to that

which occurs

and

in the

introduced

in

Free Fantasia.

manner

This does

not hold good merely of Sonatas for the piano or piano and
violin,

but

also

for

all

those

movements

in

chamber music

and symphonies, which are written in "Sonata Form". An independent polyphonic tendency of the parts is by no means
excluded under these conditions.
a string-quartett
cello

Throughout the

the parts for the violins,

violas

first

part of

and violon-

should not merely be considered as the means for an

accompaniment,

but they,

taking

an

important part

in

the

The Coda

in the First Part.

representation of the ideas,

should

fications as factors of the whole.

127

make known

their

quali-

can indeed frequently be


seen in the works of the masters, that, even in the first part of

a Sonata

It

can be independently treated

for the piano, the parts

by themselves without intending

or

effecting'

a contrapuntal

We meet with
and employed simultaneously with the announcement of an idea and taking a part in
development of the

various parts,

it.

even of a motive.

subject, or

treated independently,

Beethoven's Sonata, op.

2.

II,

yields a

good example.

147.

In order not to be misunderstood


the pupil even in the

renounce everj'thing

first

in the

we must

still

part, has not anxiously to

add that
shun or

shape of a contrapuntal device, or

has carefully to avoid the employment of imitation or an inversion of the


the

parts.

On

contrary

the

best works of the masters,

still

we

find

just

always only in

this

in

such a

manner that the clearness of the exposition of the subjects is


in no way restricted by it, and so that the exposition is given
in a style, at

once

brief,

curt

and concise.

The Second

128

Movement.

Part of the First

CHAPTER

X.

THE SECOND PART OF THE FIRST MOVEMENT.

The Free
In this part

27.

more

or

Fantasia.

new forms

ideas taken from the

first part,

more

to that

in

is

Fantasia thus leaves

was written as soon as possible,


a number of modulations and after it has touched upon
part

first

or less great variety of keys,

In

returns towards

its

close

the third part, a repetition of the

key from which

can be taken up.

key

or even from only one of

The Free

the motives of the tvvo subjects.

the key in which the


and, after

are to be developed from one

by

far the greatest

number of

first,

cases this

the dominant, since the third part should begin again

the tonic.

The keys employed

related or distantly

in this part

removed from those found

may

either

a fixed order of modulation such as could be given for the


part,

the

is

not to be thought of here;

taste

of the author.

be

in the first part;


first

this is entirely deferred to

Nevertheless the modulation towards

the close of the second part must lead in a fluent and appropriate

manner

to

the

key of the dominant, or

to a

chord of

the dominant seventh in the key of the tonic, so that the

may

enter as

naturally as possible.

the effect of this entrance,

it

latter

weaken
allow the key

In order not to

would be

as well to

of the tonic to enter neither in the middle of the Free Fantasia,

nor

still

less

toward

the

close

of

it;

as

it

would have the

appearance of the prevailing key in too lengthy a section.


In every Free Fantasia,

if

only of moderate duration, the

key is seldom retained for any length of time, but is changed


and by means of the modulation a heightened interest is aroused.
The pupil must not think that he can effect this only by
modulation, that is by a mere succession of one or more subjects

strung together in several different unrelated keys.

would thereby create

He

nothing new but only represent what

The Free

Fantasia.

;i29

had gone before, in another selection of keys. Should he wish


to employ or make use of the themes and motives at his disposal correctly, he can alone do it by thematic device.

The

student well-versed in counterpoint,

knows

that a piece

written in double, triple or quadruple counterpoint or in counter-

point

the

in

is

the fugue.
subject,

or

appearance

different

material

tenth

in

its

different tone-picture

according as

although

inversions,

the

This occurs even more frequently in

unchanged.

various

a substantially

presents

often

twelfth,

we adopt

is

obtained from the same


or

free

parts

strict

with the

subject, or whether we place the subject in the soprano, bass,


or one of the middle parts, and the counterpoints change places

Even

with the subject.


the

first

entry

in

the working- out

of a fugue after

of the subject and answer in the keys of the

and dominant, we allude again to other keys, undoubmost cases only to such as are nearly related to the
We allow a subject to enter in a major key which was

tonic

tedly in
tonic.

minor one,

originally conceived in a

in a

double fugue

we add

another subject, the countersubject; in short, in spite of the


reasonably

we

strict

economy which should

prevail in the fugue,

create, from one subject, from one material, varied tone-

pictures which yield an organic whole.

Similarly but with a far greater freedom than


the strict form of the fugue,

a sonata-movement.

we proceed

in the

is

possible in

second part of

first place we have a far


we can choose between one, two

In the

material at our disposal;

richer

or in-

deed several ideas contained in the first part. There is left for
us the order in which we will thematically develope one or more
We are moreover in no way bound by the fetters of
ideas.
the strict style;

we make

the strict style just as


tion,

it

use of an interchange of the free and

seems

suitable for our artistic inspira-

design and purpose.


If

we turn to the Free Fantasias of the works of the best


we are at once struck by the fact that by no means

masters,
all

the subjects and motives of the

second;

a motive,

nay, that as a
at times

Jadassohn, Manual

rule,

first

part are

only one

employed
often

subject,

in the

only

even only the rhythm of a motive, provides


of Mus. Form.

ij


The Second

130

Part of the First Movement.

of which

the material out

the Free Fantasia

subject or the motive derived from

Fantasia in Beethoven's
In his fourth

motive.

This

formed.

Thus we see that the Free


Symphony is formed from the initial
Symphony the first subject and its initial

movement.

of the

subject

initial

is

usually proves to be the

it,

fifth

motive,

148.

The Free FanSymphony is entirely

also provide the material for the second part.


tasia in the first

formed from

movement
rhythm

this

the Sonata in

flat,

of the seventh
1.1

op. io6,

1.1

second part of

the

almost entirely developed from

is

the foUowinsf motive.

UO.gtfa: f

t~-

In

all

for the

ever so short in
is

employed

Sonata in

-JL-Jj

is made use
The motive indeed be

these Free Fantasias only one motive

real thematic

itself,

alone.

development.
is

This occurs in the

where not the

but the second

J-*{~#^

is

first

also

of the

rhythm

employed

I
I

both

in

a similar

the

movement

first

major, op. io6,

L_

it

divided up into parts each of which

flat

J-LJ.

of

first

conjunction and

individually.

Beethoven proceeds

manner with the motive suggested


four-bar period of the

first

in

Ex. 148.

subject, (in the fourth

in

After

Sym-

phony), has been employed in the working out, this portion of


the motive succeeds;

150.

The Free

and afterwards a new melody

Fantasia.

131

added

is

to

the

period of

first

the subject.

:t=:

151.

^,

'f

^3^^

^ _-j

fr_iy_^^z

^=^_^- -

?-

iH

&c.

PtIeS
This

d^z=:

is

imitated

G minor

in

subject
effect.

in
It

we do

conjunction
occurs

first

-?

7
It:

proceeds to the entry of the


the Free Fantasia

and

first

major and then

flat

period (E

flat

fi").

That

not hear the second period of the

with the

first,

in

first

produces a marvellous

at the close of the

second part by

itself;

152.

and proceeds by means of a chord of the augmented sixth to


the second inversion of the chord of the tonic,
the

initial

motive

in

an

ever

alone to the re-entry of the

which the
of the

third part of the

second part

is

in

first

increasing
subject in

movement

flat.

Thence
on

course, leads

begins.

flat

major, with

The

conclusion

so far sub.stantially altered from the

terminations of other Free Fantasias, that the key of the dominant

The Second

7132

Part of the First

Movement.

not previously heard, and that of the tonic does not even

is

enter for twenty eight bars

before the

commencement

of the

third part.

With reference to the Free Fantasia Beethoven appears to us


and in this respect we have to thank him for
perfect
construction of this form. The Free Fantasia
the more
as a discoverer,

of the older writers

is,

as a rule, substantially shorter than the

Beethoven,

part, with

first

works, we find

in

his

shorter

little

it

usually of a very concise form.

we

the

first

part which

works

his lengthier

for

is

In Beethoven's Piano Sonatas

Free Fantasias usually shorter and scantier than

find the

easily

longer and more important

than

chamber music and

orchestra.

explained by the circumstance, that a

This

in
is

movement upon

development must necessarily have

the piano with thematic

narrower limits than would be the case with a string quartett

Even taking

or orchestra.

highly developed

into

technique

in

consideration

the

somewhat

the beginning of the present

century, Beethoven's genius always paid due regard to the per-

former;

piano compositions seldom present extraordinar)"

his

difficulties

or such as cannot be overcome.

His longer Sonatas, Trios and Concertos are indeed

among

the most brilliant and grateful works written for the piano;
and reward the performer for his untiring zeal, not merely by
the highly aesthetic enjoyment which they yield, but by the
that

fact

they

clearly

dexterity, the technique

But

in the

display

the

perceptive

and bravura of the

faculties

the

pianist.

Free Fantasias of Beethoven's Piano Sonatas we

are always conscious of the principle of thematic development,

they are never mere modulations leading to the repetition of the

They always represent a prominently characteristic part


movement and frequently terminate with a pedal,
which the introduction of the third part is then given. Even

first part.

of the whole
after

in his

sages

very

first

difficult

Sonatas Beethoven does not shrink from pas-

of execution,

if

this is

brought about by the the-

matic development in the Free Fantasia


is

he always retains what

moderately within the means of a movement

We

for

the piano.

suggest, in proof thereof, a passage from the Free Fantasia

The Free

Fantasia.

of the second of the Piano Sonatas, (op.


beerinning of the
in

thematic

episode.

initial

motive

combination

To

with

lE^
I i=S
gfe

and

Eg^
Motive

the

avoid any oversight

motives employed as Motive

153.

133!
2. II).

In this part the


":

initial

we

is

employed.

motive of the

wdll

first

represent the t\\o

11.

II,

MA>

r^'.^

^J^

m
^p=feEE^
Lja

Secondimperfect imitI

ation.

First real imitation.

The Second

134

Movement.

Part of the First

$^^^^^m^
-1

,J

^:^d^

h:.-?*

i^^ES
.

*^ 9^^^
'nr

5'*

WP#f^^^
///>

Pedal on the Dominant of

A
/

^^^^^^^^H
^^-y-g^^
//^

Hi2_

Various

Commencements of the Free

Fantasia.

135

Modulatory chords.

End

of Free
Fantasia.

Beginning of the third


|

^=1==^=^

part.

1
&c.

^^==^i

^^

-i^-

f-^-^^-gr

Various Commencements of the Free Fantasia.


28.

usually

part closes;
aided, as in
fe flat

We

have already remarked that the second

commences

in

first

change of key occasionally takes place unthe following example from Beethoven's Sonata in
this

major, op.

7.

Close of

154.

part

another key than that in which the

first

Bearinninsr
-&"""'& of

part.

Free Fantasia.

te

^-i^

ff

Sec.

<^

gg^-3EEEj^^te
An

example of how

it

occurs

when

in the next example, from the Sonata in

assisted,

can be seen

major, op.

2.

II.

The Second

136

Close of

Part of the First ^^lovement.

first

Modulation

part.

to

majc

e^Bli^
155.
f.

ij^i^ gEjE|
Beginning of the Free Fantasia with the representation

of the

first

fct

Subject in

major.

RSi^S^ ^

^
^^

^M4-;h=^^

both cases the Free Fantasia begins

In

&C.

motive of the

first

with

the

main

subject, or with a representation of the first

subject in an unrelated key, from which the thematic develop-

ment of
in

the

initial

Ex. 153 or

motive afterwards proceeds, as can be seen

in the continuation of the

same Free Fantasia

in

Ex. 153.

by no means always the case that the first subject or


motive commences the second part; this is sometimes
connected with the Coda which it continues. The first subject
It is

its

is

initial

mostly made use of

by preference, only

its

for thematic

main motive

instances to the contrary.

flat

major Sonata, op.

development, or frequently,
;

still

there are not wanting

In the Free Fantasia of Beethoven's

22, the initial

motive of the movement

Various Commencements of the Free Fantasia,

two

137

on the other
hand the motives of the two ideas in the Coda in the first
part are employed for thematic device, whilst the figure in
only appears

in the

ascending chords occurring

is

then employed

In this Free Fantasia nothing

major.

flat

in the first part,

modulation which leads to the dominant

for the structure of a

chord of

introductory bars;

first

is

be

to

found of the second subject, either in the form of rhythm or


This

melody.

however by no means necessary; very many

is

Free Fantasias contain no trace of the second subject,


the

first

is

part of the

phony.

not to be found.
first

In the

and
first

in others

Let the student study the second

movements of Beethoven's fifth Symmovement the Free Fantasia contains no

last

sign of the second subject, whereas in the last no mention

made

of the

It is

is

first.

impossible to give distinct rules on this point and

can only make

this observation, that in the

we

Free Fantasias of the

masters, before the entrance of the strict thematic combinations,

the subject, from which a motive


device,

is

is

afterwards taken for thematic

usually introduced again, at

key from that of the

first

intact but in a difi"erent

first

In the continuation

part.

abridged, for only a portion of the subject


strict

contrapuntal

work

trast to this, the real

is

it

enters with the motive alone.

second part

in the

appears

continued until the

Sonata in

In con-

flat

major,

op. io6, begins with strict contrapuntal work, but the Free

connected with the repetition of the Coda of the

tasia

is

part,

now transposed

is

re-called

to a

by a twofold

minor key.

The motive

The same

repeated.

i'i i

1=:=::=:^:

i3.iife^Ef
//

first

work

repetition.

Motive.

of the

Fan-

^fp

<//'

Beginning of the thematic work in imitation.

:&

ife=^

&c.

ft

The Third

13S
It

book,

would

the extended Coda; &c.

beyond the narrow

carr}' us far

we were

if

Movement and

Part of the

an exhaustive account of the various


the

classical

limits of this text-

endeavour to give anything approaching

to

We

masters.

Free Fantasias of

different

however consider the indications

already given, as entirely sufficient as a guide-post in the pupil's


of the classical works,

analysis

give an explanation of

many

throw a

to

upon,

light

them

details within

support him in the studies appertaining to them.

to

body, the most talented included, must

and

lead and

to

Every-

a long time sur-

for

render himself to a careful study of the works of our hero

knowledge of

before he can hope to obtain a distinct

Then

substance and organism.

whether he

to

imitate

forms;

these

unwittingly

indeed he really possesses such ideas as bear


a

first

their

discover

sufficiently possesses the receptivity, the real talent

composition

for

the student can

germ capable

of being

developed

themselves

in

these

in

whether

Not

forms.

eveiy one who, perhaps with ease, can conceive a melodious

song or a graceful piano


the

requisite

Symphony;

or
is

talent

but

for
still

piece
the

in

short

each

one's

form,

possesses

of a Sonata,

structure

taste

for

Quartet

nobler

works

aroused and incited by a careful examination of the works

of
will

the

masters.

The reward

of

such

earnest

study

then

always be a heightened, increased and pleasanter enjoy-

ment of

Art.

CHAPTER

XI.

THE THIRD PART OF THE MOVEMENT AND THE EXTENDED CODA


THE REMAINING MOVEMENTS OF A SONATA.

The Key
29.

of the

The

third

Second Subject
part

then only a repetition of the


subjects are written in the

in the

of a Sonata
first part,

in

same key, the

Third Part.

movement produces
such a way that both
tonic; in other

words

The Key

of the Second Subject in the Third Part.

the second subject in the third part

even
in

is

This part then proceeds to

tonic.

an extended Coda, which

if

Coda,

added,

is

still

its

really

found in the key of the

end

and

the tonic,

in

amounts

to a

movement

the third part even then closes in the

even should the "Coda-movement" commence afresh

tonic,

39

in

another key and modulating, touch upon other keys unrelated

Of course

to the tonic.

movement must

the final close of the

be always in the key of the tonic. Even in the single instance


which Beethoven has given in his piano Sonatas, where the
second subject in the first part appears in the major sixth
(op.

following

tonic,

second subject as well as the extended Coda

the

06),

appear upon the repetition

it

Moreover

major.

flat

all

in the third part in the

those episodes, found in the

which precede

part in the key of the tonic or dominant,

first

the second subject, appear, in the third part, in the key of the
tonic.

quite another matter

It is

Sonata, op.

movement

in

to

appears.

The

upon

the episodes occur neither in

major

see Ex. 120, occurs in the third part of the

10. Ill,

the close

if

The episode from Beethoven's

the tonic nor dominant.

and proceeds by another modulation

miiior,

major, in which key the

episode from op. 28 in Ex. 123

is

produced,

reproduction in the third part of the movement,

its

at

second subject then

in

minor.
If

major

the second subject in the

part

first

Beethoven reproduces

third,

it

in the

is

in

first

major sixth and aftenvards in the key of the


can compare the

first

movements of

the other hand in the

third

op. 31.

in the third part in the

haps

this

was done

combination, in the

and

flutes,

in the

of a clarinet.
ture No.
refer to

2,

in
first

tonic.
I,

key of the
key of the

The

and op.

pupil

On

53.

Leonore Overture he allows the

second subject, which originally occurred


pear

the

key of

in

major,

major, to reapthe tonic.

Per-

order to retain a similar instrumental


instance double basses,

horns,

violins

second, the same instruments with the addition

In the Allegro

movement of

the second subject

what has been said on

is

the Leonore Over-

not repeated; the pupil must

this point in

paragraph 20.

140

The Third
Schubert,

Symphony

minor, upon

after\vards in

In a

the

in

in

Movement and

Part of the

reproduction he places

minor and

movement

finally

in

first

it

produces

minor key, we

in a

movement

first

of his

second subject to enter in

major, allows the


its

of the

part

first

the extended Coda; kc.

minor,

in the tonic.

it

find a variety of

me-

We

thods of reproducing the second subject in the third part.

have already observed, that the older masters usually transposed


it

into the minor,

(par. 22).

Mozart

movements of

his

in the first part

if

treats his

minor Sonata, the

minor Symphony and many other of

We

show the beginning of such a

examples taken from

his

in the major,

last

first

movement

works, in

his

and

last

of his

this

way.

transposition in the following

above mentioned Sonatas.

2nd Subject in part

M # *

appeared

it

minor Sonata, the

=-

I,

in relative major.

0~^

d-0-

'

'J

~^-

'^MMmmmm

157.

Return of same

2"^'

Subject in part

^4
V r

I,

&c

t t t
? -^ V
J

Return of same

in

in part III to original key.

part III &c.

The Key

of the

Second Subject

2nd Subject in part

in the

Third Part.

141

in relative major.

I,

^^

'^^^^i^^z^=d^l^=E^^^EE^

fee^

^i

^_^zL

>9-

-7S)-

\-0i-0-

ji

158.

The

return of

same

in part III to original key.

[gEe^EEgar=^ELte^F=ii9-ar^^^tfe
:53:

2"'^

Subject in part

&c.

^=3^1

^
The Third

142

Part of the

Movement and

Second Subject

the extended

in part

I,

Coda; &c.

in relative major.

*=?=^
EfEE^eEEE

fet

m^^^^m
159.

Return of same

f . P
PhJ^

in part III to original key.

^^SEEEEE3z
p-^^

^^--i-

9^i^^=t
.=^3

I"

Second Subject

#-f

in part I &c.

^f 1

sfefc

-l*---^

^R7^^r=rrT rT^i"T-ppFK
Retiirn of

same

r!-ki-FF=4

&c.

4-^-n

&c.

in part III &c.

-^

p-

-m
-^V-~^^P-

This

appears

natural

in

the

lEH

proportionately

very

small

movements of the older masters and gives the third part a


This is so much the more important,
unity of key.

perfect

since the

movements

usually lack an extended Coda.

Beethoven

The Key

of the Second Subject in the Third Part.

however soon deviates from


Sonata

part of his

second subject
found

to

in

in

in

Even

lo.

in its further course

Beethoven,

explained.

avoids the deviation to


subject in the

once

at

in

first

Coda

Introduction are

subject,

which

in the first

Coda

the extended

in the

the third part.

major;

mode

in

flat

first

two bars

of the Stretta in

in

in

employed

The second

minor.

reproduced

is

in

in

the

first

C major

in

Beethoven's other Sonatas

the

first

The movements

are op. 27.

II,

part in

the

minor

flat

major,

is

now transposed

added,

in

flat

longer Sonatas

to

the second

op. 30,

reproduced

is

major, to this follows the Codetta,

first part,

of the

movement, op. 31, first and


90 first movement. In the Sonata
third

movements, and op.


and violin in C minor,

originally in

in

in

minor, and

subject,

the third part in


flat

finally

major

in

the

an extended

major with the characteristics of a Free

Fantasia and also beginning in

and

similarly

is

minor, op. iii, which

for piano

Coda

in

of the dominant and are repeated in the third part in

referred to,

then employed

major, but soon leaves that key.

key of A flat major,


The second subject

the key of the tonic.

third

final

Four bars from the


Coda, Allegro con

this subject is

minor keys are employed

in

it

commencement

is

and places

Sonata, op. 57, the second


flat major, is repeated
part occurs in

subject in the Sonata in


part

Pathetique,

F minor

motive of the

initial

at the

repeated and a

In the

in the third part in

The

this subject

introduced.

itself are

now

added.

is

he shortens

part;

Sonata

major, which occurs in the second

flat

minor, in which key the episode of the Codetta

as well as the

brio,

and the small Coda

the

in

and so the

part,

first

transposition of part of the second subject


readily

his
first

transposed

is

it

is

Sonata movement requires a Coda

this short

of greater extension than that in the

is

first

he introduces

I,

major, which in the third part

flat

major and then

minor.

For, in the

his predecessors.

minor, op.

143

In the Sonata for piano

major.

Beethoven places the second subject, which


appearance was in the key of E major, in A major on

violin, op. 47,

on

its first

its

reproduction in the third part.

as of the whole

movement

in

The

minor,

close of that part as well


is

then naturally arranged.

144

The Third

Movement and

Part of the

Contraction of the

We

30.

find

first

very

ill

Subject in the third Part.

many

the third part, the first subject in

the extended Coda; &c.

cases at the beginning of

an abridged, contracted form.

main idea which was introduced at the commencement of the movement, is omitted and the passage to
the episode or to the second subject is brought about somerepetition of a

what more quickly.

This occurs

Beethoven's Sonatas op.


op. 10.

op. 14. I; op. 31.

II;

Sometimes

An

episode.

Sonata op.
the

the

first

2.

II;

2.
I

part

third

and

the

in

op.

and

II,

many

in

instance of this occurs in the

The

III.

subject

in the

op. 7;

by

shortened

is

movements of

first

Ill;

2.

first

op.

part,

is

I;

omitting

an

movement

of

episode, which occurs at the


first

10.

other works.

of

close

entirely wanting

in

the

third part.

&c.

Its

omission at

this point

because the motive of

this

appears so

episode

is

much

employed
This

of the Codetta after the second subject.

then repeated in the third

161.

the

part.

the

more

natural,

in the episode

latter

episode

is

begins as follows:

It

^^^^^k^^

BE

In the first movement of op. 7,


commencement of the movement

the

&C.

motive occurring

after the first

subject,

at
is

not to be found in the repetition in the third part;

f iEiEEE

162.

Ss^^^i
1^'

* y y y -^
?
_U-|

IL.

Contraction of the

first

Subject in the third Part.

145

but the modulation by the chord of the dominant seventh,

^E^^=^

168.

follows the continuation of the

but in a

subject directly,

first

somewhat abridged form.


It

is

especially

repetition of

upon a

of Beethoven that,

characteristic

one and the same idea

apart from the modul-

ation to the second subject necessary to the third part,

he

seldom, in his later works hardly ever, allows an exact reproduction of a theme as

seems almost

it

He

out changing the idea

This master

in the first part.

to despise reproducing or

has previously written.

it

appeared

alters the

copying exactly what he

appearance of the idea with-

he adorns and decorates

itself;

it,

employs

with fresh combinations, and thereby makes the repetition of

same idea more interesting than is the case with those of


the older masters, whose frequent exact reproductions at times
assume a somewhat stereotyped character.
Beyond Beethoven's desire not to copy, this habit explains the occasional extension of the main idea upon its
reproduction in the third part.
Such a prolongation morethe

over,

we only

find as

of the Sonata in

an exceptional case
major, op. 53.

where the exposition of the

first

in the first

subjects are

movement

and especially

In general

very extended,

be found upon a reproduction

contractions are mostly to

in

the third part.


In the case of the

sodes,

second subject with

duction in the third part.


it

its

auxiliary

abridgments are seldom to be met with on

forms the close

as a rule,

in

The Coda

in the repetition,

first

part,

in

case

would indeed be lengthened

order to give the impression of a perfect close.

This has already been referred to

movement.

of the

epi-

repro-

its

In Beethoven's works

in

analysing the Sonatina-

however we also

find

some

Sonata-movements, whose third part forms the close of the


whole without any such lengthening of the Coda, or even
without any advanced extension of the Coda-part.
Jadassohn, Manual

of Mus. Form.

These works,
JQ

The

146

third Part of the

Movement and

the extended

Coda; &c.

on the one hand are from the first period of Beethoven's life,
which he still worked on the lines of his precursors on the
other hand are such movements as have at the close of the
Of such are the first
first part a long Coda, or even two.
2.
II;
10.
I; op. 2 and op. 22.
op.
movements of the Sonatas op.

in

The Extended Coda.


31.

The

by

important enlargement

part receives an

third

We

the addition of the Extended Coda.

and perhaps

could,

call the extended Coda a fourth part of


movement, at least in the works belonging to Beethoven's
second and third period; because at times it assumes such
immense dimensions, and introduces so much that is new to us
in contrapuntal device and in a repeatedly different exposition
Even towards the
of the ideas contained in the movement.

not without reason,

the

close of the
is

first

movement

brought forward

full

of the ninth

Symphony

new

idea

of tragic earnestness.

164.

Among

the protracted Codas

by Beethoven we

distinguish

two kinds according to their different construction. Some contain


an exposition of an idea from the previous movement in a

and this exposition is usually in a more rapid tempo


and somewhat altered, with an increased final cadence but no
Stretta,

contrapuntal development; the others contain a repeated, small

Free Fantasia

in contrapuntal

the Final Cadence.

combination before they introduce

The former kind

Rondo-form, (Beethoven's Sonata op.

is

to

be found in extended
movement). We

53, third

meet with them more rarely in the lengthier Sonatas, but the
pupil will find an example at the close of the first movement
of op. 57. The second sort of extended Coda is more frequently

The Extended Coda.

147

movements of Sonatas, but


especially in movements of chamber and orchestral music,
written in this form, both by Beethoven and his successors. It
will suffice to call the pupil's attention to the first movements
of Beethoven's Sonatas op. 53, op. 30 and op. 47.
At times we also find a Coda extended in such a manner
to

be met with not only

that a repetition of a

main idea or a motive, with or without

contrapuntal development,

which

is

added

the

to

third

part,

after

Piano Sonatas, frequently after a Cadence containing

(in

more or

the

in

Coda of the first part


and forms the close of the

less brilliant passages), the small

transposed into the tonic,

follows

whole movement. As examples w^e would suggest the first


movement of Sonata op. 2. Ill, and the third movement of
Sonata op.

Of

27.

II.

movements of a Sonata, the Final one


same form as the first, but not unfrequently

the remaining

is

usually in the

in

extended Rondo-form.

is

already

known

to

The form

the student.

of the Scherzo and Minuet

The slow movement can

combined Song-form or Variation-form. Even very


extended Dance-forms may be employed. (Beethoven's Funeral

either

be

in

March, op.

We

26.)

add

for the

sake of completion

in

that,

chamber and

orchestral works, the form of the Sonata usually attains a greater

length than in the piano Sonata proper or the Sonata for piano

and

violin

or violoncello,

no matter whether we meet them

under the name of Trio, Quartett, Quintett, Sextett, Septett &c.,

Symphony, Overture, Serenade or Divertimento.


The Sonata is the pupil's most difficult task. Even with
the highly-gifted the first attempts at this form are wont to

or as

prove utter

failures,

and

it

requires

effort before the pupil acquires

parts.

The beginner however should

several
position,

futile
if

attempts.

If

long

study

and much

mastery over the individual


not be

discouraged by

he possesses real talent

he bears within himself the corresponding

will gradually learn

how

to express

for

and represent them

correct form.

10*

com-

ideas,

he

in their

148 The

Prelude, Etude, Capriccio, Fantasia, Suite, Overture, Variations &c.

CHAPTER

XII.

THE PRELUDE, ETUDE, CAPRICCIO, FANTASIA, SUITE, OVERTURE,


VARIATIONS IN THE FORM OF A SONATA-MOVEMENT.
THE CONCERTO.
The prelude

32.

marked

distinctly

subjects,

the Etude are as a

well as

as

pieces in simple song-form;

rule

they generally contain complete,


this

many

can be seen both in

of

Bach's Preludes and Moscheles' and Chopin's Studies.


These
were previously described as "Lieder ohne Worte"'. Still as a

and Etude develop only one motive in songdo not by this mean to exclude the fact that the

rule the Prelude

We

form.

employed as accompaniment to
a melody appearing above or below it; or that the motive
continuation of the motive

itself in

the course of

melody not

We
in

is

progress

its

find music-pieces

Song-form but

in

under the

not to do with a

characterises

the

also see

present to the

nature

of the

Capriccio

new form;

the

for

composition.

one or several movements

to the student.

title

and

II.

title

We

have

title

only

the Fantasia

In

form already known

in a

Should the Fantasia contain several movements

they are usually connected by some outward sign.


gives the

ear a

not only

Dance-form and Rondo-form.

in that case

we

may

particularly evident to the eye.

Beethoven

of "quasi una fantasia" to the Sonatas op. 27.

Although

direct passages connecting

movements have no

in these the individual

them with each

other,

still

it

would

be as well to perform the whole without interruption; and even

where the progression from one movement


indicated

by

to

another

is

not

"attacca", to allow only the shortest interval pos-

sible to intervene.

The

Suites of the old masters contain, after a Prelude and

Fugue or a Variation-movement, a number of pieces in Dance-form,


between which a slow movement, "air", in Song-form, is inserted.
The strict Concert-Overture is always rendered in extended
Sonata-form.

Usually a long slow introduction precedes the

Allegro-movement; frequently a

Stretta

is

added

to the

Allegro-

The

149

Prelude, Etude, Capriccio, Fantasia, Suite, Overture, Variations &c.

movement over and above

Most of the

the extended Coda.

Opera-overtures from the classical masters retain the SonataOvertures for Oratorios are sometimes written

form.

Fugue

of a long

Mozart

for the orchestra.

made

the Zauberflote has for the most part

use of this form.

Later composers, particularly the French and the

have however set aside the use of Sonata-form

They

ture.

form

in the

Overture to

in the

Italian,

the Over-

in

write a Fantasia for orchestra consisting of one or

more connected movements.

which occur

contain subjects,

movements

are

The

individual

movements mostly
but occasionally

opera,

the

in

met with, containing other musical

ideas.

As

the best know^n and most beautiful model of such a Fantasia

we would quote Weber's Overture to Euryanthe. In the latest


times we often see longer or shorter Instrumental-Introductions,
which have partly the character of an Introduction and are
partly in Song-form.
As the most interesting and melodious
of this sort of introduction
to

we would mention

the ""Vorspier

Wagner's Lohengrin.

book we have

In this

exceptions

of isolated

movements.

what

is

grasp

why

The

of Sonata-

occurring in the Structure

pupil shall and

regular as a

making mention

intentionally avoided

standard;

must

later

first

riper

his

learn

movement

the principal subject of the

to

is

opportunely

one

Free Fantasia,

stance in

the key of the subdominant, or totally omitted, or

in

one or another instance, the Free Fantasia leads

the repetition of the second subject and the

not appear again until


casionally to

we must

later.

be met with, but


afraid

in

in-

why

directly to

subject does

Variations of this kind are ocin

general they are so rare that

regard them as exceptional.

been more

first

will

introduced

after the

in the third part,

know

knowledge

Besides

of confusing the pupil

we should have

by suggesting such

exceptional cases than able to assist him.

The Concerto.
.

33.

The

classical

Concerto consists of three movements

which almost invariably corre.spond to the

Adagio and the Finale of

a Sonata.

The

first

first

Allegro, the

movement

of a

50 The

Prelude, Etude, Capriccio. Fantasia, Suite, Overture, Variations &c.

Concerto presents however

many

in

cases a difference to the

Sonata-movement which we dare not leave unmentioned.

Most

Concertos begin with an extended orchestral introduction, which


in individual instances

precedes a cadence for the solo-instrument,

E flat

as in Beethoven's

major Concerto, op.

Sometimes

73.

several bars for the solo-instrument, in which the principal subject

of the

first

movement

played or introduced, precede those

is

orchestral-introduction which

of the

we

usually

the

call

first

then a long "tutti" enters, compare Beethoven's Con-

'tutti";

G major,

These "tutti" usually contain the


important elements of the first movements curtly and concisely
expressed by the accompanying orchestral instruments. After
the "tutti", the solo-instrument in conjunction with accompanying
certo in

op. 58.

instruments begin

the

of the

part

first

movement

first

again,

but with particular regard to the representation of the solo-part.

The
in

"tutti"

previous to the

form of the

the

first

then forms a repetition

follows,

Moscheles' Concerto in
ation of the

first

the solo,
brilliant

is

first

his larger Concertos.

If

differently

in

we study the
we find both

not produced in the dominant,

Moreover

in

the

first

tutti

the

the

first

first

"tutti"

of his

of

Con-

and second

The second

major.

subject

major, until the following


of his

major, op. 58, the key of the dominant

is

piano Concerto in
not touched upon;

not until the following solo does the proper

appear

minor,

minor, after which

"tutti"

first

subject in the key of the tonic,

part with rich adornments in

certo for the violin, op. 61,

solo.

in

passages for the solo-part, begins.

But Beethoven proceeds

is

Thus,

After the close of

to

which

solo

part.

find the represent-

major.

flat

first

The

great "tutti" in

made back

a repetition of the

frequently exactly

first

we

minor, op. 58,

that of the second subject in

is

Sonata.

of the

subject in the

the "tutti", a modulation

"solo"

first

part of a

second

subject

in that key.

&c.

The

In the

The keys

of the

minor

sixth,

flat

flat

in

first

in

the key

major, but after eight bars

bars to

minor,

flat

we

(B minor),

major, appear

of his Concerto

"tutti"

first

second subject enters

major,

flat

major and minor are interchanged.

flat

major and the dominant,


In the

of Beethoven's Concerto in

'"tutti"

first

the keys of

op. 73,

151

Prelude, Etude, Capriccio, Fantasia, Suite, Overture, Variations &c.

minor,

of the

flat

the solo.

first in

op. 37,

the

major,

relative

modulation of four

find a

major, and then the second subject appears in the

The

latter key.

continuation and close of the

"tutti"

are

in

the key of the tonic.

From

the examples cited

it

is

sufficiently

evident,

Beethoven preferred not to leave the key of the tonic


first

"tutti";

this

natural because

is

the

"tutti"

closes

that

the

in
in

this

key, usually upon a chord of the dominant seventh, introducing"

same key.

the solo which begins immediately in the

Beethoven, therefore, the


a

Sonata-movement;

stral

in the

first

part

C minor and
major and

is

does not form the

With
part of

first

rather represents a long extend orche-

"Vorspiel" before the real

ment of the
the

it

"tutti"

The important

first part.

ele-

contained in this "Vorspiel", quite so

Violin-Concertos, for the most part so in


flat

major Concertos already alluded

to.

Later composers often write only a short instrumental introduction at the beginning of the Concerto.

be found

in

which the form of the Sonata

abandoned.

Of

the latter kind

is

Concertos are also to


is

in part or

even

totally

Spohr's Concerto which

is

in

Other modern masters increase the form

the form of a Scena.

by the addition of a Scherzo.


movements of Beethoven's Concertos are generally
in Rondo-form. The last movement of the E flat major Concerto,
op. 73, takes the form of a simple but very extended Rondo
without an episode of contrast. The Rondos to the Concertos
of the whole Concerto

The

op. 37

the

last

and op. 61 have not only episodes of

first part,

besides the

first

This second subject together with the

duced
repeat.

first

after

first

is

the episode of contrast but the

The Rondo
and second

in the

but in

contrast,

subject, they also possess a second.

likewise reprolatter

major Concerto, op.

subject, but

does

58, has

no episode of contrast.

not

both

The

152

Prelude, Etnde. Capriccio, Fantasia, Suite, Overture, Variations &c.

The

variety of musical

forms in the classical works, the

heterogeneousness of the representation of these individual forms


is

so great that

it

impossible to suggest

is

all

the deviations

from the original fundamental forms ^\hich are to be

up and down, among

scattered

The

found

the works of the great masters.

musical forms are no longer mere fixed patterns,

neither could or should

be such; they are so

they

internally con-

nected with the subject-matter, so totally inseparable from


that they,

upon

similar principles of structure, ever require

demand an admission

it,

and

of their manifold modifications according

Has the pupil by


upon the analysis of the

to the musical ideas contained within them.

the help of this


classical

by

book obtained

a hint

works, has he learnt to

their characteristics,

he

will

recognise

tlTe

musical forms

no longer regard deviations

in

form, in the "classics", as arbitrary acts of disorder; but with

unimpaired vision and a higher intellectual


deviations,

he

will

recognise them,

as

insight

for

proceeding from

such
the

organic structure of the whole, as the Correct, the Natural and


the Free, as the purest, most beautiful and most perfect arrange-

ment

in

Art, and he will see the same principles of structure

displayed which are clearly and unmistakeably demonstrated in


the works of the masters.

INDEX.
The numbers
Adagio,

30. 40. 41. 73. 75.

2. 15. 23.

107.

89. 90. 92.

refer to the pages.

Allegro, 30. 89. 90. 92. 104.

139.

148.

Andante,

15.

3.

92.

107.

138.

152.

52. 89.

50.

Aria, 30. 65. 66. 72. 73.


Art, 29. 41. 53. 64.
I.

41. 42.

Ballad, 30. 65.

71.

72.

72.

76.

73.

3.

II.

52.

26. 76.

Beethoven,
15. 16.

Clavier (Wohltemperirte),

2.

18.

4.

3.

20.

5.

6.

21. 23.

28. 30. 33. 34. 35.

i.

8.

10.

11

115.

122.

124.

126.

136.

137

138. 139.

142.

143.

145.

146.

147

87.

90.

124.

114.

50

59. 60. 61. 62.

73

78.

77-

80.

36.

10.

132. 148.

16.

37.

63.

72.

85. 87. 88.

90. 91. 92. 93. 95. 96. 97.

2.

98.

Courante, 53.

Cramer, 76.

89

Dance-Form,

99

108. 147.

56.

53.

100. 104.

105.

106.

107.

109.

112

Divertimento, 147.

115.

116.

117.

118.

119

Dominant,

120. 121. 122.

123.

124.

125.

127

48. 51. 52. 54.

130.

132.

135.

136.

137.

139.

142

85. 90.

143.

144.

145.

146.

147.

148.

150

Cadence,

15.

23. 24.

55. 60.

61.

81. 96.

33. 35. 48.

102.

125.

50
146

84.

102.

104.

III.

117.

118.

119.

120.

131.

134.

137.

139.

143.

145.

150.

151.

Double-bass, 52.

139.

lo.

Cantilene, 3.

no.

Cavatina, 30. 65. 71.

38. 40.

73. 81.

128.

82.

Caprices, 76.

92. 93. 94.

35. 37.

70.

115. 1x6.

Episode,

148.

55.

77. 85.

113.

Cadenza, 90.
Caesura, 1 1

Capriccio, 54.

11. 15. 34.

59. 64.

124.

Drums,

150.

151.

Counterpoint, 129.

113.

114.

26.

149. 150.

Coriolanus,

40

75-

73.

71.

25. 26. 27
38.

56. 57.

148.

74. 75
80, 84. 91. 93. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99
loi. 102. 103. 104. 106. 108. 109

Concerto,

41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 48. 49.

147.

124.

139.

149.

71.

Bassoon, 52.

74-

I.

Coda, 41. 49. 60. 61. 62.

149.

Bach,

Chopin,

Clarinet, 51.

149.

52. 73.

74.

84. 85. 86.

94.

77.

78.

79. 80.

95.

104.

109.

112.

113.

114.

116.

117.

118.

120. 121.

123.

124.

133.

139.

143.

144-

Etude,

151I.

76,

148.

154

Index.

Fantasia, 42. 76.


Fantasia, Free,

148.

Metre,

149,

42. 65. 92. 100. 102.

122. 123, 126. 128.

129. 130. 131.

132. 135-

138-

136.

137-

146.

143.

10.

Minuet,

III.

76.

Finale,

16. 45.

88. 91.
Flute,

48.

107.

84.

85.

50.

148- 149-

138.

151. 152.

Form, Musical, 25. 63. 69.


Fugue. 5. 47. 129. 149.

15. 30.

114.

Gavotte, 53.
Gigue, 53.

102.

119.

120.

23. 42. 43. 44.

116. 119.

48.

Jadassohn,
4.

50.

108.

72.

127.

128.

129.

137.

143.

19. 30.

40.

42. 43- 47- 48. 49- 53- 54- 56.


59. 60. 62. 63. 65. 66. 72. 73.

74.

113. 115.

132.

143.

18.

8.

108.

109.

113.

115.

116.

117. 118.

120.

122.

124.

126.

128.

129.

131.

132.

136.

144.

145.

146. 147, 148. 149.

151.

23. 27. 41.

60. 65.

16. 34. 35.

15.

36.

Overture,
148.

121.

122.

123.

124.

128,

129.

135.

Pedal,

138.

139.

140.

141.

142. 143.

134.

150. 151.

Period,

21. 54. 59. 61. 89.

50.

137-

Mendelssohn,
41.

66.

23.
69.

108.
28.

25.
70.

76.

147.

43.
113.

56.

108.

72.

149.

72. 73.

2.

115.

149.

132.

149.

122. 123.

91.

139.

147.

149.
61.

8.

102.

16.

113.

117.

118.

132.

30. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

55-

57. 59- 60. 69. 70.

94.

H2.

130.

73.

51.

54.

78. 93.

131.

Polka, 57.
Potpourri, 42.
Preciosa, 13. 16. 31.

148.
10.

54.

104.

38. 39. 40. 44. 45. 46. 50.

Lieder, 73. 76. 148.

46.

48.

89.

50. 52.

Orchestra, 89.

137.

131.

42.

86.

72.

Oratorio, 65.

114. 120.

16

150.

Music, 27. 54. 66. 147,


Music, Chamber, 108. 126. 132. 147.

III.

11.

130.

138. 139. 140. 142. 143.

109.

44.

loi, 102.

106. 107.

Oboe,

9.

57-

105.

107.

i.

16.

87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 98.

105. 106.

March,

10.

5.

104.

19.

37. 40. 42. 46. 47. 50. 51. 55. 57.


60. 62. 66. 71. 82. 85. 93. 104.

Melody,

148.
4.

140. 149.

150.

5.

136.

132.

136.

Opera, 65.

Key,

105.

119. 128.

125.

11. 54.

149.

39. 65. 70. 85. 92.


118.

126.

57-

Impromptu,

56.

134.

139.

Introduction, 91.

54.

147.

121.

Mozart,

148.

53.

107.

72.

Henselt, 76.
50.

40.

89.

130. 131. 133-

75

Haydn, 30. 41. 48. 65.


Horn,

36.

I. 3. 8. 49. 60.
61. 77. 79.
80. 81. 84. 85. 91. 93. 96. 98.
99.
100. loi. 102. 109. 112. 114. 116.

144- 147-

57.

Handel, 41.
Harmony, 8.

54.

137- 139- 145- 150. 151.

Movement,
Galop, 53.

51.

Moscheles, 75. 88. 148. 150.

53. 54. 63. 71. 72.

H7-

50.

Motive,

139.

87. 89. 91. 107. 108. 109. 132.

144- 145-

86.

149.

51. 52.

Form, 42. 47.

80.

36.

35.

60. 65. 88.

57-

Modulation,

149Field,

68.

11.

55. 60.

13.

42. 47- 63. 72.

27. 28. 30.

73.

76.

Prelude,
32.

i.

76. 90.

Quartett. 65. 90.

148.

126.

132.

138.

147.

Index.

Raff,

98.

102.

104.

25. 42.

105. 109.

no.

III.

112.

113.

114.

69.

115.

116.

117.

118.

119.

120.

121.

122.

124. 126. 127. 128.

129.

130.

131-

137- 138. 139- 140.

141-

142.

85-

124.

Rhythm,

15. 23.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

43. 46. 49. 52. 60. 61. 68.

Romanza,
Rondo, 4.

65. 71.
8.

^_^
30. 34.

15.

148.

7^

40.

ga

79. 81. 82. 84. 85. 86. 87.

147.

70.

130. 137.

129.

79. 84.

146.

155

78.

107.

91-

93- 94-

143. 144. 145.


Suite, 53.

150.

149.

151.

148.

Symphony,

151.

97-

i.

2, 4.

19. 28.

5.

48. 50. 52. 54. 56. 57. 60.

Saraband,

53.

75. 90. 91. 115. 116.

120.

30. 42.
63.

64.

121.

123.

146.

147.

115.

129.

Scena, 65. 72. 151.


130.

124.

Scherzo,

11.

3.

15.

Schubert,

35.

10. 21. 27.

2.

54.

57.

28.

41.

140.

138.

137.

59.

108. 147. 151.

60. 63. 88. 89.

Theme,

26. 28. 43.

102.

53.

14557. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 90.

123.

108.

Tonic, II. 15. 34. 35. 36. 37. 40. 48.

140.
50. 55.

Schumann, 5. 27.
Sequence 102.

41. 42. 63. 76. 90. 91.

70.

103.

93.

78.

74.

105.

79- 81.

87. 90.

106.

109.

118.

124.

139.

140.

143.

128.

131.

132. 138.

147.

150.

151.

Serenade, 18. 147.


Sonata,

11.

15.

23.

3- 33- 34- 35- 36. 37- 38-

40-

4i-

42. 43. 44. 48. 49. 56. 57. 59.

60.

62. 73. 74- 75- 77- 78.

2.

i.

6.

3. 4.

7.

108.

79-

80.

85.

93.

95.

100.. 104.

112. 113.

114.

115.

116.

117. 121.

122,

123. 124.

125.

126.

127. 129.

130.

133.

135.

136.

137.

138.

139.

140.

143.

144.

145.

146.

147.

148.

149.

150.

151.

148.

107.

115.

122.

109.

Song-Form,

25. 29.

38. 40. 41.


73. 75.

102.

91. 92. 93.

126.

76.

104.

Study,

I.

Variation, 23. 30. 35. 36. 41. 42. 43.


44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 51.

107. 147.

Variation-Form,

72.

108.

51.

50.

43.

46.

49.

126.

52. 56.

109. 113. 115.

147. 150.

75.
116.

86.

104.

126.

139.

151.

146.

148.

Volkslied,

li,

13.

27. 46.

Vorspiel, 149. 151.


15.

36.

82.

90.

105.

Wagner,

149.

44.

45.

Waltz, 53. 57.

46. 47. 49- 50- 51- 79- 81. 83.

84.

Weber,

2.

41.

Violoncello, 51. 52. 108. 126. 147.


143.

124. 149.
I.

22.

Verse, 27. 66. 71.

71.

149.

71.

147-

Violin,

148.

52.

107. 148.

37.

148.

Subdominant,
Subject,

Unison, 48.

35.

Spohr, 20. 151.


Stretto, 80, 84.

132. 147.

Viola, 50. 51. 52.

33.

43. 64. 66. 69.


90.

106.

145.
30.

56.

107.

Tyrolienne, 53. 57.

75-

108.

55-

Trumpet, 50.

75.

149.

Sonatina,

28. 46. 48. 53. 54.

105. 108.

109. III.

Sonata-Form, 49. 91. 92.

15.

57. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 77, 85.

86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91, 92.

96. 97. 98. 99.

Trio,

8.

13.

21. 43.

13.

27. 41.

149.

INDEX TO THE EXAMPLES.


The numbers
Bach,

refer to the

Mendelssohn, 20. 41. 42.

5.

Beethoven,

Examples.

3. 4.

16.

18.

19.

22

2627. 30 31a. 34 34b. 35


36. 3839- 4048. 5053- 57
65. 80156. 160165.
Jadassohn, 31b 31c.
24.

Mozart, 17. 37.


Schubert, 2. 21.

Spohr, 31

5456- I57 1596679.

d.

Volkslied, 25. 28. 29.

Weber, 40.

Printed by Breitkopf and H.Trtel, Leipzig.

BOSTON UNIVERSITY

17n

DlDfifl

Do not remove
charge slip from this pocket
if slip is lost please return book
directly to a circulation staff membei:

Boston University Libraries


771 Commonwealth Avenue
BostODy Massachusetts 02215

3fi7tD