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## DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY

INDICES AND OUTAGE COST

Introduction
The reliability is defines as the probability of a device or a system
performing its function adequately, for the period of time intended, under
the operating condition intended.
The purpose of an electric power system is to generate and supply
electric energy to customers with both reliability and economy. As these
two requirements may be opposed, it is necessary to look at the reliability
of the system, and its cost and value to the customer. High reliability may
not be the proper level; it should be balanced against economy power
system serves one function only and that is to supply customers with
electric energy as economically as possible and with an acceptable degree
of reliability and quality. Modem society, because of its pattern of social
and working habits, has come to expect that the supply should be
continuously available in demand. This is not physically possible due to
random system failures, although, increasing the investment during either
the planning phase, operating phase, or both can reduce the probability of
customers being disconnected. It is evident therefore that, the economic
and reliability constraints can conflict, and that can lead to difficult
managerial decisions at both planning and operating phases. Reliability
analysis can be used to evaluate the reliability of individual system
configuration not only to compare relative levels of reliability, but also to
assess the cost of providing a particular level of reliability.

Reliability Indices
The reliability indices have been considered for each load point as
well as the overall distribution feeder, these indices are summarized
below. Supply interruption causes energy not served for loads, which
represent damage for the utility and customers.
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For a component i having an outage rate i (interr./yr.) and an average
outage duration ri (hrs.), the expected annual outage time Ui is given by:
Ui = i . ri

hrs./yr.

## The following are the basic load point indices:

Interruption Frequency int./yr. : It defines the expected
number of service interruptions per year. For a circuit composed of
n components in series, the average value of is given by:
n
= i

interr./yr.

i=1

## Interruption Duration r hr. : It defines the average outage time in

hours for each interruption. The value of r is calculated as:
i ri
r = ------------- i

hr.

## Outage Time U hrs./yr. : It defines the expected annual hours

during which the load will loose service continuity. The average
value of U is calculated as:
U = .r

hrs./yr.

## Service Availability P : It is a measure of the service continuity

for the load. It is the per unit ratio representing the availability of
supply. It is given by:
P = 1 U/8760
2

System Indices:
The basic indices are important from an individual customer point of
view but they do not provide an overall appreciation of the system
performance. An additional set of indices can be calculated using basic
indices and the load connected to each load point in the system. Most of
indices.
The following are the most common system indices:
Customer Interruption Duration CID : This indix is defined as
the sum of the load interruption durations per year. For n load
points, this indix is calculated as:
n
CID = Di Ui
Amp.hr./yr.
i=1

Where:
Di

## System Average Interruption Frequency Indix SAIFI : This

indix is defined as the average number of interruptions experienced
per load affected per time unit. It is calculated as the ratio between
the total sum of the load interruptions and the total sum of the load
served. For n load points, this indix is calculated as :
n
i . Di
SAIFI =

i=1

----------------n
Di
i=1

## System Average Interruption Duration Indix SAIDI : This indix

is defined as the average interruption duration for loads interrupted
during a year. It is calculated as the ratio between the total sum of
interrupted. For n load points, this indix is calculated as :
3

n
Di . ri
i=1

SAIDI = ----------------------n
Di
i=1

## Average Service Availability Indix ASAI : This indix is defined

as the ratio of the total number of load hours that service was
available during a year to the load hours demanded. For n load
points, this indix is calculated as:
n
8760 . Di
ASAI

i=1

n
Ui . Di
i= 1

= -----------------------------------------n
8760 . Di
i=1

## Outage Cost Due to Energy Not Distributed (END)

The interruption of supply results in some loss of the served energy
for customers. This energy is usually termed Energy Not Distributed.
The expected END for each load loss is given by:
END = Di . i . ri

Kwh/year

Where:
Di

The values of the load loss due to system interruptions are calculated
based on the load curve characteristics and the load factor. As a result of
field measurements for distribution feeders in SDEDCO, the load factor
is found to be 0.6. for all load points served by a certain feeder, the total
expected energy not supplied is given by:
4

n
Total END = Di . i . ri

Kwh/year

i=1

Where:
n

## Utility Damage Due To END

The cost of the unserved energy represents a loss in return to the
system utility. The reliability in dices of is utilized to calculate the
unserved energy using the above equation, for the considered feeder.
Using the prevailing energy prices applied by the utility for distribution
systems, the price of unserved energy is given by:
n
Price of END = Di . i . ri. ci

L.E./year

i=1

Where:
ci

## Reliability Assessment for Distribution

Networks

Introduction
The main function of the power system is to supply customer with
electric energy as economically as possible and with an acceptable degree
of reliability and quality. For the power system, it is expected that the
supply should be continually available. This is not physically possible
due to random system failures, and the power interruption will cause
damage for both customer and utility.
The main factors used to judge reliability of supply are; the frequency
of interruption, the duration of each interruption, and the value of a
customer placed on supply of electricity at the time that the service is not
provided. These factors depend on the reliability of system equipment,
circuit length, and configuration.
In this section we will introduce the reliability indices and the energy
not distributed, as a result of service interruption. Besides, the damage for
both customer and utility quantified.
Two case studies are considered:
1. Feeder no.1
2. Feeder no.2
Feeder no.1 is a redial 11KV feeder and it consists of 53-load point
feeding aggregate load divisions including residential, commercial,
municipalities and small industrial load. The reliability indices are
calculated for each load point as will as the whole system.
6

Feeder no.2 is a redial on and also 11KV feeder and it cosmists of 89load point feeding aggregate load divisions including residential,
commercial, municipalities and small industrial Load. The reliability
indices are calculated for each load point as will as the whole system.
For both the two feeders the reliability indices are calculated to judge
the reliability of the system. For each load point and the system, the
following iteems are to be calculated :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Interrupt Frequency.
Interrupt Duration.
Outage Time.
Service Availability
Total Energy not Distributed
Customer and Utility Damage

## Results Of Two Cases Study

Feeder no.1
The single-line diagram of Ashmoon feeder is shown in the Fig.(1), as
seen in the figure it has 53-load point. The details data for that feeder are
to be identified. The global information about the feeder is given in
table(1).

## Table(4-1) Data of Ashmoon feeder.

Transmission Line
Length
Cable Length

28,275

Km

1,314

Km

Installed Transformer

2,818

KVA

2855

From the above table and the detailed data of the feeders the reliability
of the feeder and its appraisal are to be calculated and summarized as
follows in Table (2)..
Table(2) Output data of feeder no.1
Total Sum of all Loads on the Feeder

2855.00 Amp

## Customer Interruption Duration

1003379.00 Amp.hr.

[CID]
System Average Interr. Frequency
Index [SAIFI]
System Average interr. Duration
Index [SAIDI]
Average Service Availability Index
[ASAI ]
Total Energy Not Distributed [END]

337135.400 KWH

17564.75

57.3213 int./yr.
6.1312 hr.
.9599

L.E./year

## Figure(1) Single-line diagram of feeder no.1

Feeder no.2
The feeder is 11KV and has 89-load point as shown in Fig.(2). Global
information of the feeder is given in table(3).
Table(3) Input data of Meshla feeder no.2
Transmission Line
Length
Cable Length

32,365

Km

2,865

Km

Installed
Transformer

5,987

KVA

4853.00

Base on the detailed data of the feeder and data given in the above
table the calculation results of the feeder reliability are as given in
table(4).
Table(4) reliability results for feeder no.2
Total Sum of all Loads on the
Feeder
Customer Interruption Duration
[CID]
System Av. Interr. Frequency Index
[SAIFI]
System Av. Interr. Duration Index
[SAIDI]
Average Service Availability
Index
[ASAI]
Total Energy Not Distributed
[END]
Utility Damage Due To END
[UD]
10

3853.00

Amp

1619259.00

Amp.hr.

81.4320

int./yr.

5.1609

hr.

.9520
544071.000
28346.10

KWH
L.E./year

11

## Customer Damage Due To END

IEAR for small industrial activities
An effort has been conducted to estimate the customer damage due to
energy interruption because of the difficulty and uncertainty in collected
data limited available samples are considered for some small industrial
activities the IEAR (interrupt energy assessment rate) for this samples are
given in table(5).
Table(5) IEAR for some industrial activities.
Factory

Consumption
Kwh /yr

IEAR
L.E. /Kwh

Factory no. 1

8964840

3.5

Factory no. 2

59472536

1.2

Factory no. 3

467018

28

Factory no. 4

596745

5.9

Factory no. 5

93000

24

Factory no. 6

121399

14.4

Factory no. 7

172800

12.7

Factory no. 8

367176

12

## Composite customers IEAR

For the seek of reliability appraisal, it is important to introduce an
overall value for IEAR.This value has to reflect the damage due to
energy interruption for all customer activities. The values of IEAR for
the individual activities are assumed as given in table(6). The table also
includes the energy sales for different activities. The values of the table
have been concluded in Fig.(3).
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1. Domestic consumption.
3. Public consumption.
5. Services.

2. Agriculture.
4. Small industry

## Figure(3) The outage cost corresponding to different periods of service

interruption

From the above values for energy sales and the proposed values of the
IEAR assumed for the different activities, the value of the composite
IEAR was found to be 6.3L.E./ Kwh. Knowing the value of END the
corresponding estimated customer damage, END can be calculated.

13

Table (6) Energy sales for different activities and proposed IEAR.
Activity

Energy Sales

IEAR

Mwh

% Age

Industrial Customers

Residential Customers

Commercial Customers

Agricultural Consumption

I .

services

## Failure Data For Electric Components

Based on raw data collected from references, the experience of
engineers. Table(7) shows the considered failure data for electrical
components included in the distribution network.

## Improving Reliability Using Sectionalizer

Improving reliability is one of the most important goals of the
reliability assessment of the distribution stiystems. This improvement will
lead to an increase in economic income to the customer and the utility. In
The distribution systems it was found that inserting a sectionalizer in
the proper location on the feeder will significantly lead to an appreciable
improvement in the system reliability and compressing the outage cost..
A sectionalizer is shown in Fig. () used in radial feeder in order to l
improve the system reliability. The improvement will depend on the
location of the sectionalizer on the feeder as determined in the following
section.

14

Component

## Failure Rate Failures /

Unit-year

Down Time
Hours / Failure

Transformer

Circuit Breaker

Disconnect switch

Switchgear Bus

## Cable (Unit = ft.)

Cable Joint

Cable termination

Time elapsed to inspect and isolate the fault = 1 hour. Time elapsed to
restore the supply to The unfaulty sections after fault inspection and
isolating or repairing the faulty section in case Of open loop feeders = 0.5
hour.

## Optimum Location Of A Sectionalizer

determined The optimum location of a pole-mounted sectionalizer is
by comparing its benefit, in terms of the reduction of outage costs, at
various possible locations. The basis of the method; is that the new
equipment protects customers upstream of its location, i.e. nearer the
source, from faults downstream. The location is thus determined by
the product of the transformer load up-stream (KVA or Amp.), and
the length of line (Km) down-stream.
After adding a sectionalizer any failures down-stream of its location
will now reduce loss of supply to the customers upstream. If we assume
that:
Risk of failure is proportional to length of line.
Cost of outages is proportional to energy not supplied.
Average values are used.
The saving in the total costs can be expressed as
Ca Ci = K.Pi.Fi.Li.t.cn
Where:
Ci Savings in total costs, if a sectionalizer is at location i.
K Coefficient by which the first year outage costs is to
be multiplied in order to obtain discounted costs over the
whole review period.
P i Demand upstream of i.
Fi Failure rate per line length.
Li Line length downstream of i.
t Outage time that failures downstream of i would result to customers
upstream, if no sectionalizer was installed.
Cn Outage cost parameter of energy not supplied
Ca Costs of a sectionalizer over the whole review period.
By looking to the previous equation parameters we will reveals the
following:
At all possible locations the terms K, Fi, t, cn, Ca is constants.
The profit factor Pi.Li assigns the net saving achieved by introducing the
sectionalizer.
The saving will be maximum, if Pi.Li has its peak value.
Therefore, the profit factor has to be calculated at each possible locations
of the feeder.
The site at which the profit factor has peak value is the optimum one.