Microelectromechanical systems

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are small integrated devices or systems that combine electrical and mechanical components. They range in size from the submcrometer (or sub micron) level to the millimeter level, and there can be any number, from a few to millions, in a particular system. MEMS extend the fabrication techniques developed for the integrated circuit industry to add mechanical elements such as beams, gears, diaphragms, and springs to devices. Examples of MEMS device applications include inkjet-printer cartridges,acceleratometers , miniature robots, microengines, locks, inertial sensors, microtransmissions, micromirrors, micro actuators, optical scanners, fluid pumps, transducers and chemical pressure and flow sensors. New applications are emerging as the existing technology is applied to the miniaturzation and integration of conventional devices. These systems can sense, control, and activate mechanical processes on the micro scale, and function individually or in arrays to generate effects on the macro scale. The micro fabrication technology enables fabrication of large arrays of devices, which individually perform simple tasks, but in combination can accomplish complicated functions. MEMS are not about any one application or device, nor are they defined by a single fabrication process or limited to a few materials. They are a fabrication approach that conveys the advantages of miniaturization, multiple components, and microelectronics to the design and construction of integrated electromechanical systems. MEMS are not only about miniaturization of mechanical systems; they are also a new paradigm for designing mechanical devices and systems.

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) (also written as microelectro-mechanical,MicroElectroMechanical or "microelectron . and microelectromechanical systems") are separate and distinct from the hypothetical vision of molecular nanotechnology or molecular electronics. MEMS are made up of components between 1 to 100 micrometres in size (i.e. 0.001 to 0.1 mm) and MEMS devices generally range in size from 20 micrometres (20 millionths of a metre) to a millimetre. They usually consist of a central unit that processes data, the microprocessor and several components that interact with the outside such as microsensors II. Historical Background The invention of the transistors at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1947 sparked a fast-growing microelectronic technology. Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments built the first integrated circuit (IC) in 1958 using germanium (Ge) devices. It consisted of one transistor, three resistor, and one capasitor. The IC was implemented on a sliver of Ge that was glued on a glass slide. Later that same year Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor announced the development of a planer double diffused Si IC. The complete transition from the original Ge transistors with grown and alloyed junctions to silicon (Si) planar doublediffused devices took about 10 years. The success of Si as an electronic material was due partly to its wide availability from silicon dioxide (SiO2) (sand), resulting in potentially lower material costs relative to other semiconductors. Since 1970, the complexity of ICs has doubled every two to three years. The minimum dimension of manufactured devices and ICs has decreased from 20 microns to the sub micron levels of today. Current ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) technology enables the fabrication of more than 10 million transistors and capacitors on a typical chip. IC fabrication is dependent upon sensors to provide input from the surrounding environment, just as control systems

need actuators (also referred to as transducers) in order to carry out their desired functions. Due to the availability of sand as a material, much effort was put into developing Si processing and characterization tools. These tools are now being used to advance transducer technology. Today's IC technology far outstrips the original sensors and actuators in performance, size, and cost. Attention in this area was first focused on microsensers (i.e., microfabricated sensor) development. The first microsensor, which has also been the most successful, was the Si pressure sensor. In 1954 it was discovered that the piezoresistive effect in Ge and Si had the potential to produce Ge and Sistrain gauges with a gauge factor (i.e., instrument sensitivity) 10 to 20 times greater than those based on metal films. As a result, Si strain gauges began to be developed commercially in 1958. The first high-volume pressure sensor was marketed by National Semiconductor in 1974. This sensor included a temperature controller for constant-temperature operation. Improvements in this technology since then have included the utilization of ion implantation for improved control of the piezoresistor fabrication. Si pressure sensors are now a billion-dollar industry Around 1982, the term micromaching came into use to designate the fabrication of micromechanical parts (such as pressure-sensor diaphragms or accelerometer suspension beams) for Si microsensors. The micromechanical parts were fabricated by selectively etching areas of the Si substrate away in order to leave behind the desired geometries.Isotropic etching of Si was developed in the early 1960s for transistor fabrication. Anisotropic etching of Si then came about in 1967. Various etch-stop techniques were subsequently developed to provide further process flexibility.

These techniques also form the basis of the bulk micromachining processing techniques. Bulk micromachining designates the point at which the bulk of the Si substrate is etched away to leave behind the desired micromechanical elements.Bulk micromachining has remained a powerful technique for the fabrication of micromechanical elements. However, the need for flexibility in device design and performance improvement has motivated the development of new concepts and techniques for micromachining. Among these is the sacrificial layer technique, first demonstrated in 1965 by Nathanson and Wickstrom in which a layer of material is deposited between structural layers for mechanical separation and isolation. This layer is removed during the release etch to free the structural layers and to allow mechanical devices to move relative to the substrate. A layer is releasable when a sacrificial layer separates it from the substrate. The application of the sacrificial layer technique to micromachining in 1985 gave rise to surface micromachining, in which the Si substrate is primarily used as a mechanical support upon which the micromechanical elements are fabricated. Prior to 1987, these micromechanical structures were limited in motion. During 1987-1988, a turning point was reached in micromachining when, for the first time, techniques for integrated fabrication of mechanisms (i.e. rigid bodies connected by joints for transmitting, controlling, or constraining relative movement) on Si were demonstrated. During a series of three separate workshops on microdynamics held in 1987, the term MEMS was coined. Equivalent terms for MEMS are microsystems (preferred in Europe) and micromachines (preferred in Japan)

MEMS description
MEMS technology can be implemented using a number of different materials and manufacturing techniques; the choice

of which will depend on the device being created and the market sector in which it has to operate

Materials for MEMS manufacturing

slicon is the material used to create most integrated circuit used in consumer electronics in the modern world. The economes of scale, ready availability of cheap high-quality materials and ability to incorporate electronic functionality make silicon attractive for a wide variety of MEMS applications. Silicon also has significant advantages engendered through its material properties. In single crystal form, silicon is an almost perfect hookean material, meaning that when it is flexed there is virtually no hysterasis and hence almost no energy dissipation. As well as making for highly repeatable motion, this also makes silicon very reliable as it suffers very little fatigue and can have service lifetimes in the range of billions to trillions of cycles without breaking. The basic techniques for producing all silicon based MEMS devices are derosition of material layers, patterning of these layers by photolithography and then etching to produce the required shapes.

Even though the electronics industry provides an economy of scale for the silicon industry, crystalline silicon is still a complex and relatively expensive material to produce. Polymers on the other hand can be produced in huge volumes, with a great variety of material characteristics. MEMS devices can be made from polymers by processes such as injection

Metals can also be used to create MEMS elements. While metals do not have some of the advantages displayed by silicon in terms of

mechanical properties, when used within their limitations, metals can exhibit very high degrees of reliability. Metals can be deposited by electroplating, Commenly used metals include gold, nickel,aluminium.copper, chromium,titanium,tungsten,platinium and silver

MEMS basic processes

(ii) (iii)

deposition pattering etching

Deposition processes
One of the basic building blocks in MEMS processing is the ability to deposit thin films of material with a thickness anywhere between a few nanometres to about 100 micrometres

Patterning in MEMS is the transfer of a pattern into a material.

Lithography in MEMS context is typically the transfer of a pattern into a photosensitive material by selective exposure to a radiation source such as light. A photosensitive material is a material that experiences a change in its physical properties when exposed to a radiation source. If a photosensitive material is selectively exposed to radiation (e.g. by masking some of the radiation) the pattern of the radiation on the material is transferred to the material exposed, as the properties of the exposed and unexposed regions differs.
This exposed region can then be removed or treated providing a mask for the Underlying substrat.photolithography is typically used with metal ane other Film deposition.

Etching processes
There are two types of eching processes

Wet etching
Wet chemical etching consists in a selective removal of material by dipping a substrate into a solution that can dissolve it. Due to the chemical nature of this etching process, a good selectivity can often be obtained, which means that the etching rate of the target material is considerably higher than that of the mask material if selected carefully

Isotropic etching
Etching progresses at the same speed in all directions Long and narrow holes in the silicon

. The surface of these grooves can be atomically smooth if the etch is carried out correctly, with dimensions and angles being extremely accurate.

Electrochemical etching (ECE) for dopant-selective removal of silicon is a common method to automate and to selectively control etching. An active p-n diode junction is required, and either type of dopant can be the etch-resistant ("etch-stop") material. Boron is the most common etch-stop dopant. In combination with wet anisotropic etching as described above, ECE has been used successfully for controlling silicon diaphragm thickness in commercial piezoresistive silicon pressure sensors. Selectively doped regions can be created either by implantation, diffusion, or epitaxial deposition of silicon.

Dry etching (a) Xenon difluoride etching
Xenon difluride (XeF2) is a dry vapor phase isotropic etch for silicon originally applied for MEMS in 1995 at University of California, Los Angeles Primarily used for releasing metal and dielectric structures by undercutting silicon, XeF2 has the advantage of a free release unlike wet etchants. Its etch selectivity to silicon is very high, allowing it to work with photoresist, SiO2, silicon nitride, and various metals for masking. Its reaction to silicon is "plasmaless", is purely chemical and spontaneous and is often operated in pulsed mode. Models of the etching action are available, and university laboratories and various commercial tools offer solutions using this approach

(b)Deep reactive-ion etching
Deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) is a highly anisotropuc etch process used to create deep, steep-sided holes and trenches in wafers , with aspect ratios of 20:1 or more. It was developed for microelectromechanical system (MEMS), which require these features

MEMS technology

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes), the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices.

MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology, making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products, augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of microsensors and microactuators and expanding the space of possible designs and applications. Microelectronic integrated circuits can be thought of as the "brains" of a system and MEMS augments this decisionmaking capability with "eyes" and "arms", to allow

microsystems to sense and control the environment. Sensors gather information from the environment through measuring mechanical, thermal, biological, chemical, optical, and magnetic phenomena. The electronics then process the information derived from the sensors and through some decision making capability direct the actuators to respond by moving, positioning, regulating, pumping, and filtering, thereby controlling the environment for some desired outcome or purpose. Because MEMS devices are manufactured using batch fabrication techniques similar to those used for integrated circuits, unprecedented levels of functionality, reliability, and sophistication can be placed on a small silicon chip at a relatively low cost.

MEMS manufacturing technologies
Fabrication Technologies There are three characteristic features of mems (i)miniaturization (ii)multiplicity (iii)microelectronics Miniaturization enables the production of compact, quickresponse devices Multiplicity refers to the batch fabrication inherent in semiconductor processing, which allows thousands or millions of components to be easily and concurrently fabricate MEMS Microelectronics provides the intelligence to MEMS MEMS Technology

the successful miniaturization and multiplicity of traditional electronics systems would not have been possible without IC fabrication technology

MEMS sensor generations
MEMS sensor generations represent the progress made in micro sensors technology and can be categorized as follows: 1st Generation MEMS sensor element mostly based on a silicon structure, sometimes combined with analog amplification on a micro chip 2end generation MEMS sensor element combined with analog amplification and analog-to-digital converter on one micro chip 3red generation Fusion of the sensor element with analog amplification, analog-todigital converter and digital intelligence for linearization and temperature compensation on the same micro chip 4th generation Memory cells for calibration- and temperature compensation data are added to the elements of the 3rd MEMS sensor generation.

Radiation sensitivity of microelectromechanical system devices
the sensitivity of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices to radiation is reviewed, with an emphasis on radiation levels representative of space missions rather than of operation in nuclear reactors. As a purely structural material, silicon has shown no mechanical degradation after radiation doses in excess of 100 Mrad. MEMS devices,even when excluding control/readout electronics, have, however, failed at doses of only 20 krad, though some devices have been shown to operate correctly for doses greater than 10 Mrad. Radiation sensitivity depends strongly on the sensing or actuation principle, device design, and materials, and is linked primarily to the impact on device operation of radiation-induced trapped charge in dielectrics. MEMS devices operating on electrostatic principles can be highly sensitive to charge accumulation in dielectric layers, especially for designs with dielectrics located between moving parts. In contrast, thermally and electromagnetically actuated MEMS are much more radiation tolerant.

MEMS operating on piezoresitive principles start to slowly degrade at low doses, but do not fail catastrophically until doses of several Mrad.

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) in Radar System
The Air Force is supporting development of a lightweight, electronically scanning antenna using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology This technology could provide significant improvements in battlefield information superiority and airspace The air force requires lightweight, low power, and low-cost Electronically Steerable Antennas (ESA) such as those needed by high-performance Airborne Moving Target Indicator (AMTI) and Surface Moving Target Indicator (SMTI) radars. Rapid beam scanning, beam agility, the performance of diverse functions such as multiple target tracking and fire control, reduced Radar Cross Section (RCS), and reduced physical profile are some of the numerous performance benefits to systems employing an ESA. These radar systems require a large power-aperture product, but must be lightweight enough for aerostats and Airships For the first time, a lightweight, electronically scanning antenna using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology has been used for airborne and surface target detection, while interfaced with an existing radar system. The demonstration ESA contains 25,000 MEMS devices, electronically scans 120 degrees and operates over a 1-GHz bandwidth at X-band. The0.4 square meter antenna was built to demonstrate feasibility of much larger antennas, exceeding 8 square meters. Much of the enhanced antenna performance is attributed to the employment of MEMS switches instead of traditional semiconductor-based switching technologies. The MEMS switches manufactured byRadant MEMS, Inc. have a volume of only 1.5 cubic millimeters and are produced by wafer capping of a micromechanicalswitch mechanism that travels less than 1 micrometer in10 microseconds.

Applications of MEMS

Here are some examples of MEMS technology: A. Pressure Sensors MEMS pressure microsensors typically have a flexible diaphragm that deforms in the presence of a pressure difference. The deformation is converted to an electrical signal appearing at the sensor output. A pressure sensor can be used to sense the absolute air pressure within the intake manifold of an automobile engine, so that the amount of fuel required for each engine cylinder can be computed. In this example, piezoresistors are patterned across the edges of a region where a silicon diaphragm will be micromachined. The

substrate is etched to create the diaphragm. The sensor die is then bonded to a glass substrate, creating a sealed vacuum cavity under the diaphragm. The die is mounted on a package, where the topside of the diaphragm is exposed to the environment. The change in ambient pressure forces the downward deformation of the diaphragm, resulting in a change of resistance of the piezoresistors. On-chip electronics measure the resistance change, which causes a corresponding voltage signal to appear at the output pin of the sensor package

ers B.ACCELEROMETER Accelerometers are acceleration sensors. An inertial mass suspended by springs is acted upon by acceleration forces that cause the mass to be deflected from its initial position. This deflection is converted to an electrical signal, which appears at the sensor output. The application of MEMS

technology to accelerometers is a relatively new development. One such accelerometer design is discussed by DeVoe and Pisano (2001). It is a surface micromachined piezoelectric accelerometer employing a zinc oxide (ZnO) active piezoelectric film. The design is a simple cantilever structure, in which the cantilever beam serves simultaneously as proof mas and sensing element. One of the fabrication approaches developed is a sacrificial oxide process based on polysilicon surface micromachining, with the addition of a piezoelectric layer atop the polysilicon film. In the sacrificial oxide process, a passivation layer of silicon dioxide and low-stress silicon nitride is deposited on a bare silicon wafer, followed by 0.5 micron of liquid phase chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) phosphorousdoped polysilicon. Then, a 2.0-micron layer of phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is deposited by LPCVD and patterned to define regions where the accelerometer structure will be anchored to the substrate. The PSG film acts as a sacrificial layer that is selectively etched at the end to free the mechanical structures. A second layer of 2.0micron-thick phosphorus-doped polysilicon is deposited via LPCVD on top of the PSG, and patterned by plasma etching to define the mechanical accelerometer structure. This layer also acts as the lower electrode for the sensing film. A thin layer of silicon nitride is next deposited by LPCVD, and acts as a stress-compensation layer for balancing the highly compressive residual stresses in the ZnO film. By varying the thickness of the Si3N4 layer, the accelerometer structure may be tuned to control bending effects resulting from the stress gradient through the device thickness. A ZnO layer is then deposited on the order of 0.5 micron, followed by sputtering of a 0.2-micron layer of platinum (Pt) deposited to form the upper electrode. A rapid thermal anneal is performed to reduce residual stresses in the sensing film. Afterwards, the Pt, Si3N4, and ZnO layers are patterned in a single ion milling etch step, and the devices are then

released by passivating the ZnO film with photoresist, and immersing the wafer in buffered hydrofluoric acid, which removes the sacrificial PSG layer C.Inertial Sensors Inertial sensors are a type of accelerometer and are one of the principal commercial products that utilize surface micromachining. They are used as airbag-deployment sensors in automobiles, and as tilt or shock sensors. The application of these accelerometers to inertial measurement units(IMUs) is limited by the need to manually align and assemble them into three-axis systems, and by the resulting alignment tolerances, their lack of in-chip analog-to-digital conversion circuitry, and their lower limit of sensitivity. The accelerometer was designed for the integrated MEMS/CMOS technology. This technology involves a manufacturing technique where a single-level (plus a second electrical interconnect level) polysilicon micromachining process is integrated with 1.25-micron CMOS. D.Microengines A three-level polysilicon micromachining process has enabled the fabrication of devices with increased degrees of complexity. The process includes three movable levels of polysilicon, each separated by a sacrificial oxide layer, plus a stationary level. Operation of the small gears at rotational speeds greater than 300,000 rpm has been demonstrated. Microengines can be used to drive the wheels of microcombination locks. They can also be used in combination with a microtransmission to drive a pop-up mirror out of a plane. This device is known as a micromirror. E.MEMS thermal actuator A MEMS thermal actuator is a micromechanical device that typically generates motion by thermal expansion amplification. A small amount of thermal expansion of one part of the device translates to a large amount of deflectionof the overall device

Usually fabricated out of doped single crystal silicon or poly silicon , the increase in temperature can be achieved internally by electrical sensitive haeting or externally by a heat source capable of locally introducing heat. F.Electrostatic motor An electrostatic motor or capacitor motor is a type of electric motor based on the attraction and repulsion of electric charge. Usually, electrostatic motors are the dual of conventional coil-based motors. They typically require a high voltage power supply, although very small motors employ lower voltages. Conventional electric motors instead employ magnetic attraction and repulsion, and require high current at low voltages. In the 1750s, the first electrostatic motors were developed by Benjamin Franklin andAndrew Gordon. Today the electrostatic motor finds frequent use in micro-mechanical (MEMS) systems where their drive voltages are below 100 volts, and where moving charged plates are far easier to fabricate than coils and iron cores. Also, the molecular machinery which runs living cells is often base d on linear and rotary electrostatic motors

Some other applications
MEMS IC fabrication technologies have also allowed the manufacture of microtransmissions using sets of small and large gears interlocking with other sets of gears to transfer power.

A recently developed MicroStar cross-connect fabric developed by Bell Labs a micro-optoelectromechanical system device, is based on MEMS technology. The most pervasive bottlenecks for communications carriers are the switching and cross-connect fabrics that switch, route, multiplex, demultiplex, and restore traffic in optical networks. The optical transmission systems move information as photons, but switching and cross-connect fabrics until now have been largely electronic, requiring

costly and time-consuming bandwidth-limiting optical-toelectronic-to-optical conversions at every network connection and cross point. MicroStar is composed of 256 mirrors, each one 0.5 mm in diameter, spaced 1 mm apart, and covering less than 1 square inch of silicon. The mirrors sit within the router so that only one wavelength can illuminate any one mirror. Each mirror can tilt independently to pass its wavelength to any of 256 input and output fibers. The mirror arrays are made using a self-assembly process that causes a frame around each mirror to lift from the silicon surface and lock in place, positioning the mirrors high enough to allow a range of movement. MicroStar is part of Lucent Technology's Lambda Router cross-connect system aimed at helping carriers deliver vast amounts of data unimpeded by conventional bottlenecks. As a final example, MEMS technology has been used in fabricating vaporization microchambers for vaporizing liquid microthrusters for nanosatellites. The chamber is part of a microchannel with a height of 2-10 microns, made using silicon and glass substrates. The nozzle is fabricated in the silicon substrate just above a thin-film indium tin oxide heater deposited on glass. The Future Each of the three basic microsystems technology processes we have seen, bulk micromachining, sacrificial surface micromachining, and micromolding/LIGA, employs a different set of capital and intellectual resources. MEMS manufacturing firms must choose which specific microsystems manufacturing techniques to invest in [ MEMS technology has the potential to change our daily lives as much as the computer has. However, the material needs of the MEMS field are at a preliminary stage. A thorough understanding of the properties of existing MEMS materials

is just as important as the development of new MEMS materials. Future MEMS applications will be driven by processes enabling greater functionality through higher levels of electronic-mechanical integration and greater numbers of mechanical components working alone or together to enable a complex action. Future MEMS products will demand higher levels of electrical-mechanical integration and more intimate interaction with the physical world. The high up-front investment costs for large-volume commercialization of MEMS will likely limit the initial involvement to larger companies in the IC industry. Advancing from their success as sensors, MEMS products will be embedded in larger nonMEMS systems, such as printers, automobiles, and biomedical diagnostic equipment, and will enable new and improved systems

MEMS devices

The term geophone derives from the Greek word "geo" meaning "earth " and "phone" meaning "sound" MEMS Technology A geophone is a device which converts ground movement (displacement) into voltage, which may be recorded at a recording station. The deviation of this measured voltage from the base line is called the seismic response and is analyzed for structure of the earth Geophones have historically been passive analog devices and typically comprise a spring-mounted magnetic mass moving within a wire coil to generate an electrical signal. Recent designs have been based on microelectromechanicalsystms technology which generates an electrical response to ground motion through an active feedback circuit to maintain the position of a small piece of silicon The response of a coil/magnet geophone is proportional to ground velocity, while microelectromechanical systems devices usually respond proportional to acceleration. Microelectromechanical systems have a much higher noise level (50 dB velocity higher) than geophones and can only be used in strong motion or active seismic applications microturbine technology The components of any turbine engine: the gas compressor, the combustion chamber, and the turbine rotor itself, are fabricated from etched silicon, much like integrated circuits. The technology holds the promise of ten times the operating time of a battery of the same weight as the micropower unit, and similar efficiency to large utility gas turbines a micro generator 10 mm wide, which spins a magnet above an array of coils fabricated on a silicon chip. The device spins at 100,000 revolutions per minute, and produces 1.1 watts of electrical power, sufficient to operate acell phone . Their goal is to produce 20 to 50 watts, sufficient to power a laptop computer.

A mircroelectromechnical system microphone, comprising:a first electrode, disposed on a substrate and having a first flexible portion;a second electrode, disposed first dielectric layer, partially disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode so as to suspend the first flexible portion between the first electrode and the substrate USES OFMEMS—MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL S information syst YSTEMems used to be embedded in computers at fixed locations. Now they are also found in nearly everyone's hands and pockets, thanks to miniaturization of electromechanical systems. Using the fabrication techniques and materials of microelectronics as a basis, micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) processes are shrinking machines to microscopic dimensions. .

Smallest motors
. as a basis, micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) processes Already the world's smallest motors have rotors that are less than the diameter of a human hair. These motors are powering optical switches, valves and airbag deployment sensors

New uses
Widely used, MEMS devices and their use will continue to expand. Already, cars, fighter aircraft, printers and munitions use MEMS devices, and the devices account for a relatively small fraction of their cost, size and weight. MEMS devices and the smart products they enable will create new opportunities for perceiving and controlling our work and life

environments and will increasingly be the performance differentiator for both defense and commercial systems. While MEMS devices will be a relatively small fraction of the cost, size and weight of these systems, MEMS will be critical to their operation, reliability and affordability Advances in IC technology in the last decade have brought about corresponding progress in MEMS fabrication processes. Manufacturing processes allow for the monolithic integration of microelectromechanical structures with driving, controlling, and signal-processing electronics. This integration promises to improve the performance of micromechanical devices as well as reduce the cost of manufacturing, packaging, and instrumenting these device