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Table of Contents

Contents

Page Number

Chapter 1: Introduction

1-3

Chapter 2: Review of literature

4-8

2.1 - Literature Review


2.2 - Rationale
2.3 - Statement of Problem
2.4 - Objectives of the Project
2.5 Scope of the Study

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6
6-7
7
7-8

Chapter 3: Research Methodology


3.1 - Research Design
3.2 - Descriptive research design
3.3 - Nature and Source of Data
3.4 - Sample and Sampling Method
3.5 - Details of the Tools
3.5.1 Questionnaire used and its purpose
3.5.2 Reliability and Validity
3.5.3 Administration of tools and techniques

3.6 - Hypothesis
Chapter 4: Data Collection, Handling and Interpretation
4.1 - Data Collection
4.2 - Statistical tools used for Data Analysis
4.3 - Data Interpretation
Chapter 5: Findings, Conclusion & Limitation

9-16
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9-10
10
10-11
10
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11
12-16

17-50
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17-18
19-50
51-53

5.1 - Findings

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5.2 - Recommendations

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5.3 - Summary and Conclusion

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5.4 - Limitations of the project

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5.5 - Direction for further research


Bibliography
Questionnaire

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A Study on Organisational Culture and Employee Creativity at


ACC Cements
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
Organisations are among the key units of the society. During their establishment and
development, a specific kind of organisational culture eventually appears. The purpose of
organisational culture is to improve solidarity and cohesion, and to stimulate employees
enthusiasm and creativity to improve the organisations economic efficiency. In addition,
organisational culture has a great influence on employees creativity.
Culture in an organisation is like a character of a human which forms his behaviours and help it
to lead the organisation to its mission. Moreover, creativity is an intention to create which is
potential in all people in all ages. In other words, creativity is a capacity of observing new
relationships, creating unusual thoughts and being far from traditional thoughts patterns.
Culture has been defined in many different ways and by many different theorists. According to
Geert et al (2010), It is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the
members of one group or category of people from others. Kotter and Heskett (1992) noted
that culture is A set of beliefs, values and behaviours commonly held by a society. Finally,
Deal and Kennedy defined culture in short as The way we do things around here. Similarly
while establishing and developing a company or other organisation, an internal culture will
develop step by step. The purpose of its existence is to improve solidarity and cohesion,
stimulate employees enthusiasm and creativity, and to improve its economic efficiency. Like
cultures in general, organisational cultures are complex and unique and are based on individual
history, leadership and workforce. Hence, in order to improve management and let an
organisational culture have the right effect on employees, it is important to understand how
organisational cultures affect employee creativity.
For an organisation, employees are its basic constituent units, and culture is the common value
and code of conduct shared by the employees. It can provide employees with a relaxed
working environment with harmonious interpersonal relationships in order to give full play to
their ability. A corporate culture allows employees to have a sense of mission and feel
responsibility, and work towards the overall goal of the company. The competitiveness of
enterprises is not only reflected in the technology, but also in their corporate culture. A positive
organisational culture can promote healthy development of an enterprise, and actively mobilize

the performance of employees, and make them work with more enthusiasm. Moreover, it may
improve production efficiency. In short, the benefits of a positive organisational culture are
self-evident. The priority of an enterprise is to increase the loyalty of its customer base. As a
good corporate image brings good economic returns and a good corporate image is dependent
on good organisational culture. As organisation are under pressure to continuously reinvent
their products and production processes. The employee contribution in this process of
continuous innovation is progressively acknowledged. Human resource manager in the field
still quickly turn to extrinsic, monetary reward policy in order to promote certain employee
behaviour. Due to the contemporary forces of globalisation, technological changes and
changing customers demands for better quality. To survive in this turbulent environment,
organisations have to be creative and responsive to the changing environment.
Research on employee creativity, the foundation of this research began in late 1980s through
the middle of the 1990s. Creative employees provide important raw material in shape of noble
and useful ideas which bring further development and improvement in the organisation.
Current organisational structure has been handed down from the industrial revolution and has
not changed much over the last 150 years. With the idea of showing up for daily grind, six days
per week, there are businesses however, trying to challenge their bureaucratic nature with very
interesting results.
Peter Hedges highlighted IBMs streamed company-wide conferences, which gather all
employees comments, suggestions and ideas into buckets to be sorted, categorised and acted
upon. He enthused that utilizing the entire breadth and depth of employees expertise provided
unexpected results, generating ideas that would never have been achieved in C-level executive
meetings. Clive Gold of EMC described how he believes the concept of an organisation and the
structures that we build a company on to be archaic. He feels that the value an individual
brings to a company should be measured by their potential to generate ideas rather than what
they know or what their job title is.
In the midst of change, organisations and leaders are trying to create an institutional framework
in which creativity and innovation are accepted as basic cultural norms. It has become clear
that The unwritten rules of the game (the norms of behaviour) and shared values influence
morale, performance and the application of creativity and innovation in many different ways.
Deal and Kennedy stated that openness and trust in the change process influence whether and
how change occurs. Senge, Kleiner, Roberts, Ross, Roth and Smith support this statement by

pointing out that openness (developing a genuine spirit of inquiry and trust) often plays a
critical role in profound change processes. Furthermore compelling new ideas help people
think and act in new ways. As companies become increasingly focused on innovation, the
performance hurdles for success have increased considerably. Escalating levels of commitment
to innovation are required simply to stay in the same place, much less improve competitive
position. However, managing the complex and risky process of innovation has been
problematic and fraught with difficulty. This study provides a framework for managers
showing that the process of innovation can be managed, systematised and replicated within
organisations.

Modern world is full of complexities which have confronted organizations with numerous
difficulties in the field of growth and development; and managers, as humankind planners,
organisers and leaders, are faced with plenty of challenges. In our society, due to specific
difficulties and restrictions, this problem is more visible. Current industry indicates low
strength of the organizations against organizational problems and difficulties. Here, the role of
appropriate creativity and organization structure, as two important influential factors on
efficiency and productivity, have importance and organization development, improvement of
product and service quality, success in competition, employee motivation increase, job
satisfaction, cost reduction, wastage of resources, product diversity, reduction of administrative
bureaucracy and sitting behind a desk, and is an incentive of pragmatism and needs further
studies and investigations. The target of organisational structure is coordination between
manpower and existing resources in order of increase in organization productivity and
efficiency. In fact organisational structure is a process which plays a major role in attaining
organisation targets. Organisation structure is a framework in which basic fields, basic
missions, basic managements, general mission, communication system and decision centre are
determined. Hence, this Project Study will pin point whether the organisation culture promote
creativity among employees or not?

CHAPTER-2
REVIEW OF LITRATURE
2.1 Literature Review
Kimberly (1981) assumes that mechanistic organizations were characterized as hierarchical,
highly structured organizations with well-defined, formal roles and positions relative to others
in the organization, with communication flowing primarily vertically. Organic organizations,
by contrast, were typified by their fluid organizational design, with departments and teams
forming and reforming to address new problems and opportunities, with communication
flowing primarily laterally. Burns and Stalkers environmental determinism view of
organizations led to the conclusion that organic organizations form to deal with
unpredictability and volatility in an organizations environment. Compared with a mechanistic
organization, an organic one facilitated greater creativity and innovation. This conclusion was
later challenged when Kimberly (1981) found that centralized decision making may enhance
an organizations ability to implement innovations, particularly in a more stable environment.
Wernerfelt (1984) suggested that

One of the more promising theories to evolve in the

strategic management field over recent years is the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm.
RBV has been able to bring a more systematic approach to firm-level analysis by
characterising the firm as a collection of resources and capabilities, rather than a set of product
market positions.
Resource based View (RBV) assumes that performance differences across firms are due to
differences arising from valuable, rent-generating, firm specific resources and capabilities that
cannot be easily imitated or substituted (Amit & Schoemaker, 1993; Barney, 1986, 1991)
creativity traditionally refers to the creation of something absolutely new. IWB on the contrary
focuses on something new, for the relevant unit of adoption. Employees who take the initiative
to copy successful work habits from other departments, for example, are clearly staging
important innovative behaviour, while not at all engaging in workplace creativity. As already
stated, IWB makes an explicit reference to the distinct parts of the innovation process. A
problem is recognized, a idea for a solution is generated and developed, the idea is proposed,
defended and eventually implemented in the organization (Kanter, 1988).
Shalleys (1991) defines that once the judge that originally and usefulness rating were deemed
reliable and in agreement, originality

score and usefulness score were created for each

participant by taking average of originality and usefulness rating.

Hamel & Prahalad, (1994). Accordingly, firms do not compete on new products, but rather
on a deeper factorthe capacity to develop new products (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990).
Competitive advantage rested variously on mainstream variables like efficiency, quality,
customer responsiveness and speed. In the new millennium, control over the above variables
represents the minimum threshold to play the game. Each factor remains important, but is
unlikely of itself or as part of a group to provide a sustainable competitive advantage. Todays
organisations face an additional challenge the requirement to innovate, not just occasionally
but often, quickly and with a solid success rate. The sphere of organisational and managerial
attention has expanded to incorporate both mainstream variables and an innovation capability.
Tidd & Bssant (1997) assume that many models of innovation at the firm level have attempted
to improve research consistency. These models have occupied a variety of theoretical positions,
including institutional theory, cognitive theories, transaction cost economics, sociotechnical
approaches, market orientation (MO) and resource-based view. Each theory contributes a piece
of the innovation puzzle. None can paint a complete picture. An accepted comprehensive and
systematic framework guiding managers toward successful innovation does not yet exist. Many
firms and academics have suggested that innovation management may be sector or industry
specific, if not firm specific. Even so, evidence suggests that a number of core elements and
processes exist which aid effective innovation outcomes . Firm-level differences, such as
competitive environment, strategy, task complexity and management style means that the
importance of each innovation process may vary across firms. However, each innovation
process is considered likely to exist in varying degrees within all high-performing innovators.
Zhou (1998) used multiplicative approach used in Zhou andoldhamt. They appear to be
consistent with the definition of creativity.
Stern & Council on Competitiveness, (1999). The emergence of the knowledge economy,
intense global competition and considerable technological advance has seen innovation
become increasingly central to competitiveness. Innovation is the mechanism by which
organisations produce the new products, processes and systems required for adapting to
changing markets, technologies and modes of competition (DAveni, 1994; Dougherty &
Hardy, 1996; Utterback, 1994). As George (2001) says that were have four different rating
scales that have been used to have the supervisors rate level of creativity of their employees.
Melkas, and Harmaakorpi (2005) have offered an extended SECI-model. They empha-sized
the need to deepen the future orientation of the SECI model by adding two new knowledge

conversion modes into the model. The added modes focus on self-transcending knowledge, a
concept introduced by Scharmer (2001), who defined it as tacit knowledge prior to its
embodiment the ability to sense the presence of potential, to see what does not yet exist.
Two additional modes were named the visualization and potentialization modes.
Leonard, (1995). Carlile (2002, 2004) has shown how the creation of new knowledge is
facilitated when knowledge boundaries are crossed. Working across boundaries is a key
ingredient in competitive advantage and also explains why innovation is difficult to create and
maintain. The level of novelty will determine the complexity of the knowledge boundary. As
the level of novelty increases, the associated pathdependent nature of knowledge may have
negative effects, making knowledge sharing and creation difficult. Leonard (1995) considers
mechanisms for importing and absorbing knowledge, transferring knowledge across the
organization, and developing new knowledge bases. She also introduces the notion of creative
abrasion, where different knowledge bases are brought together through open discussion
between individuals with different perspectives. If the potential conflict is successfully
managed, it could lead to new, creative and exciting ideas. Companies become increasingly
focused on innovation and the performance hurdles for success have increased considerably.
Escalating levels of commitment to innovation are required simply to stay in the same place,
much less improve competitive position. However, managing the complex and risky process of
innovation has been problematic and fraught with difficulty (Kanter, 1989; Quinn, 1985).
2.2 Rationale
In the present competitive scenario in order to get ahead and sustain in the competition with
others, organisations needs to come up with naval and innovative ideas. As employee creativity
is affected by the leadership, ethics, organisation structure and employees characteristics,
therefore the study will pin point whether the organisation culture promote creativity among
employees or not.
2.3 Statement of Problem
For an organization, employee is its basic constituent units, and culture is the common value
and code of conduct shared by the employees. It can provide employees with a relaxed
working environment with harmonious interpersonal relationships in order to give full play to
their ability. A corporate culture allows employees to have a sense of mission and feel
responsibility, and work towards the overall goal of the company. Employee creativity, in

relation to organizational culture has received little attention a lot of the academic researchers
in this area have focused on employee performance in relation to organizational culture. Many
researchers concur on the fact that there is no agreement on the precise nature of the
relationship between organizational culture and employee creativity. Despite the plethora of
studies on organizational culture in the last few decades, there is no widely accepted causal
relationship between corporate culture and creativity.
Because of these contradictory results, the question of whether organisational culture improves
or worsens employee performance and creativity is still worthy of further research such as the
one which was undertaken in this study. Is there any relationship between organizational
culture and employee creativity? Is there a positive relationship between organisational culture
and employee performance/productivity? These are questions, which need further exploration.
And thus, this study sought to provide empirical answers to such questions.
2.4 Objectives of the Project
The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of organisational culture on
employee performance and creativity as in context of ACC Cements. In line with this primary
objective, the secondary objectives are as follows: To study how the organisational culture of ACC cements affects employee performance
and productivity.
To study the relation between level of creativity and gender at ACC Cements.
2.5 Scope of the Study
Organisational culture is a group of fundamental hypotheses that employees discover and
develop them to be adapted to the environment and reaching to internal unity which affect all
organisational phenomenon like employees behaviour, group performance, organisation
performance, creativity and innovation level, employees commitment, job motivation and job
satisfaction. As a result, in the research, the researcher is studying the relationship between
organizational culture and their sorts with employees creativity in ACC Cements.
This study consists of five chapters. First, the organisational culture is introduced. In addition,
this section provides a contextual background and outlines some of the main aspects of
organizational cultures and behaviour. Chapter two presents a literature review, which
introduces previous studies about organizational culture, employee behaviour in organizations,
the statement of problems, objectives and scope of the study. Chapter three explores the
research approach adopted in this study, includes the research design, defines the research

method, and describes the research framework, and data collection and hypothesis assumed.
Chapter four introduces the data collection method and data analysis. Data will be collected
from questionnaires and observation. Chapter five presents the results of the data analysis,
findings and conclusion, outlines the limitations and introduces further direction for future
studies.
The economic benefits ACC Cements stands to gain from this study are enormous: Firstly, if it
is established (from this research) that there is a relationship between the organizational culture
of the company and the creativity of its employees, then management of ACC Cements will
have the impetus to adjust its culture accordingly in order to enhance creativity. Secondly,
improved creativity will then impact job performance greatly and thereby promoting efficiency
and effectiveness in the work environment.

CHAPTER-3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock
of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of
knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results
of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

3.1 Research Design


The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different
components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively
address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and
analysis of data.

3.2 Descriptive Research Design


Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply
put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study. Under this, single
cross sectional descriptive design is taken. There are three ways a researcher can go about doing a
descriptive research project, and they are: Observational Case study Survey-

Defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants

Defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals

Defined as a brief interview or discussion with an individual about a specific topic.

3.3 Nature and Source of Data


1. Primary data
Primary research consists of a collection of original primary data collected by the researcher. It is
often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the issue by reviewing secondary
research or by analysing previously collected primary data. It can be accomplished through various
methods, including questionnaires and telephone interviews in market research, or experiments and
direct observations in the physical sciences, amongst others. The primary sources are discussion
with employees and data collected through questionnaire
2. Secondary Data
Secondary data is data collected by someone other than the user. Common sources of secondary
data for social science include censuses, organizational records and data collected through

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qualitative methodologies or qualitative research. Secondary data analysis saves time that would
otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data, provides larger
and higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on
their own. In addition, analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential,
since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past changes and/or
developments. The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records,
company websites and also discussion with the management of the organization. Secondary data
was also collected from journals, magazines and books.

3.4 Sample and Sampling Method


The study used the convenience sampling technique to select the ACC Cements as the sample
for the study. However, since the interviewees had to be experienced and knowledgeable in the
topic of the study, and offer a variety of perspectives, a sample size of 100 employees from
ACC Cements were chosen for this study. For the purpose of research, convenience sampling
technique has been used. On the basis of the convenience, eligible respondents have been
selected. Survey method has been used to collect data.
Sampling Method used to survey was questionnaires .The study sampling method is based on
the probability sampling which is the simple random sampling approach. In this method of
sampling, each individual has an equal chance of being selected. This samplings advantage is
its probability to produce a representative sample. Also, this method is easy to conduct as the
time is constraint for the research and less costly compare to other sampling methods.
3.5 Details of the Tools
3.5.1 Questionnaire used and its purpose
A well-defined questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both
overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the
system. A defeated questionnaire was carefully prepared and specially numbered. The
questions were arranged in proper order, in accordance with the relevance. Questionnaire was
circulated among 100 employees (both male and female) and they were also interviewed
during the study. This helped us to better analyse the data as they had different perspective of
organizational culture and creativity. The questionnaire consists of 2 parts and the
demographics include age, gender and education. Part I includes 26 questions on various

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aspects related to the organisational culture and the responses have been taken on interval
scale. Part II is related to questions on Employee Creativity based on interval scale.
3.5.2 Reliability and Validity
It is important to consider the reliability and validity of tools used during the study. Joppe (2000)
defines reliability as follows:
The extent to which results are consistent over time and an accurate representation of the
total population under study is referred to as reliability and if the results of a study can be
reproduced under a similar methodology, then the research instrument is considered to be
reliable.
The reliability of this study is measured according to the interviews and questionnaire conducted
among the employees of ACC Cement. All the employees have different educational backgrounds
and work experience. In addition, employee behaviour was observed directly without any influence
on it. All of the data was analysed carefully; therefore, the study is reliable.
Validity in research declares how truthful the research results are. Golafashani (2003) defined
validity as it is measured for demonstrating whether the research is truly processed as it is intended
to be. In this study, the data were collected by interviews and observations. Although, considering
the researcher has worked in defence organisation, the process of data collection is quite fair
without any personal judgement. Furthermore, the research result strongly supported the
researcher assumption, and therefore the study is valid.
3.5.3 Administration of tools and techniques

Tools and techniques of research are survey, questionnaire, test, scale, rating or tool designed to
measure the variable(s), characteristic(s), or information of interest, often a behavioural or
psychological characteristic. In this study, the Organisational Culture and Employee Creativity
Questionnaire (Appendix A) was used to gather the information needed for this study.
Levenes Test for Equality of Variances and t test for equality of means were applied to test the
hypothesis and draw inferences during the course of the study.

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3.6 Hypothesis
The study includes the following hypothesis:
Part I - Organisation Culture on the basis of gender:
1. H0: There is no difference of opinion for getting the training to do the job well with respect
to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion for getting the training to do the job well with respect to
gender.
2. H0: There is no difference of opinion for the awareness of training and development
activities with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion for the awareness of training and development activities
with respect to gender.
3. H0: There is no difference of opinion that training meet their need with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that training meet their need with respect to gender.
4. H0: There is no difference of opinion about the job satisfaction with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion about the job satisfaction with respect to gender.
5. H0: There is no difference of opinion about the challenges with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that about the challenges with respect to gender.
6. H0: There is no difference of opinion that employees are generally informed about the
changes that affect their work with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that employees are generally informed about the changes
that affect their work with respect to gender.
7. H0: There is no difference of opinion about the important decisions/things which happen at
the organisation with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion about the important decisions/things which happen at the
organisation with respect to gender.
8.H0: There is no difference of opinion to see the link between their work with respect to
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion to see the link between their work with respect to gender.
9. H0: There is no difference of opinion regarding working conditions with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion regarding working conditions with respect to gender.
10. H0: There is no difference of opinion that they believe there are variety of ways for them to
develop the career in that company with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they believe there are variety of ways for them to
develop the career in that company with respect to gender.

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11. H0: There is no difference of opinion regarding promotions being fair and justified with
respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that regarding promotions being fair and justified with
respect to gender.
12. H0: There is no difference of opinion about the awareness of the promotional
opportunities/policies with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion about the awareness of the promotional opportunities
/policies with respect to gender.
13. H0: There is no difference of opinion that company innovates new ways of development to
serve the customers better with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that company innovates new ways of development to serve
the customers better with respect to the gender.
14. H0: There is no difference of opinion that their manager helps them to enhance their
professional knowledge/skills with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that their manager helps them to enhance their professional
knowledge/skills with respect to the gender.
15. H0: There is no difference of opinion related to the adequate feedback with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion related to the adequate feedback with respect to the gender.
16. H0: There is no difference of opinion that what are the expectations of employee from
his/her job with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that what are the expectations of employee from his/her job
with respect to the gender.
17. H0: There is no difference of opinion that doing hard work yields success with respect to
the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that doing hard work yields success with respect to the
gender.
18. H0: There is no difference of opinion that adequate recognition is received based on the
performance with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that adequate recognition is received based on the
performance with respect to the gender.
19. H0: There is no difference of opinion to recognition whenever they do the job with respect
to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion to recognition whenever they do the job with respect to the
gender.

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20. H0: There is no difference of opinion that manger helps them to get better job opportunities
with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that manger helps them to get better job opportunities with
respect to the gender.
21. H0: There is no difference of opinion that they feel due respect is given at their work place
with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they feel due respect is given at their work place with
respect to the gender.
22. H0: There is no difference of opinion that they feel free to express their views with respect
to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they feel free to express their views with respect to the
gender.
23. H0: There is no difference of opinion that team looks for the ways to change processes to
improve performance with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that team looks for the ways to change processes to improve
performance with respect to the gender.
24. H0: There is no difference of opinion that people they work co-operate to get the work
done with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that people they work co-operate to get the work done with
respect to the gender.
25. H0: There is no difference of opinion that they believe that rewards are given fairly where
they work with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they believe that rewards are given fairly where they
work with respect to the gender.
26. H0: There is no difference of opinion that they feel they have job security.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they feel they have job security with respect to the
gender.
Part II Employee Creativity comparison on the basis of gender:
27. H0: There is no difference of opinion that there is non-acceptance of idea with respect to
the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that there is non-acceptance of idea with respect to the
gender.
28. H0: There is no difference of opinion that it is good to be practical in the company with
respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that it is good to be practical in the company with respect to
the gender.

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29. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of understanding for new people with
respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of understanding for new people with respect to
the gender.
30. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of cost with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of cost with respect to the gender.
31. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of self-intuition with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on the account of self-intuition with respect to the gender.
32. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of other multiple projects with respect to
the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of other multiple projects with respect to the
gender.
33. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of requirement of detail study with
respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of detail study with respect to the gender.
34. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of budget with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of budget with respect to the gender.
35. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of goodness of idea with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of goodness of idea with respect to the gender.
36. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of further discussion with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of further discussion with respect to the gender.
37. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of survey with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of survey with respect to the gender.
38. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of preparedness with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of preparedness with respect to the gender.
39. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of priorities with respect to the gender.

H1: There is difference of opinion on account of priorities with respect to the gender.
40. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of difference in plan with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of difference in the plan with respect to the
gender.

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41. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of postponement with respect to the

gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of postponement with respect to the gender.
42. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of acceptability by superior with respect

to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of acceptability by superior with respect to the
gender.
43. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of long time with respect to the gender.

H1: There is difference of opinion on account of long time with respect to the gender.
44. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of delay with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of delay with respect to the gender.
45. H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of other better option with respect to the

gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of other better option with respect to the gender.

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CHAPTER-4
DATA COLLECTION, HANDLING AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Data Collection
This study is focused on identifying the factors in culture that affect employee behaviour.
Primary data was employed in this study. Thus questionnaire and observation are the primary
data collection method used in this study with the researcher acting as the data collection
instrument. The main tool of testing in the study is standard questionnaire with scale; (SAStrongly Agree, A- Agree, N- Neutral, D- Disagree and SD- Strongly Disagree) which were
administered to the respondents. The questionnaire has two parts wherein Part I has 26
questions and Part II has 19 questions. The questionnaire data offered an opportunity for
analysing the participants responses such that statistical procedures could be used for
quantitative data analysis in order to deduce the correlation between the alternative hypothesis
and null hypothesis.
4.2 Statistical tools used for Data analysis
For the purpose of research, Convenience Sampling technique has been used. Convenience
sampling (also known as availability sampling) is a specific type of non-probability
sampling method that relies on data collection from population members who are conveniently
available to participate in study. In other words it is a statistical method of drawing
representative data by selecting people because of the ease of their volunteering or selecting
units because of their availability or easy access. The advantages of this type of sampling are
the availability and the quickness with which data can be gathered.
Levene's test (Levene 1960) is used to test if k samples have equal variances. Equal variances
across samples are called homogeneity of variance. Some common statistical procedures
assume that variances of the populations from which different samples are drawn are equal.
Levene's test assesses this assumption. It tests the null hypothesis that the population variances
are equal (called homogeneity of variance). If the resulting p-value of Levene's test is less than
some significance level (typically 0.05), the obtained differences in sample variances are
unlikely to have occurred based on random sampling from a population with equal variances.
Thus, the null hypothesis of equal variances is rejected and it is concluded that there is a
difference between the variances in the population.

18

The independent t-test for equality of means, also called the two sample t-test is an
inferential statistical test that determines whether there is a statistically significant difference
between the means in two unrelated groups; Null and alternative hypotheses. It can be used to
determine if two sets of data are significantly different from each other. A t-test is most
commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of
a scaling term in the test statistic were known. When the scaling term is unknown and is
replaced by an estimate based on the data, the test statistics (under certain conditions) follow a
Student's t distribution
The null hypothesis for the independent t-test is that the population means from the two
unrelated groups are equal: H0: u1 = u2. In most cases, we are looking to see if we can show
that we can reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis, which is that the
population means are not equal: H1: u1 u2. To do this, we need to set a significant value (also
called alpha) that allows us to either reject or accept the alternative hypothesis. Most
commonly, this value is set at 0.05.
4.3 Data Interpretation
Organisation Culture Comparison on the basis of Gender:
Statement 1: I get the training I need to do my job well.
H0: There is no difference of opinion for getting the training to do the job well with respect to
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion for getting the training to do the job well with respect to
gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Sig.

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Mean

Sig.

Df

1.843

.177

1.680

118

.096

.270

1.783

62.033

.079

.270

Table 1.1

Std. Error

(2-tailed) Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.161

-.048

.588

.151

-.033

.572

19

Table 1.1 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is.177 which is
greater than .05 so we consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is.096 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
in context of getting the training required to do job well with respect to Gender.

Statement 2: I am aware of available training and development activities.


H0: There is no difference of opinion for the awareness of training and development activities
with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion for the awareness of training and development activities
with respect to gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Mean

Std. Error

Sig.

Df

(2-tailed)

Difference

Difference

Lower

Upper

.283

.596

-.288

118

.774

-.043

.148

-.335

.250

-.303

60.925

.763

-.043

.140

-.323

.238

Table 1.2
Table 1.2 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .596 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .774 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis .it means there difference of opinion
awareness of available training and development activities with respect to Gender.

Statement 3: My training meets my need for my current job profile.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that training meet their need with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that training meet their need with respect to gender.

20
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.276

.601

-.351

118

.726

-.097

-.358

57.109

.722

-.097

Equal variances
not assumed

Lower

Upper

.275

-.642

.448

.270

-.637

.444

Table 1.3
Table 1.3 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .601 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .726 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis .it means there difference of opinion
with respect to Gender.
Statement 4 : I am fully satisfied with my Job profile considering all parameters.
H0: There is no difference of opinion about the job satisfaction with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion about the job satisfaction with respect to gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

F
.

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.
.010

.919

Sig.
(2-tailed)

df

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.455

118

.650

.114

.249

-.380

.608

.447

53.172

.657

.114

.254

-.396

.624

Table 1.4
Table 1.4 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .919 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .650 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
regarding job satisfaction of employees with respect to Gender.

21

Statement 5: I find my work challenging.


H0: There is no difference of opinion about the challenges with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that about the challenges with respect to gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.
Mean
Std. Error
(2-tailed) Difference Difference

Sig.

Df

.079

.779

-.242

118

.809

-.057

-.246

56.893

.806

-.057

Equal variances
not assumed

Lower

Upper

.235

-.522

.408

.231

-.519

.405

Table 1.5
Table 1.5 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .779 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .809 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
regarding challenges with respect to Gender.
Statement 6: I am generally informed about the changes that affect me within the organisation.
H0: There is no difference of opinion that employees are generally informed about the changes
that affect their work with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that employees are generally informed about the changes
that affect their work with respect to gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.594

.442

1.795

118

.075

.494

1.739

51.933

.088

.494

Table 1.6

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.275

-.051

1.040

.284

-.076

1.065

22

Table 1.6 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .442 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .075 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. There is difference of opinion that they
generally feel informed by the manager related to any change in their organisation which is
effected with respect to Gender.
Statement 7: Generally I am aware whenever any important things/decisions happen.
H0: There is no difference of opinion about the important decisions/things which happen at the
organisation with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion about the important decisions/things which happen at the
organisation with respect to gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

6.210

.014

1.909

118

.059

.438

1.677

44.539

.100

.438

Lower

Upper

.229

-.016

.891

.261

-.088

.963

Table 1.7
Table 1.7 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .014 which is
less than .05 so consider the equal variance is not assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 2nd row .It is .100 which is greater than .05 that means there is rejection of
alternative hypothesis and acceptance of null hypothesis. It means there is no major difference
of opinion about the important decisions/things which happen at the organisation with respect
to Gender.
Statement 8: I can see the link between my work and companys objective.

23

H0: There is no difference of opinion to see the link between their work with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion to see the link between their work with respect to gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.204

.652

1.437

118

.153

.418

1.484

58.589

.143

.418

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.291

-.158

.993

.281

-.146

.981

Table 1.8
Table 1.8 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .652 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .153 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
about their works importance for the companys objective with respect to gender.
Statement 9: My working environment is good and motivating.
H0: There is no difference of opinion regarding working conditions with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion regarding working conditions with respect to gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.236

.628

1.704

118

.091

.423

1.685

53.909

.098

.423

Lower

Upper

.248

-.069

.915

.251

-.080

.927

Table 1.9
Table no.1.9 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .628 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .091 which is greater than .05; that means there is acceptance of

24

alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
about working conditions with respect to Gender.

Statement 10: I believe there are a variety of ways for me to develop my career at company.
H0: There is no difference of opinion that they believe there are variety of ways for them to
develop the career in the company with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they believe there are variety of ways for them to
develop the career in the company with respect to gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

2.714

.102

1.900

118

.060

.545

1.772

48.748

.083

.545

Lower

Upper

.287

-.023

1.114

.308

-.073

1.164

Table 1.10
Table 1.10 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is which greater
than .05 so consider the equal variances is assumed .we will take significant value of 2 tailed
value of 1st row. It is .774 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of alternative
hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion regarding
various means of career development in the company with respect to Gender.
Statement 11: Promotions within the company are fair and justified.
H0: There is no difference of opinion regarding promotions being fair and justified with respect
to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that regarding promotions being fair and justified with
respect to gender.

25
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

3.061

.083

1.671

118

.097

.460

1.560

48.817

.125

.460

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.275

-.085

1.006

.295

-.133

1.053

Table 1.11
Table 1.11 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .083 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .097 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
regarding promotions being fair and justified with respect to gender.
Statement 12: I am aware about the promotion opportunities/policies within the organisation.
H0: There is no difference of opinion about the awareness of the promotional
opportunities/policies with respect to gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion about the awareness of the promotional opportunities
/policies with respect to gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.304

.582

2.537

118

.012

.523

2.521

54.409

.015

.523

Lower

Upper

.206

.115

.931

.207

.107

.938

Table 1.12
Table 1.12 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .582 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .012 which is less than .05 that means there is acceptance of null
hypothesis and rejection of alternative hypothesis . It means there is no difference of opinion
regarding promotion opportunities/policies with respect to Gender.

26

Statement 13: Company is innovative in development of new ways to serve the customers.
H0: There is no difference of opinion that company innovates new ways of development to
serve the customers better with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that company innovates new ways of development to serve
the customers better with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.
Mean
Std. Error
(2-tailed) Difference Difference

Sig.

Df

2.994

.086

.076

118

.940

.020

.085

70.031

.932

.020

Equal variances
not assumed

Lower

Upper

.262

-.499

.539

.234

-.446

.486

Table 1.13 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .086 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .940 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
that company innovates new ways of development to serve the customers better with respect to
the gender.
Statement 14: My manager helps me in enhancing my professional knowledge/skills.
H0: There is no difference of opinion that their manager helps them to enhance their
professional knowledge/skills with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that their manager helps them to enhance their professional
knowledge/skills with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.079

.779

2.227

118

.028

.514

2.201

53.875

.032

.514

Lower

Upper

.231

.057

.971

.234

.046

.983

27

Table 1.14
Table 1.14 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .779 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .028 which is less than .05; that means there is acceptance of null
hypothesis and rejection of alternative hypothesis. It means there exists no difference of
opinion that their manager helps them to enhance their professional knowledge/skills with
respect to the gender.

Statement 15: My manager provides me adequate feedback.


H0: There is no difference of opinion related to adequate feedback being given by manager
with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion related to adequate feedback being given by manager with
respect to the gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.779

.379

.532

118

.596

.145

.562

61.344

.576

.145

Lower

Upper

.272

-.394

.684

.258

-.371

.660

Table 1.15
Table 1.15 shows that significant value of Levenes test of equality of variance is .379 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .596 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
related to adequate feedback being given by manager with respect to the gender.

28

Statement 16: I am aware what is expected out of me in my job.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that what are the expectations of employee from his/her
job with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that what are the expectations of employee from his/her job
with respect to the gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.002

.968

1.818

118

.072

.497

1.831

55.772

.072

.497

Lower

Upper

.273

-.044

1.039

.272

-.047

1.041

Table 1.16
Table 1.16 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .968 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .072 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
related to the expectations of employee from his/her job with respect to the gender.

Statement 17: Hard work is usually rewarded.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that doing hard work yields success with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that doing hard work yields success with respect to the
gender.

29
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.541

.463

1.262

118

.210

.344

1.206

50.783

.233

.344

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.272

-.196

.883

.285

-.228

.916

Table 1.17
Table 1.17 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .463 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .210 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
that doing hard work yields success with respect to the gender.

Statement 18: I receive adequate recognition for my performance in the organisation.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that adequate recognition is received based on the
performance with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that adequate recognition is received based on the
performance with respect to the gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

2.894

.092

-.554

118

.581

-.153

-.600

64.884

.551

-.153

Lower

Upper

.277

-.702

.395

.256

-.664

.357

Table 1.18
Table 1.18 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .092 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2

30

tailed value of 1st row. It is.581 which is greater than .05; that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
that adequate recognition is received based on the performance with respect to the gender.

Statement 19: I am recognised whenever I do a good job.


H0: There is no difference of opinion to recognition whenever they do good job with respect to
the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion to recognition whenever they do good job with respect to the
gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.468

.495

-.076

118

.939

-.020

-.079

59.098

.937

-.020

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.261

-.536

.496

.251

-.523

.483

Table 1.19
Table 1.19 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .468 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .939 which is greater than .05; that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there difference of opinion to
recognition whenever they do good job with respect to the gender.

Statement 20: My manager helps me in getting better job opportunities.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that manger helps them to get better job opportunities
with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that manger helps them to get better job opportunities with
respect to the gender.

31
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.079

.779

2.227

118

.028

.514

2.201

53.875

.032

.514

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.231

.057

.971

.234

.046

.983

Table 1.20
Table 1.20 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .779 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .028which is lesser than .05 that means there is acceptance of null
hypothesis and rejection of alternative hypothesis. It means there exists no difference of
opinion that their manger helps them to get better job opportunities with respect to the gender.

Statement 21: I feel I am given due respect at workplace.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that they feel due respect is given at their work place
with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they feel due respect is given at their work place with
respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.328

.568

1.554

118

.123

.384

1.502

51.740

.139

.384

Lower

Upper

.247

-.105

.872

.255

-.129

.896

Table 1.21
Table 1.2 1shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .568 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .123 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of

32

alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis . It means there is difference of opinion
that they feel due respect is given at their work place with respect to the gender.

Situation 22: I feel free to express my opinions without worrying about negative actions.
H0: There is no difference of opinion that they feel free to express their views without
worrying about subsequent actions with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they feel free to express their views without worrying
about subsequent actions with respect to the gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.856

.357

.384

118

.702

.085

.402

60.302

.689

.085

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.222

-.354

.525

.212

-.339

.509

Table 1.22
Table 1.22 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .357 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .702 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
that they feel that they can express their feeling related to work without worrying about
subsequent actions with respect to gender.
Statement 23: My team looks for innovative ways to improve performance.
H0: There is no difference of opinion that team looks for innovative ways to improve
performance with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that team looks for innovative ways to improve performance
with respect to the gender.

33
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

4.243

.042

1.313

118

.192

.270

1.532

77.060

.130

.270

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.206

-.137

.677

.176

-.081

.621

Table 1.23
Table 1.23 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .042 which is
lesser than .05 so consider the equal variances not assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 2nd row It is .130 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
that team looks for innovative ways to improve performance with respect to the gender.

Statement 24: My colleagues co-operate to get the work done.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that colleagues co-operate with each other to get the
work done with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that colleagues co-operate with each other to get the work
done with respect to the gender.

34

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.022

.883

.430

118

.774

.097

.426

54.040

.688

.097

Lower

Upper

.225

-.348

.541

.227

-.358

.552

Table 1.24
Table 1.24 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is 0.883 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .774 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
that colleagues co-operate with each other to get the work done with respect to the gender.

Statement 25: I believe that we are rewarded fairly in the company.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that they are rewarded fairly in the company with respect
to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they are rewarded fairly in the company with respect to
the gender.

35
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.902

.344

.645

118

.520

.176

.618

50.989

.539

.176

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.273

-.365

.717

.285

-.396

.749

Table 1.25
Table 1.25 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .344 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .520 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
that they are rewarded fairly in the company with respect to the gender.

Statement 26: I feel I have a job security.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that they feel they have job security with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that they feel they have job security with respect to the
gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.506

.478

1.966

118

.049

.497

1.950

54.203

.056

.497

Table 1.26

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.253

-.003

.998

.255

-.014

1.008

36

Table 1.26 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .478 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .049 which is less than .05 that means there is acceptance of null
hypothesis and rejection of alternative hypothesis. It means there is no difference of opinion
regarding their job security with respect to Gender.
Part II Employee Creativity comparison on the basis of gender:
Statement 27: Whenever any idea is given by me, it is accepted/considered in the company.
H0: There is no difference of opinion that there is non acceptance of idea, whenever given with
respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that there is non acceptance of idea, whenever given with
respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

2.554

.113

2.952

118

.004

.577

2.651

45.941

.011

.577

Lower

Upper

.195

.190

.964

.218

.139

1.015

Table 1.27
Table 1.27 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .113 which is
greater than .05, so consider the equal variances assumed .We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .004 which is less than .05 that means there is acceptance of null
hypothesis and rejection of alternate hypothesis .It means there is no difference of opinion that
whenever any idea is given it is accepted/considered by their boss or manager with respect to
Gender.

37

Statement 28: It is good to be practical in the company.


H0: There is no difference of opinion that it is good to be practical in the company with respect
to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion that it is good to be practical in the company with respect to
the gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.417

.520

.356

118

.723

.276

.552

110.662

.582

.276

Lower

Upper

.775

-1.258

1.810

.499

-.714

1.265

Table 1.28
Table 1.28 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .520 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .723 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on being practical in the company with respect to Gender.

Statement 29: New comers are generally not well understood in the company.
H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of understanding for new comers with respect
to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of understanding for new comers with respect to
the gender.

38
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.319

.573

.426

118

.671

.099

.414

52.060

.681

.099

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.233

-.362

.561

.240

-.383

.582

Table 1.29
Table no.1.29 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .573 which
is greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .671 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on understanding of new comers in the company with respect to Gender.

Statement 30: Companys product costs too much


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of cost of the product with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of cost of the product with respect to the gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.235

.629

.826

118

.410

.202

.815

53.686

.419

.202

Lower

Upper

.244

-.282

.685

.247

-.294

.698

Table 1.30
Table 1.30 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .629 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .We will take significant value of 2

39

tailed value of 1st row .It is .410 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of cost of the product with respect to the gender.
Statement 31: I know it wont work.
H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of self-intuition with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on the account of self-intuition with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

F
Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.
.539

.464

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Df

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

1.689

118

.094

.432

.256

-.075

.938

1.641

52.225

.107

.432

.263

-.096

.960

Table 1.32
Table 1.32 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .464 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .094 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on the account of self-intuition with respect to the gender.

Statement 32: Multiple projects are being run in the company.


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of multiple projects being run in the company
with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of multiple projects being run in the company
with respect to the gender.

40
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Sig.

Equal variances
assumed

Mean

Sig.

Df

(2-tailed)

1.322

.253

-.170

118

.866

-.037

-.154

46.905

.878

-.037

Equal variances
not assumed

Std. Error

Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.218

-.468

.395

.239

-.518

.445

Table 1.32
Table 1.32 shows that significant value of Levens test equality of variance is .253 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .866 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis .It means there is difference of opinion
on account of multiple projects being run in the company with respect to the gender.

Statement 33: It needs more study


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of requirement of detailed study with respect
to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of detailed study with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.507

.478

-.263

118

.793

-.068

-.272

58.610

.787

-.068

Lower

Upper

.259

-.581

.444

.251

-.570

.434

Table 1.33
Table no.1.33 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .478 which
is greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2

41

tailed value of 1st row. It is .793 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there difference of opinion on
account of detailed study with respect to the gender.

Statement 34: Its not budgeted.


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of budget with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of budget with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.026

.872

.685

118

.495

.170

.683

54.692

.498

.170

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.249

-.322

.663

.250

-.330

.671

Table 1.34
Table 1.34shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .872 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .495 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
regarding budget of the company.

Statement 35: Your idea is not good enough.

42

H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of goodness of idea with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of goodness of idea with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.
Mean
Std. Error
(2-tailed) Difference Difference

Sig.

Df

1.395

.240

.731

118

.466

.176

.683

48.864

.498

.176

Equal variances
not assumed

Lower

Upper

.241

-.301

.653

.258

-.342

.694

Table 1.35
Table 1.35 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .240 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .466 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of goodness of idea with respect to the gender.

Statement 36: Lets discus it


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of further discussion with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of further discussion with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

4.777

.031

2.034

118

.044

.401

1.812

45.419

.077

.401

Lower

Upper

.197

.011

.791

.221

-.045

.846

43

Table 1.36 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .031 which is
less than .05 so consider the equal variances not assumed. we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 2nd row. It is.077 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of further discussion with respect to gender.

Statement 37: Lets make a survey first


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of survey with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of survey with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.686

.409

.789

118

.431

.327

1.068

109.186

.288

.327

Lower

Upper

.414

-.493

1.146

.306

-.279

.933

Table 1.37
Table no.1.37 shows that Significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .409 which
is greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of
sig (2 tailed) value of 1st row. It is .431 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance
of alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of
opinion that survey is the most important with respect to Gender.

44

Statement 38: Lets not step on toe


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of preparedness with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of preparedness with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.426

.515

.045

118

.964

.011

.043

50.270

.966

.011

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.251

-.486

.508

.264

-.519

.542

Table 1.38
Table 1.38 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .515 which is
greater than .05; so we consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of
2-tailed value of 1st row. It is .964 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of preparedness with respect to the gender.

Statement 39: Not ready for it yet


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of priorities with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of priorities with respect to the gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

13.480

.000

.505

118

.615

.116

.651

98.878

.516

.116

Table 1.39

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.231

-.341

.574

.179

-.238

.471

45

Table 1.39 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .000 which is
lesser than .05 so consider the equal variances not assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 2nd row. It is .516 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of priorities with respect to the gender.

Statement 40: Our plan is different


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of difference in plan with respect to the
gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of difference in the plan with respect to the
gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.021

.885

.867

118

.388

.219

.843

52.348

.403

.219

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.252

-.281

.719

.259

-.302

.739

Table 1.40
Table 1.40 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .885 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .388 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of difference in plan with respect to the gender.

Statement 41: Some other time


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of postponement with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of postponement with respect to the gender.

46
Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for


Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.006

.941

.414

118

.680

.108

.403

52.338

.689

.108

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.261

-.408

.624

.268

-.430

.646

Table 1.41
Table 1.41 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .941 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .680 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of postponement with respect to the gender.

Statement 42: The Boss wont go for it


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of acceptability by superior with respect to
the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of acceptability by superior with respect to the
gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

4.126

.044

-1.610

118

.110

-.440

-1.773

67.280

.081

-.440

Table 1.42

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.274

-.982

.101

.248

-.936

.055

47

Table 1.42 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .044 which is
less than .05 so we consider the equal variances not assumed. We will take significant value of
2 tailed value of 2nd row. It is .081which is greater than .05; that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there difference of opinion on
account of acceptability by superior with respect to the gender.

Statement 43: Long time and it works


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of long time with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of long time with respect to the gender.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.653

.421

-.599

118

.550

-.136

-.633

61.489

.529

-.136

Lower

Upper

.228

-.587

.314

.215

-.567

.294

Table 1.43
Table 1.43 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .421 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .529 which is greater than .05; that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of long time with respect to the gender.

Statement 44 : Too late


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of delay with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of delay with respect to the gender.

48
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.951

.332

.941

118

.349

.244

.995

61.572

.323

.244

Equal variances
not assumed

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

Lower

Upper

.260

-.270

.758

.245

-.246

.735

Table 1.44
Table 1.44 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .332 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed. We will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row. It is .349 which is greater than .05 that means there is acceptance of
alternative hypothesis and rejection of null hypothesis. It means there is difference of opinion
on account of delay with respect to the gender.

Statement 45: There are better ways


H0: There is no difference of opinion on account of better options with respect to the gender.
H1: There is difference of opinion on account of better options with respect to the gender.
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.

Df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Std. Error
Difference Difference

.287

.593

1.979

118

.049

.526

1.927

52.424

.059

.526

Lower

Upper

.266

.000

1.051

.273

-.022

1.073

Table 1.45
Table 1.45 shows that significant value of Levenes test equality of variance is .593 which is
greater than .05 so consider the equal variances assumed .we will take significant value of 2
tailed value of 1st row .It is .049 which is less than .05 that means there is acceptance of null
hypothesis and rejection of alternative hypothesis. It means there is no difference of opinion on
account of other better options with respect to the gender.

49

50

CHAPTER -5
FINDINGS, CONCLUSION & LIMITATIONS
5.1 Findings
The study was conducted among the employees of the ACC Cements in which majority of the
respondents fall in the age bracket of 35-40 years. It was observed that participation of male
respondents was more as compared to female employees. Number of B Com/ BA/ BCA
graduates is more than other field of specializations. The questionnaire is filled by foremen of
the company followed by a survey. After applying independence sample t-test, we find mean
and standard deviation. With independent sample T test, it has found that there is the
significant value which is greater than .05 then there is assumed variance so we looks at 1st
row of the sig(t-tailed) there if the value is less than .05, then null hypothesis(h 0) is accepted
and alternative hypothesis (h1)is accepted in case value of sig is greater than .05.
The results of the study indicate that the organisational culture in ACC Cements was very open
to employee creativity. However female employees have a difference of opinion on the
organisational culture vs employee creativity. Furthermore, whilst team work is very good for
organisational development, team identity or team culture should not be allowed to
overshadow the organisational culture as pertains in ACC Cements. Secondly there is a positive
relationship between the Organisational culture of ACC Cements and employee creativity.
Timely promotions and recognitions, as a reward (for creative work) was shown to impact
employee creativity positively. And finally, it is noticed that employee creativity is also related
to employee performance in the organisation.

5.2 Recommendations
The following recommendations are made to the management of ACC Cements to modify their
culture in order to improve their employees creativity and job performance.
1.

First and foremost management must generate a supportive culture of creativity with

emphasis on enhance communication in order to influence attitudes, opinions and beliefs.


2.

Secondly in order to promote creativity across all staff levels within the company,

management must pay attention towards autonomy, workload, recognition and financial
rewards.

51

5.3 Summary and Conclusion


By the data interpretation on the basis of gender we examine the significant value and sig (2
tailed) and we decide where null hypothesis is accepted and alternative hypotheses is rejected
and vice versa.
I conclude that in any company there is need of training for improving the performance.
Employees should be intimated about the opportunities/policies for enhancing their
professional skills within the company. They should be told about the latest training and
development activities being run in the company. Company should make an endeavour to
know whether its employees are satisfied or not by regular interaction/feedback. Employees
must be given adequate exposure about independent work challenges and what is expected out
of each of them from their job profile towards achieving company goals/objectives. This whole
data is about the employees that what they think about their role, performance and future in the
company. For the development and improvement of the employees good working
environment/ conditions should be provided. Fair treatment of all employees should be done.
They should be rewarded for their work and promoted well in time as it will act as a source of
motivation in the company and will encourage them to work with zeal and enthusiasm.
Last but not the least; it is evident from the study that Organisational Culture and Employee
creativity has an appreciable positive relationship.
5.4 Limitations of the Project
There are bunch of limitations that affect the scope of this study. Each limitation gives rise to
fruitful areas for additional inquiry. The findings of the study must be viewed in light of
following limitations:
1. Study was conducted on a small sample.
2. Time and resources being limited in nature, does not permit to undertake the research in a
large scale.
3. This survey was based on self-reporting, just like it may be based on subjective perception.
4. It might be possible that participants did not give accurate data although I assured them of
confidentiality of data.

52

5.5 Direction for further Research


The studies correlated with the cultures that have influenced on peoples creativity within an
organisation could be further investigated. The numbers of interviews may be limited due to
constraint time and resources; the questions in interviews may not cover all aspects of the
organisational culture. Therefore, further studies on culture could pay more attention in
identifying all aspects of organisational culture. Moreover, further studies could also take other
factors into account, such as personalities and ethnic culture.

53

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Hendon, William S, James and Alice James MacD, 1980. Economic policy of the arts.
Cambridge.
Reich Robert, 1991. The Work Of Nations: preparing ourselves with 21 st century capitalism.
New York.
Porter, Alenl and William H., 1998. The information Revolution. Greenwhich. Allex
publishing.
Heartfield James, 2000. Great Expectations: The creative imdustry in new economy, design
agenda.
Heilbrum, James and Charles, 2001. The Economy of art and culture. New York. Cambridge
University.
Castell, Manual, 2001. The Internet Galaxy: reflections on the internet, banking and society.
New Yorl. Oxford University Press..
Cowen Taylor, 2001. Creative Destruction: how globalisation is changing the worlds culture.
Princton. NJ: Princeton University Press
Hawkins john, 2001. The Creative Economy: how people make money from ideas. London.
Allen lane.
Boumal, (2002). The Free Market Information Machine. Analyzing the growth miracle of
capitalism. Pricenss NI university.
Florida Richard, 2002. The Rise Of The Creative Class. New York. Basic Books.
Desmond, 2002. The cultural industry: Thousand Oaks.

54

QUESTIONNAIRE
I am ___________________________________

the student of _____________________

University/College pursuing MBA and doing a project study on Organisational Culture


and Employee Creativity at ACC Cements. Kindly fill the questionnaire for the successful
completion of my project the data will be used for academic purpose only.

Respondent Detail:
Name

__________________

Mobile no.__________________

Age: __________

Gender: Male/Female

Education_____________

Q.1. Kindly give your opinion on the following statements.


S.A. = Strongly Agree, A = Agree, N=Neutral, D=Disagree, S.D.=Strongly Disagree
S.NO
.

Statements

1.

I get the training I need to do my job well.

2.

I am aware of available training and development

3.

activities.
My training meets my need for my current job

4.

profile.
I am fully satisfied with my Job profile
considering all parameters.

5.

I find my work challenging.

6.

I am generally informed about the changes that


affect me within the organisation.

7.

Generally I am aware whenever any important


things/decisions happen.

8.

I can see the link between my work and


companys objective.

9.

My working environment is good and motivating.

10.

I believe there are a variety of ways for me to


develop my career at company.

(S.A

(A

(N

(D

(S.D

55

S.NO
.
11.

Statements
Promotions within the company are fair and
justified.

12.

I am aware about the promotion


opportunities/policies within the organisation.

13.

Company is innovative in development of new


ways to serve the customers.

14.

My manager helps me in
professional knowledge/skills.

15.

My manager provides me adequate feedback.

16.

I am aware what is expected out of me in my job.

17.

Hard work is usually rewarded.

18.

I receive adequate recognition for my performance


in the organisation.

19.

I am recognised whenever I do a good job.

20.

My manager helps me in getting better job


opportunities.

21.

I feel I am given due respect at workplace.

22.

I I feel free to express my opinions without


worrying about negative actions.

23.

My team looks for innovative ways to improve


performance.

24.

My colleagues co-operate to get the work done.

25.

I believe that we are rewarded fairly in the


company.

26.

I feel I have a job security.

enhancing

my

(S.A

(A

(N

(D

(S.D

56

PART-II
Q.2. Kindly give your comments for any novel and different idea that you feel happens with you

in relation with your boss on the following behavioural situations.


S.NO
.
1.
2.
3.

Statements

(S.A
)

Whenever any idea is given by me, it is


accepted/considered in the company
It is good to be practical in the company.

4.

New comers are generally not well understood in


the company.
Companys product costs too much.

5.

I know it wont work.

6.

Multiple projects are being run in the company

7.

It need more study.

8.

Its not budgeted.

9.

Your idea is not good enough

10.

Lets discuss it

11.

Lets make a survey first

12.

Lets not step on toe

13.

Not ready for it yet

14.

Our plan is different

15.

Some other time

16.

The Boss wont go for it

17.

Long time and it works

18.

Too late

19.

There are better ways

(A)

(N
)

(D)

(S.D
)