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TOS ASSIGNMENT

Q1. EXPLAIN ONE WAY SLAB & TWO WAY SLAB.


ONE-WAY SLAB
One-way slab is supported on two opposite side only thus structural action is only at one direction.
Total load is carried in the direction perpendicular to the supporting beam.
If a slab is supported on all the four sides but the ratio of longer span (L) to shorter span (B) is
greater than 2, then the slab will be considered as one-way slab. Because due to the huge
difference in lengths, load is not transferred to the shorter beams. Main reinforcement is provided
in only one direction.

TWO-WAY SLAB
Two way slabs are the slabs that are supported on four sides and the ratio of longer span (L) to
shorter span (B) is less than 2. In two way slabs, load will be carried in both the directions. So,
main reinforcement is provided in both directions for two way slabs.

Q2. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE TWO & HOW LOADING IS DONE ON BOTH THE
SLABS?

LOAD DISTRIBUTION FROM SLAB


where Ix - length of shorter side
Iy - length of longer side
a

One-way slab
B

Beam AB and
CD

lx

w = n lx / 2
C

D
ly

Two-way slab
A

B
E

ly

lx

lx/2

450

450
lx

Beam AC and BD

w = n lx / 3

lx
and CD
w = n lx / 6 {3- (lx / ly)2}

Q3. EXPLAIN BEAM & SLAB FLOOR SYSTEM IN R.C.C.

Reinforced concrete slabs are a common building system because they can be built
economically with essentially any plan geometry and supported by randomly located
beams, columns and walls.
Slabs must have sufficient strength to carry loads safely but must not deflect or crack
excessively.
This system consists of beams framing into columns and supporting slabs spanning
between the beams.
The relatively deep beams provide a stiff floor capable of long spans, and able to resist
lateral loads. However, the complications of beam formwork, co-ordination of services, and
overall depth of floor have led to a decrease in the popularity of this type of floor.
The floor loads are transferred to the beams, which are then transferred to the columns.

The traditional reinforced concrete beam-and-slab floor has an economical span L of D x


15 for a single span and D x 20 for a multi-span, where D is the depth of the slab plus
beam. The depth of slab between the beams can be initially sized using the span-to-depth
ratios for a flat plate. Pre-stressing is not normally used with this system.

Advantages:

Traditional effective solution

Long spans.

Disadvantages:

Penetrations through beams for large ducts difficult to handle

Depth of floor

Greater floor-to-floor height.

Q4. WHAT ARE SPACE FRAMES?

A space frame or space structure is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed


from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern so that they transfer moment and shear in
addition to axial forces. In comparison, space trusses are pin-jointed and as a result, their
members are in tension or compression and do not transfer moment or shear.
Space frames are either constructed from prefabricated modular units (modular system) or
individual members assembled together using different types of connectors or nodes
(nodular system). These systems are typically proprietary.
It is also possible to construct space frames by field-welding members to each other; this is
generally a costlier alternative. When field welding, the joints are considered to be rigidly
connected, capable of transferring moment and shear in addition to axial forces.
Space frames generally consist of double and multi-layer grids in flat or free forms. Flat
space frames have been typically used as roof systems, but they can also be used to
support floors.
If a force is applied to the blue node, and the red bar is not
present, the behaviour of the structure depends completely on the
bending rigidity of the blue node. If the red bar is present, and the
bending rigidity of the blue node is negligible compared to the
contributing rigidity of the red bar, the system can be calculated
using a rigidity matrix, neglecting angular factors.

The roof of this industrial


building is supported by a space
frame structure.
Simplified space frame roof
with the half-octahedron
highlighted in blue

Q5. EXPLAIN WAFFLE SLAB SYSTEM.

Ribbed floors consisting of equally spaced ribs are usually supported directly by columns.
They are either one-way spanning systems known as ribbed slab or a two-way ribbed
system known as a waffle slab. This form of construction is not very common because of
the formwork costs and the low fire rating. A 120-mm-thick slab with a minimum rib
thickness of 125 mm for continuous ribs is required to achieve a 2-hour fire rating.
Waffle slabs are a reinforced concrete footing and slab system. They consist of a perimeter
footing (edge beam) and a series of narrow internal beams (strip footings) at one meter
nominal centers running each way i.e., containing square grids with deep sides.
Waffle slabs tend to be deeper than the equivalent ribbed slab. Waffle slabs have a thin
topping slab and narrow ribs spanning in both directions between column heads or band
beams. The column heads or band beams are the same depth as the ribs.
Waffle slabs achieve their strength by varying their height above ground. The higher the
slab above ground the deeper the beams. The deeper the beams the more stiffness the
system has.
Slab depths typically vary from 75 to 125 mm and rib widths from 125 to 200 mm. Rib
spacing of 600 to 1500 mm can be used. The overall depth of the floor typically varies from
300 to 600 mm with overall spans of up to 15 m if reinforced, longer if post-tensioned. The
use of ribs to the soffit of the slab reduces the quantity of concrete and reinforcement and
also the weight of the floor.
For ribs at 1200-mm centers (to suit standard forms) the economical reinforced concrete
floor span L is approximately D x 15 for a single span and D x 22 for a multi-span, where D
is the overall floor depth. The one-way ribs are typically designed as T-beams, often
spanning in the long direction. A solid drop panel is required at the columns and
loadbearing walls for shear and moment resistance.

Advantages:

Savings on weight and materials

Long spans

Attractive soffit appearance if exposed

Economical when reusable formwork pans used

Vertical penetrations between ribs are easy.

Disadvantages:

Depth of slab between the ribs may control the fire rating

Requires special or proprietary formwork

Greater floor-to-floor height

Large vertical penetrations are more difficult to handle.

Q6. EXPLAIN FOLDED PLATES.


Folded plates are assemblies of flat plates rigidly connected together along their edges in such a
way that the structural system capable of carrying loads without the need for additional supporting
beams along mutual edges.
Merits:

Very light form of construction. To span 30 m shell thickness required is 60 mm only.


The use of concrete as a building material reduces both materials cost and a construction
cost.
Longer span can be provided.
Flat shapes by choosing certain arched shapes.
Esthetically it looks good over other forms of construction.
Movable form work can be employed.

Form work required is relatively simpler.


Design involves simpler calculations.
Demerits:

Shuttering is difficult.
Greater accuracy in formwork is required.
Good labor and supervision necessary.
Rise of roof may be a disadvantage.

Folded plate consumes more material than shells.

Form work may be removed after 7 days whereas in case of shells it can be little earlier.
The principle components in a folded plate structure consist of:
1) the inclined plates
2) edge plates which must be used to stiffen the wide plates
3) stiffeners to carry the loads to the supports and to hold the plates in line
4) columns to support the structure in the air.

Folded Plate Behaviors:


Each plate is assumed to act as a beam in its own plane, this assumption is justified when the
ratio of the span "length" of the plate to its height "width" is large enough. But when this ratio is
small, the plate behaves as a deep beam.
Actions of Folded plate due to loads:
1-Slab action: loads are transmitted to ridges by the bending of
plates normal to
their planes.
2-Beam action: Loads are transmitted through plates in their
planes to
diaphragms.

TYPES OF FOLDED PLATE:

FOLDED PLATE RIGID FRAME

Q7. EXPLAIN FLAT SLAB SYSTEM.

A flat slab is a one-way or two-way system with thickenings in the slab at the columns and
load bearing walls called drop panels Figure 9. Drop panels act as T-beams over the
supports. They increase the shear capacity and the stiffness of the floor system under
vertical loads, thus increasing the economical span range.
This form of construction has become less popular in recent years because of the limit on
economical spans of about 9.5 m for reinforced slabs and about 12 m for pre-stressed
slabs.

The plan dimensions of the drop panels are a minimum of 1/3 of the span in the direction
under consideration, usually rounded to the nearest 100 mm. The overall depth of the drop
panel is typically taken as 1.75 to 2 times the depth of the slab, again rounded to suit timber
sizes or the nearest 25 mm.
The principal features of a flat slab floor are a flat soffit, simple formwork and easy
construction. The economical span L of a reinforced concrete flat slab is approximately D x
28 for simply supported, D x 32 for an end span and D x 36 for an interior span. Prestressing the slab increases the economical span to D x 35, D x 40 and D x 45 respectively,
where D is the depth of the slab excluding the drop panel.

flat slab construction


with drop panel and
column head

Uses of column heads:


increase shear strength of slab
reduce the moment in the slab by reducing the clear or effective span
Uses of drop panels:
increase shear strength of slab
increase negative moment capacity of slab
stiffen the slab and hence reduce deflection
Advantages:

Simple formwork

No beamssimplifying under-floor services outside the drops

Minimum structural depth

Usually does not require shear reinforcement at the columns.

Building height can be reduced as no beam is used.

Less construction time.

Disadvantages:

Medium spans

Generally, not suitable for supporting brittle (masonry) partitions

Drop panels may interfere with larger mechanical ducting

Vertical penetrations need to avoid area around columns

For reinforced flat slabs, deflection at the middle strip may be critical.