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CAD/CAM/CAE

Asst. Prof. Ganesh Mandpe

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,


MSSs Institute of Technology,
Jalna

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CAD/CAM/CAE

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Syllabus
Introduction to CAD, CAM, CIM and CAE,
Product cycle,
Mathematical model for product life cycle.
Introduction
In todays global competition, industries cannot survive unless they introduce
new products or existing ones with:
Better quality
Lower cost
Shorter lead time
Computer aided design (CAD) can be defined as the use of computer systems
to assist in creation, modification, analysis and optimization
Computer aided machining (CAM) can be defined as the use of computer
systems to plan, manage and control a manufacturing plant through either
direct or indirect computer interface with the plants production resources.
CAM
3D CAD data can be read by CAM software which takes 3D data & CNC
machine parameters as inputs and delivers a tool path that cuts metal as per the
part designs.
The tool path so generated can be simulated on the screen to evaluate tool
gauging so that the machining run is perfect.
Computer Integrated manufacturing
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is manufacturing supported by
computers. It is the total integration of Computer Aided Design /
Manufacturing and also other business operations and databases.
Definition: CIM is the integration of total manufacturing enterprise by using
integrated systems and data communication coupled with new managerial
philosophies that improve organizational and personnel efficiency.
The CIM concept is that all the operations related to the production function in
an integrated computer system to assist, enhance and /or automate the
operations.
The computer system is spread throughout the firm , touching all the activities
that support manufacturing.
In this integrated computer system, the output of one activity serves as the
input to the next activity, through the chain of events that starts with the sales
order and finishes with shipment of the product.

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Figure 1 Scope of CAD/CAM and CIM

Figure 2 Computerized elements of CIM system

Customer orders are initial y entered by the companys sales force into a
computerized order-entry system. The orders contain the specifications
describing the product.
The specifications serves as input to the design
New products are designed on a CAD system. The components that comprise
product are designed, the BOM is complied, and assembly dwgs. are prepared.
The output of design serves as input to mfg. engg, where process planning,
tool design and similar activities are accomplished to prepare for production
The output of mfg. engg. Provides input to the PPC, where MRP and
scheduling is performed

Computer-Aided Engineering

Computer-aided Engineering analysis (often referred to as CAE) is the


application of computer software in engineering to analyze the robustness and
performance of components and assemblies.
It encompasses simulation, validation and optimization of products
and manufacturing tools.
Parts and assemblies designed in CAD software can be analyzed for their
field performances right on the computer screen.
Most of the olden-day destructive testing methods have found mathematical
replacements in the modern-day CAE software.
CAE software delivers results that help analyzing designs.
Analysis tools are available for
static stress-strain,
deflection,
thermal,
flow,
motion,
vibration
This alows designers to design-right-the-first-time.
Use of computer systems to analyze CAD geometry
Allows designer to simulate and study how the product will behave, allowing
for optimization
Finite-element method (FEM)
Divides model into interconnected elements
Solves continuous field problems
Ranges of CAE
Kinematics Analysis: to determine motion paths and linkage velocities in
mechanism. Pro/E
Finite Element Analysis (FEA): Solid Mechanics analysis (stress/strain), Heat
Transfer, Flow, and other continuous fields.
Pro/Mechanica, ANSYS, CATIA, NASTRAN
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): Fluid Simulation. Fluent,
Phoenix, CFX
Product Cycle (Design and Manufacturing )

Figure 3 Product Cycle (Design and Manufacturing)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Driven by customers and markets which demand the product


In some cases design functions are performed by the customer and the product
is manufactured by a different firm.
In other cases , design and manufacturing is accomplished by the same firm
The product cycle begins with a concept, an idea of a product.
This concept refined, analyzed, improved and translated into a plan for the
product through the design engineering process.
The plan is documented by drafting a set of engineering drawings showing
how the product is made and providing a set of specifications indicating how
the product should perform
A process plan is formulated which specifies sequence of
production operations required to make the product.
New equipment and tools sometimes be acquired to produce the new product.
Scheduling provides a plan that commits the company to manufacture of
certain quantities of the product by certain dates.
Once all these plans are formulated product goes into production.
It is followed by quality testing and delivery to the customer.

Product Cycle revised with CAD/CAM overlaid

Figure 4 Product Cycle revised with CAD/CAM overlaid

Computer aided design and computer automated drafting are utilized


in conceptualization, design and documentation of the product.
Computers are used in process planning and scheduling to perform these functions
more efficiently.
Computers are used in production to monitor and control the manufacturing
operations.
In quality control , computer are used to perform inspections and performance
tests on the product and its components
Mathematical Model for product life cycle
Let T1 be the time required to produce 1 unit of product.

This includes sum of individual process times plus time to assemble,


inspect and package a single product.

T2 be time associated with planning and setting for each batch of production
This include the ordering of raw materials by purchasing department,
time required in production planning to schedule the batch, setup times
for each operation etc.
T3 be the time required for designing the product and for all other activities
that are accomplished once for each different product.
These include process planning, cost estimating and pricing, building
of special tools and fixtures.
B be the number of batches produced throughout the product life cycle.
Q be the number of units produced in each batch.
The aggregate time spent on the product throughout its life cycle can be
The average time spent on each unit of product during its life cycle.

In mass and batch production the T2 and T3 terms can be spread over a large
number of units.

Their relative values ,therefore becomes less important as the production


quantities increase. The T1 term becomes most important term.
In job shop manufacturing , the T2 and T3 terms can become significant
because the quantities are so low.
Relationship between CAD/CAM & Automation
The goal of CAD/CAM and automation is to reduce the various time elements
in product life cycle.
With this there is increase in productivity and improve in standard of living.
The automation technology is concerned with reducing the T1 and T2
elements, with emphasize on the unit production cost (T1).
The CAD/CAM technology is concerned with all the three terms but is
perhaps focused on the T3 and T2 terms in the life cycle model.
CAD/CAM has made important contribution towards integrating the functions
of design and manufacturing.

CHAPTER 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF CAD


Syllabus
The basic design Process and computer
The manufacturing database
Benefits of CAD
Principles of Concurrent Engineering
The Design Process

Recognition of need involves the realization by someone that a problem exists for
which some corrective action should be taken e.g. defect in current machine
design
Definition of problem involves a through specifications of the item to be designed.
This specifications includes physical and fundamental characteristics, cost, quality
and operating performance.
Synthesis and analysis are closely related and highly iterative in design process
This iterative process is repeated until the design has been optimized within the
constrained imposed on the designer
The philosophy, functionality and uniqueness are all determined during synthesis.
The major financial commitments to turn conceived product into reality are made
during synthesis.
Information generated during synthesis phase is qualitative and hard to capture by
computer system.
The end goal of synthesis is a conceptual design
Evaluation is concerned with measuring the design against the specifications
established in problem definition phase.
This evaluation often requires fabrication and testing of a prototype model to
assess performance, quality, reliability and other criteria.
Presentation includes documentation of design by means of drawing , material
specifications, assembly list and so on.

The Application of computer for Design

Geometric modeling corresponds to the synthesis phase in which physical design


project takes form on the ICG system
Engineering analysis corresponds to phase 4 , dealing with analysis
and optimization
Design review and evaluation is the fifth step in the general design procedure
Automated drafting involves a procedure for converting the design image data
residing in computer memory into a hard copy document.

Geometric Modeling
It is concerned with the computer compatible mathematical description of the
geometry of the object.
To use geometric modeling, the designer constructs the graphical image of the
object on the CRT screen of the ICG system by inputting three types of
commands
1. The first type of command generates basic geometric elements such as points,
lines and circles.
2. The second command type is used to accomplish scaling, rotation and other
transformations of these elements.
3. The third type of demand causes the various elements to be joined into the
desired shape of the object being created on the ICG system.
During this process , the computer converts the commands into a mathematical
model, stores it in the computer data files, and displays it as an image on CRT
screen.
The model can be called from the data files for review, analysis, or alteration.
There are several different methods of representing the object in geometric
modeling.
The basic form uses wire frames to represent the object. In this form the object
is displayed by interconnecting lines. Wire frame modeling is classified into
three types
1. 2D. Two dimensional representation is used for a flat object

2. 2 D. In this a three dimensional object to be represented as long as it has no


side wall details.
3. 3D. This allows for full three dimensional modeling of a more complex
geometry

Figure 5 Wire-frame drawing of a part

Even three dimensional wire frame representations of an object are inadequate


for complicated drawings
Wire frame models can be enhanced by several methods
1. First uses dashed lines to show the rear edges of the object, those which would
be invisible from front
2. It removes the hidden lines completely, thus providing a less cluttered picture
of the object for the viewer.
Wire-frame drawing

Figure 6 Dashed lines to show rear edges of part

Hidden line removal

3. By providing surface representation which makes the object appear solid to


the viewer.
4. The most advanced method uses solid geometry shapes called primitives to
construct the object.
5. Another feature of some CAD system is color graphics capability
Solid Modeling

Engineering Analysis
The analysis may involve stress strain calculations, heat transfer computations,
or use of dynamic behaviour of the system being designed.
The computer can be used to aid in this analysis work.
Two important examples of this type are:
1. Analysis of mass properties
2. Finite element analysis
1. Analysis of mass properties:
For solid object: surface area , weight , volume, centre of gravity, and moment
of inertia.
For a plane surface (or c/s of solid object) the corresponding computations
may include the perimeter, area, and inertia properties.
2. Finite element analysis:
With this technique the object is divided into large number of finite elements
(usually triangular or rectangular in shapes) which form an interconnecting
network of concentrated nodes.
By using a computer with significant computer capabilities, the entire object
can be analyzed for stress-strain, heat transfer and other characteristics by
calculating the behaviour of each node.
By determining the interrelating behavior of all the nodes in the system, the
behavior of the entire object can be assessed
Design Review and Analysis
Semi automatic dimensioning and tolerancing routines which assign size
specifications to surfaces indicated by the user help to reduce the possibility of
the dimensioning errors.
The designer can zoom in on part design details and magnify the image on
graphics screen for close scrutiny
A procedure called layering is often helpful in design review. E.g. a good
application of layering involves overlaying the geometric image of the final
shape of the machined part on the top of the image if the rough casting.
This ensures that sufficient material is available on the casting to accomplish
the final machined dimensions.
Another related procedure for design review is interference checking. This
involves the analysis of an assembled structure in which there is a risk that the
components of the assembly may occupy the same space.
MIT (T

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The risk occurs in the design of large chemical plants, cold boxes, and other
complicated piping structures.
One of the feature of CAD systems is kinematics. The available kinematics
packages provide the capability to animate the motion of simple designed
mechanisms such as hinged components and linkages.
Automated Drafting
It involves the creation of hard copy engineering drawings directly from the
CAD database.
CAD systems includes features like automatic dimensioning, generation of
crosshatched areas, scaling of the drawing, and the capability to develop
sectional views and enlarged views of particular part details
Different views like oblique, isometric and perspective views can be of
significant assistance in drafting.

The manufacturing database from CAD/CAM


In the conventional manufacturing cycle practiced for so many years in industry,
Engineering drawings were Prepared by design draftsman and then used by
manufacturing engineer to prepare process plan (Route Sheet)
The activities involved in the designing the product were separated from the
activities associated with process planning.
Essentially a two step procedure was employed.
This was both time consuming and involved duplication of efforts by design
and manufacturing personnel
In an integrated CAD/CAM system, a direct link is established between
product design and manufacturing.
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It is goal of CAD/CAM not only to automate certain design phases of design


and certain phases of mfg., but also to automate the transition from design to
manufacturing.
Computer- based systems have been developed which create much of the data
and documentation required to plan and manage the mfg. operations for the
product.
The manufacturing data base is an integrated CAD/CAM data base.
It includes all the data on the product generated during design (geometry data,
BOM , material specifications) as well as additional data required for mfg.,
much of which based on the product design

Figure 7 The manufacturing database from CAD/CAM

Benefits of CAD
Productivity improvement in Design
Shorter lead times
Reduced engineering personnel requirement
Customer modifications are easier to make
Rapid response of the design analysis
Improved accuracy of design
Avoidance of subcontracting to meet schedules
Provide better functional analysis to reduce prototype testing
Avoidance of subcontracting to meet schedules
Assistance in preparation of documentation
Minimized transcription errors
Designs have more standardization
Fewer errors in NC part programming
Better communication interfaces and greater understanding among engineers,
designers, drafters, management and different project groups.
Principles of Concurrent Engineering
Definition
It is a methodology of restructuring the product development activity in an
organization using a cross functional team and is a technique adopted to
improve efficiency of the product design and reduce product cycle time.
Concurrent engineering brings together a wide spectrum of people from
several functional areas in the design and mfr. of a product.

Representatives

from
R&D,
engineering,
manufacturing,
materials management, quality assurance marketing etc
develop the product as a team.
Traditional Process of Serial Engineering
Functions Separated
Functions Serially Executed
No Interaction
Maintenance Usually an Afterthought
Time Consuming
Costly

Figure 8 Serial Engineering

Costs involved in Design changes

Figure 9 Costs involved in Design changes

Concurrent vs. Serial Engineering


All Viewpoints Solicited
Interdisciplinary Teams
Life Cycle Cost Considered
Attempt to represent Concept Early - Before Committing to Detail Design
Data/Information/Knowledge Exchange Planned and Encouraged
Cycle Time and Cost Reduced

Figure 10 A Concurrent Engineering Model

CHAPTER 3. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS OF


CAD
Syllabus
Hardware configuration of a CAD system
Display devices like raster scan devices, plasma panels, liquid crystal displays.
Types of images like halftone, grayscale, colour
Memory requirements for raster scan graphics terminal
Concept of pointing and positioning.
Design Workstation
CAD system would include the following hardware components
One or more workstations. These would consist of
A graphics terminal
Operator input devices
One or more plotters and other output devices
Central Processing unit (CPU)
Secondary storage

Figure 11 Configuration of CAD Workstation


The Design
workstation
Functions of CAD workstation
1. It must interface with the central processing unit
2. It must generate a steady graphic image for the user
3. It must provide digital descriptions of the graphics image
4. It must translate computer commands into operating functions
5. It must facilitate communication between the user and the system.
The Graphics Terminal
Image generation in computer graphics
Graphics terminals for computer aided design
Image generation in computer graphics
All computer graphics terminals available today use the cathode ray tube
(CRT) as the display device.
The operation of CRT is as follows
A heated cathode emits a high speed electron beam onto a phosphor-coated
glass screen.
The electron energize the phosphor coating, causing it to glow at points where
the beam makes contact

By focusing the electron beam , changing its intensity , and controlling its
point of contact against the phosphor coating through the use of deflector
system , the beam can be made to generate picture on the CRT screen

Figure 12 Cathode Ray Tube

Image generation in computer graphics


There are two basic techniques used in computer graphics terminal to
generating the image on the CRT screen
1. Stroke writing
2. Raster scan
Other names for stroke writing technique include line drawing, random position, vector
writing and directed beam
Other names to raster scan technique include digital TV and scan graphics
Stroke Writing
It uses an electron beam which operates like a pencil to create a line image on
the CRT screen.
The image is constructed out of straight segments
Each line can be drawn on the screen by directing the beam to move from one
point on the screen to the next, where each point is defined by its x and y
coordinates.
Although the procedure results in images composed of only straight lines,
smooth curves can be approximated by making the connecting line segments
short enough.

Rasterscan
In this viewing screen is divided into a large number of discrete phosphor
picture elements, called pixels.
The number of pixels in the raster display might be range from 256 X 256 (a
total of 65,000 points) to 1024 X 1024 (a total of 10,00,000 points)
Each pixel on the screen can be made to glow with a different brightness.
Color screens provide for the pixels to have different colors as well as
brightness

Graphics Terminal for CAD


1. Directed-beam refresh
2. Direct-view storage tube (DVST)
3. Raster scan (digital TV)
Directed-beam refresh
Utilizes stroke writing approach to generate the image on the screen
The image must be regenerated many times per second to avoid flickering
The phosphor elements on the screen surface are capable of maintaining their
brightness only for a short time (sometimes measured in micro seconds)
On densely filled screens it is difficult to avoid flickering of the image
As the image is continuously refreshing, selective erasure and alteration of the
image is readily accomplished
It is also possible to provide animation of the image with refresh tube.
Other names are vector refresh and stroke writing refresh
Direct-view storage tube (DVST)
This also uses stroke writing approach to generate image on the CRT screen
The term storage tube refers to the ability of the screen to retain the image
which has been projected against it, thus avoiding the need to rewrite the
image constantly
This is possible with the use of an electron flood gun directed at the phosphor
coated screen which keeps the phosphor elements illuminated once they have
been energized by the stroke writing electron beam.
The resulting image will be flicker free.
In this individual lines cannot be erased selectively
It lacks color capability
These are lowest cost terminals
They are capable of storing large amount of data
Raster Scan Terminals
The operation is similar to commercial Television set
The difference is that TV uses analogue signals generated by video camera to
construct image on CRT screen, while raster scan ICG terminal uses digital
signals generated by computer.
Lowest cost terminals using two beam intensity levels, on or off . This means
that each pixel in the viewing screen is either illuminated or dark
A picture tube with 256 lines of resolution and 256 addressable points per line
would form the image will require 256 X 256 or over 65,000 bits of storage.
Each bit of memory contains the on/off status of the corresponding pixel on
the CRT screen.

This memory is called as frame buffer or refresh buffer


Picture quality can be improved in two ways: by increasing the pixel
intensity and or adding a grey scale (or color).
Increasing picture intensity means adding more lines of resolution and more
addressable points par line.
A 1024 X 1024 raster screen would require more than 1 million bits of storage
in the frame buffer.
A grey scale is accomplished by expanding the number of intensity levels
which can be displayed on each pixel.
This requires additional bits for each pixel to store the intensity level.
Two bits are required for four levels, three bits required for eight levels, and so
forth.
Five or six bits required to achieve approximation for continuous achieve
an approximation of continuous grey scale
For color display , three times as many bits require to get various intensity
levels for each of the three primary colors: red, blue and green.
A raster scan graphics terminal with high resolution and grey scale can require
very large capacity refresh buffer.
Colour CRT Monitors
Two basic techniques used for producing colour display with a CRT are the
1. Beam penetration method
2. Shadow mask method
Beam Penetration Method
It is used with random scan monitors.
Two layers of phosphor, usually red and green, are coated onto the inside of
the CRT screen, and the displayed colour depends upon how far the electron
beam penetrates into the phosphor layer
A beam of slow electrons excites only the outer red layer.
A beam of fast electrons penetrates through the red layer and excites the inner
green layer.
At intermediate speed, combination of red and green light are emitted to show
two additional colours, orange and yellow
The speed of electrons, hence the screen colour at any point is controlled by
the beam acceleration voltage
Delta Delta Shadow Mask Method
These are most widely used because they produce wide variety of range.
A shadow mask CRT has three phosphor dots at each pixel position
One phosphor dot emits a red light, another emits a green and the third emits a
blue light.
This type of CRT has three electron guns one for each colour dot, and shadow
mask grid just behind the phosphor coated screen
The electron beams are deflected and focused as a group onto the shadow
mask, which has series of holes aligned with phosphor dot patterns.
When the three beams pass through a hole in the shadow mask, they activate a
dot triangle, which appears as a small colour spot on the screen.
The phosphor dots are arranged so that each electron beam can activate only
its corresponding color dot when it passes through the shadow mask.

Comparison of Graphics terminal features


DVST

Raster scan

Image Generation
Picture quality
Data content
Selective erase
Grey scale

Direct Beam
storage
Stroke writing
Excellent
Limited
Yes
Yes

Stroke writing
Excellent
High
No
No

Raster scan
Moderate to good

Color capability

Moderate

No

Yes

Animation capability

Yes

No

Moderate

Yes
Yes

Flat Panel Displays


The term flat panel display refers to a class of video devices that have reduced
volume, weight and power requirements as compared to CRT.
Applications of flat panel displays include small TV monitors, calculators,
Pocket video games, laptop computers, an advertising boards etc.
Flat panel displays are classified into two types
1. Emissive displays (emitters)
covert electrical energy into light
Plasma panels, thin film electroluminescent displays and light emitting diodes
etc.
2. Non emissive displays (or non emitters)
use optical effects to convert sunlight or light from some other source to
graphics patterns
Liquid crystal device
Plasma Panels
Also called as gas-discharge displays.
Constructed by filling the region between two glass plates with a mixture of
gases that usually includes neon
A series of vertical ribbons is placed on one glass panel and a set of horizontal
ribbons is built into the another glass panel.
Firing voltage is applied to a pair of horizontal and vertical conductors cause
the gas at intersection of the two conductors to break down into a glowing
plasma of electrons and ions.

Picture definition is stored into a refresh buffer, and the firing voltage is
applied to refresh the pixel positions (at the intersection of the conductors) 60
times per second.
Alternating current method are used to provide faster application of the firing
voltages, and thus brighter images.
The disadvantage is that they are strictly monochromatic devices.
Basic design of plasma panel display device

Liquid Crystal Displays


LCDs are commonly used in small systems such as calculators and portable
laptop computers
These non-emissive devices produce a picture by passing a polarized light
from the surroundings or from an internal light source through a liquid crystal
material that can be aligned to block or transmit the light.
Liquid crystal refers to that these compounds have a crystalline arrangement
of molecules, yet they flow like liquid.
Flat panel display use nematic (threadlike) liquid crystal compounds that tend
to keep the long axis of the rod shaped molecules aligned.
Two glass plates , each containing a light polarizer at right angles to other
plate, sandwich the liquid crystal material
Rows of transparent conductors are built in one glass plate, and columns of
vertical conductors are put into another plate.
The intersection of two conductors defines the pixel position
In on state the molecules are aligned as shown.
Polarized light passing through the material is twisted so that it will pass
though the opposite polarizer.
The light is then reflected back to the viewer
To turn off the pixel, a voltage is applied to the intersecting conductors to
align the molecules so that the light is not twisted.
Picture definition is stored into a refresh buffer, and the firing voltage is
applied to refresh the pixel positions (at the intersection of the conductors) 60
times per second.
This type of flat panel device is referred to as a passive matrix LCD
Another method of constructing LCDs is to place a transistor at each pixel
location, using thin film transistor technology.
The transistors are used to control voltage at pixel locations and to prevent
charge from gradually leaking out of the liquid crystal cells.
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These devices are called as active matrix displays.

Concept of pointing and positioning


In conventional user interaction, the user enters data and selects or
enters commands through keystrokes made on a keyboard.
In interactive graphics these are supplemented by the activities of:
1. Positioning, or location, generally for the data entry within the program
2. Pointing to, or picking, graphical or other elements on the display screen , for
object or command selection.
Positioning
The CAD user inputs the positional information for such tasks as the location
of the geometry within the model, or for the indication of an image to be
magnifies in a zoom or other display control application
Position may be precisely indicated by the entering of the coordinate values.
But where approximate location is satisfactory the position may be given by a
positioning device.
The cursor is used to indicate the current screen position to the user.
The movement of the positioning device is normally reflected in the
movement of the cursor, and a button on the positioning device or a keyboard
keystroke is used to indicate a specific location
Devices used : joystick , mouse, thumbwheels, digitizers
Pointing
The most commonly used device is light pen, which could be pointed at
illuminated parts of the displays to select lines in the image.
The light pens are rarely used.
Halftone

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Continuous tone photographs are reproduced for publications in newspaper,


magazines, and books with a printing process called halftoning, and the
reproduced pictures are called halftones.
For a black and white photograph, each intensity area is reproduced as a series
of black circles on a white background.
The diameter is propositional to the darkness required for that intensity level.
Darker regions are printed with large circles and lighter regions are printed
with small circles.
Book and magazine halftones are printed on high quality paper using
approximately 60 to 80 circles of varying diameter per centimeter.
Newspaper use lower quality papers and lower resolution (about 20 to 30 dots
per centimeter.)

Chapter 4. Software in CAD


Computer Graphics Software
The graphic software is the collection of programs written to make it
convenient for user to operate the computer graphics system.
It includes programs to generate images on the CRT screen, to manipulate the
images, and to accomplish various types interaction between the user and the
system.
Some other programs for implementing specialized functions of CAD/CAM
are
1. Design analysis programs (FEA & kinematic simulation)
2. Manufacturing planning programs (e.g. automated process planning and
numerical control part programming )
Ground rules in Designing Software
1. Simplicity : The graphics software should be easy to use
2. Consistency: The package should operate in a consistent and predictable way
to the user
3. Completeness: There should be no inconvenient omissions in the set of
graphics function
4. Robustness : The graphics system should be tolerant of minor instances of
misuse by the operator
5. Performance: Within limitations imposed by the system hardware, the
performance should be exploited as much as possible by software. Graphics
program should be efficient and speed of response should be fast and
consistent.
6. Economy: Graphics programs should not be so large or expensive as to make
their use prohibitive
The software configuration of a graphics system
In the operation of the graphics system by the user , a variety of activities take place,
which can be divided into three types
Interact with the graphics terminal to create and alter images on the screen
Construct a model of something physical out of the images on the screen. The
models are sometimes called as application models
Enter the model into computer memory and/or secondary storage.
Graphics software
The graphics software can be divided into three modules
The graphics package
The application program
The application data base

Application Program

It controls the storage of data into and retrieves data out of application
database
The application program is driven by the user through the graphics package
The application program is implemented by the user to construct the model of
a physical entity whose image to be viewed on the graphics screen.
Application programs are written for particular problem areas.
Problem areas in engineering design would include arch, construction, mech.
Components, ext, chem, aerospace.
Problem areas other than deign include flight simulators, graphical display of
data, mathematical analysis, and even artwork
Graphics Package
The graphics package is the software support between the user and the
graphics terminal.
It manages the graphical interaction between the user and the system
It also serves as a s/w support between the user and the application software
The graphics package consist of input subroutines and output subroutines
The input subroutine accepts the input commands and data from the user and
forward them to the application program
The output subroutines control the display terminal (or other output device)
and converts the application models into 2D or 3D graphics pictures.
Application data base
The database contains mathematical, numerical and logical definitions of the
application models, such as electronic ckts, mechanical components,
automobile bodies, and so forth.
It also contains alphanumeric information associated with the models, such as
BOM, mass properties and other data.
The contents of the data base can be readily displayed on the CRT or plotted
out in hard copy form.
Functions of a Graphics package
Generation of graphics elements
Transformations
Display control and windowing function
Segmenting functions
User input functions
Generation of graphics elements
A graphic element in computer graphics is a basic image entity such as a dot
(or point), line segment, circle, and so forth
The collection of elements in the system could also include alphanumeric
characters and special symbols
There is often a special hardware component in the graphics system associated
with the display of many of the elements.
This speeds up the process of generating the element
The user can construct the application model out of collection of elements
The term primitive is used in reference to the graphics element
E.g. sphere, cube, or cylinder
In 3D wire frame models and solid modelling, primitives are used as building
blocks.
Transformations
Transformations are used to change the image on the display screen
Transformations are applied to graphics elements in order to aid the user in
constructing an application model

It includes enlargement and reduction of the image by a process called scaling,


repositioning the image or translation, and rotation.
Display control and windowing
This provides the user with the ability to view the image from the desired
angle and at the desired magnification
Another aspect of display control is hidden line removal.
Segmenting function
Segmenting provides user with the capability to selectively replace, delete or
otherwise modify portions of the image.
The term segment refers to a particular portion of the image which has been
identified for the purpose of modifying it.
Storage type CRT is unsuited to segmenting function.

User input output functions


User input functions constitute a critical set of functions in the graphics
package because they permit the operator to enter commands or data to the
system.
The entry is accomplished by means of operator input devices.
Constructing the geometry
The use of graphics elements
Defining the graphics elements
Editing the geometry
The use of graphics elements
The graphics system accomplishes the definition of the model by constructing it
out of graphics elements
These elements are called by the user during the construction process and added
one by one, to create the model
There are several aspects about this construction process.
1. Each new element is being called but before it is added to the model, the user
can specify its size, its position and orientation.
These specifications are necessary to form the model to proper shape and size
For this purpose various transformations are utilized
2. Graphics element can be subtracted as well as added
Another way of saying this is that the model can be formed out of negative
elements as well as positive elements.

3. A third feature available during model building is the capability to group


several elements together into units which are sometimes called cells
A cell in this context , refers to a combination of elements which can be called
to use anywhere in the model e.g. a bolt is to be used in several places in
mechanical assembly
Define the graphics elements
The user has variety of ways to call a particular graphic element and position it
on the geometric model

Points, lines, arcs , circles can be defined in various ways through interaction
with the ICG system

E.g. point can be defined simply by x, y and z coordinates. A polygon would


be defined as an ordered set of points representing the corners of the polygon
Editing the geometry
A CAD provides system provides editing capabilities to make corrections and
adjustments in the geometric model
When developing the model, the user must be able to delete, move, copy and
rotate the components of the model.
The editing involves selecting the particular portion of the model, and
executing the appropriate command
Editing features in CAD
1. Move an item. This involves the translation of item from one place to
another
2. Duplication an item at another location. The copy function is similar to
move function except it preserves a copy of an item at its original location
3. Rotate an object. This is the rotation transformation, in which the item is
rotated through specified angle from its original orientation
4. Mirror an item. This crates a mirror image of an item about a specified
plane.
5. Delete an item. This causes selected segment of the model to be removed
from the screen and from the database.
6. Trim an line or other component
7. Scale an item
The method of selecting the segment of the model varies from system to system
1. With cursor control common method is for a rectangle to be formed on the CRT
screen around the model segment. The rectangle is defines by entering the upper
left and lower right corners of the rectangle
2. It involves light pen to be placed over the component t be selected
The computer must some how show indicate to the user which portion of the
model has been selected
This includes placing mark on the segment, making segment brighter than the rest
of the image, and making the segment blink

Transformations
2-D Transformations
3-D Transformations
Two-dimensional Transformations
To locate a point in a two-axis Cartesian system, the x and y coordinates are
specified.
These coordinate can be treated together as a 1 x 2 matrix : (x, y), e.g. the
matrix (1,4) would be interpreted to be point which is 1 unit from the origin in
the x-direction and 4 units from the origin in the y-direction.
This method of representation can be
extended further to define a line as a
2 x 2 matrix by giving x and y coordinates of the two end points of the line.
The notation would be,

Translation
Translation involves moving the element from one location to another
x= x + m, y = y + n

Where,

x, y = coordinates of the translated point


x, y = coordinates of the original point
m, n= movements in the x and y direction
In the matrix notation this can be represented as,
(x, y) = (x, y) + T
Where,
T = (m, n), the transformation matrix
Scaling
Scaling of an element is used to enlarge it or reduce its size. The scaling need
not necessarily be done equally in x and y directions. e.g. a circle can be
transformed into ellipse by using unequal x and y scaling factors.
The points of an element can be scaled by scaling factor as follows:
(x, y) = (x, y )S
Where

This would produce an alternation in the size of the element by the factor m in
the x-direction and by the factor n in the y direction
It also repositions the element
If the scaling factor is <1 , it is moved closer to origin
If the scaling factor is >1 , it is moved farther from the origin
Rotation
In this transformation, the points of an object are rotated about the origin by an
angle
For a positive angle, this rotation is in the counter clockwise direction
This accomplishes rotation of the object by the same angle, but it also moves
the object. In matrix notation the procedure will be as follows:
(x, y) = (x, y) R
Where

Example : Translation
Consider the line defined by,

Suppose the line to be translate in space by 2 units in x direction and 3 units in the y
direction.

Example : Scaling
Apply scaling factor of 2 to the line

The new line will be,

Example : Rotation
Rotate the line about origin by 30

The new line would be defined as:

The new line will be,

3 Dimensional Transformation
Transformations by matrix methods can be extended to three dimensional
space.
Translation
The translation matrix for a point defined in three dimensional matrix would
be,
T = (m, n, p)
And would be applied by adding increments m, n and p to the respective
coordinates of each of the points defining the three-dimensional geometry
elements
Scaling
The scaling transformation is given by,

For equal values of m, n and p, the scaling is linear


Rotation
Rotation in three dimensions can be defined for each of the axes
Rotation about z axis by angle is accomplished by the matrix

Rotation about y axis by angle is accomplished by the matrix

Rotation about x axis by angle is accomplished by the matrix

Concatenation

Single transformations can be combined as a sequence of transformations.


This is called as concatenation, and the combined transformations are called
concatenated transformations.
During editing process when a graphics model is being developed , the use of
concatenated transformation is quite common
More than one transformations are usually requires to accomplish the desired
transformation

e.g.
1. Rotation of the element about an arbitrary point the element
2. Magnifying the element but maintaining the location of one of its points in the
same location
In the first case transformations would be: translation to the origin, then
rotation about the origin, then translation back to original location
In the second case , the element would be scaled (magnified) followed by a
translation to locate the desired point as needed
The objective of the concatenation is to accomplish a series of image
manipulations as a single transformation
The concatenation is the product of the two transformation matrix
It is important that order of matrix multiplication be the same as the order in
which the transformations are to be carried out.
Example : Concatenation
A point to be scaled by a factor of 2 and rotated by 45. Suppose point under
consideration was (3, 1) . This may be one of the several points defining a
geometric element
First accomplish the transformations sequentially,
First consider the scaling,
(x, y ) = (x, y)S

Next rotation can be performed


(x, y) = ( x, y) R

The same result can be accomplished by concatenating the two transformation


matrices, The product of the two matrices would be

Now applying this concatenated transformation to the original matrix


Page
30

Examples
A line is defined in 2 D space by its end points (1,2) and (6,4). Express this in
matrix notation and perform the following transformation in succession on this
line
1. Rotate the line by 90 about the origin
2. Scale the line by a factor of 0.5 (Dec/Jan 04/05, 8 Marks)
A square of side 30 units has its coordinates A(10,10), B(40,10), C(40,40) and
D(10,40),
Perform the following transformation in succession and show it on graph
paper
1. Rotate about origin 20 anticlockwise
2. Scale it by factor 1.5
3. Perform the above sequence of transformation by concatenation
(May/June 04, 18 Marks)
Homogeneous representation
In order to concatenate the transformations matrices, all
transformation matrices should be multiplicative type.
However, the translation matrix is vector additive while all other are matrix
multiplications.
It is desirable , to express all geometric transformations in form that ,they can
be concatenated by matrix multiplication only.
In homogeneous representation, an
n-dimensional space
is mapped into (n+1) dimensional space.
Thus a 2 dimensional point [x, y] is represented with the homogeneous
coordinate triple (xh,yh,h)
Where,

Thus , a general homogeneous coordinates can also be written as (h.x, h.y, h).
For two-dimensional geometric transformations, homogeneous parameter h to
be any nonzero value.
Thus , there is an infinite number of equivalent homogeneous representations
for each coordinate point (x, y)
A convenient choice is simply to set h=1.
Each two-dimensional position is then represented with coordinates (x, y, 1)
This facilitates the computer graphics operations where the concatenation of
multiple transformations can be easily carried out.
The translation matrix in multiplication form can be given as,

The transformation operation can be written as


Page
31

The scaling matrix in multiplication form can be given as,

The transformation operation can be written as

The rotation matrix in multiplication form can be given as,

The transformation operation can be written as

Problem (Nov/Dec 2004)


A square ABCD of side 50 units having one of its vertex at A(10,10) is to be
scaled by 0.8 along x axis and 1.2 along y-axis. The model is then rotated
about origin by 30 in anticlockwise direction. Perform the necessary
transformations using homogeneous transformation matrix and show them on
graph paper.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CAD/CAM/CAE

CHAPTER 6. 3-D Modelling


Syllabus
Preparing an application model by Boolean operations
Primitive instancing
Boundary representations
CSG (Constructive Solid Geometry )
Wire frame modeling and solid modeling
Sweep representations
Cell decomposition
Boolean operations
Boolean operations are used to make more complicated shapes by combining
simpler shapes
3 types of operations are possible:
1. union (U) or join
2. intersection ()
3. difference (-) or subtract

Boolean operation on solids.


(a) Objects A and B, (b) A U B, (c) A B, (d) A - B, (e) B - A

Boolean operations applied to a cube and a sphere

Primitive Instancing
In primitive instancing modeling approach, primitives are simple 3D solid
shapes, which form the base for creating a solid model
These primitives are parameterized by geometric as well as
physical properties.
The solid model of any object can be created with different combinations of
these primitives.
e.g. one primitive object may be a regular pyramid with a user defined number
of faces meeting at the apex.
A parameterized primitive may be thought of as defining family of parts
whose members vary in few parameters, an important CAD concept known as
group technology.
Primitive instancing is often used for relatively complex objects, such as gears
, bolts, that are tedious to define in terms of Boolean combinations of simpler
objects.
e.g. A gear may be parameterized by its diameter or no. of teeths.
Primitive instancing is based on the concept of families of objects or parts
All parts having same topology but different dimensions are grouped into
family
Each individual part in the family is called a primitive instance.
e.g. a cylinder is represented by diameter(D) and height (h)
Each primitive instancing is defined by specific (D) and (H)
A number of such cylinder primitive instancing creates a family of cylinders
A group of such families can define a solid
Boundary representations (B-rep)
Boundary representations or b-reps describe the solid object in terms of its
boundaries, that is the vertices, edges and faces.
In this model, face is bounded by edges and each edge is bounded by vertices.
The entities which constitute a B-rep model are:
Geometrical Entities Topological entities

Page
34

Point

Vertex

Page
35

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Curve, line
Edge
Surface

CAD/CAM/CAE

Face

B Rep Model
An Edge-Based Model

v
4

e6
e4

e5

e2
e3

v1

v3

e1

v2

Faces:
f1
f2
f3
f4

e1
e2
e3
e3

e4
e6
e5
e2

Edges:
e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

v1
v2
v3
v2
v1
v3

v2
v3
v1
v4
v4
v4

Vertices:
v1
x1
v2
x2
v3
x3
v4
x4
v5
x5
v6
x6

y1
y2
y3
y4
y5
y6

e5
e4
e6
e1

z1
z2
z3
z4
z5
z6

Page
35

Though B-rep models is constructed of surfaces of solids, computation of


mass and volumetric properties is possible.
The range of models that can be modeled with B-rep technique is very large.
The Boundary representation approach requires the user to draw the outline or
boundary of the object on CRT screen using an electronic tablet and pen or
analogous procedure.
The user would sketch various views of the object (front, side and top , or
more views if needed), drawing interconnecting lines among the views to
establish their relationship.
Various transformations and other specialized editing procedure are used to
refine the model to the desired shape.
Unusual shapes can be formed with the help of this representation
e.g. aircraft fuselage or wing shapes and automobile body styling
This model is stored in the database as stores precise definition of the model
boundaries.
The model requires more storage space but less computation effort in
reconstruction of the model and its image.
It is relatively simple to convert back and forth between a boundary
representation and a corresponding wire frame.
Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG or C-rep)
A CSG model is based on the concept that a physical object can be divided
into a set of primitives (basic elements or shapes) that can be combined in a
certain order following a set of rules (Boolean operations) to form the object.
Each primitive is bounded by a set of surfaces; usually closed and orientable.
A CSG model is fundamentally and topologically different from a B-rep
model in that the former does not store explicitly the faces, edges, and
vertices.
There is a wide variety of primitives available commercially to users.
However, the four most commonly used are the block, cylinder, cone and
sphere.
Initial formulation the object is easier in case of C-rep
It is relatively easy to construct a precise solid model out of regular solid
primitives by use of Boolean operations.

The building block approach is results in more compact file of the model in
the data base
Unusual shapes can not be formed easily with this representation
This model stores the model by combination of data and logical procedures
(the Boolean model)
This model requires less storage but more computation to reproduce the model
and its image
Because of relative advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches ,
hybrid systems have been developed which combine the CSG and B-rep
approaches.

Construction of a Wrench

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CAD/CAM/CAE

Wire frame modeling


In construction of the wire-frame model, the edges of the object are shown as
lines
The image assumes the appearance of a frame structured out of wire- so it is
called as Wire frame model
Very often designers also build physical models to help in the visualization of
a design.
This may require the construction of skeleton models using wires to
represent the edges of an object or component.
Wire frame modeling, as used currently in computer-aided engineering
techniques, is the computer-based analogue of this process.
A wire-frame model consists of a finite set of points together with the edges
connecting various pairs of these points,
There are limitations to the models which use the wire frame approach.
These limitations are more prominent in case of three-dimensional models.
These models are more suitable for two-dimensional representation.
The more remarkable limitation is that all the lines that define edges of the
model are shown in the image.
Many of 3-D wire frame systems does not have automatic hidden line removal
feature.
The image becomes much complicated to understand and in some cases it
might be interpreted in number of ways.
There is also limitation in defining the model in CAD database

Wireframe ambiguity:
Is this object (a), (b) or (c) ?

(c)
(a)

(b)

Solid modeling
An improvement in the wire frame modeling, both in terms of realism to the
user and definition to the computer.
In this models are displayed with less risk of misinterpretation
When color are added the picture becomes realistic one.
The solid modeling has wide range of applications other than CAD and
manufacturing.
These includes color illustrations in magazines and technical publications,
animation in movies and training simulators

The solid models are used widely because of following factors:


1. Increasing awareness among users of the limitation of the wire frame systems
2. Continuing development of computer hardware and software which makes
solid modeling possible
These models require high computational power in terms of both speed and
memory, in order to operate
Sweep Representations
When a curve /shape is moved along a curved path a new object created is
called a sweep
When a 2D object is swept along a linear path , then the resulting object is
known as extrusion.
Rotational sweeps are defined by rotating an area about an axis.

Sweeps of solids are useful in modelling the regions swept by a machine tool
or a tool path.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CAD/CAM/CAE
Sweeps whose generating volume or area changes in shape, size or in
orientation as they swept, are known as generalized sweeps.
Sweep representation is useful in generating extruded solids and solids of
revolution.
The sweeping operation is based on sweeping a curve or surface.
Applications involves simulations of material removal due to machining
operations and interference detection of moving objects in space.

1.

There are three types of sweep


Linear
Translational
Rotational

2. Non linear
3. Hybrid

Page
40

Cell Decomposition
An object can be modelled by decomposing its volume into smaller volume of
cells which are mutually continuous and do not penetrate into each other.
The shape in this need not be a cube nor they should be identical.

It can be seen that some cells are partly outside the boundary, while some of them
are partly inside the boundary
This is approximate representation of an object.
Page
41

In such a case , a smaller hole or cavity gets neglected if the size of cavity is
smaller of the cells or other than squares in this scheme.

Page
42

This difficulty can be overcome by permitting various shapes of cells other than
squares and rectangles, such as triangles.

CHAPTER 7. Graphics Standards

The need for portability of the geometric model among different hardware
platforms has led to the development of device independent graphics
Simultaneously standards for exchange of drawing data base among software
packages have been developed to facilitate integration of design and
manufacturing operations
The heart of any CAD model is the component database.
This includes the graphics entities like points, lines, arcs etc. and coordinate
points which define the location of these entities
This geometric data is used in all downstream applications of CAD, which
include finite element modeling and analysis, process planning, estimation,
CNC programming, Robot programming, programming of CMM, MRP
systems
To achieve high level of integration between CAD, analysis
and manufacturing operations, the database must contain:
Shapes of the components ( based on 3-D wire frame or solid model )
Bill of materials (BOM), of the assembly which the components are used.
Materials of the components
The manufacturing, test and assembly procedures to carried out to produce a
component so that it is capable of functioning as per requirements of design
In designing data structure for CAD database the following factors to be
considered:
The data must be neutral
The data structure must be user friendly
The data base must be portable
Features of GKS
The feature of Graphics Kernel system include
1. Device independent: The does not assume that any of the input or output
devices have particular features or restrictions
2. Text/ annotations : All text or clarification are in a neutral languages like
English
3. Display management: A complete set of display management functions, cursor
control and other features are provided.
4. Graphics Functions: Graphics functions are provided in 2D or 3D
GKS Implementation in a CAD W/S

The drivers in GKS is also includes metafile drivers


Metafiles are devices with no graphics capability
GKS offers two routine to define user created
pictures
1. Primitive functions
2. Attribute functions
1. Primitive functions Examples
POLYLINE to draw set of connected straight lines
FILL AREA to draw a closed polygon with interior fill
TEXT to create characters
GDP (Generalized Drawing Primitive ) to specify the standard
drawing entities like circles, ellipse etc.
2. Attribute functions defines appearance of the image e.g. color, line type etc.
Exchange of data between CAD packages
E.g. to transfer CAD model created in Pro/E to I-DEAS or Unigraphics
To transfer geometric data from one software to another e.g. to carry out
modeling in PRO/E and analysis in ANSYS
One method to meet this need is to use translators. This means developer will
have to produce its own translators

A solution to translators is to use neutral files


The neutral files have standard formats and software packages can have
preprocessors to convert the file data to neutral file and post processors to
convert neutral file data to drawing file

DATA EXCHANGE
The need for exchanging modeling data is directly motivated by the need to
integrate and automate the design and mfg. processes to obtain max. benefits
from CAD/CAM.
The component database can be used in downstream applications like FEA,
Process planning, Robot programming, MRP, C. N. C. programming.
There should be tie between the two or more systems to form an application
that shares common data.

Data exchange files are neutral files. Following are two types of neutral files:

1. DXF (Data Exchange File)


2. IGES file (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification )
DXF (Data Exchange File)
DXF files are std. ASCII text files, which can be easily translated to the
formats of other CAD systems
The DXF facility is available in several drafting packages.
In case of Auto CAD , the data regarding the created drawing may require to
view , modify or plotting.
Also data can be used for analysis purpose like FEA
In case of Auto CAD , a drawing interchange file (DXF) can be generated
from the existing drawing by means of DXFOUT command.
On the other hand a drawing interchange file can be converted into Auto CAD
drawing by means of DXFIN command
The general structure of DXF file is as follows:
HEADER Section : general information of drawing
TABLE Section :
Linetype (LTYPE) table
Layer table
Text style (STYLE) table
User coordinate system (UCS) table
View port configuration file (VPORT) table
BLOCKS Section
ENTITIES Section
END OF FILE
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification )
It is standard exchange format developed for communicating product data
among dissimilar CAD/CAM systems.
It has been used for two purposes:
Transfer of data within dissimilar systems
Digital communication between company and its suppliers, customers
i.e. IGES enable data transfer from one CAD system to another
The software which translates data from CAD system to IGES is known as
preprocessor
The software which translates data from IGES data to a CAD system is known
as postprocessor

IGES defines a database, in the form of a file format, which describes an


IGES Model of modeling data of a given product
IGES model can be read and interpreted by dissimilar CAD/CAM systems.
IGES model based on the concept of entities.
The fundamental unit of information of model i.e. IGES file, is the entity, all
product definition data are expressed as a list of predefined entities.
Each entity defined by IGES is assigned a specific entity type number to refer
to it in the IGES file.

Entities are categorized as geometric and non geometric.

Geometric entities represent the definition of the product shape and include
curves and surfaces.
Non geometric entities provide views and drawings of the model to enrich its
representation and include annotation and structural entities.
Annotation entities include types of dimensions (linear, angular) symbols,
centerlines, cross hatching.
Structure entities include views, drawings, attributes (i.e. line and text fonts,
colors, layers etc.), properties (e.g. mass), symbol (e.g. mechanical and
electrical ) and macros (to define parametric parts)

IGES file structure

Flag section
Start section
Global section
Directory entry section
Parameter data section
Terminate section

Start section contains comments that can be used to describe the drawing,
identify its source, comment on its format an so on.
Global section includes information that describes global characteristics of the
IGES file, such as name of the file, the system that created the file, units of
measures, and precision
Directory entry section describes the entities in the drawing. This section
contains attributes such as color, line style. Also provides an index to the
entities in the file
Parameter data section contains data to describe each entity, such as point
coordinates, coefficients of curve and surface equations, text characters and
other attributes.
Terminate section
IGES Limitations
IGES is complex and wordy
These files are about five times larger than an equivalent product file
Several entities required for specialized CAD applications are not available in
IGES file
It does not convey the extensive product information needed in the design and
mfg. cycle.
STEP

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data, officially the ISO standard
10303, Product Data Representation and Exchange, is a series of International
Standards with the goal of defining data across the full engineering and mfg.
life cycle.
The ability to share data across applications, across vendor platforms and
between contractors, suppliers and customers, is the main goal of this
standard.
Scope of STEP
The standard method of representing the information necessary for completely
defining a product throughout its entire life, i.e. from the product conception
to the end of useful life.
Standard method for exchanging the data electronically between two different
systems.
It provides worldwide standard for storing, sharing and exchanging product
information among different CAD systems.
It includes methods of representing all critical product specifications such as
shape information, materials, tolerances, finishes and product structure.
It is data exchange that would apply to a wide range of product areas,
including architectural, engineering and construction.
STEP Architecture
It has main four components
1. EXPRESS modelling language
2. Data schemes including attributes such as geometry, topology, features and
tolerances.
3. Application interface called Standard Data Access Interface (SDAI) to enable
applications to access and manipulate STEP data
4. STEP database

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CAD/CAM/CAE

CHAPTER 8. ROBOTICS
Definition
A robot is a programmable , multi functio n manipulator deigned to move
material, parts, tools or special devices through variable programmed motion
for the performance of a variety of tasks
An industrial robot is a general purpose , programmable machine processing
certain anthropomorphic characteristics
What are the parts of a robot?
Manipulator
Pedestal
Controller
End Effectors
Power Source
Manipulator (Mimics the human arm)
Base
Appendages
o
Shoulder
o Arm
o Grippers Pedestal
(Human waist)
Supports the manipulator.
Acts as a counterbalance.
Controller (The brain)
Issues instructions to the robot.
Controls peripheral devices.
Interfaces with robot.
Interfaces with humans. End
Effectors (The hand)
Spray paint attachments
Welding attachments
Vacuum heads
Hands
Grippers
Power Source (The food)
Electric
Pneumatic
Hydraulic
ROBOT PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION
1. Cartesian configuration
2. Cylindrical configuration
3. Polar configuration
4. Joint-arm configuration
Cartesian Configuration
Robots with Cartesian configurations consist of links connected by linear
joints (L). Gantry robots are Cartesian robots (LLL).
Cartesian Robots
It consists of three orthogonal slides.
Three slides are parallel to x, y and z axes of the Cartesian coordinate system
Commonly used for:
pick and place work
assembly operations
handling machine tools
Page 48

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
arc welding

CAD/CAM/CAE

Advantages:
ability to do straight line insertions into furnaces.
easy computation and programming.
most rigid structure for given length.
Disadvantages:
requires large operating volume.
exposed guiding surfaces require covering in corrosive or dusty environments.
can only reach front of itself
Cylindrical Configuration
Robots with cylindrical configuration have one rotary ( R) joint at the base and
linear (L) joints succeeded to connect the links.
Cylindrical Robots
In this, the robot body is a vertical column that swivels about vertical axis
The arm consist of several orthogonal slides which allow the arm to be moved
up and down and in or out w.r.t. to body
Commonly used for:
handling at die-casting machines
assembly operations
handling machine tools
spot welding
Advantages:
can reach all around itself
rotational axis easy to seal
relatively easy programming
rigid enough to handle heavy loads through large working space
good access into cavities and machine openings
Disadvantages:
linear axes is hard to seal
wont reach around obstacles
exposed drives are difficult to cover from dust and liquids
Spherical/Polar Robots
A robot with 1 prismatic joint and 2 rotary joints the axes consistent with a polar
coordinate system.
Commonly used for:
handling at die casting or fettling
machines
handling machine tools
arc/spot welding
Advantages:
large working envelope.
two rotary drives are easily sealed against liquids/dust.
Disadvantages:
complex coordinates more difficult to visualize, control, and program.
exposed linear drive.
low accuracy
Joint-arm Configuration

ge 49
Pa

The jointed-arm is a combination of cylindrical and articulated configurations.


The arm of the robot is connected to the base with a twisting joint.
The links in the arm are connected by rotary joints. Many commercially
available robots have this configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of 4 Robot Types
Configuration Advantages
Cartesian
coordinates

Disadvantages

3 linear axes, easy to visualize,


rigid structure, easy to program

Can only reach front of itself,


requires large floor space, axes
hard to seal
Cylindrical
2 linear axes +1 rotating, can
Cant reach above itself, base
coordinates
reach all around itself, reach and rotation axis as less rigid, linear
height axes rigid, rotational axis axes is hard to seal, wont reach
easy to seal
around obstacles
Spherical
1 linear + 2 rotating axes, long
Cant reach around obstacles,
coordinates
horizontal reach
short vertical reach
Joined-arm
3 rotating axes can reach above or Difficult to program off-line, 2
Revolute
below obstacles, largest work area or 4 ways to reach a point, most
coordinates
for least floor space
complex manipulator
Basic Motion Systems
Six degrees of freedom
It provides the robot the capability to move and perform predetermined task
These six degrees of freedom are intended to follow the versatility of
movement possessed by the human arm
The six basic motions consists of three arm and body motions and three wrist
motions
Arm and body motions
1. Rotational transverse : Rotation about the vertical axis (right or left swivel of
the robot arm )
2. Vertical transverse : Up and down motions of the arm , caused by pivoting the
entire arm about a horizontal axis or moving the arm about vertical slide.
3. Radial transverse : extension and retraction of the arm (in and out movement)
Wrist motions
4. Wrist swivel : Rotation of the wrist
5. Wrist bent : Up and down movement of the wrist , which also involves a
rotational movement
6. Wrist yaw : swivel of the wrist

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50

ROBOT MOTION SYSTEMS


Classification Based on Control Systems:
1. Point-to-point (PTP) control robot
2. Continuous-path (CP) control robot
Point to Point Control Robot (PTP):
The PTP robot is capable of moving from one point to another point.
The locations are recorded in the control memory. PTP robots do not control
the path to get from one point to the next point.
Common applications include:
component insertion
spot welding
hole drilling
machine loading and unloading
assembly operations
Continuous-Path Control Robot (CP):
The CP robot is capable of performing movements along the controlled path.
All the points along the path must be stored explicitly in the robot's control
memory.
Straight-line motion is the simplest example for this type of robot.
Some continuous-path controlled robots also have the capability to follow a
smooth curve path that has been defined by the programmer.
In such cases the programmer manually moves the robot arm through the
desired path and the controller unit stores a large number of individual point
locations along the path in memory
Typical applications include:
spray painting
finishing
gluing
arc welding operations
Programming with Robot
1. Manual method
2. Walkthrough method
3. Leadthrough method
4. Off- line programming

Manual method
It is more like setting machine rather than programming
It involves setting mechanical stops, cams, switches, or relays in the robots
control unit
Used for short work cycles (e.g. pick-and-place operations )
Walkthrough Method
In this programmer manually moves robots arm and hand through the
sequence of the work cycles.
Each movement is recorded into memory for subsequent playback during the
production
Speed is controlled independently
Appropriate for spray painting, arc welding robots
Leadthrough Method
Uses teach pendent to power drive the robot through its motion sequence
Teach pendent is device, consists of switches and dials to control the robots
physical movements
Each motion is recorded into memory for future playback during the
workcycle
Popular because of its ease and convenience
Off-line Programming
It involves the preparation of robot program off-line , in a manner similar to
NC part programming
It is accomplished on computer terminal
After preparation it is entered into the memory of the computer for use during
the work cycle.
The advantage is that production time of robot is not lost to delays in teaching
the robot a new task
Robotic Sensors
Sensors provide feedback to the control systems and give the robots more
flexibility.
Sensors such as visual sensors are useful in the building of more accurate and
intelligent robots.
The sensors can be classified as follows:
Position sensors
Position sensors are used to monitor the position of joints.
Information about the position is fed back to the control systems that are used
to determine the accuracy of positioning
Range sensors
Range sensors measure distances from a reference point to other points of
importance.
Range sensing is accomplished by means of television cameras or sonar
transmitters and receivers.
Velocity Sensors
They are used to estimate the speed with which a manipulator is moved.
The velocity is an important part of the dynamic performance of the
manipulator.
The DC tachometer is one of the most commonly used devices for feedback of
velocity information.
Proximity Sensors
They are used to sense and indicate the presence of an object within a
specified distance without any physical contact.

This helps prevent accidents and damage to the robot.

infra red sensors


acoustic sensors
touch sensors
force sensors
tactile sensors for more accurate data on the position
The Hand of a Robot: End-Effectors
The end- effecter (commonly known as robot hand) mounted on the wrist
enables the robot to perform specified tasks.
Various types of end-effectors are designed for the same robot to make it more
flexible and versatile.
End-effectors are categorized into two major types: grippers and tools.

Grippers
Grippers are generally used to grasp and hold an object and place it at a
desired location.
mechanical grippers
vacuum or suction cups
magnetic grippers
adhesive grippers
hooks, scoops, and so forth

Tools
At times, a robot is required to manipulate a tool to perform an operation on a
workpiece. In such applications the end- effecter is a tool itself
spot-welding tools
arc-welding tools
spray-painting nozzles
rotating spindles for drilling
rotating spindles for grinding
Technical features of Robot
1. Work volume
2. Precision of movement
3. Speed movement
4. Weight carrying capacity
5. Types of drive system
Work Volume
o It refers to the space within which the robot can operate
o It is the spatial region within which the end of the robots wrist can be
manipulated
o The work volume is determined by its physical configuration , size, and limits
of its arms and joint manipulations
o E.g. work volume of Cartesian coordinate robot is rectangular, for polar it is
partial sphere etc.
Precision of movements
1. Spatial resolution:
The spatial resolution of a robot is the smallest increment of movement into
which the robot can divide its work volume.

It depends on the systems control resolution and the robot's mechanical


inaccuracies.
2. Accuracy :
Accuracy can be defined as the ability of a robot to position its wrist end at a
desired target point within its reach.
Accuracy is closely related to spatial resolution , since the robots ability to
reach a particular point in space depends on its ability to divide its joint
movements into small increments
In terms of control resolution, the accuracy can be defined as one-half of the
control resolution.
The accuracy of a robot is affected by many factors. For example, when the
arm is fully stretched out, the mechanical inaccuracies tend to be larger
because the loads tend to cause deflection.

3. Repeatability:
It is the ability of the robot to position the end effector to the previously
positioned location.
It depends on the stability of the control system and is affected by temperature,
load etc.

Speed of movement
The speed with which the robot can manipulate the end effector ranges up to a
maximum of about 1.5 m/s
The speed is determined depends of factors like weight of the object being
moved, the distance moved, and the precision required.
Heavy objects can not be moved as fast as light objects because of inertia
problem
Objects must be moved slowly when high positional accuracy is required
Weight carrying capacity
It covers wide range
At higher end, there are robots which can lift up to 500 kgs to 1000 kgs.

At lower end, there are robots which can be used for 0.75 to 1.5 kgs.
Types of drive system

1. Hydraulic drive
Provide fast movements
Preferred for moving heavy parts
Preferred to be used in explosive environments
Occupy large space area
There is a danger of oil leak to the shop floor
2. Electric drive
Slower movement compare to the hydraulic robots
Good for small and medium size robots
Better positioning accuracy and repeatability
stepper motor drive: open loop control
DC motor drive: closed loop control
Cleaner environment
The most used type of drive in industry
3. Pneumatic drive
Preferred for smaller robots
Less expensive than electric or hydraulic robots
Suitable for relatively less degrees of freedom design
Suitable for simple pick and place application
Relatively cheaper

CHAPTER 9. N. C. MACHINE TOOLS


SYLLABUS
N. C. system
Components and procedure
Coordinate systems, axes
Part Programming
Manual Part Programming, Formats
N. C. Codes
Computer assisted part programming , Programming Languages
Part programming for turning, milling and drilling by both methods
Part Programming with APT
Basic components of CNC and DNC
Introduction
Numerical control is a form of programmable automation in which the
processing equipment is controlled by a set of instructions called as program
(which contains numbers, letters, and symbols)
The numbers, letters, and symbols are coded in an appropriate format to define
a program of instructions for a particular work part or job.
When the job changes, the program of instructions changed.
The capability of changing programs makes NC suitable for low and medium
volume production
Basic components of NC
1. Program of Instructions
2. Machine Control Unit
3. Processing Equipment

Basic components of NC
1. Program of Instructions
The program of instructions is the detailed step by step commands that direct
the processing equipment
Commands refer to position of spindle w. r. t. worktable on which the part
is fixtured
More advanced instructions include selection of spindle speeds, cutting tools
etc.
The common medium used for coding of program is 1- in. wide punched tape.
Some recently used are punched cards, magnetic tape cassettes and floppy
diskettes
2. Machine Control Unit (MOU)
MCU consists of the electronics control and hardware that read and interpret
program of instruction and convert it into mechanical actions of the machine
tool or other processing equipment.

The elements of machine tool are consists of a tape reader, data buffer, signal
input/output channels, feedback channels and sequence control,

The tape reader has an electromechanical device used to read and wind the
tape
The data buffer then interprets the program of instructions and also stores the
instructions in logical blocks of information
From here signals are sent to through the signal output channels which are
connected to the servomotor and other controls in the machine tools.
Feedback signals are provided for ensuring proper execution of the given
instructions
The sequence control coordinates the activities of the other elements of the
control unit
3. Processing Equipment
It is the component that performs useful work
The machine tool consists of worktable and spindle to hold tools, motors and
controls necessary to drive them.

NC Procedure
1. Process planning
2. Part programming
3. Tape preparation
4. Tape verification
5. Production
Process Planning
The engineering drawing of the workpart must be interpreted in terms of the
manufacturing processes to be used
It consists of preparation of route sheet
Part Programming
A part programmer plans for the portions of the job to be accomplished by NC
The part programmers are responsible for planning the sequence of operations
to be performed by NC
There are two ways to program for NC
Manual part programming
Computer-assisted part programming
Manual part programming
In this, the machining instructions are prepared on a form called a part
program manuscript
The manuscript is a listing of the relative cutter/ work piece positions which
must be followed to machine the part.
Computer assisted part programming
In this , much of the tedious computational work required in manual part
programming is transferred to the computer.
This is particularly appropriate for complex work piece geometries and jobs
with many machining steps
It also saves part programming time
Tape Preparation
A punched tape is prepared from the part programmers NC process plan
In manual part programming, the punched tape is prepared from the part
program manuscript or a typewriter like device equipped with tape punching
capability
In Computer assisted part programming, the computer interprets the list of part
programming instructions, performs the necessary calculations to covert this
into detailed set of machine tool commands, and then controls a tape punched
device to prepare tape for specific NC machine
To check the accuracy of punched tape some methods are used
Sometimes the tape is checked by running it through a computer program
which plots the various tool movements (or table movements) on paper. In this
major errors can be discovered
The Acid Test of the tape involves trying it on the machine tool to make the
part.
A foam or plastic material is sometimes used for this purpose.
Production
This involves ordering the raw workparts, specifying and preparing the tooling
and any special fixturing that may be required.

The Operators function is to load the workpart in the machine and establish
the starting position of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece.

The NC system then takes over and machines the part according to the
instructions on tape.

NC coordinate system
In order to plan positions and movement of cutting tool relative to the workpiece,
a standard system is developed to specify relative positions.

NC axis system for milling and drilling


Two axis, x and y, are defined in the plane of the table.
z axis is perpendicular to this and movement in the z axis is controlled by the
vertical motion of the spindle.
Three rotational axis defined in NC : the a, b and c axes. These axis specify
angles about x, y and z axis respectively
To distinguish positive motion from negative motions, the right hand rule can
be used.
Using the right hand with the thumb pointed in the positive linear direction (x,
y or z), the fingers of the right hand are curled to point in the positive
rotational direction.

NC axis system for Turing


For turning operation, two axis are normally required to command the
movement of the tool relative to the rotating workpiece.
The z-axis is the axis of rotation of the work part, and x-axis defines the radial
location of the cutting tool.
Fixed zero and floating zero
The programmer must define the position of the tool relative to the origin
(zero) point of the coordinate system.
There are two method for specifying zero point
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60

1. Fixed point zero

Page
60

2. Floating zero
Fixed zero
In this the origin is always located at the same position on the machine table.
Usually, that position is the southwest (lower left hand corner) of the table and
all tool locations will be defined by positive x and y coordinates.
Floating zero
In this machine operator can set zero point at any point on the machine table.
The part programmer decides the zero point.
The decision based on the part programming convenience
e.g. in case of symmetric part the zero point can be located at the centre of the
symmetry.
The position of the zero point is communicated to the machine operator.
At the start the operator moves the under manual control to some Target
point on the table.
When the tool has been positioned to the target point, the machine operator
pressed a zero button on the machine tool
Absolute and incremental positioning
Absolute positioning means that the tool locations are always defined in
relation to the zero point.
Incremental positioning means that the next tool location must be defined with
reference to the previous tool location.
Absolute and incremental positioning

NC Systems
There are three types of motion control used in Numerical control
1.
2.
3.
Point

Point to point
Straight cut
Contouring
to point NC
Point to point (PTP) is also called a positioning system.
In PTP, the objective of the machine control unit is to move the cutting tool to
a predefined location
The speed or path by which this movements is accomplished is not important
in point to point NC
Once the tool reaches the desired location , the machining operation is
performed at that position
Example of this system is NC drill press.
Positioning system are the simplest machine tool control systems.
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61

This system is least expensive of the three types

Page
62

Straight-cut NC
Straight cut control systems are capable of moving the cutting tool parallel to
one of the major axis at a controlled rate suitable for machining
It is appropriate for performing milling operations on work pieces
of rectangular shape.
Angular cut would not be possible.
An NC tool capable of straight cur movements is also capable of point to point
movements

Contouring NC
(Continuous path NC )
Contouring is most complex, the most flexible and most expensive type of
machine tool control.
It is capable of performing both PTP and straight cut operations
In addition, it can control more than one axis movement of the machine tool.
The path of the cutter is continuously controlled to generate desired geometry
of the machine tool.
Turing and milling are common examples

In order to machine a curved path in a NC system the direction of feed rate is


to be changed continuously to follow desired path.

This is achieved by breaking the curved path into very short straight line
segments.

Applications
Milling
Drilling and related processes
Boring
Turning
Grinding
Sawing
Other applications
Press working machine tools
Welding machines
Inspection machines
Automatic drafting
Assembly machines
Tube bending
Flame cutting
Plasma arc cutting
Laser beam processes
Cloth cutting
Automatic riveting
NC machines are suitable for
1. Parts are processed frequently and in small lot sizes
2. The part geometry is complex
3. Many operations must be performed on the part in its processing
4. Much metal needs to be removed

5. Engineering design changes are likely


6. Close tolerance must be held on the part
7. It is an expensive part where mistakes in processing would be costly
8. The parts require 100 % inspection.
Advantages of NC over conventional systems:
Flexibility with accuracy, repeatability, reduced scrap, high production rates,
good quality
Reduced tooling costs
Easy machine adjustments
More operations per setup, reduced leadtime, accommodate design change,
reduced inventory
Rapid programming and program recall, less paperwork
Faster prototype production
Less-skilled operator , multi-work possible
Reduced fixturing
Limitations of NC
Relatively high initial cost of equipment
Need for part programming
Special maintenance requirements
More costly breakdowns
Finding and/or training NC personnel
The Punched tape in NC
The part program is converted into a sequence of machine tool actions by
means of the input medium, which contains the program, the controller unit,
which interprets the input medium.
The controller unit and input medium which must be compatible.
Input medium uses symbols which represent part program and the controller
unit must be capable of reading it.
The most common input medium is Punched Tape
The punched tape used in NC is 1 inch wide.
The tape has eight tracks or coding channels and a column of smaller holes for
feeding the tape.
The coding of tape is provided by either the present or absence of a hole in
various positions
This system of coding is called as binary system
The NC tape coding system is used to code not only numbers, but also
alphabetical letters and other symbols

There are two methods for preparing punched tape


The first method associated with manual part programming and involves the
use of typewriter like device.
The operator writes directly from the part programmers hand written list of
coded instructions.
This produces a typed copy of the program as well as the punched tape.
The second method used with Computer assisted part programming.
By this approach, the tape is prepared directly by the computer using a device
called a tape punch.
During production, the tape id fed through the tape reader once for each
workpiece.
It is advanced through the tape reader one instruction at a time.
While the machine tool is performing one instruction, the next instruction is
being read into the controller units data buffer.
After last instruction has been read into the controller, the tape is rewound
back to the start of the program to ready for next workpart.
How instructions are formed?
A binary digit is called as bit.
It has value of 0 or 1 depending on the absence or presence of hole in a certain
row or column position on the tape (columns of hole positions run lengthwise
along the tape. Row positions run across the tape.)
Out of row of bits, a character is made
A character is a combination of bits, which represent a letter, number or other
symbol
A word is a collection of characters to form part of an instruction. Examples
of NC words are x position, y position, cutting speed and so on.
Out of collection of words, a block is formed.
A block of words is a complete NC instruction
E.g. in NC drilling a block might contain information on the x and y
coordinates of the hole location, the speed and feed at which the cut should be
taken.
To separate a block , an end-of block (EOB) symbol is used.
The tape reader feeds the data from the tape into the buffer in blocks

That is, it reads in a complete instruction at a time


NC words
Following are the different types of words in formation of block. Not every NC
uses all the words
Sequence number (n-words): This is used to identify the block
Preparatory words (g-words): This word is used to prepare the controller for
instructions that are to follow e.g. g02 is used for circular interpolation along
an arc in the clockwise direction . The preparatory words are needed so that
the controller can correctly interpret that follow it in the block
Coordinates (x-, y-, and z-words): This give the coordinate positions of the
tool. In two axis system o9nly two of the words would be used. In four or five
axis, additional a-words and/or b-words would specify the angular positions
Feed rate (f-words) : this specifies the feed in the machining operation
Cutting speed (s-words) : This specifies the cutting speed of the process, the
rate at which the spindle rotates.
Tool selection (t-word) : This control would needed only for machines with a
tool turret or automatic tool changer. The t-word specifies which tool is to be
used in the operation.
Miscellaneous words (m-words): The m-word is used to specify certain
miscellaneous or auxiliary functions which may be available on machine tool
E.g. m03 used to start spindle rotation. This word is last in the block.
Programming Formats
Fixed block format

Tab sequential format

Word address format


Fixed block format
In this number of characters in every block is the same
The words in each block must follow a fixed sequence e.g. sequence number
followed by x dimension, followed by y dimension, followed by end of block
statement
In case of floating zero coordinate system, every coordinate value must be
preceded by its sign.
This is not necessary in case of fixed zero coordinate system.
Tab sequential format
The tab character is used to separate the words in a block
The words follow the fixed sequence as like fixed block format
In this repeated words (dimension) need not be punched and may be passed
over by pressing the tab character.
Word address format
The words in block need not follow fixed sequence, as each displacement
information is preceded by an identifying word (X or Y) which acts as the
address
In this the X and Y characters must be punched
This makes program longer at the same time offers greater flexibility to the
programmer.

Program: Point to Point

1. Drilling a hole 6 at point 1.


2. Drilling a hole 6 at point 2, and
3. Making a threaded hole M12 at point 3;machining hole M12 involves drilling
a hole 10.3 and then tapping (Taps are come in two sets)
The machine tool format is
N3.G2.X 3.3. Y 3.3.
M2.EOB
In this format. represents tab-sequential format
Additional features to be considered:
Machine tool has provision for absolute as well as incremental dimensioning,
i/p of dimensions in mm or inch, and PTP and continuous path controls,
The machine has full range zero shift
The machine zero is shifted to the setup point, which is the lower left corner of
the part
The machine control unit has provision for suppressing trailing zeros
To avoid trouble in loading and unloading of the workpiece and tool changing
must be positioned at point 4 (X=100, Y = 100) during these operations

Coordinates of programmed points


Point
1
2
3
4
Program

X
On
drawing
5
5
55
100

Y
On tape
005
005
055
1

On
drawing
5
45
25
100

On tape
005
045
025
1

Preparatory functions used for Programme


G90 prepares the machine control unit for the absolute dimension input
G71 prepares machine tool control unit to accept the dimensions in
mm
G81 prepares machine tool control unit for drilling cycle, the cycle includes rapid
traverse to the X and y coordinates, rapid quill movement to the gauge height, feed to
the required depth and retracting the quill
G80 Instructs the machine tool control unit that the cycle stands cancel
G82 Prepares the machine control unit for the thread tapping cycle.; the cycle
is similar to drilling cycle
Miscellaneous functions used for Programme
M03 spindle start , clockwise direction
M05 spindle stop
M06 Tool change
M02 End of program, machine stop, tape rewind
Program: Positioning-cum-straight-cut problem
The program is to be prepared for drilling, two 10-mm holes 1 and 2 and
milling 10 mm wide milling slot

The machine tool format is


N3, G2, X 3.3, Y 3.3, M2,
M2, EOB
The format is fixed block format has two M2 statements. In the two
miscellaneous functions may be coded in a single block
The following are the constraints for programs:

1. The part is to be made on a point-to-point type vertical milling machine with


full floating zero and absolute dimensions in mm only,

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The machine zero is to be selected at the center of the workpiece,


The groove is machined with a 10-mm end mill cutter
The machine tool has provision for suppressing trailing zeros,
During loading and unloading the spindle is stationed at point 5(X=65, Y=70).
For milling the groove, the cutter must start from point 3 and stop at point 4
Coordinates of programmed points
Point
X
Y
On
On
On tape
On tape
drawing
drawing
1
-25
-025
-20
-02
2
25
025
20
02
3
-42
-042
0
0
4
42
042
0
0
5
65
065
70
07

Program: Positioning-cum-straight-cut problem

Preparatory functions used for Programme

G00 Point to point control


G81 Drilling cycle
G90 prepares the machine control unit for the absolute dimension input
G71 prepares machine tool control unit to accept the dimensions in
mm

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CAD/CAM/CAE
G80 Cancel fixed cycle
G83 Milling cycle; the cycle performs rapid traverse to the programmed position in X
and Y coordinates, lowers the cutter to gauge height and stops the machine
G66 Instructs the machine to initiate milling operation to the end of the cut specified
by the programmed point.
Miscellaneous functions used for Programme
M06 Tool change
M13 Spindle start
M05 Spindle stop
M09 Coolant off
M17 No miscellaneous function required for this block
M02 End of program, machine stop, tape rewind
Program

Program
Word address Format
N001
G00 G71 G90 M06 EOB
N002
X50 Y12 EOB
N003
M0
EOB
N004
0
Y35
EOB
X30
N005
M00
EOB
N006
X12 Y55 EOB
N007
M00 EOB
N008
X120 Y120 EOB
N009
M30
M00 Program stop. Program may be initiated by the operator by pushing a
button
Program

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Word address Format

CAD/CAM/CAE
Three holes to be drilled
The depth of hole is 10 mm
Z=00 at the surface of the workpiece
The cutting tool is positioned above the workpiece surface

M
IT (T)

Page 70

Spindle speed and feed is to be given in the program . Speed is 1000 rpm, feed
rate is 200 mm/min
Program
N001 G71
G90 G94 EOB
Metric mode, Absolute system and feed in mm/rev
N002 M03 F200 S1000
EOB
Spindle start CW at 1000 rpm and feed rate 200 mm/rev
N003 G00
X10.00
Y10.00EOB
Move in rapid to point P(10,10)
N004 G00 Z2.00 EOB
Move in rapid to a point to point 2 mm above w/p surface
N005 G01 Z-10.00 EOB
Drill hole
N006 G00 Z 2.00 EOB
Move in rapid to a point to point 2 mm above w/p surface
N007
G00 X50.00
EOB
Move in rapid to x=50
N008
G01 Z-10.00
EOB
Drill hole
N009
G00 Z2.00
EOB
Move in rapid to a point to point 2 mm above w/p surface
N010
G00 Y30.00
EOB
Move to point Y30
N011 G01 Z-10.00
EOB
Drill hole
N012 G00
Z20.00 EOB
Move in rapid to a point to point 20 mm above w/p surface
N013 G00 X00 Y00 EOB
Move in rapid to (X0,Y0)
N014 M02 EOB
Programmed end
Program
Machining at AB and BC
Feed 200 mm/rev and speed 2000 r.p.m.

Z=0 is 50 mm above the surface of the workpiece and depth of cut is 5 mm


Program
N001 G71
G90 G94
EOB N002 F200
S2000 EOB
Set feed 200 mm/min. and speed 200 r.p.m.
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71

N003 M03

M08

EOB

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72

Spindle on clockwise, coolant on


N004 G00 Z2.00
EOB
Spindle moves Z=2 in rapid mode
N005 X100.0 Y0.00 EOB
Move to X=100, Y =0
N006 Z-55.00
EOB
Spindle down to required depth of cut
N007 G01 X200.00 EOB
Linear interpretation to X=200.00
N008 G01 Y150.0 EOB
Move to Y=150.00
N009 G00 Z10 M09 EOB
Rapid spindle retract to z=10 and coolant off
N010 G00 X250.00
Y250.00
EOB
Rapid to X=250 and Y=250
N011 M02
EOB

I Distance to arc center parallel to X


J- Distance to arc center parallel to Y
K- Distance to arc center parallel to Z

In the component , it is assumed that the pocket is through and hence only
outside is to be machined as a finish cut of the pocket
The tool to be used is a 20 mm diameter slot drill .
If an end mill is to be used the program should be modified with a hole to be
drilled at B first before the end mill is used
The setting is done with point A as reference (0,0,0)
N001 G92 X0 Y0 Z0 EOB
Absolute presetting at A
N002 G90 G94 EOB
Absolute programming

N003 G00 X25.00 Y25.00 Z2.00 EOB

Tool brought rapidly at B, 2 mm above XY plane


N004 G01 Z-12.00 F120 S1000 M03 EOB
Tool goes down to full depth
N005 Y75.00 EOB
Proceeds to C
N006 X65.00 EOB
Proceeds towards right to D
N007 G02 Y25.00 I0 J-35.00 EOB
Cuts curved profile till E
N008 G01 X25.00 EOB
Proceeds to B
N009 Z2.00 EOB
Tool moves 2 mm above XY plane
N010 G00 Z50.00 M05 EOB
Spindle stops and rapidly moves up
N011 X0 Y0 EOB
Rapid move to start position 0,0
N012 M30 EOB
End of program and tape rewind

CUTTER RADIUS COMPENSATION


In contouring operations, it becomes necessary to calculate the tool path for
preparing the program by offsetting the contour by amount equal to the radius
of the cutter
Apart from the problem of calculation, whenever cutter size changes, the
program would need editing
However, if a compensation equal to the radius of the cutter is entered and
stored in the control system, then the program could be written for the
component profile and thus no change in the program would be required.
It is as if the program is written with a cutter of zero radius
It is necessary to indicate whether compensation is to be made to the right or
to the left of the tool when machining
The following three G-codes are used for cutter compensation radius
1. G-41 - It is used when cutter is on left of the programmed path when looking
in the direction of the tool movement
2. G-42 - It is used when cutter is on right of the programmed path when looking
in the direction of the tool movement
3. G-40- Cancel cutter radius compensation
Program
Word address Format

Part programming for the part shown in the figure using cutter radius
compensation is given below:
Programmed cutter diameter is 0 mm i.e. programming is done as per the part
drawing
Diameter of the cutter available = 28 mm
The difference in radius (0-28)/2 = -14 mm is stored in the memory for cutter
radius compensation under address D 01.
Program
Word address Format
N001 G71 G94 EOB
N002 G00 X-20.00 Y-20.00 Z20.00 EOB
N003 G01 Z-5.00 EOB
N004 G01 G41 D01 X20.00 Y85.00 F400 S1000 M03 EOB
N005 G01 X60.00 Y115.00 EOB
N006 G02 X75.00 Y100.00 I0.00 J-15.00 EOB
N007 G01 X105.00 EOB
N008 G02 X130.00 Y115.00 I15.00 J0.00 EOB
N009 G01 X120.00 Y85.00 EOB
N010 G01 X130.00 Y55.00 EOB
N011 G01 X110.00 EOB
N012 G01 X80.00 Y20.00 EOB
N013 G01 X35.00 Y55.00 EOB
N014 G01 X20.00 Y85.00 EOB
N015 G00 G40 X0.00 Y0.00 EOB
N016 M02 EOB
Program
Word address Format

Cutter radius compensation is stored on D02


Z = 0 is at the top of the surface of the work piece
Feed = 65 mm/min
Speed = 1000 rpm
depth of cut = 10 mm

Program
N001 G71 G90 G94 EOB
N002 G00 X-20.00 EOB
N003 G00 Z-10.00 EOB
N004 G01 G42 D02 X0 Y0 F200 S1000 M03 EOB
N005 G01 X80.00 EOB
N006 G01 X95.00 Y15.00 I0 J15.00 EOB
N007 G01 Y50.00 EOB
N008 G01 X15.00 EOB
N009 G01 X0 Y35.00 EOB
N010 G01 X0 Y0 EOB
N011 G40 EOB
N012 G00 X-20.00 Z20.00 EOB
N013 M02 EOB
Lathe Operations
In case of CNC lathe operations , only two axes (X-axis and Z-axis ) are
involved
The Z-axis is the axis of the spindle and X-axis is the direction of transverse
motion of the tool post.
To develop CNC part programme for lathe operations the following procedure
is adopted.
1. Move the cutting tool to a point near the job in the rapid mode(G00)
2. Set linear interpolation(G01) and move to the required depth of cut in Xdirection
3. Move along Z-axis to the required length of the job as per drawing
4. Set rapid mode (G00) and retract the tool along X-axis.
5. Move to start point in G00 mode.
For the component shown below perform the following operations
Facing operation
To reduce the diameter from 30 mm to 26 mm

N001 G71 G90 G94 EOB


N002 T01 F200 M03 S800 EOB
(Tool No. 1, Feed rate 200 mm/min and speed 800 rpm )
N003 G00 X22.00 Z1.00 EOB
(In rapid mode, move to point X22, Z=1)
N004 G00 X0 EOB
(Move to X=0, Z remaining constant)
N005 G01 Z0 EOB
(Go to Z =0 in G01 mode)
N006 X30.00 EOB

N007 Z-60.00 EOB


N008 G00 X32.00 EOB
(Withdraw the tool by 1 mm so that when tool is taken back to Z=0, it does not leave
scratch mark on the job)

N009 G00 Z0 EOB


N010 G01 X26.00 EOB
N011 G01 Z-60.00 EOB
N012 G00 X32.00 EOB
N013 Z20.00 Z20.00
N014 M02 EOB
Taper Turning Programming
The raw material size is 20 mm dia bar, the operations involved
1. Facing
2. Turn upto 15 mm dia. over 15 mm length
3. Taper turning

N001 G71 G90 G94 EOB


N002 T01 S1000 M03 EOB
N003 G00 X22 Z0.5 EOB
N004 G01 X0.00 F200 EOB
N005 Z0.00 EOB
N006 X20.00 EOB
N007 X15.00 EOB
N008 Z-15.00 EOB
N009 X20.00 Z-20.00 EOB
N010 Z-35.00 EOB
N011 G00 X25.00 Z20.00 EOB
N012 M02 EOB
Taper Turning Programming (Incremental)
Starting Position (X=0, Z=1)
N001 G71 G91 G94 EOB
N002 T01 S1000 M03 EOB
N003 G00 X11.00 Z-0.5 EOB
N004 G01 X-11.00 F200 EOB
N005 Z-0.5 EOB
N006 X11.00 EOB
N007 X-3.5 EOB
N008 Z-15.00 EOB
N009 X2.5 Z-5.00 EOB
N010 Z-15.00 EOB
N011 G00 X2.5 Z55.00 EOB
N012 M02 EOB
Multi Pass Turning
Turn to 30 mm diameter

Raw material available : 40 mm


Rough cut : 2 to 3 mm

Finish cut : 0.75 to 1 mm

N001 G90 G71 G94 F500 S1000 T01 EOB


N002 G00 X41.00 Z1.00 M03 EOB
N003 G01 X37.00 EOB
N004 G01 X-30.00
EOB
N005 G00 X41.00 Z1.00 EOB
N006 G01 X34.00 EOB
N007 G01 Z-30.00 EOB
N008 G00 X41.00 Z1.00 EOB
N009 G01 X31.00 EOB
N010 G01 X-30.00 EOB
N011 G00 X41.00 Z1.00 EOB
N012 G01 X30.00 EOB
N013 G01 Z-30.00 EOB
N014 G01 X41.00 EOB
N015 G00 Z25.00
EOB
Computer aided part programming
The programs for machining simple parts are small and do not require much
calculations.
Such programs may be prepared manually.
However, for complicated profiles , especially free formed surfaces, a lot of
calculations have to be done and the program also is often long
Manual part program is a labour oriented task and needs skilled programmers
who should have through knowledge of the various machining processes ,
materials, speeds and feeds, part programming codes, capabilities of various
machine tools etc.
All the problems of manual part programming have been overcome and part
programming has been considerably simplified with the use of computer aided
part programming
In this, the computer generates the part Programme required to machine the
component
The process of generating part programmes is partly done by part programmer
and partly by the computer
Part programmer is to define the geometry of the component from the
component drawing.

The geometry or shape of the component is split into simple elements like
points, lines , arcs, full circles, distances and directions and these elements are
assigned specific numbers to identify their position.
Advantages
1. Part programming is considerably simplified

2. The part programmes generated are accurate and efficient


3. All arithmetic operations are done by the computer , resulting in saving in time
and elimination of errors
4. Such system can deal with many axis for simultaneous movement

Part Programmers Job


Defining work part geometry
Specifying operations sequence and tool path
The Computers Job
Input translation :
It converts the coded instructions contained in the program into computer usable
form, preparatory to further processing
Arithmetic calculations :
The unit of the system consist of a comprehensive set of subroutines for solving
the mathematics required to generate the part surface.
These subroutines are called by various part programming
language statements
The units frees the programmer from the time consuming geometry and
trigonometry calculations, to concentrate on workpart processing
Cutter offset calculations :
The actual tool path is different from the part outline because the tool path is
defined as the path taken by the center of the cutter.
The purpose of cutter offset computations is to offset the tool path from the
desired part surface by the radius of the cutter.
This means that the programmer can define the exact part outline in the
geometry statements.
Post processor:
NC machine tools are different
They have different features and capabilities. They use different NC formats
Nearly all the programming languages including APT, are designed to be
general purpose languages, not limited to one or two machine tool types.
Therefore the final task of the computer in computer assisted part
programming is to take the general instructions and make them specific to a
particular machine tool system.

The unit that performs this task is called as Postprocessor.


APT (Automatically programmed Tools)
This is most widely used and most comprehensive part programming language
available.
APT is a three- dimensional system which can be used to control upto five
axes.
In programming , it is assumed that the workpiece remains stationary and
cutting tool does all the movements.
APT consists of four types of statements
1. Geometry statements: These are also called definition statements and are
used to define geometric elements like point, circle. Arc, plane, etc.
2. Motion statements : The motion statements are used to define cutter path
3. Post processor statements : These statements are applicable to specific
machine tools and are used to define machining parameters like feed, speed,
coolant on/off, etc.
4. Auxiliary statements : These are miscellaneous statements used to identify
the part, tools, tolerances, etc.
1. GEOMETRY STATEMENTS : The geometry statements is defined with the
help of points, lines, circles, arcs and planes, etc. The general form of APT is :
Symbol = geometry type/descriptive data
Point
P1 = POINT/X, Y, Z
(Point with coordinates X, Y, Z)
P2 = POINT/ CENTER C1
(Point at center of circle 1 )
P3 = POINT/ INTOF,L1,L2
(Point at intersection of lines L1 and L2 )
P4 = POINT/XLARGE, INTOF, L1,C1
(Point at intersection of line L1 and circle C1, where x coordinates has higher
value)
P5 = POINT/YSMALL, INTOF,C1, C2
(Point at intersection of circle C1 and circle C2, where y coordinates has
smaller value)
Here it has been assumed that lines and circles have already been defined in
the geometry statements
LINE
In APT line can be defined in many ways, some of the definitions of a straight
line are:
L1 = LINE/P1,P2
(Line passing through points P1 and P2)
L2 = LINE/P2.PARLEL,L1
(Line passing through point P2 and parallel to line L1)
L3 = LINE/P1. ATANGL,60,L2
(Line passing through point P1 and at an angle 60 degrees to line L2)
L4 = LINE/ P1, ATANGL,-120,L2
(Line passing through point P1 and at angle -120 degree to line L2)
L5 = LINE/PARLEL,L31,YLARGE,10
(Line parallel to line L31 and offset by 10 mm towards Y large coordinates)
CIRCLE
C1 = CIRCLE/CENTER,P1,RADIUS, 10

(Circle with center point P1 and radius 10 mm)


C2 = CIRCLE/CENTER, P1, TANTO, L1
(Circle with center at P1 and tangent to line L1)
C3 = CIRCLE/P1, P2, P3
(Circle passing through points P1, P2,P3)
C4 = CIRCLE/ XSMALL, L1, YSMALL, L2, RADIUS,5
(Circle passing through the intersection of lines L1 and L2 and radius 5 mm
(with X small on L1 and Y small on L2)
PLANE
PL1 = PLANE/P1,P2,P4
(Plane passing through three points )
2. MOTION STATEMENTS :
Motion statements are also called as machine control instructions
The motion statements define the tool pat as per the part geometry specified in
the program
The general format for APT motion statement is
Motion command/descriptive data
GOTO/P2 or FROM/P1
If the movement is in incremental mode, GODLTA command is used
e.g. GODLTA/5.0, 4.0, 0.0
Instructs the machine tool to move 5 mm in X direction ,
4 mm in Y direction and Z directions remains same
some of the motion statements are :
GO/PAST
GO LFT
GO FWD
GO BACK
GO UP
GO DOWN

3. POST PROCESSOR STATEMENTS


Post processor statements are machine specific and control the operation of the
machine spindle, feed rate and other features like tool change etc
some of the post processor statements are :
COOLNT/ON
FEDRAT/250
(feed rate 200 mm/min)
MACHIN/ TURNING CENTER 1 (machine tool to be used for the operation)
MACHIN/PD,1
(postprocessor identification)
RAPID/
SPINDL/1000
(spindle speed is 1000 rpm)

Page
80

SPINDL/ON
SPINDL/OFF
TURRET
CYCLE/ is used to execute a particular cycle e.g. drilling, tapping cycle

Page
80

CYCLE/DRILL, RAPID, TO, -10, FEDTO, -15, MMPM, 150


(drilling cycle, direct the tool to move rapidly to the Z coordinates -10 mm, and then
move further at a feed rate of 150 mm/min to the z coordinate -15 )
END/
STOP/
FINI/
4. AUXILIARY STATEMENTS
Auxiliary statements are used for part identification, cutter size definition,
defining dimensional tolerances, and other functions required to prepare the
control system to accept and execute the part Programme.
Some of the auxiliary APT words are :
PART NO/ (part number for identification of the component)
CUTTER/ (cutter size specification)
INTOL (inside tolerances )
OUTTOL (outside tolerances)
CLPRINT (print cutter location data)
REMARK
APT Example
Write a Programme for drilling holes 1 to 5 in the flat plate shown in the
figure.
Feed = 5 mm/rev
Drill = 15 mm
Speed = 600 rpm
PARTNO FLAT PLATE
NO 1 MACHIN/PD,11
SETPT = POINT/75,50,50
P1 = POINT/25,25,5
P2
=
POINT/50,25,5 P3
=
POINT/50,75,5
P4
=
POINT/25,75,5 P5
= POINT/30,50,5
REMARK/ SET,FEDRAT,0.5 MMPR
REMARK/SET,SPINDL,600 RPM
REMARK/DRILL, 15 MM
SPINDL/ON
COOLNT/ON
FROM/SETPT
RAPID
GOTO/P1
CYCLE/DRILL,FEDTO,-15
GODLTA/0,0,20
GOTO/P2
CYCLE/DRILL,FEDTO,-15
GODLTA/0,0,20
GOTO/P3
CYCLE/DRILL,FEDTO,-15
GODLTA/0,0,20
Page
81

GOTO/P4
CYCLE/DRILL,FEDTO,-15
GODLTA/0,0,20
GOTO/P5

Page
82

CYCLE/DRILL,FEDTO,-15
GODLTA/0,0,20
COOLNT/OFF
SPINDL/OFF
RAPID
GOTO/SETPT
REWIND
FINI
APT MOTION STATEMENTS FOR CONTINUOUS PATH PROGRAMMING
In this the cutter is guided in its path by three planes:
1. Part surface (PS or PSURF): The plane which guides the bottom surface of the
tool is known as the part surface
2. Drive surface (DS or DSURF): The plane guiding the side of the cutting tool.
i.e. the plane along which tool side moves is known as drive surface
3. Check surface (CS or CSURF) :The plane used to stop the cutter or change its
direction is known as check surface.

APT Example
Write a Programme for the following component it is required to write the
Programme for finishing cut

Cutter geometry

APT Example
PARTNO/SAMPLEJOB 1
MACHIN/MILLING 1
CLPRINT
P0 = POINT/0,-20, 0
P1 = POINT/0, 0, 0
P2= POINT/150.0, 0, 0
P3= POINT/150.0, 0, 0
P4 = POINT/ 100.0, 50.0, 0
P5 = POINT/ 100.0, 100.0, 0
P6 = POINT/50, 100.0, 0
P7 = POINT/50.0, 50.0, 0
P8 = POINT/0, 50.0, 0
L1 = LINE/ P1,P2
L2 = LINE/ P2,P3
L3 = LINE/ P3,P4
L4 = LINE/ P4,P5
L5 = LINE/ P5,P6
L6 = LINE/ P6,P7
L7 = LINE/ P7,P8
L8
=
LINE/
P8,P1
PL1= PLANE/P1,P2,P8
CUTTER/10.0
SPINDL/500
FEDRAT/80
COOLNT/ON
FROM/P0
GO/TO, L1,TO, PL1, TO, L8
GORGT/L1,PAST,L2
GOUP/L2,PAST,L3
GOLFT/L3,TO,L4
GOUP/L4,PAST,L5
GOLFT/L5,PAST,L6
GODOWN/L6,TO,L7
GOLFT/L7,PAST,L8

GODWON/L8,PAST,L1
RAPID
GOTO/P0
COOLNT/OFF
FINI
APT Example

PARTNO
MACHIN/ABM,8
UNITS/MM
CLPRINT
SETPT =POINT/0,0,0
P1 = POINT/50,25,0
P2 = POINT/150,25,0
P3 = POINT/150, 40, 0
P4 = POINT/130,50,0
P5 = POINT/50,100,0
L1 = LINE/P1, P2
L2 = LINE/P2, P3
L3 = LINE/P3, P4
C1=CIRCLE/80,100,30
L5 = LINE/P1, LEFT, TANTO.C1
L4 = LINE/P4,RIGHT, TANTO, C1
PL1 = PLANE/P1,P2,P5
CUTTER/10
FEDRAT/0.1, MMPR
REMARK/SET, SPINDL,1000,RPM
INTOL/0.01
OUTTOL/0.01
FROM/SETPT
GO/TO, L1,PL1,TO,L5
SPINDL/ON
COOLNT/ON
GORGT/L1,PAST,L2
GOLFT/L2,PAST,L3
GOLFT/L3,TO,L4
GORGT/L4,TANTO,C1
GOFWD/C1, TANTO,L5
GOFWD/L5,PAST,L1

SPINDL/OFF
COOLNT/OFF

RAPID
GOTO/SETPT
FINI
APT Example
Speed = 700 rpm
Feed = 80 mm/rev
Cutter = 10 mm dia Endmill

APT Example
Post processor ID=MACHIN/NC,1
Feed rate = 100mm/min

Cutter geometry

CNC & DNC


Problems with conventional NC
Part Programming mistakes
Syntax or numerical errors
Nonoptimal speeds and feeds
Punched tape
Paper tape is fragile and its susceptibility to wear and tear causes it to
be unreliable NC component for repeated use in NC
Tape reader
It is the most unreliable component of machine
Controller
Control features cannot easily altered to incorporate improvements into
unit.
Management Information
It is not equipped to provide timely information on
operational performance to management.

Function of CNC

1. Machine tool control

This involves conversion of part program instruction into machine


tool motions through the computer system and servo system.
The CNC system is capable to incorporate variety of control features into soft
wired controller unit.
A few functions such as circular interpolation can be accomplished efficiently
on a hard wired NC system than on a computer.
Hybrid CNC Controller
It is a combination of the hardwired logic circuit and soft wired computer.
The logic circuit is aimed to perform functions such as circular interpolation
and feed rate generation which they do best.
The computer performs the remaining control functions which are out of the
scope of the logic circuit.

Straight CNC Controller


The controller uses a computer to perform to perform all NC functions

The only hardwired elements are those required to interface the computer with
the machine tool and the operators console
Interpolation, tool position feedback, and all other functions are performed by
computer software.
The advantage of this configuration is the additional flexibility.
It is possible to make alternations in the interpolation program whereas the
logic contained in the hard-wired circuits of hybrid CNC cannot be altered.

2. In-Process Compensation
a. This involves dynamic correction of the tool motions for changes
or errors which occur during processing. E.g.
b. Adjustments for errors sensed by in-process inspection probes and
gauges.
c. Recomputation of axis positions when the inspection probe is used to
locate the datum reference on a work part.
d. Offset adjustments for tool radius and length
e. Computations of predicted tool life and selection of alternative tooling
when indicated.

3. Improved programming and Operating features


a. The flexibility of soft-wired control has permitted the introduction of
many convenient programming and operating features. E.g.
b. Editing of part programs at the machine.
c. Graphic display of the part to verify the tape.
d. Various types of interpolation
e. Use of specially written subroutines
f. Local storage of more than one program
g. Manual Data Input (MDI)

4. Diagnostics

CNC machines are equipped with a diagnostics feature capability to assist


in maintaining and repairing the system.
Diagnostic subsystem would accomplish some functions
1. The subsystem would be able to identify the reason for a downtime
occurrence so that the maintenance personal could make repairs more
quickly
2. The subsystem would be alert signs that indicate the imminent failure of a
certain component.
Hence maintenance personnel could replace the faulty part during
scheduled downtime, thus avoiding unplanned interruption of production
Third function associated with CNC system to contain a certain amount of
redundancy of components.

When one of these component fails, the diagnosis subsystem would


automatically disconnect the faulty component and activate the redundant
component
Advantages of CNC
The part program tape and tape reader are used only once to enter program
into computer memory.
Tape editing at the machine site
Metric conversion
Greater flexibility
User written programs
Total manufacturing system
Components of DNC
1. Central computer
2. Bulk memory
3. Telecommunication lines
4. Machine Tools

The computer calls the part program instructions from bulk storage and
sends them to the individual machines as the need arises.
It also receives data back from the machines
This two way information flow occurs in real time, which means that
each machines request for instructions must satisfied instantaneously.
Depending upon no. of machines and computational requirements that
are imposed on the computer, it is sometimes necessary to use of
satellites computers.
Each satellite computer controls several machines
Groups of part program instructions are received from the central
computer and stored in buffers.
Feedback data from the machines are also stored in the satel ites
buffer before being collected at the central computer
Two types of DNC
1. Behind The Tape Reader (BTR) System
In this the computer is directly linked to the regular NC controller unit.
In this arrangement the tape reader is replaced by telecommunication lines to
the DNC Computer.
Except for the source of command instructions , the operation of the system is
similar to conventional NC.
The controller unit uses two temporary storage buffers to receive blocks of
instructions from the DNC computer and convert them into machine actions
While one buffer is receiving a block of a data , the other is providing control
instructions to the machine tool.
2. Special Machine Control Unit
In this NC controller is replaced by a special MCU and forms a link between
computer and machine tool.
The special MCU achieves a superior balance between accuracy of machining
and faster material removal rate.
This unit is soft wired so more flexibility can be achieved and alterations can
be made easily.
It is much difficult to make changes in the regular NC controller because
rewiring is required.

Functions of DNC
1. NC without punched tape
One of the original objectives in DNC was to eliminate the use of punched
tape.
Relatively unreliable tape reader
The fragile nature of paper tape
Page
90

2.

The difficulties in making corrections


Changes in the program contained on punched tape, etc.
NC part program storage
The second important function of DNC is concerned with storing the
part programs.
The program storage subsystem must be structured to satisfy several purpose.
First the must be made available for downloading to NC m/c tool.
Second subsystem must allow for new program to be entered, old program to
be deleted & existing program to be edited as the need arises.
Third the DNC software must accomplish the post processing function. The
part program in DNC is stored in CLFILE. The CLFILE must be converted
into instructions for a particular m/c tool.
Fourth the storage subsystem must be structured to perform certain data
processing & management functions such as file security, display of program,
manipulation of data& so on.
The DNC program storage subsystem usually consists of an active storage &
secondary storage.
3. Data collection, processing and reporting
DNC involves a two way data transfer,
The basic purpose behind the data collection, processing reporting function of
DNC is to monitor production in the factory.
Data are collected on production pieces are counts, tool usage, m/c utilization
& other factors that measure performance in the shop.
This data must be processed by the DNC computer, & reports are prepared to
provide management with information necessary for running the plant.
4. Communications
A communication network is required to accomplish the previous
three functions of DNC.
Communication among the various subsystems is a function that is central to
the operation of any DNC system.
The essential communication link DNC are between the
following components ,
Central computer & M/c tool
Central computer & NC part programmer terminal
Central computer & bulk memory, which stores NC program.
ADVANTAGES OF DNC
Elimination of punched tape & tape reader.
Convenient storage of NC part program in computer file.
Program stored as CLFILE (Cutter path data).
Reporting of shop performance.
Establishes a frame work for the evaluation of future computer automated
factory.

Page
91

CHAPTER 10. Group Technology


Introduction
It is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified and groped
together to take advantage of their similarities in manufacturing and design.
For example a plant producing 10000 different part numbers may be able may
be able to group the vast majority of these parts into 50 or 60 distinct families.
Each family would posses similar design and manufacturing characteristics.
Hence, the processing of each member of a family would be similar results in
mfg. efficiencies
These efficiencies are achieved in the form of reduced setup times, lower in
process inventories, better scheduling , improved tool control, and the use of
standardized process plans.
Part families
A part family is a collection of parts which are similar either because of
geometric shape and size or because similar processing steps are required in
their manufacture.
Part family concept
The part family concept can be explained as follows
Figure 1 shows a process type layout for batch production in machine shop.
The various machine tools are arranged according to function.
During machining of a given part, the work piece must be moved in different
sections, with perhaps the same section visited several times.
This results in a significant amount of material handling, a large in-process
inventory, usually more setups than necessary, long mfg. lead times, and high
cost.

LLM
L

Drillin

Millin

Lath

M
L

Grindin

Receiving and
Shipping

GG

Assembl

A
A

A
A

Figure 1 PROCESS-TYPE LAYOUT


Figure 2 shows a production of equivalent capacity, but with machines
arranged into cells.

Each cell is organized to specialize in the manufacture of a particular part


family.

Advantage get in the form of reduced workpiece handling, lower setup times,
less in-process inventory, less floor space, and shorter lead times.

Figure 2 GT LAYOUT
Grouping part into part families
Visual inspection
Production flow analysis
Parts classification and coding system.
Visual inspection
It is simplest and cheapest method
It involves classification of parts into families by looking at either the physical
parts or photographs and arranging them into similar grouping.
This method is considered to be least accurate of three.
Production flow analysis
It is a method of identifying part families and associated machine tool
grouping by analyzing the route sheets for parts produced in a given shop.
It groups together the parts that have similar operation sequences and machine
routings.
The major drawback of this system is that it does not consider the actual flow
of material
Parts classification and coding
It involves an examination of the individual design and/or mfg attributes of
actual part.
The attributes of the part are uniquely identified by means of a code no.
This classification and coding may be carried out on the entire list of active
parts in the firm or a sampling process may be used to establish the part
families.

Parts classification and coding system divide themselves into one


categories

of

three

1.System based on part design attributes


2. System based on part manufacturing attributes
3.System based on both design and manufacturing attributes. Design
and manufacturing attributes
Part design attributes
Basic external shape
Basic internal shape
Length/diameter ratio
Material type
Part function
Manufacturing attributes
Major process
Major operations
Major dimensions
Length/ diameter ratio
Surface finish
Machine tool

Major dimensions
Minor dimensions
Tolerances
Surface finish

Operation sequence
Production time
Batch size
Annual production
Fixtures needed
Cutting fluids

Coding System structure


A parts coding scheme consists of a sequence of symbols that identify parts
design and/or mfg. attributes.
The symbols in the code can be all numeric, all alphabetic, or a combination of
both types.
Most of the classification and coding systems use number digits only.
There are basic three code structures used in GT:
1.Hierarchical structure
2. Chain type structure
3. Hybrid (combination of above) Hierarchical structure
(Monocode or Tree structure)
In this, the interpretation of each succeeding symbol depends on the value of
the preceding symbols.
It provides compact structure which conveys much information with limited
number of digits.
Chain type structure (Polycode)
In this, the interpretation of each symbol in the sequence is fixed and does not
depend on the value of the preceding digits.
These codes are relatively long.
The use of polycode allows for convenient identification of specific part
attributes.
This can be helpful in recognizing parts with similar processing requirements.
Hybrid type structure (combination of Monocode and Polycode)
These are constructed as a series of short polycodes.
Within each of these shorter chains, the digits are independent, but one or
more symbols in the complete code number is used to classify the part
population into groups, as in the hierarchical structure.
These system serve the need of both design and production.
Parts classification and coding system
1. Optiz system
2. MICLASS system

3. CODE system

OPTIZ SYSTEM

MICLASS System
(Metal Institute Classification System)
The MICLASS system was developed to help automate and standardize a
number of design, production and management functions. These includes
:
Standardization of engineering drawings
Retrieval of drawing according to classification number.
Standardization of process routings
Automated process planning

Selection of parts for processing on particular groups of machine tools.


Machine tool investment analysis.

The MICLASS classification no. can range from 12 to 30 digits.


The first 12 are universal codes that can be applied to any part.
Upto 18 additional digits can be used to code data that are specific to the
particular company or industry. e.g. lot size, cost data and operation sequence
might be included in the 18 supplementary digits
The workpart coded in the first 12 digits of the MICLASS no. are as follows:
1st digit
main shape
2nd and 3rd digit
shape elements
4th digit
position of shape elements
5th and 6th digit
main dimensions
7th digit
dimension ratio
8th digit
auxiliary dimension
9th and 10th digits
Tolerance codes
11th and 12th digits
material codes
In this parts can be coded using computer interactively.
The number of questions depends upon complexity of the part.
The question may vary from 7 to 20.
Based on the response to these questions computer assigns a code number to
the part.

The CODE system


Its most universal application is in design engineering for retrieval of part
design data, but also has applications in mfg. process planning, purchasing,
tool design, and inventory control.
The CODE number has eight digits .
For each digit there are 16 possible values (zero to 9 and A through F) which
are used to describe parts design and mfg attributes.
The initial digit indicates the major geometry of the part and is called as major
division of the code system.
The second and third digit provide additional information concerning the basic
geometry and principal mfg. process for the part.
Digits 4,5 and 6 specify secondary mfg. processes such as threads, grooves,
slot and so forth.
Digits 7 and 8 are used to indicate the overall size of the part (e.g. diameter
and length for turned part.)

Benefits
Product design benefits: 10 % reduction in no. of drawings can be expected
through standardization with GT
Tooling and setup: GT tends to promote standardization of several areas of
mfg.
Material handling: GT machine layout lend themselves to efficient flow of
materials through shop.
Production and inventory control
Employee satisfaction
Process planning procedures.

COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING


What is process planning?
Process planning is concerned with determining the sequence of individual
manufacturing operation needed to produce a given product.
The resulting operation sequence is documented on a form called as operation
sheet.
Manufacturing planning, process planning, material processing,
process engineering machine routing are contents under
process planning.
Activities
Selection of processes and tools
Selection of m/c tools and equipments
Sequencing the operations
Grouping of operations
Selection of work piece holding devices
Selection of inspection instruments
Determining the tolerances
Determining proper cutting conditions
Determining the machining time and non machining time
Editing the process sheets
Need of CAPP
In conventional planning the plan is created by planners who have their own
ideas and opinions about best routing.
Thus it has different plans by the different planners for the same product
process.
It thus requires experienced planner for efficient planning.
It requires lot of time
Introduction to CAPP
In recent years attempts have been made to capture logic, judgment and
experience required and incorporated them in computer.
Based on characteristics of the product automatically generates the sequence
of manufacturing operations.
The automation provides opportunity to generate production routings which
are rational, consistent and perhaps even optimal.
Requirements for CAPP
The input to system may be engineering drawing or CAD database. The other
requisites are: Part list
Annual demand / batch size
Accuracy and surface finish requirement
Equipment details
Data on cutting fluids, tools, jigs and fixtures, gauges.
Standard available stock size
Machining data, data on handling and setup
C. A. P. P. Can be classified as : 1.variant approach
2. Generative approach

VARIANT PROCESS PLANNING

A variant process planning system uses similarity amongst component to


retrieve the existing process plan.
The process plan that can be used by family of components is called as
standard plans.
Following are the sequences in the design of variant process planning system
1. Family formation
2. Database structure design.
3. Search algorithm development & implementation.
4. Plan editing.
5. Updating.
1. Family formation
Components requiring similar processes are grouped into same family.
Then a standard process plan can be shared by entire family. Minimum modification
is required on standard plan for such family members.
2. Database Structure Design
Database structure contains all the necessary information to apply and can be accessed
by several program for specific application.
3. Search Procedure
The search for a process plan is based on search of a part family to which component
belongs when the part family is found the associated standard plan can be retrieved.
4. Plan Editing
Before plan is issued some modification is required & some parameters are to be
added. There are two types of plan editing
1. Editing the standard plan.
2. Editing the plan for component itself.
5. Updating
Data in the process parameter file are link so that we can go through the tree to
find the speed & feed for an operation. The file can be integrated to select the
parameters automatically

GENERATIVE PROCESS PLANNING SYSTEMS


Generative process planning involves the use of the computer to create an
individual process plan from scratch, automatically and without human
assistance.
Generative CAPP system synthesizes the design of the optimum process
sequence based on an analysis of part geometry material and other factors
which would influence manufacturing decisions.
In ideal generative process planning package, any part design could presented
to the system for creation of the optimal plan.
Generative CAPP systems are developed for somewhat limited range of
manufacturing process.

Benefits of CAPP
Process rationalization
Increased productivity of process planners.
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Reduced turnaround time.

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Improved legibility.
Incorporation of other application programs.

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