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INDICES AND OUTAGE COST

Introduction

The reliability is defines as the probability of a device or a system

performing its function adequately, for the period of time intended, under

the operating condition intended.

The purpose of an electric power system is to generate and supply

electric energy to customers with both reliability and economy. As these

two requirements may be opposed, it is necessary to look at the reliability

of the system, and its cost and value to the customer. High reliability may

not be the proper level; it should be balanced against economy power

system serves one function only and that is to supply customers with

electric energy as economically as possible and with an acceptable degree

of reliability and quality. Modem society, because of its pattern of social

and working habits, has come to expect that the supply should be

continuously available in demand. This is not physically possible due to

random system failures, although, increasing the investment during either

the planning phase, operating phase, or both can reduce the probability of

customers being disconnected. It is evident therefore that, the economic

and reliability constraints can conflict, and that can lead to difficult

managerial decisions at both planning and operating phases. Reliability

analysis can be used to evaluate the reliability of individual system

configuration not only to compare relative levels of reliability, but also to

assess the cost of providing a particular level of reliability.

Reliability Indices

The reliability indices have been considered for each load point as

well as the overall distribution feeder, these indices are summarized

below. Supply interruption causes energy not served for loads, which

represent damage for the utility and customers.

1

For a component i having an outage rate i (interr./yr.) and an average

outage duration ri (hrs.), the expected annual outage time Ui is given by:

Ui = i . ri

hrs./yr.

Interruption Frequency int./yr. : It defines the expected

number of service interruptions per year. For a circuit composed of

n components in series, the average value of is given by:

n

= i

interr./yr.

i=1

hours for each interruption. The value of r is calculated as:

i ri

r = ------------- i

hr.

during which the load will loose service continuity. The average

value of U is calculated as:

U = .r

hrs./yr.

for the load. It is the per unit ratio representing the availability of

supply. It is given by:

P = 1 U/8760

2

System Indices:

The basic indices are important from an individual customer point of

view but they do not provide an overall appreciation of the system

performance. An additional set of indices can be calculated using basic

indices and the load connected to each load point in the system. Most of

these additional indices are weighted averages of the basic load point

indices.

The following are the most common system indices:

Customer Interruption Duration CID : This indix is defined as

the sum of the load interruption durations per year. For n load

points, this indix is calculated as:

n

CID = Di Ui

Amp.hr./yr.

i=1

Where:

Di

indix is defined as the average number of interruptions experienced

per load affected per time unit. It is calculated as the ratio between

the total sum of the load interruptions and the total sum of the load

served. For n load points, this indix is calculated as :

n

i . Di

SAIFI =

i=1

----------------n

Di

i=1

is defined as the average interruption duration for loads interrupted

during a year. It is calculated as the ratio between the total sum of

the load interruption duration and the total sum of the loads

interrupted. For n load points, this indix is calculated as :

3

n

Di . ri

i=1

SAIDI = ----------------------n

Di

i=1

as the ratio of the total number of load hours that service was

available during a year to the load hours demanded. For n load

points, this indix is calculated as:

n

8760 . Di

ASAI

i=1

n

Ui . Di

i= 1

= -----------------------------------------n

8760 . Di

i=1

The interruption of supply results in some loss of the served energy

for customers. This energy is usually termed Energy Not Distributed.

The expected END for each load loss is given by:

END = Di . i . ri

Kwh/year

Where:

Di

The values of the load loss due to system interruptions are calculated

based on the load curve characteristics and the load factor. As a result of

field measurements for distribution feeders in SDEDCO, the load factor

is found to be 0.6. for all load points served by a certain feeder, the total

expected energy not supplied is given by:

4

n

Total END = Di . i . ri

Kwh/year

i=1

Where:

n

The cost of the unserved energy represents a loss in return to the

system utility. The reliability in dices of is utilized to calculate the

unserved energy using the above equation, for the considered feeder.

Using the prevailing energy prices applied by the utility for distribution

systems, the price of unserved energy is given by:

n

Price of END = Di . i . ri. ci

L.E./year

i=1

Where:

ci

Networks

Introduction

The main function of the power system is to supply customer with

electric energy as economically as possible and with an acceptable degree

of reliability and quality. For the power system, it is expected that the

supply should be continually available. This is not physically possible

due to random system failures, and the power interruption will cause

damage for both customer and utility.

The main factors used to judge reliability of supply are; the frequency

of interruption, the duration of each interruption, and the value of a

customer placed on supply of electricity at the time that the service is not

provided. These factors depend on the reliability of system equipment,

circuit length, and configuration.

In this section we will introduce the reliability indices and the energy

not distributed, as a result of service interruption. Besides, the damage for

both customer and utility quantified.

Two case studies are considered:

1. Feeder no.1

2. Feeder no.2

Feeder no.1 is a redial 11KV feeder and it consists of 53-load point

feeding aggregate load divisions including residential, commercial,

municipalities and small industrial load. The reliability indices are

calculated for each load point as will as the whole system.

6

Feeder no.2 is a redial on and also 11KV feeder and it cosmists of 89load point feeding aggregate load divisions including residential,

commercial, municipalities and small industrial Load. The reliability

indices are calculated for each load point as will as the whole system.

For both the two feeders the reliability indices are calculated to judge

the reliability of the system. For each load point and the system, the

following iteems are to be calculated :

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Interrupt Frequency.

Interrupt Duration.

Outage Time.

Service Availability

Total Energy not Distributed

Customer and Utility Damage

Feeder no.1

The single-line diagram of Ashmoon feeder is shown in the Fig.(1), as

seen in the figure it has 53-load point. The details data for that feeder are

to be identified. The global information about the feeder is given in

table(1).

Transmission Line

Length

Cable Length

28,275

Km

1,314

Km

Installed Transformer

2,818

KVA

Load Ampere

2855

From the above table and the detailed data of the feeders the reliability

of the feeder and its appraisal are to be calculated and summarized as

follows in Table (2)..

Table(2) Output data of feeder no.1

Total Sum of all Loads on the Feeder

2855.00 Amp

1003379.00 Amp.hr.

[CID]

System Average Interr. Frequency

Index [SAIFI]

System Average interr. Duration

Index [SAIDI]

Average Service Availability Index

[ASAI ]

Total Energy Not Distributed [END]

337135.400 KWH

17564.75

57.3213 int./yr.

6.1312 hr.

.9599

L.E./year

Feeder no.2

The feeder is 11KV and has 89-load point as shown in Fig.(2). Global

information of the feeder is given in table(3).

Table(3) Input data of Meshla feeder no.2

Transmission Line

Length

Cable Length

32,365

Km

2,865

Km

Installed

Transformer

Load Ampere

5,987

KVA

4853.00

Base on the detailed data of the feeder and data given in the above

table the calculation results of the feeder reliability are as given in

table(4).

Table(4) reliability results for feeder no.2

Total Sum of all Loads on the

Feeder

Customer Interruption Duration

[CID]

System Av. Interr. Frequency Index

[SAIFI]

System Av. Interr. Duration Index

[SAIDI]

Average Service Availability

Index

[ASAI]

Total Energy Not Distributed

[END]

Utility Damage Due To END

[UD]

10

3853.00

Amp

1619259.00

Amp.hr.

81.4320

int./yr.

5.1609

hr.

.9520

544071.000

28346.10

KWH

L.E./year

11

IEAR for small industrial activities

An effort has been conducted to estimate the customer damage due to

energy interruption because of the difficulty and uncertainty in collected

data limited available samples are considered for some small industrial

activities the IEAR (interrupt energy assessment rate) for this samples are

given in table(5).

Table(5) IEAR for some industrial activities.

Factory

Consumption

Kwh /yr

IEAR

L.E. /Kwh

Factory no. 1

8964840

3.5

Factory no. 2

59472536

1.2

Factory no. 3

467018

28

Factory no. 4

596745

5.9

Factory no. 5

93000

24

Factory no. 6

121399

14.4

Factory no. 7

172800

12.7

Factory no. 8

367176

12

For the seek of reliability appraisal, it is important to introduce an

overall value for IEAR.This value has to reflect the damage due to

energy interruption for all customer activities. The values of IEAR for

the individual activities are assumed as given in table(6). The table also

includes the energy sales for different activities. The values of the table

have been concluded in Fig.(3).

12

1. Domestic consumption.

3. Public consumption.

5. Services.

2. Agriculture.

4. Small industry

interruption

From the above values for energy sales and the proposed values of the

IEAR assumed for the different activities, the value of the composite

IEAR was found to be 6.3L.E./ Kwh. Knowing the value of END the

corresponding estimated customer damage, END can be calculated.

13

Table (6) Energy sales for different activities and proposed IEAR.

Activity

Energy Sales

IEAR

Mwh

% Age

Industrial Customers

Residential Customers

Commercial Customers

Agricultural Consumption

I .

services

Based on raw data collected from references, the experience of

engineers. Table(7) shows the considered failure data for electrical

components included in the distribution network.

Improving reliability is one of the most important goals of the

reliability assessment of the distribution stiystems. This improvement will

lead to an increase in economic income to the customer and the utility. In

The distribution systems it was found that inserting a sectionalizer in

the proper location on the feeder will significantly lead to an appreciable

improvement in the system reliability and compressing the outage cost..

A sectionalizer is shown in Fig. () used in radial feeder in order to l

improve the system reliability. The improvement will depend on the

location of the sectionalizer on the feeder as determined in the following

section.

14

Component

Unit-year

Down Time

Hours / Failure

Transformer

Circuit Breaker

Disconnect switch

Switchgear Bus

Cable Joint

Cable termination

Time elapsed to inspect and isolate the fault = 1 hour. Time elapsed to

restore the supply to The unfaulty sections after fault inspection and

isolating or repairing the faulty section in case Of open loop feeders = 0.5

hour.

determined The optimum location of a pole-mounted sectionalizer is

by comparing its benefit, in terms of the reduction of outage costs, at

various possible locations. The basis of the method; is that the new

equipment protects customers upstream of its location, i.e. nearer the

source, from faults downstream. The location is thus determined by

the product of the transformer load up-stream (KVA or Amp.), and

the length of line (Km) down-stream.

After adding a sectionalizer any failures down-stream of its location

will now reduce loss of supply to the customers upstream. If we assume

that:

Risk of failure is proportional to length of line.

Cost of outages is proportional to energy not supplied.

Growth of load is equal at every load point.

Average values are used.

The saving in the total costs can be expressed as

Ca Ci = K.Pi.Fi.Li.t.cn

Where:

Ci Savings in total costs, if a sectionalizer is at location i.

K Coefficient by which the first year outage costs is to

be multiplied in order to obtain discounted costs over the

whole review period.

P i Demand upstream of i.

Fi Failure rate per line length.

Li Line length downstream of i.

t Outage time that failures downstream of i would result to customers

upstream, if no sectionalizer was installed.

Cn Outage cost parameter of energy not supplied

Ca Costs of a sectionalizer over the whole review period.

By looking to the previous equation parameters we will reveals the

following:

At all possible locations the terms K, Fi, t, cn, Ca is constants.

The profit factor Pi.Li assigns the net saving achieved by introducing the

sectionalizer.

The saving will be maximum, if Pi.Li has its peak value.

Therefore, the profit factor has to be calculated at each possible locations

of the feeder.

The site at which the profit factor has peak value is the optimum one.

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