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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169
462 - 465


Balancing of Dynamic Rotors with Distributed Unbalance

Sesha Sainadh S T G
Department of Mechanical Engineering
SRM University, Chennai

Abstract The unbalance present in the rotor gives rise to a synchronous unbalance force in the rotor. To minimize or eliminate the effects
caused due to this unbalance force, the rotor needs to be balanced. The unbalance of the rotor needs to be estimated and determined well before
balancing, for better results. The unbalance is assumed to be distributed over the entire span of the rotor. The unbalance eccentricity curve is
assumed to be a polynomial. The geometry of the bent rotor i.e. the eccentricity present in the rotor, determines the amount of unbalance in the
rotor. The relation between the inherent eccentricity and the unbalance force response is established and the unbalance distribution is determined
from the relation.
Keywords- Distributed Unbalance, Mass eccentricity, Eccentricity polynomials



Mass unbalance commonly causes vibration of rotor

systems. Extensive studies have been done on unbalance, but
most of them are based on the discrete or lumped unbalance,
in which the unbalance is estimated to be concentrated at a
specific location. Lumped mass unbalance models are
suitable for thin disks or impellers, but not adequate for long
slender shafts and thick disks. Modelling the distributed
unbalance with equivalent lumped unbalance masses and
balancing the rotor with several correction masses does not
seem to be the best approach. A better approach would be to
identify the distributed unbalance of the shaft before
balancing and correcting the unbalance using a single
correction mass. T. Yang [1] used polynomial curves
for eccentricity distribution with finite element modelling in
the eccentricity identification derivation of shafts. In
industrial rotating machines, not all the nodal locations along
the length of the shaft can be measured by sensors. Most of
the locations are covered by casings or shields due to
structural designs or safety considerations. Sensor signals
can only be acquired at the exposed locations. But, it is
known that the vibration response at each node is influenced
by the unbalance at all the other nodes. The unbalance
message at each node transmits along the rotor and shows its
effects in the vibration response at all other locations.
Theoretically, the unbalance distribution along the shaft can
be uncovered with enough measurement information at a
single node.

Figure 2. Cross Section of the Rotor




The rotor is assumed to be a Euler Bernoulli beam.

i.e. Rotational effects are neglected.


The Rotor is comprised of a flexible shaft and

discrete linear isotropic bearings


The unbalance is assumed to be distributed over the

entire span of the rotor.
The shape of cross section, dimensions and material
constants are assumed to be constant over the entire
span of the shaft.
The unbalance distribution is calculated separately in
X-Z plane and Y-Z plane.





The system governing equation is given by:

Figure 1. The Rotor Model

= Mass, Stiffness, Damping matrices

= Excitation force= overall Unbalance force matrix


IJRITCC | March 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169
462 - 465


= Overall nodal displacement vector

The nodal displacements and the unbalance forces are
measured related to X-Z and Y-Z planes. The steady state
responses of the lateral vibrations of the shaft with elliptical
orbit are

Similarly, the four boundary conditions for each of the

element in y-z plane are

The nodal displacement of the rotor is given by

Applying the boundary conditions

The synchronous external unbalance force acting on the

rotor is

The above equations can be written in matrix form as


The eccentricity of the rotor system is defined in local and

global coordinate system. The local eccentricity curves are
defined for each of the element and global eccentricity curve is
common throughout the rotor Assuming that the eccentricity
curves are finite, piecewise continuous, and of m-degree
polynomial, the local eccentricity curve for each shaft element
in x-z and y-z planes are respectively expressed with variable
Thus the eccentricity distribution is

The Global eccentricity curve is written as

The local eccentricity curve is written as

The above matrix is simplified as

Where x(z)is the projection of the global eccentricity curve

on the x-z plane and Y(z)is the projection of the global
eccentricity on the y-z plane


Extending the procedure to polynomials of degree m and

assembling the element equations give the equation for all
the local eccentricity coefficients
Similarly, the values and derivatives of the global
eccentricity curves at the node of the shaft element are


Since each of the four constants in each eccentricity curve is

to be expressed in terms of global coordinates, we require four
boundary conditions. The boundary conditions considered here
are that the eccentricity values and its derivatives of the local
and global eccentricity curve at the nodes of the element are
required to be equal. The four boundary conditions for each of
the element in x-z plane are


IJRITCC | March 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169
462 - 465

The above equation can be written as

consists of the values and the derivatives of the
eccentricity at the nodes and
is the coefficient vector
for the global eccentricity curve.



The forces due to mass unbalance are modeled with the beam
shape functions by following the normal finite element
procedure. The forces are
This can be written as
is the mass per unit length, is the angular velocity, is
the shape function matrix and
are the local
eccentricity functions.

similarly, for


This equation can be written as

For n elements and a m degree polynomial

is obtained from Finite element model


are obtained from the eccentricity coefficient matrices.

is measured from vibration response.

IJRITCC | March 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169
462 - 465



This is a linear algebraic equation which is to be solved for

.Thus, the coefficients of global eccentricity curves are
computed and the eccentricity distribution functions

[1] C. Lin T. yang. Estimation of distributed unbalance of rotors.

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 124:976
983, 2002.)
[2] . Chong Won Lee. Vibration Analysis of Rotors. Springer, first
edition edition, 1993
[3] Singiresu S. rao.
Mechanical Vibrations. Pearson, fourth
edition edition, 2012.K. Elissa, Title of paper if known,
[4] M. B. Deepti Kumar, A. S. Sekhar, and M.R. Srikanthan. Modal
balancing of flexible rotors with distributed unbalance Journal
of Vibration engineering and Technologies, 2(2), 2014
[5] Larry J. Segerlind. Applied Finite Element Analysis. Wiley
India, second edition edition, 2011.

In this experiment steel shaft (ASI 1018 Steel) of 25mm

diameter and length 1m between bearing center lines is taken
which is supported by two ball bearings at both ends. The shaft
is coupled to an 0.5Hp electric motor by means of a Jaw
coupling. An accelerometer is mounted on one the pillow blocks
using accelerometer mounting wax. The accelerometer used
here was Kistler ceramic shear tri axial accelerometer with a
sensitivity of 2.5mv/g and frequency range of 1-10000hz. The
three channels of the accelerometer are connected to vibrational
analyzer NI9234. This analyzer NI9234 is mounted on a chassis
(CDAQ 9174) which is connected to the PC. PC equipped with
Lab view (sound and vibrations kit) is used for processing the
vibrational signals. The time vs amplitude Signals received by
the accelerometer are transformed by using an FFT relation and
the frequency vs amplitude signal is displayed on the monitor
screen and the logs are exported. In this experiment Frequency
response of the rotor is determined to be around 147.5 HZ

Figure 3. Frequency vs Amplitude

The present study focusses on the procedure of distributed
unbalance in the modal balancing to balance the rotor. With
this method the, unbalance can be estimated even when the
rotor is run at a low speed, much less when compared to
Critical speed. This method can be useful, when the number of
locations to measure, the vibration response is limited.


This effort is part of the requirement, of the master of

technology, at SRM university. The authors wish to express
their gratitude, for the support given by the Department of
Mechanical Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering,
SRM University.

IJRITCC | March 2016, Available @