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VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


I SEMESTER / I YEAR- M.E (CAD/CAM)
ED7102-COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN DESIGN
QUESTION BANK
S.No

QUESTIONS

UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GRAPHICS FUNDAMENTALS


PART-A (2 marks)
1.

Define persistence

BT1

2.

Quote the term resolution

BT1

3.

Define aspect ratio

BT1

4.

Express the term frame buffer or refresh buffer

BT2

5.

Contrast the terms pixel, bitmap and pixmap.

BT2

6.

Label the term output primitives.

BT1

7.

Deduce the techniques used in colour CRT monitors.

BT5

8.

List the line drawing algorithms used in scan conversions.

BT1

9.

Compare analog flat panel displays and digital flat panel displays.

BT4

10.

Point out how flat screen CRT varies from curved CRT.

BT3

11.

Differentiate between regular CRTs and flat screen CRTs.

BT2

12.

Compare DDA algorithm with Brenhams algorithm

BT4

13.

For the position vectors P1[2, 3] and P2[4, 5]determine the parametric
representation of the line segment between them

BT5

14.

Illustrate the Scan-conversion process of a straight line in terms of pixel position

BT3

15.

Explain what happens to the picture that are too large to fit in the screen?

BT6

16.

List the limitations of a CAD software.

BT1

17.

Classify geometric transformations.

BT3

18.

Define translations.

BT6

19.

Define scaling transformation

BT2

20.

Classify clipping transformation.

BT4

PART-B (13 marks)

1.

Describe principle and working of CRT with the aid of neat sketch.

BT1

2.

Summarize any 10 parameters that are used in CRTs

BT2

3.

Write short notes on the analog flat panel displays

BT3

4.

Rotate the triangle ABC counterclockwise by 30, where the triangle has
coordinates A(1,1), B(3,1) and C (1,3).

5.

Describe about the 3 D translation and 3 D rotation.

6.

Translate a triangle ABC with coordinates A (1, 1), B (5,2), C (3,3) about the
origin by 3 units in the x-direction and 2 units in the y-direction.

7.

Scale the polygon ABCD with vertices A(5,7) B(12,9) C(10,15) D(7,16) by 2
units in X direction & 3 units in Y direction by keeping the vertices D as fixed.

8.

Explain the working of Digitizers and Image scanners

9.

Identify and describe the reasons for implementing a computer aided design
system

10.

Explain how an image is generated and maintained in a direct beam refresh


terminal.

BT5
BT1
BT4

BT6
BT4
BT1

BT4

11.

Explain the working of CPU

BT3

12.

Elaborate on the basic requirements that a CAD software has to satisfy.

BT2

13.

Discuss the working of the digital flat panel displays.

BT2

14.

Describe about the reflection.

BT1

PART-C (15 marks)


1.

Enumerate on the various types of the output primitives.

BT1

2.

Write notes on Homogenous Transformation Matrices, Digital differential

BT2

analyzer and algorithm.


3.

Explain the various types of mapping of the geometric models.

BT3

4.

Consider the line of coordinates (1,1) and (2,4) rotate the line about the origin

BT4

300. Determine the transformation of the line.


UNIT-II CURVES AND SURFACES MODELLING
PART A (2 marks)
1.

Write the parametric equation of a plane surface defined by three points P0,
P1 and P2

BT2

2.

Give the explicit non parametric representations of a curve.

BT2

3.

Mention the limitations of the non-parametric representations of a curve

BT3

4.

Differentiate between analytical curves and synthetic curves.

BT4

5.

Define Bezier curves.

BT1

6.

Differentiate between the beizer curve and cubic spline curve.

BT2

7.

Mention the requirements of curves and surface design.

BT4

8.

List the features of the curve manipulations.

BT4

9.

Define segmentation.

BT1

10.

Point out the types of surfaces.

BT5

11.

Quote the expression for the surface representation.

BT1

12.

Define patch.

BT1

13.

Differentiate between analytical surfaces and synthetic surfaces.

BT2

14.

List the applications of trimming in surface entities.

BT3

15.

Give the examples of prismatic and revolved parts.

BT3

16.

Differentiate between Bezier surfaces and hermite cubic surfaces.

BT5

17.

Mention the advantages of B-spline surfaces over the Beziers surfaces.

BT6

18.

Mention the methods of defining points.

BT6

19.

List the methods of defining circles.

BT1

20.

State the methods of defining ellipses and parabolas.

BT1

PART-B (13 marks)


1.

Explain any two features of the surface manipulations.

BT1

2.

Explain the various types of surface entities.

BT1

3.

Briefly explain about the plane surfaces.

BT1

4.

CAD/CAM systems use parametric representation for surfaces as they do for


curves. Explain how a surfaces is represented.

5.

BT4

Sketch the geometric parameters required to create the following surface


operations:

BT3

a. Tabulated cylinder b. revolve c. sweep d.loft


6.

Sketch the geometric parameters required to define a helix.

BT2

7.

Determine the equation of the plane that passes through points Po(1,2,3), P1(3,4,-

BT3

1)and P2(1,-2,2). Find the coordinates of the center point of the plane. Find the
tangent vectors and the normal vector at this point.
8.

Elaborate the curve generation techniques.

BT1

9.

Summarize the characteristics of a Bezier curve.

BT2

10.

Summarize the characteristics of a B-spline curve.

BT2

11.

Explain the necessity of surface analysis.

BT4

12.

Derive the expression for [MH] T for a hermite cubic spline.

BT4

13.

Derive the vector parametric equations of a straight line for a line connecting
two end points.

14.

BT5

Derive the vector parametric equations of a straight line passing through a point
P1 in a direction defined by a unit vector.

BT6

PART-C (15 marks)


1.

Find the shape of cubic spline curve if the result is (i) Po= P1,P1=Po ii) Po = P1,

BT4

P1= -Po
2.

Discuss the various features of the curve manipulations.

BT3

3.

Explain about the Bezier curves.

BT2

4.

Discuss the representations of the curve and obtain its parametric equation.

BT1

UNIT III NURBS AND SOLID MODELING


PART-A (2marks)
1.

Define NURBS.

BT1

2.

List the advantages of NURBS.

BT3

3.

Define geometry

BT1

4.

Define topology

BT1

5.

Write the expression for NURB arc equation.

BT6

6.

Mention the divisions of B-spline curves.

BT3

7.

Differentiate between rational and non-rational B-spline curves.

BT4

8.

Define open knot vectors.

BT1

9.

Distinguish between valid solid and complete solid.

BT2

10.

Differentiate between boss and cut command.

BT2

11.

Define unambiguous solid.

BT1

12.

Sketch some non-uniqueness of solid models.

BT5

13.

Mention some commonly used solid primitives

BT3

14.

Distinguish between finiteness and finite describability.

BT2

15.

Quote the term non sense model

BT1

16.

Differentiate between closed surface and orientable surface.

BT2

17.

List the limitations of half-spaces.

BT5

18.

State the expression for Euler equations in B-rep.

BT6

19.

Mention the types of sweeps.

BT4

20.

Point out the building blocks of B-rep.

BT4

PART-B (13 marks)


1

Summarize the steps involved to NURBS equation of a curve.

Explain the following polyhedral object using B-rep elements and verify the

BT2

Euler equation for the same


(i) Simple Polyhedra.
(ii) Polyhedral object a face may have loops.
(iii) Objects with holes that do not go through the entire object.
(iv) Objects have holes that go through entire objects
3

BT5

Sketch the following feature operations using CSG.


(i) Extruded
(ii) Revolved feature
(iii) Chamber
(iv) Loft feature
(v) Pocket
(vi) Shell
(vii) Fillet
(viii) Draft
(ix) Rib and
(x) Dimple.

BT6

List the differences and the similarities between nonlinear sweeps and lofts

BT2

Write short notes on the various solid entities.

BT1

Summarize the mathematical properties of a solid model.

BT2

Point out the design applications of a CSG tree.

BT4

Explain the features of the solid manipulations.

BT1

Discuss the various types of the sweep representations.

BT4

10

Sketch the CSG tree for the solids shown below.

BT3
11

Check the validity of 3D solids.

BT3
12

Verify the Euler equation for the following solids and check the validity of 3D
solids

BT4
13

Write short notes on the curved and faceted B-rep models.

BT1

14

Describe about the surface/surface intersection.

BT1

PART-C (15 marks)


1.

Write notes on Boundary representation method and Constructive Solid

BT1

Geometry
2.

Explain about the NURBS and their necessity .

BT2

3.

Write notes on Boolean set of operations and Primitive instancing.

BT3

4.

Develop the NURB equation for a circle.

BT4

UNIT-IV VISUAL REALISM


PART-A (2marks)
1.

List the various hidden line algorithm.

BT1

2.

Identify the algorithms used for hidden surface removal.

BT1

3.

Differentiate between raster algorithm and vector algorithm.

BT2

4.

Classify the removal algorithms.

BT1

5.

Mention few visibility techniques.

BT3

6.

List the parameters used for visibility of object views.

BT2

7.

Write the plan equation for surface test.

BT1

8.

Define Silhouette edges.

BT1

9.

List the types of coherence identified in object space and image space.

BT6

10.

State the necessity of hidden surface algorithms.

BT6

11.

How does edge coherence help to reduce computational effort?

BT4

12.

Infer how does the basic scan line method determine which surfaces are hidden?

BT4

13.

Interpret how does area coherence help to reduce computational effort?

BT2

14.

Evaluate how is spatial coherence determined?

BT5

15.

Explain why is it easier to locate hidden surfaces when parallel projection is


needed?

BT4

16.

Define Coherence.

BT1

17.

Mention the uses of homogeneity test.

BT5

18.

List the shading algorithms

BT3

19.

Mention the benefits of shading enhancements.

BT3

20.

Differentiate between RGB model and CMY color model.

BT2

PART-B (13 marks)

1.

Explain the method of back face removal. Give its advantages and limitations
with reference to hidden line removal.

2.

Write short notes on visibility of the object views.

3.

Write short notes on a.) minimax test


b.) containment test

BT2
BT2
BT1

4.

Explain in detail about the various types of coherence.

BT4

5.

Summarize the steps involved in the priority algorithm.

BT2

6.

Describe the procedures followed in area oriented algorithm for hidden line
removal.

7.

Explain the methods or the algorithms that are deployed for the hidden solid
removal.

BT5

BT3

8.

Discuss the effects of shading enhancements in the visualization.

BT3

9.

Explain the algorithms used for shading of solids.

BT4

10.

Describe about the characteristics of the various color models.

BT1

11.

Write short notes on a.) surface test


b.) computing silhouettes.

12.

How will you formulate and implement a technique for the hidden line removal.

13.

Describe about a.) Z-buffer algorithm


b.) Warnocks algorithm.

14.

What is lofted parts? Explain how are they created?

BT1
BT6
BT1
BT4

PART-C (15 marks)


1.

Explain briefly with sketches any six tests used for hidden line identification.

BT1

2.

Discuss the various steps involved in hidden line removal algorithms with neat

BT2

sketches.
3.

Explain the procedures and implementation of the ray tracing algorithm.

BT3

4.

Elaborate on the shading and brief their impact on visual realism.

BT4

UNIT-V-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND PRODUCT DATA EXCHANGE


PART-A (2marks)
1.

Identify the elements of assembly analysis.

BT1

2.

Define assembly tree.

BT1

3.

List the various mating conditions.

BT1

4.

Mention the difference between the tangent and coincident mating condition.

BT4

5.

Differentiate between WCS method and mate method.

BT4

6.

Assess the steps involved in assembly analysis.

BT5

7.

Define tolerance analysis.

BT1

8.

Deduce the objective of tolerance analysis.

BT5

9.

Mention the uses of form tolerances.

BT3

10.

Sketch the ANSI symbol for straightness and flatness.

BT6

11.

Sketch the ANSI symbol for position and angularity.

BT6

12.

Classify the types of geometric tolerances.

BT3

13.

Define datum.

BT1

14.

Indicate the difference between mass property and geometric property.

BT4

15.

Expand IGES and STEP.

BT2

16.

Interpret the methods of verification of processors.

BT2

17.

Differentiate between loopback test and transmission test.

BT2

18.

Examine the need for tolerances.

BT3

19.

List the various methods of tolerance synthesis.

BT1

20.

Interpret the three layers used in STEP architecture.

BT2

PART-B (13 marks)


1.

Explain the worst case arithmetic method for tolerance analysis.

BT1

2.

Discuss the worst case statistical method for tolerance analysis.

BT1

3.

Discuss how the surface area and first moment of inertia is calculated using
CAD software.

BT2

4.

Label the various ANSI from tolerances with neat diagram.

BT1

5.

Elaborate the various mating conditions for an assembly.

BT3

6.

Express IGES file structure with examples.

BT2

7.

Enumerate the concept of product data exchange using STEP in detail

BT2

8.

Use the bottom-up approach to create the model of the universal joint shown in
Figure

BT5

9.

The figure below shows a pin and a block with their MCSs. The pin and the
instances to be assembled into the hole in the block. Use WCS and write the
transformationmatrices to merge the three instances of B into A.

BT6

10.

Write short notes on assembly planning and mention the issues arising during
assembly.

BT3

11.

Explain the steps involved during the modelling of the assembly.

BT4

12.

Discuss the need for tolerances.

BT4

13.

Collect the steps involved in the Monte Carlo simulation method.

BT1

14.

Analyze in detail about the Tolerance Vs Cost relationship.

BT4

PART-C (15 marks)


1.

Explain with the help of an example the concept of interferences of positions and

BT2

orientation by which the parts are assembled.


2.

Elaborate on the various methods of the tolerance analysis

BT3

3.

Derive the expression for any 4 parameters of the mass properties.

BT4

4.

Describe the architecture, file format of the various product data exchange
standards.

BT1