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ONE-WAY SLAB

One-way slab is supported on two opposite side only thus structural action is only at one direction.

Total load is carried in the direction perpendicular to the supporting beam.

If a slab is supported on all the four sides but the ratio of longer span (L) to shorter span (B) is

greater than 2, then the slab will be considered as one-way slab. Because due to the huge

difference in lengths, load is not transferred to the shorter beams. Main reinforcement is provided

in only one direction.

TWO-WAY SLAB

Two way slabs are the slabs that are supported on four sides and the ratio of longer span (L) to

shorter span (B) is less than 2. In two way slabs, load will be carried in both the directions. So,

main reinforcement is provided in both directions for two way slabs.

Q2. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE TWO & HOW LOADING IS DONE ON BOTH THE

SLABS?

where Ix - length of shorter side

Iy - length of longer side

a

One-way slab

B

Beam AB and

CD

lx

w = n lx / 2

C

D

ly

Two-way slab

A

B

E

ly

lx

lx/2

450

450

lx

Beam AC and BD

w = n lx / 3

lx

and CD

w = n lx / 6 {3- (lx / ly)2}

Reinforced concrete slabs are a common building system because they can be built

economically with essentially any plan geometry and supported by randomly located

beams, columns and walls.

Slabs must have sufficient strength to carry loads safely but must not deflect or crack

excessively.

This system consists of beams framing into columns and supporting slabs spanning

between the beams.

The relatively deep beams provide a stiff floor capable of long spans, and able to resist

lateral loads. However, the complications of beam formwork, co-ordination of services, and

overall depth of floor have led to a decrease in the popularity of this type of floor.

The floor loads are transferred to the beams, which are then transferred to the columns.

15 for a single span and D x 20 for a multi-span, where D is the depth of the slab plus

beam. The depth of slab between the beams can be initially sized using the span-to-depth

ratios for a flat plate. Pre-stressing is not normally used with this system.

Advantages:

Long spans.

Disadvantages:

Depth of floor

from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern so that they transfer moment and shear in

addition to axial forces. In comparison, space trusses are pin-jointed and as a result, their

members are in tension or compression and do not transfer moment or shear.

Space frames are either constructed from prefabricated modular units (modular system) or

individual members assembled together using different types of connectors or nodes

(nodular system). These systems are typically proprietary.

It is also possible to construct space frames by field-welding members to each other; this is

generally a costlier alternative. When field welding, the joints are considered to be rigidly

connected, capable of transferring moment and shear in addition to axial forces.

Space frames generally consist of double and multi-layer grids in flat or free forms. Flat

space frames have been typically used as roof systems, but they can also be used to

support floors.

If a force is applied to the blue node, and the red bar is not

present, the behaviour of the structure depends completely on the

bending rigidity of the blue node. If the red bar is present, and the

bending rigidity of the blue node is negligible compared to the

contributing rigidity of the red bar, the system can be calculated

using a rigidity matrix, neglecting angular factors.

building is supported by a space

frame structure.

Simplified space frame roof

with the half-octahedron

highlighted in blue

Ribbed floors consisting of equally spaced ribs are usually supported directly by columns.

They are either one-way spanning systems known as ribbed slab or a two-way ribbed

system known as a waffle slab. This form of construction is not very common because of

the formwork costs and the low fire rating. A 120-mm-thick slab with a minimum rib

thickness of 125 mm for continuous ribs is required to achieve a 2-hour fire rating.

Waffle slabs are a reinforced concrete footing and slab system. They consist of a perimeter

footing (edge beam) and a series of narrow internal beams (strip footings) at one meter

nominal centers running each way i.e., containing square grids with deep sides.

Waffle slabs tend to be deeper than the equivalent ribbed slab. Waffle slabs have a thin

topping slab and narrow ribs spanning in both directions between column heads or band

beams. The column heads or band beams are the same depth as the ribs.

Waffle slabs achieve their strength by varying their height above ground. The higher the

slab above ground the deeper the beams. The deeper the beams the more stiffness the

system has.

Slab depths typically vary from 75 to 125 mm and rib widths from 125 to 200 mm. Rib

spacing of 600 to 1500 mm can be used. The overall depth of the floor typically varies from

300 to 600 mm with overall spans of up to 15 m if reinforced, longer if post-tensioned. The

use of ribs to the soffit of the slab reduces the quantity of concrete and reinforcement and

also the weight of the floor.

For ribs at 1200-mm centers (to suit standard forms) the economical reinforced concrete

floor span L is approximately D x 15 for a single span and D x 22 for a multi-span, where D

is the overall floor depth. The one-way ribs are typically designed as T-beams, often

spanning in the long direction. A solid drop panel is required at the columns and

loadbearing walls for shear and moment resistance.

Advantages:

Long spans

Disadvantages:

Depth of slab between the ribs may control the fire rating

Folded plates are assemblies of flat plates rigidly connected together along their edges in such a

way that the structural system capable of carrying loads without the need for additional supporting

beams along mutual edges.

Merits:

The use of concrete as a building material reduces both materials cost and a construction

cost.

Longer span can be provided.

Flat shapes by choosing certain arched shapes.

Esthetically it looks good over other forms of construction.

Movable form work can be employed.

Design involves simpler calculations.

Demerits:

Shuttering is difficult.

Greater accuracy in formwork is required.

Good labor and supervision necessary.

Rise of roof may be a disadvantage.

Form work may be removed after 7 days whereas in case of shells it can be little earlier.

The principle components in a folded plate structure consist of:

1) the inclined plates

2) edge plates which must be used to stiffen the wide plates

3) stiffeners to carry the loads to the supports and to hold the plates in line

4) columns to support the structure in the air.

Each plate is assumed to act as a beam in its own plane, this assumption is justified when the

ratio of the span "length" of the plate to its height "width" is large enough. But when this ratio is

small, the plate behaves as a deep beam.

Actions of Folded plate due to loads:

1-Slab action: loads are transmitted to ridges by the bending of

plates normal to

their planes.

2-Beam action: Loads are transmitted through plates in their

planes to

diaphragms.

A flat slab is a one-way or two-way system with thickenings in the slab at the columns and

load bearing walls called drop panels Figure 9. Drop panels act as T-beams over the

supports. They increase the shear capacity and the stiffness of the floor system under

vertical loads, thus increasing the economical span range.

This form of construction has become less popular in recent years because of the limit on

economical spans of about 9.5 m for reinforced slabs and about 12 m for pre-stressed

slabs.

The plan dimensions of the drop panels are a minimum of 1/3 of the span in the direction

under consideration, usually rounded to the nearest 100 mm. The overall depth of the drop

panel is typically taken as 1.75 to 2 times the depth of the slab, again rounded to suit timber

sizes or the nearest 25 mm.

The principal features of a flat slab floor are a flat soffit, simple formwork and easy

construction. The economical span L of a reinforced concrete flat slab is approximately D x

28 for simply supported, D x 32 for an end span and D x 36 for an interior span. Prestressing the slab increases the economical span to D x 35, D x 40 and D x 45 respectively,

where D is the depth of the slab excluding the drop panel.

with drop panel and

column head

increase shear strength of slab

reduce the moment in the slab by reducing the clear or effective span

Uses of drop panels:

increase shear strength of slab

increase negative moment capacity of slab

stiffen the slab and hence reduce deflection

Advantages:

Simple formwork

Disadvantages:

Medium spans

For reinforced flat slabs, deflection at the middle strip may be critical.

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