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The What, Why, and How of Energy Management

This article explains what "energy management" is, why it's important, and how you can use it to save energy.

We'll start with the "what", and then move on to the "why", and the "how":

What is energy management?

"Energy management" is a term that has a number of meanings, but we're mainly concerned with the one that relates to saving energy in businesses, public-sector/government organizations, and homes:

The energy-saving meaning

When it comes to energy saving, energy management is the process of monitoring, controlling, and conserving energy in a building or organization. Typically this involves the following steps:

  • 1. Metering your energy consumption and collecting the data.

  • 2. Finding opportunities to save energy, and estimating how much energy each opportunity could save. You would typically analyze your meter data to find and quantify routine energy waste, and you might also investigate the energy savings that you could make by replacing equipment (e.g. lighting) or by upgrading your building's insulation.

  • 3. Taking action to target the opportunities to save energy (i.e. tackling the routine waste and replacing or upgrading the inefficient equipment). Typically you'd start with the best opportunities first.

  • 4. Tracking your progress by analyzing your meter data to see how well your energy-saving efforts have worked.

(And then back to step 2, and the cycle continues

...

)

To confuse matters, many people use "energy management" to refer specifically to those energy- saving efforts that focus on making better use of existing buildings and equipment. Strictly speaking, this limits things to the behavioural aspects of energy saving (i.e. encouraging people to use less energy by raising energy awareness), although the use of cheap control equipment such as timer switches is often included in the definition as well.

The above four-step process applies either way - it's entirely up to you whether you consider energy-saving measures that involve buying new equipment or upgrading building fabric.

Other meanings

The above four-step process applies either way - it's entirely up to you whether you considerValerie Everett It's not just about saving energy in buildings - the term "energy management" is also used in other fields:  It's something that energy suppliers (or utility companies) do to ensure that their power stations and renewable energy sources generate enough energy to meet demand (the amount of energy that their customers need).  It's used to refer to techniques for managing and controlling one's own levels of personal energy. We're far from qualified to say anything more about this!  It also has relevance in aviation – it's a skill that aircraft pilots learn in some shape or form. We know nothing about aircraft energy management, but we can at least manage a picture of a man on a plane ... Anyway, from now on we will pay no more attention to these other definitions - all further references to "energy management" will be to the energy-saving sort described above. Home energy management Whilst energy management has been popular in larger buildings for a long time, it has only recently started catching on in homes. Most homeowners aren't even aware of the term, and take more of a haphazard, flying-blind approach to reducing their energy consumption ... But the monitoring- and results-driven approach used by professional energy managers is just as effective in the home as it is in larger buildings. " id="pdf-obj-1-6" src="pdf-obj-1-6.jpg">

Photo by Valerie Everett

It's not just about saving energy in buildings - the term "energy management" is also used in other fields:

It's something that energy suppliers (or utility companies) do to ensure that their power stations and renewable energy sources generate enough energy to meet demand (the amount of energy that their customers need).

It's used to refer to techniques for managing and controlling one's own levels of personal energy. We're far from qualified to say anything more about this!

It also has relevance in aviation – it's a skill that aircraft pilots learn in some shape or form. We know nothing about aircraft energy management, but we can at least manage a picture of a man on a plane ...

Anyway, from now on we will pay no more attention to these other definitions - all further references to "energy management" will be to the energy-saving sort described above.

Home energy management

Whilst energy management has been popular in larger buildings for a long time, it has only recently started catching on in homes. Most homeowners aren't even aware of the term, and take more of a haphazard, flying-blind approach to reducing their energy consumption ...

But the monitoring- and results-driven approach used by professional energy managers is just as effective in the home as it is in larger buildings.

So, if you're a homeowner looking to save energy, don't be put off by the fact that this article focuses more on non-residential buildings. Most of the principles that apply to businesses and other organizations are also applicable to homes. Certainly the four-step process introduced above and detailed below is entirely applicable to home energy management.

Why is it important?

Energy management is the key to saving energy in your organization. Much of the importance of energy saving stems from the global need to save energy - this global need affects energy prices, emissions targets, and legislation, all of which lead to several compelling reasons why you should save energy at your organization specifically.

The global need to save energy

If it wasn't for the global need to save energy, the term "energy management" might never have

even been coined

...

Globally we need to save energy in order to:

Reduce the damage that we're doing to our planet, Earth. As a human race we would probably find things rather difficult without the Earth, so it makes good sense to try to make it last.

Reduce our dependence on the fossil fuels that are becoming increasingly limited in supply.

So, if you're a homeowner looking to save energy, don't be put off by the factBack to top Why is it important? Energy management is the key to saving energy in your organization. Much of the importance of energy saving stems from the global need to save energy - this global need affects energy prices, emissions targets, and legislation, all of which lead to several compelling reasons why you should save energy at your organization specifically. The global need to save energy If it wasn't for the global need to save energy, the term "energy management" might never have even been coined ... Globally we need to save energy in order to:  Reduce the damage that we're doing to our planet, Earth. As a human race we would probably find things rather difficult without the Earth, so it makes good sense to try to make it last.  Reduce our dependence on the fossil fuels that are becoming increasingly limited in supply. " id="pdf-obj-2-32" src="pdf-obj-2-32.jpg">

Photo by Kevin Dooley

Wind turbines can only do so much - we humans use a lot of energy!

Controlling and reducing energy consumption at your organization

Energy management is the means to controlling and reducing your organization's energy

consumption

And controlling and reducing your organization's energy consumption is

... important because it enables you to:

Reduce costs – this is becoming increasingly important as energy costs rise.

Reduce carbon emissions and the environmental damage that they cause - as well as the cost-related implications of carbon taxes and the like, your organization may be keen to reduce its carbon footprint to promote a green, sustainable image. Not least because promoting such an image is often good for the bottom line.

Reduce risk – the more energy you consume, the greater the risk that energy price increases or supply shortages could seriously affect your profitability, or even make it impossible for your business/organization to continue. With energy management you can reduce this risk by reducing your demand for energy and by controlling it so as to make it more predictable.

On top of these reasons, it's quite likely that you have some rather aggressive energy- consumption-reduction targets that you're supposed to be meeting at some worrying point in the

near future

Your understanding of effective energy management will hopefully be the secret

... weapon that will enable you to meet those aggressive targets ...

How best to manage your energy consumption?

We identified four steps to the energy-management process above. We'll cover each of them in turn:

1. Metering your energy consumption and collecting the data

As a rule of thumb: the more data you can get, and the more detailed it is, the better.

The old school approach to energy-data collection is to manually read meters once a week or once a month. This is quite a chore, and weekly or monthly data isn't nearly as good the data that comes easily and automatically from the modern approach ...

The modern approach to energy-data collection is to fit interval-metering systems that automatically measure and record energy consumption at short, regular intervals such as every 15-minutes or half hour. There's more about this on our page about interval data.

Detailed interval energy consumption data makes it possible to see patterns of energy waste that it would be impossible to see otherwise. For example, there's simply no way that weekly or monthly meter readings can show you how much energy you're using at different times of the day, or on different days of the week. And seeing these patterns makes it much easier to find the routine waste in your building.

2. Finding and quantifying opportunities to save energy

The detailed meter data that you are collecting will be invaluable for helping you to find and quantify energy-saving opportunities. We've written an article that explains more about how to analyze your meter data to find energy waste.

The easiest and most cost-effective energy-saving opportunities typically require little or no capital investment.

For example, an unbelievable number of buildings have advanced control systems that could, and should, be controlling HVAC well, but, unbeknown to the facilities-management staff, are faulty or misconfigured, and consequently committing such sins as heating or cooling an empty building every night and every weekend.

(NB "HVAC" is just an industry acronym for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. It's a term that's more widely used in some countries than others.)

And one of the simplest ways to save a significant amount of energy is to encourage staff to switch equipment off at the end of each working day.

Looking at detailed interval energy data is the ideal way to find routine energy waste. You can check whether staff and timers are switching things off without having to patrol the building day and night, and, with a little detective work, you can usually figure out who or what is causing the energy wastage that you will inevitably find.

Detailed energy data is the key to finding the easiest energy savings (chart created using <aEnergy Lens software ) And, using your detailed interval data, it's usually pretty easy to make reasonable estimates of how much energy is being wasted at different times. For example, if you've identified that a lot of energy is being wasted by equipment left on over the weekends, you can: a. Use your interval data to calculate how much energy (in kWh) is being used each weekend. b. Estimate the proportion of that energy that is being wasted (by equipment that should be switched off). c. Using the figures from a and b, calculate an estimate of the total kWh that are wasted each weekend. Alternatively, if you have no idea of the proportion of energy that is being wasted by equipment left on unnecessarily, you could: i. Walk the building one evening to ensure that everything that should be switched off is switched off. ii. Look back at the data for that evening to see how many kW were being used after you switched everything off. iii. Subtract the target kW figure (ii) from the typical kW figure for weekends to estimate the potential savings in kW (power). iv. Multiply the kW savings by the number of hours over the weekend to get the total potential kWh energy savings for a weekend. Also, most buildings have open to them a variety of equipment- or building-fabric-related energy-saving opportunities, most of which require a more significant capital investment. You " id="pdf-obj-5-2" src="pdf-obj-5-2.jpg">

Detailed energy data is the key to finding the easiest energy savings (chart created using Energy Lens software)

And, using your detailed interval data, it's usually pretty easy to make reasonable estimates of how much energy is being wasted at different times. For example, if you've identified that a lot of energy is being wasted by equipment left on over the weekends, you can:

  • a. Use your interval data to calculate how much energy (in kWh) is being used each weekend.

  • b. Estimate the proportion of that energy that is being wasted (by equipment that should be switched off).

  • c. Using the figures from a and b, calculate an estimate of the total kWh that are wasted each weekend.

Alternatively, if you have no idea of the proportion of energy that is being wasted by equipment left on unnecessarily, you could:

i.

Walk the building one evening to ensure that everything that should be switched off is switched off.

ii.

Look back at the data for that evening to see how many kW were being used after you switched everything off.

iii.

Subtract the target kW figure (ii) from the typical kW figure for weekends to estimate the potential savings in kW (power).

iv.

Multiply the kW savings by the number of hours over the weekend to get the total potential kWh energy savings for a weekend.

Also, most buildings have open to them a variety of equipment- or building-fabric-related energy-saving opportunities, most of which require a more significant capital investment. You

are probably aware of many of these, such as upgrading insulation or replacing lighting equipment, but good places to look for ideas include the Carbon Trust and Energy Star websites.

Although your detailed meter data won't necessarily help you to find these equipment- or building-fabric-related opportunites (e.g. it won't tell you that a more efficient type of lighting equipment exists), it will be useful for helping you to quantify the potential savings that each opportunity could bring. It's much more reliable to base your savings estimates on real metered data than on rules of thumb alone. And it's critically important to quantify the expected savings for any opportunity that you are considering investing a lot of time or money into – it's the only way you can figure out how to hone in on the biggest, easiest energy savings first.

3. Targeting the opportunities to save energy

Just finding the opportunities to save energy won't help you to save energy - you have to take action to target them ...

For those energy-saving opportunities that require you to motivate the people in your building, our article on energy awareness should be useful. It can be hard work, but, if you can get the people on your side, you can make some seriously big energy savings without investing anything other than time.

As for those energy-saving opportunities that require you to upgrade equipment or insulation:

assuming you've identified them, there's little more to be said. Just keep your fingers crossed that you make your anticipated savings, and be thankful that you don't work for the sort of organization that won't invest in anything with a payback period over 6 months.

Photo by <a href=Alana Elliott Insulation - it usually works well, even when it looks like this ... 4. Tracking your progress at saving energy Once you've taken action to save energy, it's important that you find out how effective your actions have been:  Energy savings that come from behavioural changes (e.g. getting people to switch off their computers before going home) need ongoing attention to ensure that they remain effective and achieve their maximum potential.  If you've invested money into new equipment, you'll probably want to prove that you've achieved the energy savings you predicted.  If you've corrected faulty timers or control-equipment settings, you'll need to keep checking back to ensure that everything's still working as it should be. Simple things like a power cut can easily cause timers to revert back to factory settings - if you're not keeping an eye on your energy-consumption patterns you can easily miss such problems.  If you've been given energy-saving targets from above, you'll need to provide evidence that you're meeting them, or at least making progress towards that goal ... " id="pdf-obj-7-2" src="pdf-obj-7-2.jpg">

Photo by Alana Elliott

Insulation - it usually works well, even when it looks like this ...

4. Tracking your progress at saving energy

Once you've taken action to save energy, it's important that you find out how effective your actions have been:

Energy savings that come from behavioural changes (e.g. getting people to switch off their computers before going home) need ongoing attention to ensure that they remain effective and achieve their maximum potential.

If you've invested money into new equipment, you'll probably want to prove that you've achieved the energy savings you predicted.

If you've corrected faulty timers or control-equipment settings, you'll need to keep checking back to ensure that everything's still working as it should be. Simple things like a power cut can easily cause timers to revert back to factory settings - if you're not keeping an eye on your energy-consumption patterns you can easily miss such problems.

If you've been given energy-saving targets from above, you'll need to provide evidence that you're meeting them, or at least making progress towards that goal ...

And occasionally you might need to prove that progress isn't being made (e.g. if you're at your wits' end trying to convince the decision makers to invest some money into your energy-management drive).

Our article on energy-performance tracking explains how best to analyze your metered energy data to see how well you're making progress at saving energy. Like step 2, this step is one that our Energy Lens software has been specifically designed to help with.

Managing your energy consumption effectively is an ongoing process ...

At the very least you should keep analyzing your energy data regularly to check that things aren't getting worse. It's pretty normal for unwatched buildings to become less efficient with time: it's to be expected that equipment will break down or lose efficiency, and that people will forget the good habits you worked hard to encourage in the past ...

So at a minimum you should take a quick look at your energy data once a week, or even just

once a month, to ensure that nothing has gone horribly wrong

It's a real shame when easy-to-

... fix faults such as misconfigured timers remain unnoticed for months on end, leaving a huge energy bill that could have easily been avoided.

But ideally your energy-management drive will be an ongoing effort to find new opportunities to target (step 2), to target them (step 3), and to track your progress at making ongoing energy savings (step 4). Managing your energy consumption doesn't have to be a full-time job, but you'll achieve much better results if you make it part of your regular routine.

Energy management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Energy management includes planning and operation of energy-related production and consumption units. Objectives are resource conservation, climate protection and cost savings, while the users have permanent access to the energy they need. It is connected closely to environmental management, production management, logistics and other established business functions. The VDI-Guideline 4602 released a definition which includes the economic dimension: “Energy management is the proactive, organized and systematic coordination of procurement, conversion, distribution and use of energy to meet the requirements, taking into account environmental and economic objectives”. [1]

Contents

o

Organizational integration

It is important to integrate the energy management in the organizational structure, so that the energy management can be implemented. Responsibilities and the interaction of the decision makers should be regularized. The delegation of functions and competencies extend from the top management to the executive worker. Furthermore, a comprehensive coordination can ensure the fulfillment of the tasks.

It is advisable to establish a separate organizational unit “energy management” in large or energy-intensive companies. This unit supports the senior management and keeps track. It depends on the basic form of the organizational structure, where this unit is connected. In case of a functional organization the unit is located directly between the first (CEO) and the second hierarchical level (corporate functions such as production, procurement, marketing). In a divisional organization, there should be a central and several sector-specific energy management units. So the diverse needs of the individual sectors and the coordination between the branches and the head office can be fulfilled. In a matrix organization the energy management can be included as a matrix function and thus approach most functions directly.

Energy management in operational functions

Facility Management

Facility management is an important part of energy management, because a huge proportion (average 25 per cent) of complete operating costs are energy costs. According to the International Facility Management Association (IFMA), facility management is "a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, processes and technology."

The central task of energy management is to reduce costs for the provision of energy in buildings and facilities without compromising work processes. Especially the availability and service life of the equipment and the ease of use should remain the same. The German Facility Management Association (GEFMA e.V.) has published guidelines (e.g. GEFMA 124-1 and 124-2), which contain methods and ways of dealing with the integration of energy management in the context of a successful facility management. [2] In this topic the facility manager has to deal with economic, ecological, risk-based and quality-based targets. He tries to minimize the total cost of the energy-related processes (supply, distribution and use). [3]

The Passivhaus uses a combination of <a href=low-energy building techniques and technologies. The most important key figure in this context is kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh/m²a). Based on this key figure properties can be classified according to their energy consumption.  Europe: In Germany a low-energy house can have a maximum energy consumption of 70 kWh/m²a.  North America: In the United States , the ENERGY STAR program is the largest program defining low-energy homes. Homes earning ENERGY STAR certification use at least 15% less energy than standard new homes built to the International Residential Code, although homes typically achieve 20%-30% savings. In comparison, the Passive house (Passivhaus in German) ultra-low-energy standard, currently undergoing adoption in some other European countries, has a maximum space heating requirement of 15 kWh/m²a. A Passive House is a very well-insulated and virtually air-tight building. It does not require a conventional heating system. It is heated by solar gain and internal gains from people. Energy losses are minimized. There are also buildings that produce more energy (for example by solar water heating or photovoltaic systems ) over the course of a year than it imports from external sources. These buildings are called energy-plus-houses . In addition, the work regulations manage competencies, roles and responsibilities. Because the systems also include risk factors (e.g., oil tanks, gas lines), you must ensure that all tasks are clearly described and distributed. A clear regulation can help to avoid liability risks. Logistics " id="pdf-obj-11-2" src="pdf-obj-11-2.jpg">

The Passivhaus uses a combination of low-energy building techniques and technologies.

The most important key figure in this context is kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh/m²a). Based on this key figure properties can be classified according to their energy consumption.

Europe: In Germany a low-energy house can have a maximum energy consumption of 70 kWh/m²a.

North America: In the United States, the ENERGY STAR program is the largest program defining low-energy homes. Homes earning ENERGY STAR certification use at least 15% less energy than standard new homes built to the International Residential Code, although homes typically achieve 20%-30% savings. [4]

In comparison, the Passive house (Passivhaus in German) ultra-low-energy standard, currently undergoing adoption in some other European countries, has a maximum space heating requirement of 15 kWh/m²a. A Passive House is a very well-insulated and virtually air-tight building. It does not require a conventional heating system. It is heated by solar gain and internal gains from people. Energy losses are minimized. [5]

There are also buildings that produce more energy (for example by solar water heating or photovoltaic systems) over the course of a year than it imports from external sources. These buildings are called energy-plus-houses. [6]

In addition, the work regulations manage competencies, roles and responsibilities. Because the systems also include risk factors (e.g., oil tanks, gas lines), you must ensure that all tasks are clearly described and distributed. A clear regulation can help to avoid liability risks. [7]

Logistics

Carriage of goods Logistics is the <a href=management of the flow of resources between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet some requirements, for example of customers or corporations. Especially the core logistics task, transportation of the goods, can save costs and protect the environment through efficient energy management. The relevant factors are the choice of means of transportation, duration and length of transportation and cooperation with logistics service providers. The logistics causes more than 14% percent of CO2 emissions worldwide. For this reason the term Green Logistics is becoming increasingly important. Possible courses of action in terms of green logistics are:  Shift to ecofriendly transport carrier such as railroad and waterway  Route and load optimization  Formation of corporate networks, which are connected by logistics service  Optimizing physical logistics processes by providing a sophisticated IT support Organizations have the possibility to evaluate their logistics objectives and environmental strategies. For this purpose, there is software that calculates caused emissions based on indicators such as transport, type of fuel, route or driving distance. The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research from Heidelberg the Öko-Institut from Berlin, the Rail Management Consultants GmbH (RMCon/ IVE mbH) from Hanover developed a program that calculates environmental impacts of different carriers across the world. They were supported by five major European railway companies. The program is called EcoTransIT and is free-to-use. In addition to the direct emissions, the calculation also covers the indirect energy consumption (generation, transmission and distribution of energy). The program is suitable for organizations of all sizes and can serve as the basis for the environmental balance. Besides transportation of goods, the transport of persons should be an important part of the logistic strategy of organizations. In case of business trips it is important to attract attention to the choice and the proportionality of the means of transport. It should be balanced whether a " id="pdf-obj-12-2" src="pdf-obj-12-2.jpg">

Carriage of goods

Logistics is the management of the flow of resources between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet some requirements, for example of customers or corporations. Especially the core logistics task, transportation of the goods, can save costs and protect the environment through efficient energy management. The relevant factors are the choice of means of transportation, duration and length of transportation and cooperation with logistics service providers.

The logistics causes more than 14% percent of CO2 emissions worldwide. For this reason the term Green Logistics is becoming increasingly important.

Possible courses of action in terms of green logistics are: [8]

Shift to ecofriendly transport carrier such as railroad and waterway

Route and load optimization

Formation of corporate networks, which are connected by logistics service

Optimizing physical logistics processes by providing a sophisticated IT support

Organizations have the possibility to evaluate their logistics objectives and environmental strategies. For this purpose, there is software that calculates caused emissions based on indicators such as transport, type of fuel, route or driving distance. The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research from Heidelberg the Öko-Institut from Berlin, the Rail Management Consultants GmbH (RMCon/ IVE mbH) from Hanover developed a program that calculates environmental impacts of different carriers across the world. They were supported by five major European railway companies. The program is called EcoTransIT and is free-to-use. In addition to the direct emissions, the calculation also covers the indirect energy consumption (generation, transmission and distribution of energy). [9] The program is suitable for organizations of all sizes and can serve as the basis for the environmental balance. [10]

Besides transportation of goods, the transport of persons should be an important part of the logistic strategy of organizations. In case of business trips it is important to attract attention to the choice and the proportionality of the means of transport. It should be balanced whether a

physical presence is mandatory or a telephone or video conference is just as useful. Home Office is another possibility in which the company can protect the environment indirectly. [11]

Energy procurement

Procurement is the acquisition of goods or services. Energy prices fluctuate constantly, which can significantly affect the energy bill of organizations. Therefore poor energy procurement decisions can be expensive. Organizations can control and reduce energy costs by taking a proactive and efficient approach to buying energy. Even a change of the energy source can be a profitable and eco-friendly alternative. [12]

Production

Production is the act of creating output, a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals. [13] This central process may differ depending on the industry. Industrial companies have facilities that require a lot of energy. Service companies, in turn, do not need many materials, their energy-related focus is mainly facility management or Green IT. Therefore the energy-related focus has to be identified first, then evaluated and optimized.

Production planning and control

Usually, production is the area with the largest energy consumption within an organization. Therefore also the production planning and control becomes very important. It deals with the operational, temporal, quantitative and spatial planning, control and management of all processes that are necessary in the production of goods and commodities. The "production planner" should plan the production processes so that they operate on an energy efficient way. For example, strong power consumer can be moved into the night time. Peaks should be avoided for the benefit of a unified load profile.

The impending changes in the structure of energy production require an increasing demand for storage capacity. The Production planning and control has to deal with the problem of limited storability of energy. In principle there is the possibility to store energy electrically, mechanically or chemically. Another trend-setting technology is lithium-based electrochemical storage, which can be used in electric vehicles or as an option to control the power grid. The German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology realized the significance of this topic and established an initiative with the aim to promote technological breakthroughs and support the rapid introduction of new energy storage. [14]

Maintenance

Maintenance is the combination of all technical and administrative actions, including supervision actions, intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform a required function. [15] Detailed maintenance is essential to support the energy management. Hereby power losses and cost increases can be avoided. [16]

Examples of how it is possible to save energy and costs with the help of maintenance:

Defrost the fridges

Check the barometer of cars and trucks

Insulation of hot systems

Improve leaks in building envelopes

Information technology

The center of an environmental and resource saving structure of information technology is Green IT. In the article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, San Murugesan defines the field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems — efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.[17] This includes the optimization of resource consumption during manufacturing, operation and disposing of computers. With the help of IT, work processes can be eliminated or improved energetically. [18]

Approaches:

Production of devices: You should make sure that the equipment was manufactured resource-conserving and consume less power than comparable devices.

 Defrost the fridges  Check the barometer of cars and trucks  Insulation of hotGreen IT . In the article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, San Murugesan defines the field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers , servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems — efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. This includes the optimization of resource consumption during manufacturing, operation and disposing of computers. With the help of IT, work processes can be eliminated or improved energetically . Approaches:  Production of devices: You should make sure that the equipment was manufactured resource-conserving and consume less power than comparable devices.  Purchase and operation of equipment: Energy Staris an international standard for energy efficient consumer products originated in the United States of America. The Energy Star label can help to identify energy efficient devices. Important elements are for example more efficient power adapter, a modern stand-by and sleep mode.  IT support: Many programs support organizations to conserve energy. This includes large ERP systems as well as the IT support of small systems. There are also commercial energy management systems. Energy Strategies A long-term energy strategy should be part of the overall strategy of a company. This strategy may include the objective of increasing the use of renewable energies. Furthermore, criteria for " id="pdf-obj-14-46" src="pdf-obj-14-46.jpg">

Purchase and operation of equipment: Energy Staris an international standard for energy efficient consumer products originated in the United States of America. The Energy Star label can help to identify energy efficient devices. Important elements are for example more efficient power adapter, a modern stand-by and sleep mode. [19]

IT support: Many programs support organizations to conserve energy. This includes large ERP systems as well as the IT support of small systems. There are also commercial energy management systems.

Energy Strategies

A long-term energy strategy should be part of the overall strategy of a company. This strategy may include the objective of increasing the use of renewable energies. Furthermore, criteria for

decisions on energy investments, such as yield expectations, are determined. [20] By formulating an energy strategy companies have the opportunity to avoid risks and to assure a competitive advance against their business rivals. [21]

Potential energy strategies

According to Kals there are the following energy strategies: [22]

Passive Strategy: There is no systematic planning. The issue of energy and environmental management is not perceived as an independent field of action. The organization only deals with the most essential subjects.

Strategy of short-term profit maximization: The management is concentrating exclusively on measures that have a relatively short payback period and a high return. Measures with low profitability are not considered.

Strategy of long-term profit maximization: This strategy includes that you have a high knowledge of the energy price and technology development. The relevant measures (for example, heat exchangers or power stations) can have durations of several decades. Moreover, these measures can help to improve the image and increase the motivation of the employees.

Realization of all financially attractive energy measures: This strategy has the goal to implement all measures that have a positive return on investment.

Maximum strategy: For the climate protection one is willing to change even the object of the company.

In reality, you usually find hybrid forms of different strategies.

Energy strategies of companies

Many companies are trying to promote its image and time protect the climate through a proactive and public energy strategy. General Motors (GM) strategy is based on continuous improvement. Furthermore they have six principles: e.g. restoring and preserving the environment, reducing waste and pollutants, educating the public about environmental conservation, collaboration for the development of environmental laws and regulations. [23]

Nokia created its first climate strategy in 2006. The strategy tries to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of products and operations and sets reduction targets accordingly. [24] Furthermore, their environmental efforts is based on four key issues: substance management, energy efficiency, recycling, promoting environmental sustainability. [25]

The energy strategy of Volkswagen (VW) is based on environmentally friendly products and a resource-efficient production according to the "Group Strategy 2018". [26] Almost all locations the

of the Group are certified to the international standard ISO 14001 for environmental management systems. [27]

When looking at the energy strategies of companies it is important to you have the topic greenwashing in mind. This is a form of propaganda in which green strategies are used to promote the opinion that an organization's aims are environmentally friendly. [28]

Energy strategies of politics

Even many countries formulate energy strategies. The Swiss Federal Council decided in May 2011 to resign nuclear energy medium-dated. The nuclear power plants will be shut down at the end of life and will not be replaced. In Compensation they put the focus on energy efficiency, renewable energies, fossil energy sources and the development of water power. [29]

The European Union has clear instructions for its members. The "20-20-20-targets" include, that the Member States have to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels, increase energy efficiency by 20% and achieve a 20% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption by 2020. [30]

Ethical and normative basis of the energy strategies

The basis of every energy strategy is the corporate culture and the related ethical standards applying in the company. [31] Ethics, in the sense of business ethics, examines ethical principles and moral or ethical issues that arise in a business environment. Ethical standards can appear in company guidelines, energy and environmental policies or other documents.

The most relevant ethical ideas for the energy management are:

Utilitarianism: This form of ethics has the maxim that the one acts are good or right, whose consequences are optimal for the welfare of all those affected by the action (principle of maximum happiness). In terms of energy management, the existence of external costs should be considered. They do not directly affect those who profit from the economic activity but non-participants like future generations. This error in the market mechanism can be solved by the internalization of external costs. [32]

Argumentation Ethics: This fundamental ethical idea says that everyone who is affected by the decision, must be involved in decision making. This is done in a fair dialogue, the result is completely uncertain. [33]

Deontological ethics: The deontological ethics assigns individuals and organizations certain obligations. A general example is the golden rule: "One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself." Therefore everyone should manage their duties and make an energy economic contribution. [33]

Energy demand management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Energy demand management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as financial incentives [1] and education. Usually, the goal of demand side management is to encourage the consumer to use less energy during peak hours, or to move the time of energy use to off-peak times such as nighttime and weekends. [2] Peak demand management does not necessarily decrease total energy consumption, but could be expected to reduce the need for investments in networks and/or power plants for meeting peak demands. An example is the use of energy storage units to store energy during off-peak hours and discharge them during peak hours. [3]

The term DSM was coined following the time of the 1973 energy crisis and 1979 energy crisis. Demand Side Management was introduced publicly by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the 1980s. [4] Nowadays, DSM technologies become increasingly feasible due to the integration of information and communications technology and power system, resulting in a new term: Smart Grid.

Contents

Operation

Electricity use can vary dramatically on short and medium time frames, and the pricing system may not reflect the instantaneous cost as additional higher-cost ("peaking") sources are brought on-line. In addition, the capacity or willingness of electricity consumers to adjust to prices by altering demand (elasticity of demand) may be low, particularly over short time frames. In many markets, consumers (particularly retail customers) do not face real-time pricing at all, but pay rates based on average annual costs or other constructed prices.

Various market failures rule out an ideal result. One is that suppliers' costs do not include all damages and risks of their activities. External costs are incurred by others directly or by damage to the environment, and are known as externalities. One approach would be to add external costs to the direct costs of the supplier as a tax (internalisation of external costs). Another possibility (referred to as the second-best approach in the theory of taxation) is to intervene on the demand side by some kind of rebate.

Energy demand management activities should bring the demand and supply closer to a perceived optimum.

Governments of many countries mandated performance of various programs for demand management after the 1973 energy crisis. An early example is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 in the U.S., preceded by similar actions in California and Wisconsin.

Definition - DSM (Demand Side Management) is the 'Scientific control of usage and demand of Electricity, for achieving better load factor and economy, by the Licensee/Supplier'. TOD (Time of Day) Metering and differential pricing is the method/procedure for achieving targets in DSM.

Logical foundations

Demand for any commodity can be modified by actions of market players and government (regulation and taxation). Energy demand management implies actions that influence demand for energy. DSM is originally adopted in electricity, today DSM is applied widely to utility including water and gas as well.

Reducing energy demand is contrary to what both energy suppliers and governments have been doing during most of the modern industrial history. Whereas real prices of various energy forms have been decreasing during most of the industrial era, due to economies of scale and technology, the expectation for the future is the opposite. Previously, it was not unreasonable to promote energy use as more copious and cheaper energy sources could be anticipated in the future or the supplier had installed excess capacity that would be made more profitable by increased consumption.

In centrally planned economies subsidizing energy was one of the main economic development tools. Subsidies to the energy supply industry are still common in some countries.

Contrary to the historical situation, energy prices and availability are expected to deteriorate. Governments and other public actors, if not the energy suppliers themselves, are tending to employ energy demand measures that will increase the efficiency of energy consumption.

Types of Energy Demand Management

Energy Efficiency: Using less power to perform the same tasks.

Demand Response: Any reactive or preventative method to reduce, flatten or shift peak demand. Demand Response includes all intentional modifications to consumption patterns of electricity of enduser customers that are intended to alter the timing, level of instantaneous demand, or the total electricity consumption. [5] Demand Response refers to a wide range of actions which can be taken at the customer side of the electricity meter in response to particular conditions within the electricity system (such as peak period network congestion or high prices). [6]

Dynamic Demand: Advance or delay appliance operating cycles by a few seconds to increase the Diversity factor of the set of loads. The concept is that by monitoring the power factor of the power grid, as well as their own control parameters, individual, intermittent loads would switch on or off at optimal moments to balance the overall system load with generation, reducing critical power mismatches. As this switching would only advance or delay the appliance operating cycle by a few seconds, it would be unnoticeable to the end user. In the United States, in 1982, a (now-lapsed) patent for this idea was issued to power systems engineer Fred Schweppe. [7]

Examples

The government of the state of Queensland, Australia plans to have devices fitted onto certain household appliances such as air conditioners, pool pumps, and hot water systems. These devices would allow energy companies to remotely cycle the use of these items during peak hours. Their plan also includes improving the efficiency of energy-using items, encouraging the use of oil instead of electricity, and giving financial incentives to consumers who use electricity during off- peak hours, when it is less expensive for energy companies to produce. [8]

In 2007, Toronto Hydro, the monopoly energy distributor of Ontario, had over 40,000 people signed up to have remote devices attached to air conditioners which energy companies use to offset spikes in demand. Spokeswoman Tanya Bruckmueller says that this program can reduce demand by 40 megawatts during emergency situations. [9]

Problems with DSM

Some people argue that demand-side management has been ineffective because it has often resulted in higher utility costs for consumers and less profit for utilities. [10]

One of the main goals of demand side management is to be able to charge the consumer based on the true price of the utilities at that time. If consumers could be charged less for using electricity during off-peak hours, and more during peak hours, then supply and demand would theoretically encourage the consumer to use less electricity during peak hours, thus achieving the main goal of demand side management.

Another problem of DSM is privacy: The consumers have to provide some information about their usage of electricity to their electricity company.

DSM in Systems Based on Hydropower

Demand side management is completely applied for electric system based on thermo power plants or even for systems where renewable energy, as hydroelectricity, is predominant but with a complementary thermo generation, for instance, in Brazil.

In Brazil’s case, despite the generation of hydroelectric power corresponds to more than 80% of the consumption, to achieve a practical balance in the generation system, the energy generated by hydroelectric plants is used only to supply the part of the consumption below the peak hours. Peak generation is supplied by the use of fossil fuels power plants. In 2008, Brazilian consumers paid more than U$ 1 billion [11] for complementary thermoelectric generation not previously programmed.

In Brazil, the consumer pays for all the investment to provide energy, even if a plant sits idle. In the case of fossil fuel thermo plants, at least for the majority of them, the consumers pay for the “fuels” and others operation costs only when these plants generate energy. The energy, per unit generated, is more expensive in thermo plants than in hydroelectric. Only some of the Brazilian’s

thermoelectric use natural gas as fuel so they are polluting significantly more. In other words, the power generated to meet the peak demand has higher costs, both when the thermo plants are operating (investment plus operation cost) or not (investment only) and their pollution has an environmental cost and potentially, financial and social liability for its use. Thus, the expansion and the operation of the current system are not as efficient as they could be using demand side management. The consequence of this inefficiency issue is increase in energy tariffs passed on to the consumers.

Moreover, because electric energy is generated and consumed almost instantaneously, all the facilities, as transmission lines and distribution nets, are built for peak consumption. During the non-peak periods their full capacity is not utilized.

The reduction of peak consumption can benefit the efficiency of the electric systems, like the Brazilian system, in some senses: as deferring new investments in distribution and transmission networks, and reducing the necessity of complementary thermo power operation during peak periods, which can diminish both the payment for investment in new power plants to supply only during the peak period and the environmental impact associated with greenhouse gas emission.

References

  • 1. VDI-Guideline VDI 4602, page 3, Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2007.

2013-12-31.

11.

Johannes Kals: Betriebliches Energiemanagement - Eine Einführung. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-021133-9, p.103-105.

  • 12. "retrieved 10 November 2012". Energieagentur.nrw.de. Retrieved 2013-12-31.

  • 13. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Brown, L., and Adam, S. (2006) Marketing, 7th Ed. Pearson Education Australia/Prentice Hall.

  • 14. "retrieved 6 December 2012" (in (German)). Bmwi.de. 2012-04-24. Retrieved

2013-12-31.

2013-12-31.

  • 17. San Murugesan, “Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices,” IEEE IT Professional, January–February 2008, pp 24-33.

  • 18. Johannes Kals: Betriebliches Energiemanagement - Eine Einführung, p. 147 - 148, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-0211333-9.

  • 19. "abgerufen am 12. November 2012" (in (German)). Fr-online.de. Retrieved 2013-

12-31.

  • 20. J. Kals, K. Würtenberger: IT-unterstütztes Energiemanagement in: HMD - Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik HMD, Heft 285/2012, S. 73-81.

  • 21. Johannes Kals: Betriebliches Energiemanagement - Eine Einführung. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-021133-9, p. 181.

  • 22. Johannes Kals: Betriebliches Energiemanagement - Eine Einführung. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-021133-9, p. 182-184.

  • 23. "retrieved 21. December 2012". Gm.com. 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2013-12-31.

  • 24. Global Change country. "retrieved 22. December 2012". Nokia.com. Retrieved

2013-12-31.

2013-12-31.

28.

"retrieved 16.01.2013". Greenwashingindex.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31.

31.

2013-12-31.

  • 31. J. Kals, K. Würtenberger: IT-unterstütztes Energiemanagement in: HMD - Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik HMD, Heft 285/2012, p. 73.

  • 32. Johannes Kals: Betriebliches Energiemanagement - Eine Einführung. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-021133-9, p. 200.

  • 33. Johannes Kals: Business Ethics and Corporate Energy Management, in:

Karczewski, Leszek; Kretek, Henryk (eds): Odpowiedzialny biznes i konsumerysm wyzwaniem XXI Wieku (Responsible Business and Responsible Consumerism as a Challenge of the 21st Century), Polen, Raciborz 2012, p. 6.

Hotel energy management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's general notability guideline.

28. <a href="retrieved 16.01.2013" . Greenwashingindex.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 29. "retrieved 14. December 2012" . Bfe.admin.ch. 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12- 31. 30. "retrieved 14. December 2012" (in (German) ). Bmwi.de. 2012-07-04. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 31. J. Kals, K. Würtenberger: IT-unterstütztes Energiemanagement in: HMD - Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik HMD, Heft 285/2012, p. 73. 32. Johannes Kals: Betriebliches Energiemanagement - Eine Einführung. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-021133-9 , p. 200. 33. Johannes Kals: Business Ethics and Corporate Energy Management, in: Karczewski, Leszek; Kretek, Henryk (eds): Odpowiedzialny biznes i konsumerysm wyzwaniem XXI Wieku (Responsible Business and Responsible Consumerism as a Challenge of the 21st Century), Polen, Raciborz 2012, p. 6. Hotel energy management From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [ hide ] This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's general notability guideline . (September 2010) This article or section reads like a term paper and may need a cleanup . Please help to improve this article to make it neutral in tone and meet Wikipedia's quality standards . Hotel Energy Management is the practice of controlling procedures, operations and equipment that contribute to the energy use in a hotel operation. This can include electricity, gas, water or other natural resources. Because hotels can have complicated operations and extensive facilities they utilize many different types of energy resources. Hotel energy usages are tracked and classified by the U.S. Department of Energy and statistics are regularly published in the Energy Information Administration annual reports. Current practices " id="pdf-obj-23-52" src="pdf-obj-23-52.jpg">

(September 2010)

This article or section reads like a term paper and may need a cleanup.

Please help to improve this article to make it neutral in tone and meet Wikipedia's quality standards.

Hotel Energy Management is the practice of controlling procedures, operations and equipment that contribute to the energy use in a hotel operation. This can include electricity, gas, water or other natural resources. Because hotels can have complicated operations and extensive facilities they utilize many different types of energy resources. Hotel energy usages are tracked and classified by the U.S. Department of Energy and statistics are regularly published in the Energy Information Administration annual reports.

Current practices

Modern practices to control energy usage includes contributions by the guests themselves which has been popularized by information cards requesting guests to save water by letting hotel housekeeping staff know if they would care to re-use towels and bed linens. This reduces the amount of water and/or cleaning substances used by the hotel laundry department which also reduces the expense to the property owner or manager.

Recently consultants have developed entire organizations around advising hotels where they are operating inefficiently or using more energy than necessary. Some of them participate by providing the products to implement their advice for a share of the cost savings. These companies have proliferated over the years as public and business energy concerns grow and are known as ESCO's (Energy Service COmpanies). Other practices include using infrared motion sensors and door contacts to control the heating and air conditioning systems (HVAC) when guests leave them on and leave the room or leave open balcony doors or windows.

Hotel facility managers are using cloud-based software to manage their energy efficiency projects. The Department of Energy (DOE) Software Directory describes EnergyActio software, a cloud based platform designed for this purpose.

Energy management markets in general have been going through several changes including the shift to service based or porformance contracted models used by Energy Services Companies (ESCOs). Traditionally ESCOs do not address the hotel segment because of the small values associated with hotel energy retrofits and the difficulty in measuring so many potential load soources.

Energy service company

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Energy Service Company) "ESCo" redirects here. For other uses, see ESCO (disambiguation).

[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

Modern practices to control energy usage includes contributions by the guests themselves which has been popularizedESCO ' s (Energy Service COmpanies). Other practices include using infrared motion sensors and door contacts to control the heating and air conditioning systems ( HVAC ) when guests leave them on and leave the room or leave open balcony doors or windows. Hotel facility managers are using cloud-based software to manage their energy efficiency projects. The Department of Energy (DOE) Software Directory describes EnergyActio software, a cloud based platform designed for this purpose. Energy management markets in general have been going through several changes including the shift to service based or porformance contracted models used by Energy Services Companies (ESCOs). Traditionally ESCOs do not address the hotel segment because of the small values associated with hotel energy retrofits and the difficulty in measuring so many potential load soources. Energy service company From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Energy Service Company ) "ESCo" redirects here. For other uses, see ESCO (disambiguation) . [ hide ] This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article needs additional citations for verification . (December 2008) The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject . (June 2011) This article appears to be written like an advertisement . (March 2013) An energy service company or energy savings company (acronym: ESCO or ESCo) is a commercial or non-profit business providing a broad range of energy solutions including designs and implementation of energy savings projects, retrofitting , energy conservation , energy infrastructure outsourcing, power generation and energy supply , and risk management. A newer breed of ESCO evolving in the UK now focuses more on innovative financing methods. These include off-balance sheet vehicles which own a range of applicable equipment configured in such a way as to reduce the energy cost of a building. The building occupants, or landlord, " id="pdf-obj-24-38" src="pdf-obj-24-38.jpg">

This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2008)

The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (June 2011)

This article appears to be written like an advertisement. (March 2013)

An energy service company or energy savings company (acronym: ESCO or ESCo) is a commercial or non-profit business providing a broad range of energy solutions including designs and implementation of energy savings projects, retrofitting, energy conservation, energy infrastructure outsourcing, power generation and energy supply, and risk management.

A newer breed of ESCO evolving in the UK now focuses more on innovative financing methods. These include off-balance sheet vehicles which own a range of applicable equipment configured in such a way as to reduce the energy cost of a building. The building occupants, or landlord,

then benefit from the energy savings and pay a fee to the ESCO SPV in return. At all times, the saving is guaranteed to exceed the fee. The ESCO starts by performing an analysis of the property, designs an energy efficient solution, installs the required elements, and maintains the system to ensure energy savings during the payback period. [1] The savings in energy costs are often used to pay back the capital investment of the project over a five- to twenty-year period, or reinvested into the building to allow for capital upgrades that may otherwise be unfeasible. If the project does not provide returns on the investment, the ESCO is often responsible to pay the difference. [2]

Contents

History

The beginning

The start of the energy savings business can be attributed to the energy crisis of the late 1970s, as entrepreneurs developed ways to combat the rise in energy costs. One of the earliest examples was a company in Texas, Time Energy, which introduced a device to automate the switching of lights and other equipment to regulate energy use. The primary reason that the product did not initially sell was because potential users doubted that the savings would actually materialize. To combat this doubt, the company decided to install the device upfront and ask for a percentage of the savings that was accumulated. The result was the basis for the ESCO model. Through this process, the company achieved higher sales and more return since the savings were large. [3]

Industry growth through the 1970s and 1980s

As more entrepreneurs saw this market grow, more companies came into creation. The first wave of ESCOs were often small divisions of large energy companies or small, upstart, independent companies. However, after the energy crisis came to an end, the companies had little leverage on potential clients to perform energy-saving projects, given the lower cost of energy. This prevented the growth experienced in the late 1970s from continuing. The industry grew slowly through the 1970s and 1980s, [3] spurred by specialist firms such as Hospital Efficiency Corporation (HEC Inc.), established in 1982 to focus on the energy intensive medical sector. HEC Inc., later renamed Select Energy Services, was acquired in 1990 by Northeast Utilities, and sold in 2006 to Ameresco. [4]

The 1990s: Utilities and consolidated energy companies become the major players

With the rising cost of energy and the availability of efficiency technologies in lighting, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and building energy management, ESCO projects became much more commonplace. The term ESCO has also become more widely known among potential clients looking to upgrade their building systems that are either outdated and need to be replaced, or for campus and district energy plant upgrades.

With deregulation in the U.S. energy markets in the 1990s, the energy services business experienced a rapid rise. Utilities, which for decades enjoyed the shelter of monopolies with guaranteed returns on power plant investments, now had to compete to supply power to many of their largest customers. They now looked to energy services as a potential new business line to retain their existing large customers. Also, with the new opportunities on the supply side, many

energy services companies (ESCOs) started to expand into the generation market, building district power plants or including cogeneration facilities within efficiency projects. [5] For example, in November 1996 BGA, Inc., formerly a privately held, regional energy performance contracting and consulting company was acquired by TECO Energy, and in 2004 was acquired by Chevron Corporation. In 1998, BGA entered the District Energy Plant business, completing construction on the first 3rd-party owned and operated district cooling plant in Florida. [6]

Decade of the 2000s: Consolidation, exit of many utilities

In the wake of the Enron collapse in 2001, and the sputtering or reverse of deregulation efforts, many utilities shut down or sold their energy services businesses. There was a significant consolidation among the remaining independent firms. According to the industry group NAESCO, revenues of ESCOs in the U.S. grew by 22% in 2006, reaching $3.6 billion. [7]

How it works

Energy savings tracking methods

energy services companies (ESCOs) started to expand into the generation market, building district power plants or For example, in November 1996 BGA, Inc. , formerly a privately held, regional energy performance contracting and consulting company was acquired by TECO Energy , and in 2004 was acquired by Chevron Corporation . In 1998, BGA entered the District Energy Plant business, completing construction on the first 3rd-party owned and operated district cooling plant in Florida. Decade of the 2000s: Consolidation, exit of many utilities In the wake of the Enron collapse in 2001, and the sputtering or reverse of deregulation efforts, many utilities shut down or sold their energy services businesses. There was a significant consolidation among the remaining independent firms. According to the industry group NAESCO , revenues of ESCOs in the U.S. grew by 22% in 2006, reaching $3.6 billion. How it works Energy savings tracking methods IPMVP Options Table: Determining Energy Savings After installing energy conservation measures (ECMs), ESCOs often determine the energy savings resulting from the project and present the savings results to their customers. A common way to calculate energy savings is to measure the flows of energy associated with the ECM, and then to apply spreadsheet calculations to determine savings. For example, a chiller retrofit would require measurements of chilled water supply and return temperatures and kW. The benefit of this approach is that the ECM is isolated, and that only energy flows associated with the ECM itself are considered. This method is described as Option A or Option B in the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP). Table 1 presents the different options. Option A requires some measurement and allows for estimations of some parameters. Option B requires measurement of all parameters. In both options, calculations are done (typically in spreadsheets) to determine what energy savings. Option C uses utility bills to determine energy savings. " id="pdf-obj-27-36" src="pdf-obj-27-36.jpg">

IPMVP Options Table: Determining Energy Savings

After installing energy conservation measures (ECMs), ESCOs often determine the energy savings resulting from the project and present the savings results to their customers. A common way to calculate energy savings is to measure the flows of energy associated with the ECM, and then to apply spreadsheet calculations to determine savings. For example, a chiller retrofit would require measurements of chilled water supply and return temperatures and kW. The benefit of this approach is that the ECM is isolated, and that only energy flows associated with the ECM itself are considered.

This method is described as Option A or Option B in the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP). Table 1 presents the different options. Option A requires some measurement and allows for estimations of some parameters. Option B requires measurement of all parameters. In both options, calculations are done (typically in spreadsheets) to determine what energy savings. Option C uses utility bills to determine energy savings.

There are many situations where Option A or Option B (Metering and Calculating) is the best approach to measuring energy savings, however, some ESCOs insist upon only using Option A or Option B, when clearly Option C would be most appropriate. If the ESCO was a lighting contractor, then Option A should work in all cases. Spot measurements of fixtures before and after, agreed upon hours of operation, and simple calculations can be inserted into a spreadsheet that can calculate savings. The same spreadsheet can be used over and over. However, for ESCOs that offer a variety of different retrofits, it is necessary to be able to employ all options so that the best option can be selected for each individual job. Controls Retrofits, or retrofits to HVAC systems are typically excellent candidates for Option C. [8]

After installing the energy conservation measures (ECMs), the savings created from the project must be determined. This process, termed Measurement and Verification (M&V), is frequently performed by the ESCO, but may also be performed by the customer or a third party. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) is the standard M&V guideline for determining actual savings created by an energy management program. Because savings are the absence of energy use, they cannot be directly measured. IPMVP provides 4 methods for using measurement to reliably determine actual savings. A plan for applying the most appropriate of the 4 general methods to a specific project is typically created and agreed upon by all parties before implementation of the ECMs.

IPMVP Option A – Retrofit Isolation: Key Parameter Measurement Savings are determined by field measurement of the key performance parameter(s) which define the energy use of the ECM’s affected system(s). Parameters not selected for field measurement are estimated.

IPMVP Option B – Retrofit Isolation: All Parameter Measurement Savings are determined by field measurement of the energy use of the ECM-affected system.

IPMVP Option C – Whole Facility Savings are determined by measuring energy use at the whole facility or sub-facility level.

IPMVP Option D – Calibrated Simulation Savings are determined through simulation of the energy use of the facility, or of a sub-facility. The simulation model must be calibrated so that it predicts an energy pattern that approximately matches actual metered data.

Table 1 provides suggested IPMVP options for different project characteristics. For each project, an M&V approach which balances the uncertainty in achieved savings and the cost of the M&V plan should be selected. Some plans include only short term verification approaches and others include repeated measurements for an extended period. Because the expense of determining the amount of savings achieved erodes the benefit of the savings themselves, IPMVP suggests not spending more than 10% of the expected savings on M&V. Often M&V approaches are bundled with other monitoring, support, or maintenance services that help achieve or ensure the savings performance. These costs should not be considered M&V expenses and depending on the project and services details, may greatly exceed 10% of the savings.

Developing a project

The energy savings project often begins with the development of ideas that would generate energy savings, and in turn, cost savings. This task is usually the responsibility of the ESCO. The ESCO often approaches a potential client with a proposal of an energy savings project and a performance contract. This ESCO is said to “drive” the project. Once the owner is aware of the possibility of an energy savings project, he or she may chose to place it out for bid, or just stick with the original ESCO. During the initial period of research and investigation, an energy auditor from the ESCO surveys the site and reviews the project's systems to determine areas where cost savings are feasible, usually free of charge to the client. This is the energy audit, and the phase is often referred to as the feasibility study. A hypothesis of the potential project is developed by the client and the auditor, and then the ESCO’s engineering development team expands upon and compiles solutions.

This next phase is referred to as the engineering and design phase, which further defines the project and can provide more firm cost and savings estimates. The engineers are responsible for creating cost-effective measures to obtain the highest potential of energy savings. [3] These measures can range from highly efficient lighting and heating/air conditioning upgrades, to more productive motors with variable speed drives and centralized energy management systems. [1] There is a wide array of measures that can produce large energy savings.

Once the project has been developed and a performance contract signed, the construction or implementation phase begins. Following the completion of this phase, the monitoring and maintenance or Measurement and Verification (M & V) phase begins. This phase is the verification of the pre-construction calculations and is used to determine the actual cost savings. This phase is not always included in the performance contract. In fact, there are three options the owner must consider during the performance contract review. [1] These options are, from least to most expensive:

No warranty other than that provided on the equipment.

ESCO provided M & V to show the projected energy savings during the short term following completion.

ESCO provided M & V to show the projected energy savings during the entire payback period.

A typical transaction involves the ESCO borrowing cash to purchase equipment or to implement energy-savings for its clients. The client pays the ESCO its regular energy cost (or a large fraction of it), but the energy savings enable the ESCO to pay only a fraction of that to their energy supplier. The difference goes to pay the interest on the loan and to profit. Typically, ESCs are able to implement and finance the efficiency improvements better than their client company could by itself.

Choosing an ESCO

Once the project has been defined, but before much of the engineering work has been completed, it may be necessary to choose an ESCO by putting the project “out to bid”. This is usually the

case when the client has developed the project on his or her own or is required to allow others to bid on the work as required by the government. The latter is the case on any state or federally funded project. The typical process includes a Request for Qualification (RFQ) in which the interested ESCO’s submit their corporate resumes, business profiles, experience, and initial plan. Once received, the client creates a “short list” of 3-5 companies. This list is of the companies whose profile for the project best matches with the owners’ ideas in the RFQ. The client then asks for a Request for Proposal (RFP) that is a much more detailed explanation of the project. This document contains all cost savings measures, products, M & V plans, and the performance contract. The client often allows a minimum of six weeks to compile the information before having it submitted. Once submitted, the Proposals are then reviewed by the client, who may conduct interviews with the applicants. The client then selects the ESCO that presents the best possible solution to the energy project, as determined by the client. A good ESCO will help the owner put all the pieces together from start to finish. According to the Energy Services Coalition,

“A qualified ESCO can help you put the pieces together:

Identify and evaluate energy-saving opportunities;

Develop engineering designs and specifications;

Manage the project from design to installation to monitoring;

Arrange for financing;

Train your staff and provide ongoing maintenance services; and

Guarantee that savings will cover all project costs.[2]

Utilizing the savings

case when the client has developed the project on his or her own or is requiredRequest for Qualification (RFQ) in which the interested ESCO’s submit their corporate resumes, business profiles, experience, and initial plan. Once received, the client creates a “short list” of 3-5 companies. This list is of the companies whose profile for the project best matches with the owners’ ideas in the RFQ. The client then asks for a Request for Proposal (RFP) that is a much more detailed explanation of the project. This document contains all cost savings measures, products, M & V plans, and the performance contract. The client often allows a minimum of six weeks to compile the information before having it submitted. Once submitted, the Proposals are then reviewed by the client, who may conduct interviews with the applicants. The client then selects the ESCO that presents the best possible solution to the energy project, as determined by the client. A good ESCO will help the owner put all the pieces together from start to finish. According to the Energy Services Coalition , “A qualified ESCO can help you put the pieces together:  Identify and evaluate energy-saving opportunities;  Develop engineering designs and specifications;  Manage the project from design to installation to monitoring;  Arrange for financing;  Train your staff and provide ongoing maintenance services; and  Guarantee that savings will cover all project costs. Utilizing the savings Graphical representation of energy savings. " id="pdf-obj-30-52" src="pdf-obj-30-52.jpg">

Graphical representation of energy savings.

Once the project is completed the immediate results of energy savings (often between 15 and 35 percent), and the long term maintenance costs can be put towards the capital investment of upgrading the energy system. [2] This is often how ESCOs and performance contracts work. The initial implementation is done, in a sense, free of charge, with the payment coming from the percentage of the energy savings collected by a financing company or the ESCO. The client may also wish to use some capital investment money to lower that percentage during the payback period. The payback period can range from five to twenty years, depending on the negotiated contract. Most state or federally funded projects have a max payback of 15 years. Once the equipment and project have been paid for, the client may be entitled to the full amount of savings to use at their will. It is also common to see large capital improvements financed through energy savings projects. Upgrades to the mechanical/electrical system, new building envelope components, or even restorations and retrofits may be included in the contract even though they have no effect on the amount of energy savings. By utilizing the energy savings, the client may be able to put the funds once used to pay for energy towards the capital improvement that would otherwise be unfeasible with the currently allotted funding.

U. S. Federal Program: "Super-ESPC"

Since its creation in the 1990s, a single U. S. government program known as "Super-ESPC" (ESPC stands for Energy Savings Performance Contracts) has been responsible for $2.9B in ESCO contracts. [9] The program was modified and reauthorized in December 2008, and sixteen firms were awarded Indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contracts for up to $5B each, for total potential energy-savings projects worth $80B.

Grouping the sixteen firms provides a convenient illustration of the industry structure and the ways that each firm generates value through projects that use the ESCO model of energy-savings performance contracts. Equipment-affiliated firms use performance contracting as a sales channel for their products. Utility-affiliated firms offer ESCO projects as a value-added service to attract and retain large customers and generally focus only on their utility footprint. Non- utility energy services companies are product neutral, tend to have a larger geographic footprint, and typically offer a wide range of services from energy retrofits to renewable energy development.

Equipment affiliated

Noresco (Carrier)

Honeywell Building Solutions SES

Johnson Controls Government Systems, L.L.C. (York)

Schneider Electric

Siemens Government Services, Inc.

Trane

Utility affiliated

ConEdison

Constellation

FPL Energy Services

Pepco Energy Services

Non-utility energy services

Ameresco (Ennovate, E3, APS

...

Acquired)

The Benham Companies, LLC (SAIC Acquired)

Chevron Energy Solutions

Clark Energy Group LLC (formerly Clark Realty Builders, L.L.C.)

Lockheed Martin Services, Inc.

 

McKinstry

Brewer Garrett

Motion detector

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Motion sensor)

 Trane Utility affiliated  ConEdison  Constellation  FPL Energy Services  Pepco Energy ServicesMotion sensor ) " id="pdf-obj-32-92" src="pdf-obj-32-92.jpg">

A motion detector attached to an outdoor, automatic light.

A motion detector is a device that detects moving objects, particularly people. A motion detector is often integrated as a component of a system that automatically performs a task or alerts a user of motion in an area. Motion detectors form a vital component of security, automated lighting control, home control, energy efficiency, and other useful systems.

Contents

Overview

A motion detector attached to an outdoor, automatic light. A motion detector is a device thatautomated lighting control , home control, energy efficiency, and other useful systems. Contents  1 Overview2 Sensors3 Dual-technology motion detectors4 See also5 References6 External links Overview Inexpensive Asian-made motion detector using to control the lighting An electronic motion detector contains a motion sensor that transforms the detection of motion into an electric signal. This can be achieved by measuring optical changes in the field of view. Most inexpensive motion detectors can detect up to 15 feet (5 meters). Specialized systems are more expensive but have much longer ranges. Tomographic motion detection systems can cover much larger areas because the signals penetrate walls and obstructions. A motion detector may be connected to a burglar alarm that is used to alert the home owner or security service after it detects motion. Such a detector may also trigger a red light camera . " id="pdf-obj-33-51" src="pdf-obj-33-51.jpg">

Inexpensive Asian-made motion detector using to control the lighting

An electronic motion detector contains a motion sensor that transforms the detection of motion into an electric signal. This can be achieved by measuring optical changes in the field of view. Most inexpensive motion detectors can detect up to 15 feet (5 meters). Specialized systems are more expensive but have much longer ranges. Tomographic motion detection systems can cover much larger areas because the signals penetrate walls and obstructions.

A motion detector may be connected to a burglar alarm that is used to alert the home owner or security service after it detects motion. Such a detector may also trigger a red light camera.

Motion detectors have found great application in domestic and commercial applications. Some of these applications include motion-activated outdoor lighting systems, motion sensor street lamps and motion sensor lanterns.

Sensors

Motion detectors have found great application in domestic and commercial applications. Some of these applications include Microwave A microwave sensor sends out electromagnetic pulses and measures the changes in frequency (Doppler) due to reflection off a moving object. Tomographic motion detector Tomographic motion detection systems sense disturbances to radio waves as they pass from node to node of a mesh network. They have the ability to detect over complete areas because they can sense through walls and obstructions. Dual-technology motion detectors Many modern motion detectors use combinations of different technologies. While combining multiple sensing technologies into one detector can help reduce false triggering, it does so at the expense of reduced detection probabilities and increased vulnerability. For example, many dual- tech sensors combine both a PIR sensor and a microwave sensor into one unit. In order for motion to be detected, both sensors must trip together. This lowers the probability of a false " id="pdf-obj-34-6" src="pdf-obj-34-6.jpg">

PIR-sensor seen on center of the left circuit board

There are four types of sensors used in motion sensor spectrum:

Passive infrared (PIR) Passive infrared sensors detect a person's body heat as it changes against the background of the room. No energy is emitted from the sensor, thus the name "passive infrared" (PIR). Ultrasonic The active variety sends out pulses of ultrasonic waves (acoustic sound waves above the frequency that a human can hear) and measures the reflection off a moving object. Motion causes the frequency of the reflected wave to change (Doppler effect). The passive variety listens for sounds in the ultrasonic range. [1] Microwave A microwave sensor sends out electromagnetic pulses and measures the changes in frequency (Doppler) due to reflection off a moving object. Tomographic motion detector Tomographic motion detection systems sense disturbances to radio waves as they pass from node to node of a mesh network. They have the ability to detect over complete areas because they can sense through walls and obstructions.

Dual-technology motion detectors

Many modern motion detectors use combinations of different technologies. While combining multiple sensing technologies into one detector can help reduce false triggering, it does so at the expense of reduced detection probabilities and increased vulnerability. For example, many dual- tech sensors combine both a PIR sensor and a microwave sensor into one unit. In order for motion to be detected, both sensors must trip together. This lowers the probability of a false

alarm since heat and light changes may trip the PIR but not the microwave, or trees may trigger the microwave but not the PIR. If an intruder is able to fool the PIR or microwave, however, the sensor will not detect. Dual-tech sensors are only as strong as their weakest link.

Often, PIR technology will be paired with another model to maximize accuracy and reduce energy usage. PIR draws less energy than microwave detection, and so many sensors are calibrated so that when the PIR sensor is tripped, it activates a microwave sensor. If the latter also picks up an intruder, then the alarm is sounded.

HVAC From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current.

"Climate control" redirects here. For efforts to reduce changes to Earth's climate, see Climate change mitigation.

[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

alarm since heat and light changes may trip the PIR but not the microwave, or treesHigh-voltage alternating current . "Climate control" redirects here. For efforts to reduce changes to Earth's climate, see Climate change mitigation . [ hide ]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article needs additional citations for verification . (August 2009) This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards . (August 2009) HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building to supply conditioned air to a room through outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts to remove air through return-air grilles. HVAC ( heating , ventilation , and air conditioning ) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. HVAC s y stem desi g n is a subdisci p line of mechanical engineering , based on the principles of thermodynamics , fluid mechanics , and heat transfer . Refrigeration is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation as HVAC&R or HVACR, or ventilating is dropped as in HACR (such as the designation of HACR-rated circuit breakers ) . " id="pdf-obj-35-40" src="pdf-obj-35-40.jpg">

HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building to supply conditioned air to a room through outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts to remove air through return-air grilles.

HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. Refrigeration is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation as HVAC&R or HVACR, or ventilating is dropped as in HACR (such as the designation of HACR-rated circuit breakers).

HVAC is important in the design of medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and in marine environments such as aquariums, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors.

Contents

Overview

o <a href=7.5 Asia  7.5.1 Philippines7.5.2 India8 See also9 References10 Further reading Overview Ventilation on the downdraught system, by impulsion, or the 'plenum' principle , applied to schoolrooms (1899) Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is based on inventions and discoveries made by Nikolay Lvov , Michael Faraday , Willis Carrier , Reuben Trane , James Joule , William Rankine , Sadi Carnot , and many others. The invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with the industrial revolution , and new methods of modernization, higher efficiency, and system control are constantly introduced by companies and inventors worldwide. The three central functions of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are interrelated, especially with the need to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality within reasonable installation, operation, and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can provide ventilation , reduce air infiltration , and maintain pressure relationshi p s between s p aces. The means of air delivery and removal from spaces is known as room air distribution . " id="pdf-obj-37-43" src="pdf-obj-37-43.jpg">

Ventilation on the downdraught system, by impulsion, or the 'plenum' principle, applied to schoolrooms (1899)

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is based on inventions and discoveries made by Nikolay Lvov, Michael Faraday, Willis Carrier, Reuben Trane, James Joule, William Rankine, Sadi Carnot, and many others. [1]

The invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with the industrial revolution, and new methods of modernization, higher efficiency, and system control are constantly introduced by companies and inventors worldwide. The three central functions of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are interrelated, especially with the need to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality within reasonable installation, operation, and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can provide ventilation, reduce air infiltration, and maintain pressure relationships between spaces. The means of air delivery and removal from spaces is known as room air distribution. [2]

The starting point in carrying out an estimate both for cooling and heating depends on the exterior climate and interior specified conditions. However before taking up the heat load calculation, it is necessary to find fresh air requirements for each area in detail, as pressurization is an important consideration.

In modern buildings the design, installation, and control systems of these functions are integrated into one or more HVAC systems. For very small buildings, contractors normally capacity engineer and select HVAC systems and equipment. For larger buildings, building services designers and engineers, such as mechanical, or building services engineers analyze, design, and specify the HVAC systems, and specialty mechanical contractors fabricate and commission them. Building permits and code-compliance inspections of the installations are normally required for all sizes of buildings. [citation needed]

Although HVAC is executed in individual buildings or other enclosed spaces (e.g. think NORAD's underground headquarters), the equipment involved is in some cases an extension of a larger district heating (DH) or district cooling (DC) network, or a combined DHC network. In such cases, the operating and maintenance aspects are simplified and metering is necessary to bill for the energy that is consumed, and in some cases energy that is returned to the larger system. (For example, in a DHC network at a given time a building may be utilizing chilled water for air conditioning, but the warm water it returns may be utilized by another building for heating or the overall DH portion of the DHC network, likely with energy added to boost the temperature.) [3][4][5]

Basing HVAC on a larger network helps provide an economy of scale that is often not possible for individual buildings, for utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar heat, [6][7][8] winter's cold, [9] the cooling potential in some places of lakes or seawater for free cooling, and the enabling function of seasonal thermal energy storage.

The HVAC industry is a worldwide enterprise, with roles including operation and maintenance, system design and construction, equipment manufacturing and sales, and in education and research. The HVAC industry was historically regulated by the manufacturers of HVAC equipment, but regulating and standards organizations such as HARDI, ASHRAE, SMACNA, ACCA, Uniform Mechanical Code, International Mechanical Code, and AMCA have been established to support the industry and encourage high standards and achievement.

Heating

Central heating unit "Heaters" redirects here. For the community in the United States, see <a href=Heaters, West Virginia . "Heater" redirects here. For other uses, see Heater (disambiguation) . A heater is an object that emits heat or causes another body to achieve a higher temperature . In a household or domestic setting, heaters are usuall y a pp liances whose p urpose is to generate heating (i.e. warmth). Other types of heaters are Ovens and Furnaces . Heaters exist for all states of matter , includin g solids, liquids and gases. There are 3 types of heat transfer: convection , conduction and radiation . The opposite of a heater (for warmth) is an air cooler (for cold) ( see air conditioning ) used to keep the user cooler than the temperature originally surrounding them. There are many different types of heating systems. Central heating is often used in cool climates to heat houses and public buildings. Such a system contains a boiler , furnace , or heat pump to warm water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home or a mechanical room in a large building. The use of water as the heat transfer medium is known as hydronics . These systems also contain either duct work for forced air systems or piping to distribute a heated fluid to radiators to transfer this heat to the air. The term radiator in this context is " id="pdf-obj-39-2" src="pdf-obj-39-2.jpg">

Central heating unit

"Heaters" redirects here. For the community in the United States, see Heaters, West Virginia.

"Heater" redirects here. For other uses, see Heater (disambiguation).

A heater is an object that emits heat or causes another body to achieve a higher temperature. In a household or domestic setting, heaters are usually appliances whose purpose is to generate heating (i.e. warmth). Other types of heaters are Ovens and Furnaces.

Heaters exist for all states of matter, including solids, liquids and gases. There are 3 types of heat transfer: convection, conduction and radiation.

The opposite of a heater (for warmth) is an air cooler (for cold) (see air conditioning) used to keep the user cooler than the temperature originally surrounding them.

There are many different types of heating systems. Central heating is often used in cool climates to heat houses and public buildings. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to warm water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home or a mechanical room in a large building. The use of water as the heat transfer medium is known as hydronics. These systems also contain either duct work for forced air systems or piping to distribute a heated fluid to radiators to transfer this heat to the air. The term radiator in this context is

misleading since most heat transfer from the heat exchanger is by convection, not radiation. The radiators may be mounted on walls or installed within the floor to give floor heat.

Most modern hot water boiler heating systems have a circulator, which is a pump, to move hot water through the distribution system. This distribution system can be via radiators, convectors (baseboard), hot water coils (hydro-air) or other heat exchangers. The heated water can also supply an auxiliary heat exchanger to supply hot water for bathing and washing.

Warm air systems distribute heated air through duct work systems of supply and return air through metal or fiberglass ducts. Many systems use the same ducts to distribute air cooled by an evaporator coil for air conditioning. The air supply is typically filtered through air cleaners to remove dust and pollen particles.

One type of heat source is electricity, typically heating ribbons made of high resistance wire. This principle is also used for baseboard heaters, and portable heaters. Electrical heaters are often used as backup or supplemental heat for heat pump (or reverse heating) systems.

The heat pump gained popularity in the 1950s. [where?] Heat pumps can extract heat from the exterior air (air source) or from the ground (ground source). Initially, heat pump HVAC systems were used in moderate climates, but with improvements in low temperature operation and reduced loads due to more efficient homes, they are increasing in popularity in other climates. Heat pumps can be air to air, air to water, water to air and water to water systems. Water on the supply side of the heat pump is typically geothermal energy from ground water, either surface water or PEX tubing buried in a trench. Due to the construction of wells and site work, geothermal systems are typically more expensive to purchase and install than conventional

heating systems. [citation needed]

The invention of central heating is often credited to the ancient Romans, who installed systems of air ducts called hypocausts in the walls and floors of public baths and private villas. [10]

The use of furnaces, space heaters and boilers as means of indoor heating may result in incomplete combustion and the emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and other combustion byproducts. Incomplete combustion occurs when there is insufficient oxygen; the inputs are fuels containing various contaminants and the outputs are harmful byproducts, most dangerously carbon monoxide which is a tasteless and odorless gas with serious adverse health effects. [11]

Without proper ventilation, carbon monoxide can be lethal at concentrations of 1000 ppm (0.1%). However, at several hundred ppm, carbon monoxide exposure induces headaches, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin in the blood, forming carboxyhemoglobin, reducing the blood's ability to transport oxygen. The primary health

concerns associated with carbon monoxide exposure are its cardiovascular and neurobehavioral effects. Carbon monoxide can cause atherosclerosis; the hardening of arteries, and can also trigger heart attacks. Neurologically, carbon monoxide exposure reduces hand to eye coordination, vigilance, and continuous performance. It can also affect time discrimination. [12]

Forecasting is a method of controlling building heating by calculating demand for heating energy that should be supplied to the building in each time unit.

Ventilation Main article: Ventilation (architecture)

concerns associated with carbon monoxide exposure are its cardiovascular and neurobehavioral effects. Carbon monoxide can cause Forecasting is a method of controlling building heating by calculating demand for heating energy that should be supplied to the building in each time unit. Ventilation Main article: Ventilation (architecture) An air handling unit is used for the heating and cooling of air in a central location. Ventilation is the process of changing or replacing air in any space to control temperature or remove any combination of moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, or carbon dioxide, and to replenish oxygen. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air with the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types. Mechanical or forced ventilation "Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is provided by an air handler and used to control indoor air quality . Excess humidity , odors, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in humid climates much energy is required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air. Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical exhausts to control odors and sometimes humidity. Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate (which is a function of the fan speed and exhaust vent size) and noise level. Direct drive fans are available for many applications, and can reduce maintenance needs. " id="pdf-obj-41-11" src="pdf-obj-41-11.jpg">

An air handling unit is used for the heating and cooling of air in a central location.

Ventilation is the process of changing or replacing air in any space to control temperature or remove any combination of moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, or carbon dioxide, and to replenish oxygen. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air with the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types. [13]

Mechanical or forced ventilation

"Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is provided by an air handler and used to control indoor air quality. Excess humidity, odors, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in humid climates much energy is required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air.

Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical exhausts to control odors and sometimes humidity. Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate (which is a function of the fan speed and exhaust vent size) and noise level. Direct drive fans are available for many applications, and can reduce maintenance needs.

Ceiling fans and table/floor fans circulate air within a room for the purpose of reducing the perceived temperature by increasing evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupants. Because hot air rises, ceiling fans may be used to keep a room warmer in the winter by circulating the warm stratified air from the ceiling to the floor.

Natural ventilation

Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without using fans or other mechanical systems. It can be via operable windows, louvers, or trickle vents when spaces are small and the architecture permits. In more complex schemes, warm air is allowed to rise and flow out high building openings to the outside (stack effect), causing cool outside air to be drawn into low building openings. Natural ventilation schemes can use very little energy, but care must be taken to ensure comfort. In warm or humid climates, maintaining thermal comfort solely via natural ventilation may not be possible. Air conditioning systems are used, either as backups or supplements. Air-side economizers also use outside air to condition spaces, but do so using fans, ducts, dampers, and control systems to introduce and distribute cool outdoor air when appropriate.

An important component of natural ventilation is air change rate or air changes per hour: the hourly rate of ventilation divided by the volume of the space. For example, six air changes per hour means an amount of new air, equal to the volume of the space, is added every ten minutes (see air changes per hour for more detail). For human comfort, a minimum of four air changes per hour is typical, though warehouses might have only two. Too high of an air change rate may be uncomfortable, akin to a wind tunnel which have thousands of changes per hour. The highest air change rates are for crowded spaces, bars, night clubs, commercial kitchens at around 30 to 50 air changes per hour. [14]

Room pressure can be either positive or negative with respect to outside the room. Positive pressure occurs when there is more air being supplied than exhausted, and is common to reduce the infiltration of outside contaminants. [15]

Airborne diseases

Natural ventilation is a key factor in reducing the spread of airborne illnesses such as tuberculosis, the common cold, influenza and meningitis. Opening doors, windows, and using ceiling fans are all ways to maximize natural ventilation and reduce the risk of airborne contagion. Natural ventilation requires little maintenance and is inexpensive. [16]

Air conditioning Main article: Air conditioning

HVAC ventilation exhaust for a 12-story building Air conditioning and refrigeration are provided through the removalradiation , convection , or conduction . Refrigeration conduction media such as water, air, ice, and chemicals are referred to as refrigerants . A refrigerant is employed either in a heat pump s y stem in which a compressor is used to drive thermodynamic refrigeration cycle , or in a free cooling system which uses pumps to circulate a cool refrigerant (typically water or a glycol mix). Free cooling systems can have very high efficiencies, and are sometimes combined with seasonal thermal energy storage so the cold of winter can be used for summer air conditioning. Common storage mediums are deep aquifers or a natural underground rock mass accessed via a cluster of small-diameter, heat exchanger equipped boreholes. Some systems with small storages are hybrids, using free cooling early in the cooling season, and later employing a heat pump to chill the circulation coming from the storage. The heat pump is added-in because the storage acts as a heat sink when the system is in cooling (as opposed to charging) mode, causing the temperature to gradually increase during the cooling season. An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling, ventilation, and humidity control for all or part of a building. The refrigeration cycle uses four essential elements to cool. The system refrigerant starts its cycle in a gaseous state. The compressor pumps the refrigerant gas up to a high pressure and temperature. From there it enters a heat exchanger (sometimes called a "condensing coil" or condenser) where it loses energy (heat) to the outside, cools, and condenses into its liquid phase. The liquid refrigerant is returned to another heat exchanger where it is allowed to evaporate, hence the heat exchanger is often called an "evaporating coil" or evaporator. A metering device regulates the refrigerant liquid to flow at the proper rate. As the liquid refrigerant evaporates it absorbs energy (heat) from the inside air, returns to the compressor, and repeats the cycle. In the process, heat is absorbed from indoors and transferred outdoors, resulting in cooling of the building. In variable climates, the system may include a reversing valve that switches from heating in winter to cooling in summer. By reversing the flow of refrigerant, the heat pump refrigeration " id="pdf-obj-43-2" src="pdf-obj-43-2.jpg">

HVAC ventilation exhaust for a 12-story building

Air conditioning and refrigeration are provided through the removal of heat. Heat can be removed through radiation, convection, or conduction. Refrigeration conduction media such as water, air, ice, and chemicals are referred to as refrigerants. A refrigerant is employed either in a heat pump system in which a compressor is used to drive thermodynamic refrigeration cycle, or in a free cooling system which uses pumps to circulate a cool refrigerant (typically water or a glycol mix). Free cooling systems can have very high efficiencies, and are sometimes combined with seasonal thermal energy storage so the cold of winter can be used for summer air conditioning. Common storage mediums are deep aquifers or a natural underground rock mass accessed via a cluster of small-diameter, heat exchanger equipped boreholes. Some systems with small storages are hybrids, using free cooling early in the cooling season, and later employing a heat pump to chill the circulation coming from the storage. The heat pump is added-in because the storage acts as a heat sink when the system is in cooling (as opposed to charging) mode, causing the temperature to gradually increase during the cooling season.

An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling, ventilation, and humidity control for all or part of a building.

The refrigeration cycle uses four essential elements to cool. The system refrigerant starts its cycle in a gaseous state. The compressor pumps the refrigerant gas up to a high pressure and temperature. From there it enters a heat exchanger (sometimes called a "condensing coil" or condenser) where it loses energy (heat) to the outside, cools, and condenses into its liquid phase. The liquid refrigerant is returned to another heat exchanger where it is allowed to evaporate, hence the heat exchanger is often called an "evaporating coil" or evaporator. A metering device regulates the refrigerant liquid to flow at the proper rate. As the liquid refrigerant evaporates it absorbs energy (heat) from the inside air, returns to the compressor, and repeats the cycle. In the process, heat is absorbed from indoors and transferred outdoors, resulting in cooling of the building.

In variable climates, the system may include a reversing valve that switches from heating in winter to cooling in summer. By reversing the flow of refrigerant, the heat pump refrigeration

cycle is changed from cooling to heating or vice versa. This allows a facility to be heated and cooled by a single piece of equipment by the same means, and with the same hardware.

Central, 'all-air' air conditioning systems (or package systems) with a combined outdoor condenser/evaporator unit are often installed in modern residences, offices, and public buildings, but are difficult to retrofit (install in a building that was not designed to receive it) because of the bulky air ducts required.

An alternative to central systems is the use of separate indoor and outdoor coils in split systems. These systems, although most often seen in residential applications, are gaining popularity in small commercial buildings. The evaporator coil is connected to a remote condenser unit using refrigerant piping between an indoor and outdoor unit instead of ducting air directly from the outdoor unit. Indoor units with directional vents mount onto walls, suspended from ceilings, or fit into the ceiling. Other indoor units mount inside the ceiling cavity, so that short lengths of duct handle air from the indoor unit to vents or diffusers around the rooms.

Dehumidification (air drying) in an air conditioning system is provided by the evaporator. Since the evaporator operates at a temperature below dew point, moisture in the air condenses on the evaporator coil tubes. This moisture is collected at the bottom of the evaporator in a pan and removed by piping to a central drain or onto the ground outside. A dehumidifier is an air- conditioner-like device that controls the humidity of a room or building. It is often employed in basements which have a higher relative humidity because of their lower temperature (and propensity for damp floors and walls). In food retailing establishments, large open chiller cabinets are highly effective at dehumidifying the internal air. Conversely, a humidifier increases the humidity of a building.

Air conditioned buildings often have sealed windows, because open windows would work against an HVAC system intended to maintain constant indoor air conditions.

All modern air conditioning systems, even small window package units, are equipped with internal air filters. These are generally of a lightweight gauzy material, and must be replaced or washed as conditions warrant. For example, a building in a high dust environment, or a home with furry pets, will need to have the filters changed more often than buildings without these dirt loads. Failure to replace these filters as needed will contribute to a lower heat exchange rate, resulting in wasted energy, shortened equipment life, and higher energy bills; low air flow can result in "iced-up" or "iced-over" evaporator coils, which can completely stop air flow. Additionally, very dirty or plugged filters can cause overheating during a heating cycle, and can result in damage to the system or even fire.

Because an air conditioner moves heat between the indoor coil and the outdoor coil, both must be kept clean. This means that, in addition to replacing the air filter at the evaporator coil, it is

also necessary to regularly clean the condenser coil. Failure to keep the condenser clean will eventually result in harm to the compressor, because the condenser coil is responsible for discharging both the indoor heat (as picked up by the evaporator) and the heat generated by the electric motor driving the compressor.

Outside, fresh air is generally drawn into the system by a vent into the indoor heat exchanger section, creating positive air pressure. The percentage of return air made up of fresh air can usually be manipulated by adjusting the opening of this vent. Typical fresh air intake is about

10%

also necessary to regularly clean the condenser coil. Failure to keep the condenser clean will eventuallyEPA has also imposed tighter restrictions. There are several methods for making HVAC systems more efficient. Heating energy In the past, water heating was more efficient for heating buildings and was the standard in the United States. Today, forced air systems can double for air conditioning and are more popular. Some benefits of forced air systems, which are now widely used in churches, schools and high- end residences, are  Better air conditioning effects  Energy savings of up to 15-20%  Even conditioning. " id="pdf-obj-45-8" src="pdf-obj-45-8.jpg">

Rooftop HVAC unit, with view of fresh air intake vent. Energy efficiency

Since the 1980s, manufacturers of HVAC equipment have been making an effort to make the systems they manufacture more efficient. This was originally driven by rising energy costs, and has more recently been driven by increased awareness of environmental issues. In the US, the EPA has also imposed tighter restrictions. There are several methods for making HVAC systems more efficient.

Heating energy

In the past, water heating was more efficient for heating buildings and was the standard in the United States. Today, forced air systems can double for air conditioning and are more popular.

Some benefits of forced air systems, which are now widely used in churches, schools and high- end residences, are

Better air conditioning effects

Energy savings of up to 15-20%

Even conditioning. [citation needed]

A drawback is the installation cost, which can be slightly higher than traditional HVAC systems'.

Energy efficiency can be improved even more in central heating systems by introducing zoned heating. This allows a more granular application of heat, similar to non-central heating systems. Zones are controlled by multiple thermostats. In water heating systems the thermostats control zone valves, and in forced air systems they control zone dampers inside the vents which selectively block the flow of air. In this case, the control system is very critical to maintaining a proper temperature.

Geothermal heat pump Main article: Geothermal heat pump

Geothermal heat pumps are similar to ordinary heat pumps, but instead of using heat found in outside air, they rely on the stable, even heat of the earth to provide heating, air conditioning and, in most cases, hot water. The heat extracted through a geothermal heat pump can come from any source, despite the temperature. However, the warmer the source of heat, the more energy efficient it will be. [17] From Montana's −70 °F (−57 °C) temperature to the highest temperature ever recorded in the US—134 °F (57 °C) in Death Valley, California, in 1913—many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes. A few feet below the earth's surface, however, the ground remains at a relatively constant temperature. Although the temperatures vary according to latitude, at 6 feet (1.8 m) underground, temperatures only range from 45 to 75 °F (7 to 24 °C).

While they may be more costly to install than regular heat pumps, they can produce markedly lower energy bills—30 to 40 percent lower, according to estimates from the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Ventilation energy recovery

Energy recovery systems sometimes utilize heat recovery ventilation or energy recovery ventilation systems that employ heat exchangers or enthalpy wheels to recover sensible or latent heat from exhausted air. This is done by transfer of energy to the incoming outside fresh air.

Air conditioning energy

The performance of vapor compression refrigeration cycles is limited by thermodynamics. These air conditioning and heat pump devices move heat rather than convert it from one form to another, so thermal efficiencies do not appropriately describe the performance of these devices. The Coefficient-of-Performance (COP) measures performance, but this dimensionless measure has not been adopted, but rather the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER). EER is the Energy Efficiency Ratio based on a 35 °C (95 °F) outdoor temperature. To more accurately describe the performance of air conditioning equipment over a typical cooling season a modified version of

the EER is used, the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER), or in Europe the ESEER. SEER ratings are based on seasonal temperature averages instead of a constant 35 °C outdoor temperature. The current industry minimum SEER rating is 13 SEER.

Engineers have pointed out some areas where efficiency of the existing hardware could be improved. For example, the fan blades used to move the air are usually stamped from sheet metal, an economical method of manufacture, but as a result they are not aerodynamically efficient. A well-designed blade could reduce electrical power required to move the air by a third.

Air filtration and cleaning

Air cleaning and filtration is an important factor of our indoor environment because cleaning the air filters out what the lungs cannot by removing particles, contaminants, vapors and gases from the air. The filtered and cleaned air then is used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Air cleaning and filtration should be taken in account when protecting our building environments. [19]

Clean air delivery rate and filter performance

Clean air delivery rate is the amount of clean air an air cleaner provides to a room or space. When determining CADR, the amount of airflow in a space is taken into account. For example, an air cleaner with a flow rate of 100 cfm (cubic feet per minute) and an efficiency of 50% has a CADR of 50 cfm. Along with CADR, filtration performance is very important when it comes to the air in our indoor environment. Filter performance depends on the size of the particle or fiber, the filter packing density and depth and also the air flow rate. [19] http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-136/2003-136b.html [19]

HVAC industry and standards

International

ISO 16813:2006 is one of the ISO building environment standards. [20] It establishes the general principles of building environment design. It takes into account the need to provide a healthy indoor environment for the occupants as well as the need to protect the environment for future generations and promote collaboration among the various parties involved in building environmental design for sustainability. ISO16813 is applicable to new construction and the retrofit of existing buildings. [21]

The building environmental design standard aims to: [21]

provide the constraints concerning sustainability issues from the initial stage of the design process, with building and plant life cycle to be considered together with owning and operating costs from the beginning of the design process;

assess the proposed design with rational criteria for indoor air quality, thermal comfort, acoustical comfort, visual comfort, energy efficiency and HVAC system controls at every stage of the design process;

iterate decisions and evaluations of the design throughout the design process.

North America

United States

In the United States, HVAC engineers generally are members of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), EPA Universal CFC certified, or locally engineer certified such as a Special to Chief Boilers License issued by the state or, in some jurisdictions, the city. ASHRAE is an international technical society for all individuals and organizations interested in HVAC. The Society, organized into regions, chapters, and student branches, allows exchange of HVAC knowledge and experiences for the benefit of the field's practitioners and the public. ASHRAE provides many opportunities to participate in the development of new knowledge via, for example, research and its many technical committees. These committees typically meet twice per year at the ASHRAE Annual and Winter Meetings. A popular product show, the AHR Expo, is held in conjunction with each winter meeting. The Society has approximately 50,000 members and has headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.

The most recognized standards for HVAC design are based on ASHRAE data. The most general of four volumes of the ASHRAE Handbook is Fundamentals; it includes heating and cooling calculations. Each volume of the ASHRAE Handbook is updated every four years. The design professional must consult ASHRAE data for the standards of design and care as the typical building codes provide little to no information on HVAC design practices; codes such as the UMC and IMC do include much detail on installation requirements, however. Other useful reference materials include items from SMACNA, ACGIH, and technical trade journals.

American design standards are legislated in the Uniform Mechanical Code or International Mechanical Code. In certain states, counties, or cities, either of these codes may be adopted and amended via various legislative processes. These codes are updated and published by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) or the International Code Council (ICC) respectively, on a 3-year code development cycle. Typically, local building permit departments are charged with enforcement of these standards on private and certain public properties.

In the United States and Canada, as well as throughout the world, HVAC contractors and Air Duct Cleaning companies are members of NADCA, the National Air Duct Cleaners Association. NADCA was formed in 1989 as a non-profit association of companies engaged in the cleaning of HVAC air duct systems. Its mission was to promote source removal as the only acceptable method of cleaning and to establish industry standards for the association. NADCA has expanded its mission to include the representation of qualified member companies engaged in the assessment, cleaning, and restoration of HVAC systems, and to assist its members in providing high quality service to their customers. The goal of the association is to be the number one source for the HVAC air duct cleaning and restoration services. NADCA has experienced large membership growth in the United States, Canada and overseas and has been extremely successful with the training and certification of Air Systems Cleaning Specialists (ASCS)and Certified Ventilation Inspectors (CVI). The association has also published important standards and guidelines, educational materials, and other useful information for the consumers and members of NADCA. Standards include the Assessment, Cleaning and Restoration (ACR), Certified Ventilation Inspector (CVI) and other important guidelines.

HVAC professionals in the US can receive training through formal training institutions, where most earn associate's degrees. Training for HVAC technicians includes classroom lectures and hands-on tasks, and can be followed by an apprenticeship wherein the recent graduate works alongside a professional HVAC technician for a temporary period. [22] HVAC techs who have been trained can also be certified in areas such as air conditioning, heat pumps, gas heating, and commercial refrigeration. [23]

Europe

United Kingdom

The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers is a body that covers the essential Service (systems architecture) that allow buildings to operate. It includes the electrotechnical, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, refrigeration and plumbing industries. To train as a building services engineer, the academic requirements are GCSEs (A-C) / Standard Grades (1-3) in Maths and Science, which are important in measurements, planning and theory. Employers will often want a degree in a branch of engineering, such as building environment engineering, electrical engineering or mechanical engineering. To become a full member of CIBSE, and so also to be registered by the Engineering Council UK as a chartered engineer, engineers must also attain an Honours Degree and a Masters Degree in a relevant engineering subject.

CIBSE publishes several guides to HVAC design relevant to the UK market, and also the Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Hong Kong. These guides include various recommended design criteria and standards, some of which are cited within the UK building regulations, and therefore form a legislative requirement for major building services works. The main guides are:

Guide A: Environmental Design

Guide B: Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration

Guide C: Reference Data

Guide D: Transportation systems in Buildings

Guide E: Fire Safety Engineering

Guide F: Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Guide G: Public Health Engineering

Guide H: Building Control Systems

Guide J: Weather, Solar and Illuminance Data

Guide K: Electricity in Buildings

Guide L: Sustainability

Guide M: Maintenance Engineering and Management

Within the construction sector, it is the job of the building services engineer to design and oversee the installation and maintenance of the essential services such as gas, electricity, water, heating and lighting, as well as many others. These all help to make buildings comfortable and healthy places to live and work in. Building Services is part of a sector that has over 51,000 businesses and employs represents 2%-3% of the GDP.

Australia

The Air Conditioning and Mechanical Contractors Association of Australia (AMCA), Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heating (AIRAH), and CIBSE are responsible.

Asia

Asian architectural temperature-control have different priorities than European methods. For example, Asian heating traditionally focuses on maintaining temperatures of objects such as the floor or furnishings such as Kotatsu tables and directly warming people, as opposed to the Western focus, in modern periods, on designing air systems.

Philippines

The Philippine Society of Ventilating, Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (PSVARE) along with Philippine Society of Mechanical Engineers (PSME) govern on the codes and standards for HVAC / MVAC in the Philippines.

India

The Indian Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ISHRAE) was established to promote the HVAC industry in India. ISHRAE is an associate of ASHRAE. ISHRAE was started at Delhi in 1981 and a chapter was started in Bangalore in 1989. Between 1989 & 1993, ISHRAE chapters were formed in all major cities in India and also in the Middle East.

Energy management system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article does not <a href=cite any references or sources . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (December 2009) An energy management system (EMS) is a system of computer-aided tools used by operators of electric utility grids to monitor, control, and optimize the performance of the generation and/or transmission system . The monitor and control functions are known as SCADA ; the optimization packages are often referred to as "advanced applications". The computer technology is also referred to as SCADA/EMS or EMS/SCADA. In these respects, the terminology EMS then excludes the monitoring and control functions, but more specifically refers to the collective suite of power network applications and to the generation control and scheduling applications. Manufacturers of EMS also commonly supply a corresponding dispatcher training simulator (DTS). This related technology makes use of components of SCADA and EMS as a training tool for control centre operators. It is also possible to acquire an independent DTS from a non-EMS source such as EPRI Energy management systems are also often commonly used by individual commercial entities to monitor, measure, and control their electrical building loads. Energy management systems can be used to centrally control devices like HVAC units and lighting systems across multiple locations, such as retail, grocery and restaurant sites. Energy management systems can also provide metering, submetering, and monitoring functions that allow facility and building managers to gather data and insight that allows them to make more informed decisions about energy activities across their sites. Contents  1 Operating systems2 Other meanings o 2.1 Energy efficiency o 2.2 Automated control of building energy3 See also4 References Operating systems " id="pdf-obj-52-13" src="pdf-obj-52-13.jpg">

removed. (December 2009)

An energy management system (EMS) is a system of computer-aided tools used by operators of electric utility grids to monitor, control, and optimize the performance of the generation and/or transmission system. The monitor and control functions are known as SCADA; the optimization packages are often referred to as "advanced applications".

The computer technology is also referred to as SCADA/EMS or EMS/SCADA. In these respects, the terminology EMS then excludes the monitoring and control functions, but more specifically refers to the collective suite of power network applications and to the generation control and scheduling applications.

Manufacturers of EMS also commonly supply a corresponding dispatcher training simulator (DTS). This related technology makes use of components of SCADA and EMS as a training tool for control centre operators. It is also possible to acquire an independent DTS from a non-EMS source such as EPRI

Energy management systems are also often commonly used by individual commercial entities to monitor, measure, and control their electrical building loads. Energy management systems can be used to centrally control devices like HVAC units and lighting systems across multiple locations, such as retail, grocery and restaurant sites. Energy management systems can also provide metering, submetering, and monitoring functions that allow facility and building managers to gather data and insight that allows them to make more informed decisions about energy activities across their sites.

Contents

Operating systems

Up to the early 1990s, it was common to find EMS systems being delivered based on proprietary hardware and operating systems. Back then EMS suppliers such as Harris Controls (now GE), Hitachi, Cebyc, Siemens and Toshiba manufactured their own proprietary hardware. EMS suppliers that did not manufacture their own hardware often relied on products developed by Digital Equipment, Gould Electronics and MODCOMP. The VAX 11/780 from Digital Equipment was a popular choice amongst some EMS suppliers. EMS systems now rely on a model based approach. Traditional planning models and EMS models were always independently maintained and seldom in synchronism with each other. Using EMS software allows planners and operators to share a common model reducing the mismatch between the two and cutting model maintenance by half. Having a common user interface also allows for easier transition of information from planning to operations.

As proprietary systems became uneconomical, EMS suppliers began to deliver solutions based on industry standard hardware platforms such as those from Digital Equipment (later Compaq), HP, IBM and Sun. The common operating system then was either DEC OpenVMS or UNIX. By 2004, various EMS suppliers including Alstom, ABB and OSI had begun to offer Windows based solutions. By 2006 customers had a choice of UNIX, Linux or Windows-based systems. Some suppliers including NARI, PSI-CNI and Siemens continue to offer UNIX-based solutions. It is now common for suppliers to integrate UNIX-based solutions on either the Sun Solaris or IBM platform. Newer EMS systems based on blade servers occupy a fraction of the space previously required. For instance, a blade rack of 20 servers occupy much the same space as that previously occupied by a single MicroVAX server.

Other meanings

Energy efficiency

In a slightly different context EMS can also refer to a system in an organization to achieve energy efficiency through well laid out procedures and methods, and to ensure continual improvement, which will spread awareness of energy efficiency throughout an entire organisation.

Automated control of building energy

The term Energy Management System can also refer to a computer system which is designed specifically for the automated control and monitoring of those electromechanical facilities in a building which yield significant energy consumption such as heating, ventilation and lighting installations. The scope may span from a single building to a group of buildings such as university campuses, office buildings, retail stores networks or factories. Most of these energy management systems also provide facilities for the reading of electricity, gas and water meters. The data obtained from these can then be used to perform self-diagnostic and optimization routines on a frequent basis and to produce trend analysis and annual consumption forecasts.

References

Energy conservation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about sustainable energy resources. For the law of conservation of energy in physics, see Conservation of energy.

[1] <a href=http://www.abb.com/cawp/db0003db002698/b372f131c1a54e5fc12572ec0005dcb4.aspx [2] ISO 50001 checklist Energy conservation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about sustainable energy resources. For the law of conservation of energy in physics, see Conservation of energy . Sustainable energyCogenerationEnergy efficiencyHeat pumpGreen buildingMicrogeneration Energy conservation  Passive solar Renewable energyAnaerobic digestionGeothermalHydroelectricity " id="pdf-obj-54-16" src="pdf-obj-54-16.jpg">

Energy conservation

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Energy conservation refers to reducing energy consumption through using less of an energy service. Energy conservation differs from efficient energy use, which refers to using less energy for a constant service. [1] For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation. Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is an example of energy efficiency. Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction techniques.

Even though energy conservation reduces energy services, it can result in increased, environmental quality, national security, and personal financial security. [2] It is at the top of the sustainable energy hierarchy. [citation needed]

Contents

Energy taxes

Some countries employ energy or carbon taxes to motivate energy users to reduce their consumption. As detailed in the book, Green Illusions, carbon taxes can allow consumption to shift to nuclear power and other alternatives that carry a different set of environmental side effects and limitations. Meanwhile, taxes on all energy consumption stand to reduce energy use across the board, while reducing a broader array of environmental consequences arising from energy production. The State of California employs a tiered energy tax whereby every consumer receives a baseline energy allowance that carries a low tax. As usage increases above that baseline, the tax is increasing drastically. Such programs aim to protect poorer households while creating a larger tax burden for high energy consumers. [3]

Building Design

One of the primary ways to improve energy conservation in buildings is to use an energy audit. An energy audit is an inspection and analysis of energy use and flows for energy conservation in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s). This is normally accomplished by trained professionals and

can be part of some of the national programs discussed above. In addition, recent development of smartphone apps enable homeowners to complete relativily sophisticated energy audits themselves. [4]

Building technologies and smart meters can allow energy users, business and residential, to see graphically the impact their energy use can have in their workplace or homes. Advanced real- time energy metering is able to help people save energy by their actions. [5]

can be part of some of the national programs discussed above. In addition, recent development ofsmartphone apps enable homeowners to complete relativily sophisticated energy audits themselves. Building technologies and smart meters can allow energy users, business and residential, to see graphically the impact their energy use can have in their workplace or homes. Advanced real- time energy metering is able to help people save energy by their actions. Elements of passive solar design, shown in a direct gain application In passive solar building design , windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design or climatic design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it doesn't involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices. The key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate . Elements to be considered include window placement and glazing type, thermal insulation , thermal mass , and shading. Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be retrofitted. Transportation In the United States, suburban infrastructure evolved during an age of relatively easy access to fossil fuels, which has led to transportation-dependent systems of living. Zoning reforms that allow greater urban density as well as designs for walking and bicycling can greatly reduce energy consumed for transportation. The use of telecommuting by major corporations is a significant opportunity to conserve energy, as many Americans now work in service jobs that enable them to work from home instead of commuting to work each day . Consumer products Consumers are often poorly informed of the savings of energy efficient products. The research one must put into conserving energy often is too time consuming and costly when there are cheaper products and technology available using today's fossil fuels. Some governments and NGOs are attempting to reduce this complexity with ecolabels that make differences in energy efficiency easy to research while shopping. " id="pdf-obj-58-12" src="pdf-obj-58-12.jpg">

Elements of passive solar design, shown in a direct gain application

In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design or climatic design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it doesn't involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices.

The key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate. Elements to be considered include window placement and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, and shading. Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be retrofitted.

Transportation

In the United States, suburban infrastructure evolved during an age of relatively easy access to fossil fuels, which has led to transportation-dependent systems of living. Zoning reforms that allow greater urban density as well as designs for walking and bicycling can greatly reduce energy consumed for transportation. The use of telecommuting by major corporations is a significant opportunity to conserve energy, as many Americans now work in service jobs that enable them to work from home instead of commuting to work each day. [6]

Consumer products

Consumers are often poorly informed of the savings of energy efficient products. The research one must put into conserving energy often is too time consuming and costly when there are cheaper products and technology available using today's fossil fuels. [7] Some governments and NGOs are attempting to reduce this complexity with ecolabels that make differences in energy efficiency easy to research while shopping. [8]

To provide the kind of information and support people need to invest money, time and effort in energy conservation, it is important to understand and link to people's topical concerns. [9] For instance, some retailers argue that bright lighting stimulates purchasing. However, health studies have demonstrated that headache, stress, blood pressure, fatigue and worker error all generally increase with the common over-illumination present in many workplace and retail settings. [10][11] It has been shown that natural daylighting increases productivity levels of workers, while reducing energy consumption. [12]

Energy conservation by the countries

At the end of 2006, the European Union (EU) pledged to cut its annual consumption of primary energy by 20% by 2020. [13] The 'European Union Energy Efficiency Action Plan' is long awaited. As part of the EU's SAVE Programme, [14] aimed at promoting energy efficiency and encouraging energy-saving behaviour, the Boiler Efficiency Directive [15] specifies minimum levels of efficiency for boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels.

India

Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) www.pcra.org is an Indian government body created in 1977 and engaged in promoting energy efficiency and conservation in every walk of life. In the recent past PCRA has done mass media campaigns in television, radio & print media. An impact assessment survey by a third party revealed that due to these mega campaigns by PCRA, overall awareness level have gone up leading to saving of fossil fuels worth crores of rupees(Indian currency) besides reducing pollution.

Bureau of Energy Efficiency is an Indian governmental organization created in 2001 responsible for promoting energy efficiency and conservation.

Iran

In Iran the Iranian Fuel Conservation Company is responsible for promoting energy efficiency and conservation for fossil fuels. The administration decreased the fuel subsidies primarily to reduce the effect of rapidly intensifying energy consumption on Iran's economy.

Japan

Advertising with high energy in <a href=Shinjuku , Japan . Since the 1973 oil crisis , energy conservation has been an issue in Japan . All oil based fuel is imported, so indigenous sustainable energy is being developed. The Energy Conservation Center promotes energy efficiency in every aspect of Japan . Public entities are implementing the efficient use of energy for industries and research. Lebanon In Lebanon and since 2002 The Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation (LCEC) has been promoting the development of efficient and rational uses of energy and the use of renewable energy at the consumer level. It was created as a project financed by the International Environment Facility (GEF) and the Ministry of Energy Water (MEW) under the management of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and gradually established itself as an independent technical national center although it continues to be supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as indicated in the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between MEW and UNDP on June 18, 2007. New Zealand In New Zealand the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority is the Government Agency responsible for promoting energy efficiency and conservation. The Energy Management Association of New Zealand is a membership based organization representing the New Zealand energy services sector, providing training and accreditation services with the aim of ensuring energy management services are credible and dependable. Sri Lanka Sri Lanka currently consumes fossil fuels , hydro power , wind power , solar power and dendro power for their day to day power generation. The Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority is playing a major role regarding energy management and energy conservation. Today, most of the " id="pdf-obj-60-2" src="pdf-obj-60-2.jpg">

Advertising with high energy in Shinjuku, Japan.

Since the 1973 oil crisis, energy conservation has been an issue in Japan. All oil based fuel is imported, so indigenous sustainable energy is being developed.

The Energy Conservation Center promotes energy efficiency in every aspect of Japan. Public entities are implementing the efficient use of energy for industries and research.

Lebanon

In Lebanon and since 2002 The Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation (LCEC) has been promoting the development of efficient and rational uses of energy and the use of renewable energy at the consumer level. It was created as a project financed by the International Environment Facility (GEF) and the Ministry of Energy Water (MEW) under the management of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and gradually established itself as an independent technical national center although it continues to be supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as indicated in the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between MEW and UNDP on June 18, 2007.

New Zealand

In New Zealand the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority is the Government Agency responsible for promoting energy efficiency and conservation. The Energy Management Association of New Zealand is a membership based organization representing the New Zealand energy services sector, providing training and accreditation services with the aim of ensuring energy management services are credible and dependable.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka currently consumes fossil fuels, hydro power, wind power, solar power and dendro power for their day to day power generation. The Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority is playing a major role regarding energy management and energy conservation. Today, most of the

industries are requested to reduce their energy consumption by using renewable energy sources and optimizing their energy usage.

Asia Pacific

Despite the vital role energy efficiency is envisaged to play in cost-effectively cutting energy demand, only a small part of its economic potential is exploited in the Asia Pacific. Governments have implemented a range of subsidies such as cash grants, cheap credit, tax exemptions, and co- financing with public-sector funds to encourage a range of energy-efficiency initiatives across several sectors. Governments in the Asia-Pacific region have implemented a range of information provision and labeling programs for buildings, appliances, and the transportation and industrial sectors. Information programs can simply provide data, such as fuel-economy labels, or actively seek to encourage behavioral changes, such as Japan’s Cool Biz program that encourages setting air conditioners at 28-degrees Celsius and allowing employees to dress casually in the summer. [16] More in Pacific Energy Summit.

United States

The United States is currently the second largest single consumer of energy, following China. The U.S. Department of Energy categorizes national energy use in four broad sectors:

transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial. [17]

Energy usage in transportation and residential sectors, about half of U.S. energy consumption, is largely controlled by individual consumers. Commercial and industrial energy expenditures are determined by businesses entities and other facility managers. National energy policy has a significant effect on energy usage across all four sectors.

Nigeria

In Nigeria, the Lagos State Government is encouraging Lagosians to imbibe an energy conservation culture. The Lagos State Electricity Board (LSEB) is spearheading an initiative tagged “Conserve Energy, Save Money” under the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. The initiative is designed to sensitize Lagosians around the theme of energy conservation by connecting with and influencing their behavior through do-it-yourself tips and exciting interaction with prominent personalities. In September 2013, Governor Babatunde Raji Fashola of Lagos State and Africa’s #1 rapper Jude ‘MI’ Abaga (campaign ambassador)( [18] ) participated in the Governor’s first ever Google+ Hangout on YouTube on the topic of energy conservation.

In addition to the hangout, during the month of October (the official energy conservation month in the state), LSEB hosted experience centers in malls around Lagos State where members of the public were encouraged to calculate their current household energy consumption and discover ways to save money by conserving energy. To get Lagosians started on energy conservation, Solar Lamps and Phillips Energy-saving bulbs were given out at each experience center. Pictures from the experience centers: (part of Lagos state government energy initiatives)

Nepal

Until recently, Nepal has been focusing on the exploitation of its huge water resources to produce hydro power. Demand side management and energy conservation was not in the focus of government action. In 2009, bilateral Development Cooperation between Nepal and the Federal Republic of Germany, has agreed upon the joint implementation of “Nepal Energy Efficiency Programme”. The lead executing agencies for the implementation are the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat (WECS). The aim of the programme is the promotion of energy efficiency in policy making, in rural and urban households as well as in the industry. [19] Due to the lack of a government organization that promotes energy efficiency in the country, the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FNCCI) has established the Energy Efficiency Centre under his roof to promote energy conservation in the private sector. The Energy Efficiency Centre is a non-profit initiative that is offering energy auditing services to the industries. The Centre is also supported by Nepal Energy Efficiency Programme of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit. [20] A study conducted in 2012 found out that Nepalese industries could save 160,000 Megawatt hours of electricity and 8,000 Terajoule of thermal energy (like diesel, furnace oil and coal) every year. These savings are equivalent to annual energy cost cut of up to 6.4 Billion Nepalese Rupees. [21][22] As a result of Nepal Economic Forum 2014, [23] an economic reform agenda in the priority sectors was declared focusing on energy conservation among others. In the energy reform agenda the government of Nepal gave the commitment to introduce incentive packages in the budget of the fiscal year 2015/16 for industries that practices energy efficiency or use efficient technologies (incl. cogeneration). [24]

References