English Grammar & Composition for Intermediate

Chapter 1 : Introduction To English Grammar

1. Definitions Of Grammar
Grammar: A set of rules in a language for changing the form of words and joining them into sentences.

A systematic study of scientific method which provides us information and guidance necessary to learn a

The science of grammar teaches us a correct and effective way to speak and write a language.

Grammar deals with the formation and classification of words and sentences, and their practical significance in
daily life.

A Greek word 'grammatike' meant 'of letters' when reached France via Latin, was started to be pronounced as
'gramaire'. From French, it reached England and became a part of late Middle English. Here it was pronounced
as 'Grammar'.
Further More
1. Alphabet
1. Alphabet
A set of letters or symbols in a fixed order which is used for writing a language.
The alphabet of English is composed of Twenty - six letters.
These are divided into two categories:

Vowels: The five letters a, e, i, o, u, are known as vowels in English.

Consonants:The remaining twenty- one letters (b, c, d, f,......, etc.) of the alphabet are known as the
consonants in English.

2. Word
A single unit of language which can be written or spoken individually.
A proper combination of letters, which conveys some thought or idea.
As; school, college, pencil, in, out, copy, book, etc.

3. Phrase
A group of words without a finite verb,in particular one that forms part of a sentence.
A group of words having a spacific meaning when used together.
An incomplete sentence which does not give full meanings.
As; A friend in need, As you sow, Set off, Called for, etc.

4. Clause
A group of words which forms a sentence or part of a sentence and contains a subject and a verb of its own.
We have three kinds of clauses.

Main or Inpendent Clause:
A group of words which forms a sentense and includes a subject and a verb.
An independent clause expresses a complete thought and it can work alone as a sentence.

Subordinate or Dependent Clause:
A group of words which does not form a sentence bud adds information to the main part of a sentence.
A dependnet clause does not express a complete thought and it cannot work alone as a sentence.

Co-ordinate Clause
All parts of a sentence, joined by 'but, or, and, etc.' that make seperate statements and have the same
Two or more independent clauses of the same order or rank, when found in a sentence, are called co-ordinate
clauses. Co-ordinate clauses support simple sentences.
2. Sentence
Definitions of Sentence
A group of words which makes a complete sense.
A set of words which makes a statement, a question or an order and mostly contains a subject and a verb.
A sensible way of thinking or opinion, court's declaration of punishment or a piece of writing.

As; God is one. I Love Pakistan. Abdullah is my best friend.

Subject & Predicate
With respect to structure every sentence has two parts:
The part which names the person or thing about which we are speaking.
The part which tells something about the subject.
Lahore, is the Capital of Punjab. Here, 'Lahore' is the subject and 'is the Captal of Pubjab' is predicate.

A sentence has five types with respect to meanings and three with respect to structure.

A Latin word 'sententia' was adopted by late Middle English as sentence via Old French.
Further More
1. Types Of Sentences With Respect To Meaning
Assertive Or Declarative Sentence:A sentence that makes an assertion or a statement.
There are two types of assertive sentences.
Affirmative / Positive Sentence:This sentence has a positive statement.
For example;I live in Lahore.Iqbal is an engineer.
Negative Sentence:The sentence with a negative statement.
For example;I do not live in Lahore.Iqbal is not an engineer.

Interrogative Sentence:A sentence that asks a question.
For example;Is Iqbal an engineer?Do you live in Lahore?

Imperative Sentence:A sentence that expresses an order, request or advice.
For example;Get out from my room.Please lend me some money.Always trust in God.

Exclamatory Sentence:A sentence that shows a strong or sudden feeling or emotion.
For example;Hurrah! we have won the match.Alas! My brother has failed. Would that! I were a king. What a
big hpous!

Optative Sentence:A sentence that shows a wish or a prayer.
For example;May you live long! May Pakistan prosper!

2. Types Of Sentences With Respect To Structure
Simple Sentence:A sentence which shows a single thought and has only one clause.
For example; I fly a kite. you drink water.

Compound Sentence:A sentence which consists of two or more co-ordinate clauses and expresses more than
one thoughts.
For example; You may go to Lahore but I shall not go.We like to take tea and they preffer cold drink.

Complex Sentence:A sentence with one main,and one or more subordinate clauses.
For example; When the rain started we went under the shade.Mother forbade so we stopped the game.
Chapter 2 : Parts Of Speech

1. Nouns And Their Types
Noun is the name of a person, place or a thing.

There are two categories of nouns:
Countable Nouns
Names of the things that can be counted.
Uncountable Nouns / Mass Nouns
Names of the things that can not be counted.

These categories include six kinds.
Further More
1. Proper Noun
It is the name of a particular person, place or thing.
It must begin with a capital letter.

2. Common Noun
It is the general name of a large number of things, places or persons of same kinds.

3. Abstract Noun
These are the names of the non-material things.

4. Collective Noun
It is the name of a number or collection of persons or things taken together as one whole.

5. Material Noun
These are the names of the material things.

6. Compound Noun
It is the name of a person, place, or thing comprising of two or more words.
2. Verbs And Their Types
A word or group of words which shows an action, an incident or a state.
One or more than one words that express an action or being of a subject.
A word that states something about a person or a thing.

The Latin word 'verbum' when reached France, pronounced as 'verbe' and when adopted by late Middle English,
it was pronounced as 'verb'.
There are four forms of verb:
Present, Past, Past Participle and Present participle.
Further More
1. Transitive Verb
Verb that expresses an action which connects the subject to an object.
Verb that needs an object after it to complete the sense.
I wrote an essay.
The action done by the verb 'wrote' connects the subject 'I' to the object 'essay'.

2. Intransitive Verb
Verb that expresses an action which does not pass over from the subject to an object.
Verb that does not need an object after it to complete the sense.
He runs fastly.
The action done by the verb 'runs' stops with the subject 'he' and does not pass over to an object.

3. Auxiliary Verb
Verb that helps the principal verb to describe the tense.
Verb that combines with another verb to form a question or to change the tense such as be, do, have, etc.
The verbs which are used with ordinary verbs to make tenses, passive forms, questions and negative forms
such as be, do,have,etc.
I am reading a book.
She has driven a car.
Here 'am' and 'has' are the auxiliary verbs.

4. Modal Verb
Verb that expresses possibility, obligation or ability, etc. such as must, may, can, will, shall, ought, etc.
Verbs that are used before ordinary verbs and express the meanings of permission, possibility, certainty or
necessity etc.
I may go to Karachi.
I shall call a meeting.
Here 'may' and 'shall' are the modals.
3. Adjectives And Their Kinds
A word used to add something to the meaning of a noun or a pronoun.
A word used with a noun or a pronoun to add something in its meaning.
Word that describes a person or a thing.

A Greek term 'Onoma epitheton' which is an attributive name, translated in Latin as 'nomen adjectivum'. In
Latin, a word 'adject' was derived from this term. And in Old French, 'adject' was pronounced as 'adjectif'. From
French, late Middle English took this word and pronounced as 'adjective'.
Further More
1. Kinds Of Adjectives
Descriptive Adjectives;
Adjectives of Quality show the type, state or quality of a person or a thing.
Adjectives Of Quantity;
Adjectives of Quantity show how much of a thing is meant.
Adjectives Of Number;
Adjectives of Number show how many persons or things are meant, or in what order persons or things stand.
Demonstrative Adjectives;
Demonstrative Adjectives are used with nouns to point out which persons or things are meant.
Interrogative Adjectives;
Interrogative Adjectives are used with nouns to ask questions.
Distributive Adjectives;
Distributive Adjectives are used with nouns to refer to persons or things, one at a time.
Possessive Adjectives;
Possessive Adjectives are used with nouns or pronouns to show possession.

2. Degrees Of Adjectives
There are three degrees of adjectives.
Positive Degree, Comparative Degree, Superlative Degree.

Formation Of Degrees Of Adjectives:
Some of the adjectives are formed by adding, 'er' and 'est', to form Comparative and Superlative degrees
When the Positive degree ends in 'e', only 'r' and 'st' are added.

large larger largest
brave braver bravest
Some of the adjectives need 'more' and 'most' as suffixes to make Comparative and Superlative degrees.
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
If the positive degree ends in 'y', it is changed into 'ier' to form Comparitive degree and 'est' to form
Superlative degree.
happy happier happiest
4. Adverbs And Their Forms
Definitions Of Adverb
1- An adverb is a word used to add something to the meanings of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
2- Adverb is the modifier of an adjective, a verb or another adverb.
3- A word that adds more information about time, manner, place, quantity, an adjective, a phrase or another

Late Middle English derived the word adverb from a Latin word adverbium, which was formed by two Latin
words 'ad' and 'verbum'.
Further More
1. Kinds Of Adverbs
Adverbs Of Time show when something happens, happened or will happen.
Adverbs Of Frequency denotes how often something happens, happened or will happen.
Adverbs Of Place show where something happens, happened or will happen.
Adverbs Of Manner show how, in what way or in what manner something happens, happened or will happen.
Degree Or Quantity:
Adverbs Of Degree show how much, in what degree or at what level something happens, happened or will
Adverbs Of Cause tell why something happened.
Adverbs Of Interrogation are used to ask questions.
Adverbs Of Probability denote the rate of certainty of something.

2. Uses Of Adverbs
Sometimes some words are used as an adjective and sometimes as an adverb.
Akram is the best boy in the class.
He strove his best.
The teacher has high opinion about my son.
Always aim high.
5. Pronouns And Their Kinds
Definitions Of Pronoun
A word that is used in place of a noun.
A word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase.

Latin words pro meant 'in place of' and nomen meant 'name' joined to form the term pronomen which was
adopted as pronom by French. In Late Middle English this term was taken as 'pronoun'.
Further More
1. Personal Pronouns
A word that refers to a person or a thing.
Pronouns used for the speaker or the addressee or the person spoken about, e.g. he, she, it, they, you, I, we,
them, her, us, me.

2. Reflexive Pronouns
A word which refers to the subject of the sentence.
Reflexive Pronouns show that the subject and the object of a sentence are same, e.g. myself, yourself,

3. Emphetic Pronouns
A word used to stress on the subject of a sentence.
Compound Personal Pronouns used in orde to emphasis, e.g. myself, herself, yourself,themselves.

4. Demonstrative Pronouns
The pronouns used to point out the objects to which they refer.
A word used to identify the person or thing that is being referred to. For example; this, that.

5. Distributive Pronouns
Distributive pronouns are used to refer persons or things one at a time.
A word used to refer more than one persons or things at a time, e.g. either, neither, each.

6. Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns relate to the noun already mentioned in the sentence.
A pronoun that refers to some noun used before, e.g. who, which, that, whom, whose.

7. Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns refer to persons or things only in general and not in particular.
A pronoun that does not refer to any person or thing in particular, e.g. anything, everyone.

8. Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions, e.g. what, who, whose, which, whom.

9. Reciprocal Pronouns
Reciprocal pronouns are used to show mutual relationship, e.g. each other, one another.

10. Table Of Pronouns
Subjective Case Possessive Case Objective Case
1st Persons I My/Mine Me
We Our/Ours Us
2nd Persons You Yours/Yours You
3rd Persons He His Him
She Her/Hers Him
It Its It
They Their/Theirs Them

Note: If possession is to be shown without placing the possessed thing after possessive case, then the pronouns;
mine, ours, yours, hers and theirs are used in a sentence.
6. Prepositions
Definitions of prepositions
A word which shows the continuity of the action or relation between two nouns, between a noun and an
adjective, between a noun and a verb or between a pronoun and a proverb.
A word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show relation of the person or thing to something else.
A word used before a noun or pronoun to show time, place, direction, etc.

When a preposition is added to a word, it not only adds to its meanings but also strengths it.
A Latin word prae meant 'before' and another word ponere meant 'to place', added together to form the verb
praeponere, from which a Latin term praepositio was derived. Late Middle English borrowed this word and
pronounced as 'preposition'.
Further More
1. Kinds Of Prepositions
Prepositions are of three types.

Simple Prepositions:
At, by, to, in, from, of, on, up, off, with, till, through, for, out.

Compound Prepositions:
About, above, across, along, amidst, among, amogst, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside,
between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, without, within.

Phrase Prepositions: (Groups of words used with the force of a single preposition.)
According to, along with, away from, agreeably to, because of, by dint of, by means of, by virtue of, by way
of, by reason of, conformably to, for the sake of, in accordance with, in case of, in addition to, in behalf of, on
behalf of, in favour of, in lieu of, in place of, in order to, instead of, inspite of, in reference to, in compliance
with, in course of, in consequence of, in the event of, owing to, on account of, with reference to, with regard
to, with a view to, with an eye to.
7. Conjunctions And Interjections
Definitions Of Conjunctions
A word which joins two sentenses or two words together.
A word which joins words, phrases, clauses or sentences together.
Definitions Of Interjection:
A word which expresses a sudden emotion or feeling.
A sound or a word which shows a sudden feeling of happiness, sorrow, fear or wonder, etc.

Two Latin words con meant 'together' and jungere meant 'to join', combined to form a verb conjungere, from
which another Latin term conjunction was derived. This term was introduced in Late Middle English by Old
French and was pronounced as 'conjunction'.
Two Latin words inter meant 'between' and jacere meant 'to throw' added together to form the verb interjicere,
from which another Latin term interjectio was derived.Old French took this term from Latin and handed down
to Late Middle English where it was pronounced as 'interjection'.
Further More
1. Types Of Conjunctions
There are three types of conjunctions.
Simple Conjunctions:
And, or, but, both, nor, for, also, else, though, till, before, because, that, thus, how, hence, if, until, unless,
while, when, where, why, since.
Correlative Conjunction: (Conjunctions used in pairs)
Either—or, neither—nor, though—yet, both-and, whether-or, not only-but also.
Compound Conjunctions:
Even if, so that, as though, inasmuch as, provided that, as if, on condition that, in order that, as soon as, as
well as.

2. Interjections
Interjections can be divided into two catagories.
Simple Interjections:
Aha!, Hurrah!, Hay! (for joy).
Oh!, Alas!, Pity! (for sorrow).
Ah!, Wa!, O!, What! (for wonder).
Bravo! (for approval or encouragement).
Compound Interjections:
Ah me!, For shame!, Good gracious!, Well done!
8. Articles
The words a, an and the that come before nouns to show how these are being used.

The words a, an and the are called articles.

The determiners a, an and the are called articles.

Types Of Articles
There are two types of articles:

Definite Article
Indefinite Article

A Latin word artus meaning 'joint', gave rise to another Latin word articulus meaning 'small connecting part'.
Articulus became a part of Middle English via Old French.
Further More
1. Definite Article
'The' is the Definite Article, as it points out some particular person or thing.

Uses Of Definite Article
It is used before singular countable, plural countable and uncountable nouns; like, the pen, the pens, the

1- Definite Article is used before:
• An already reffered particular person;
• A singular noun which is representing the whole class;
• Some proper noun;
• Unique things;
• Superlative degrees;
• An adjective being used in the form of noun;
• A noun to outclass it;
• An ordinal.
2- Definite Article is also used as an adverb.
2. Indefinite Article
A or an is the indefinite article, as it makes a person or thing unclear or indefinite.

Note: A or an is the same latter with two different forms; i.e. a/an is considered as one article, not two.

Choice Between 'A' and 'An'
The sound of a word determins the choice between these two; i.e.,
• 'A' is used before the words beginning with consonant sounds; like, a pen, a goat, a fellow, a union, a
one-day match, a European.

Although union, one-day match and European begin with vowels, but give a consonant sound so 'a' comes
before these.
• 'An' is used before the words beginning with vowel sounds; like, an action, an eye, an iron, an olive, an
honour, an heir.

Although honour and heir begin with a consonant, but give a vowel sound so 'an' comes before these.

Uses Of Indefinite Article
It is used before singular countable nouns; like, a man, an apple, an hour.

Indefinite Article is used before:
• A noun to show that it is one in number;
• An individual representing a class;
• a proper noun to make it a common one.
Chapter 3 : Tenses

A verb which shows time and state of an action or event.
Tense of a verb shows the time of an action or event.
Tense is a relation of an action or an event with time.
Tense is the verb that tells when an action or event takes place, took place or will take place.

Types Of Tenses
Tenses are divided into three types:
Present Tenses, Past Tenses and Future Tenses.

Latin word tempus meant 'time' was taken by Old French as tens, from where Middle English took it and
pronounced as 'tense'.

Most of the sentences belong to some tense or time. Tense or time tells us when an action holds, was held or
will hold. Therefore, it is very rare that we make any sentence out of the reach of time, i.e. tense. Thus, time is
the main ingredient that unfolds a tense. Only a few sentences can exist without a tense that are called
'Improper Sentences'.

Sentences are divided into two basic categories:
Proper Sentences are those, which have all the three basic ingredients of a sentence, i.e. subject, object and

Improper Sentences are those, which lack in one or two of the basic ingredients of a sentence, i.e. it may not
have the subject, the object or the verb or may be any two of them.

Therefore whoever intends to write a sentence, devoid of the relativity of the subject or an action or event with
time or tense, will be writing an improper, i.e. wrong sentence.
Further More
1. Present Tenses
Verbs that refer to the present time.
Verbs that refer to the actions or events happening or existing now; or completed right now.

Types Of Present Tenses
Present tenses have four types:

Present Indefinite Or Simple Present Tense
Present Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense

2. Past Tenses
Verbs that refer to the past time.
Verbs that refer to the actions or events happened or existed in the past; or completed in the past.
The form of a verb used to describe actions or events in the past.

Types Of Past Tenses
Past tenses have four types:

Past Indefinite Or Simple Past Tense
Past Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense

3. Future Tenses
Verbs that refer to the future time.
Verbs that refer to the actions or events going to happen or exist in future; or going to complete in
future.Verbs that refer to the actions or events that will take place or complete in the up coming time, i.e. in

Types Of Future Tenses
Future tenses have four types:

Future Indefinite Tense
Future Continuous Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Use of 'will' & 'shall'
Will and shall are used to indicate the future tenses.

Another action verb is also used.

Normally 'shall' is used with 1st persons, i.e. 'I' & 'we'.

Whereas 'will' is used with all other nouns and pronouns.

But if we have to put stress on a particular point, 'will' is used with 1st persons and 'shall' with all others
2. Present Tenses
Verbs that refer to the present time.
Verbs that refer to the actions or events happening or existing now; or completed right now.

Types Of Present Tenses
Present tenses have four types:
Further More
1. Present Indefinite Tense
Present tense of a verb that shows an action or event lasting for a period of time that has no fixed end.
Tense of a verb that shows the routine with which an action or event takes place.
A tense which shows present habits.
A verb that shows an action or event in the present time, without telling anything about its completeness or

Simple Present Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we, they, you, plural name+1st form+object
He, she, it, singular name+(1st form+s/es)+object

I, we, they, you, plural name+do not+1st form+object
He, she, it, singular name+does not+does not+1st form+object

Do+I, we, they, you, plural name+1st form+object?
Does+he, she, it, singular name+1st form+object?

2. Present Continuous Tense
Tense of the verb that shows an action or event incomplete or continuous at present.
A verb that shows the state of an action or event in the present time.
A verb that shows an action or event happening or existing at present without interruption.

Present Continuous Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I+am+1st form+ing+obect
We, they, you, plural name+are+1st form+ing+object
He, she, it, singular name+is+1st form+ing+object

I+am+not+1st form+ing+obect
We, they, you, plural name+are+not+1st form+ing+object
He, she, it, singular name+is+not+1st form+ing+object

Am+I+1st form+ing+obect?
Are+we, they, you, plural name+1st form+ing+object?
Is+he, she, it, singular name+1st form+ing+object?

3. Present Perfect Tense
Tense of the verb that shows an action or event finished or completed at the time of speaking.
A verb that shows the fulfillment or accomplishment of an action or event right now.
The form of a verb that expresses an action done or an event happened in a time period up to the present.

Present Perfect Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we, they, you, plural name+have+3rd form+object
He, she, it, singular name+has+3rd form+object

I, we, they, you, plural name+have+not+3rd form+object
He, she, it, singular name+has+not+3rd form+object

Have+I, we, they, you, plural name+3rd form+object?
Has+he, she, it, singular name+3rd form+object?

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
The verb which shows that an action or evrnt is going on and not completed at present moment.
A verb which shows the continuity of an action or event in present time.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we, they, you, plural name+have+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)
He, she, it, singular name+has+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)

I, we, they, you, plural name+have+not+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)
He, she, it, singular name+has+not+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)

Have+I, we, they, you, plural name+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)?
Has+he, she, it, singular name+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)?
3. Past Tenses
Verbs that refer to the past time.
Verbs that refer to the actions or events happened or existed in the past; or completed in the past.
The form of a verb used to describe actions or events in the past.

Types Of Past Tenses
Past tenses have four types:
Further More
1. Past Indefinite Tense
Past tense of a verb that shows an action or event lasted for a period of time that has no fixed end.
Tense of a verb that shows the routine with which an action or event took place.
A tense which shows past habits.
A verb that shows an action or event in the past time, without telling anything about its completeness or

Simple Past Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+2nd form+object

I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+did not+1st form+object

Did+I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+1st form+object?

2. Past Continuous Tense
Tense of the verb that shows an action or event incomplete or continuous in the past.
A verb that shows the state of an action or event in the past time.
A verb that shows an action or event happening or existing in the past without interruption.

Past Continuous Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, We, they, you, plural name+were+1st form+ing+object
He, she, it, singular name+was+1st form+ing+object

I, We, they, you, plural name+were+not+1st form+ing+object
He, she, it, singular name+was+not+1st form+ing+object

Were+I, we, they, you, plural name+1st form+ing+object?
Was+he, she, it, singular name+1st form+ing+object?

3. Past Perfect Tense
A verb that shows an action or event finished or completed before a certain moment in the past.
A verb that shows the fulfillment or accomplishment of an action or event before a spacific time in the past.
The form of a verb that expresses an action done or an event happened before a particular point in the past.

Past Perfect Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+had+3rd form+object

I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+had+not+3rd form+object

Had+I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+3rd form+object?

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
The verb which shows that an action or evrnt is going on and not completed on a particular moment in the
A verb which shows an action or event started before a particular point in the past and continued up to that

Past Perfect Continuous Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+had+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of
time/for+period of time)

I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+had+not+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of
time/for+period of time)

Had+I, we, they, you, he, she, it, singular & plural name+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of
time/for+period of time)?
4. Future Tenses
Verbs that refer to the future time.
Verbs that refer to the actions or events going to happen or exist in future; or going to complete in future.Verbs
that refer to the actions or events that will take place or complete in the up coming time, i.e. in future.

Types Of Future Tenses
Future tenses have four types.

Will and shall are used to indicate the future tenses.
Another action verb is also used.
Normally 'shall' is used with 1st persons, i.e. 'I' & 'we'.
Whereas 'will' is used with all other nouns and pronouns.
But if we have to put stress on a particular point, 'will' is used with 1st persons and 'shall' with all others.
Further More
1. Future Indefinite Tense
Tense of a verb that shows an action or event lasting for a period of future time that has no fixed end.
Tense of a verb that shows the routine with which an action or event will take place.
A tense which shows future habits.
A verb that shows an action or event in the up coming or future time, without telling anything about its
completeness or incompleteness.

Simple Future Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we+shall+1st form+object
He, she, it, they, you, plural & singular names+will+1st form+object

I, we+shall+not+1st form+object
He, she, it, they, you, plural & singular names+will+not+1st form+object

Shall+I, we+1st form+object?
will+he, she, it, they, you, plural & singular names+1st form+object?

2. Future Continuous Tense
Tense of the verb that shows an action or event incomplete or continuous at a particular time in future.
A verb that shows the state of an action or event in a particular future time.
A verb that shows an action or event happening or existing in future without interruption.
A tense which describes an action or event that will be in progress at a particular time in future.

Future Continuous Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, We+shall+be+1st form+ing+object
He, she, it, they, you, plural & singular name+will+be+1st form+ing+object

I, We+shall+not+be+1st form+ing+object
He, she, it, they, you, plural & singular name+will+not+be+1st form+ing+object

Shall+I, We+be+1st form+ing+object?
Will+he, she, it, they, you, plural & singular name+be+1st form+ing+object?

3. Future Perfect Tense
Tense of the verb that shows an action or event which will be finished or completed by a particular time in
A verb that shows the fulfillment or accomplishment of an action or event by a spacific time in future.
The form of a verb that expresses an action done or an event happened before a particular point in the future.

Future Perfect Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we+shall+have+3rd form+object
He, she, it, they, you, singular & plural names+will+have+3rd form+object

I, we+shall+not+have+3rd form+object
He, she, it, they, you, singular & plural names+will+not+have+3rd form+object

Shall+I, we+have+3rd form+object?
Will+he, she, it, they, you, singular & plural names+have+3rd form+object?

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
The verb which shows that an action or evrnt will be going on, at a particular point or period of time.
A verb which shows the continuity of an action or event in future time.
A verb which describes an action or event that will be in progress; over a period of time or at a point of time
in future

Future Perfect Continuous Tense can be expressed by the following general expressions:
I, we+shall+have+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)
He, she, it, they, you, plural & singular names+will+have+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of
time/for+period of time)

I, we+shall+not+have+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)
He, she, it, they, you, plural & singular names+will+not+have+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of
time/for+period of time)

Shall+I, we+have+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of time/for+period of time)?
Will+he, she, it, they, you, plural & singular names+have+been+1st form+ing+object+(since+point of
time/for+period of time)?
Chapter 4 : Change Of Voice

1. Introduction
Active Voice
1- The form of a verb used when the subject performs an action.
2- A verb is in active voice when its subject acts.
3- Active means 'known' and voice means 'verb' thus active voice means 'a verb whose subject is known.'

Passive Voice
1- The form of a verb used when the subject is affected by the action of the verb.
2- A verb is in passive voice when its subject is acted on.
3- Passive means 'unknown' and voice means 'verb' thus passive voice means 'a verb whose subject is not
Further More
1. Identifications of Active Voice
In these sentences words are arranged in the following order:
Subject+Helping Verb+Form Of Verb+Object

Note: In the sentences of Present Indefinite and Past Indefinite, helping verb is not used and verb follows the
subject directly.

2. Identifications of Passive Voice
In these sentences words are arranged in the following order:
Object+Helping Verb+3rd Form Of Verb+By+Subject

3. Conversion
While changing the voice, following things should be kept in mind:
1- Subject is shifted from the beginning to the end of the sentence and object is shifted from the end to the
beginning; i.e., the positions of subject and object are interchanged.
2- If subject is in the form of subjective case of a pronoun then its objective case is used in passive voice; i.e.,
2- If object is in the form of objective case of a pronoun then its subjective case is used in passive voice; i.e.,
3- A helping verb is always written before a form of verb.
4- Only 3rd form of verb is used in passive voice.
5- 'By' is always written before subject in passive voice.
2. Active To Passive Voice (Tenses)
In most of the tenses, active sentences can be changed into passive sentences. However following tenses can not
be converted into Passive Voice:
1- Future Continuous Tense
2- Present Perfect Continuous Tense
3- Past Perfect Continuous Tense
4- Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Further More
1. Present Indefinite Tense
He, she, it, singular name → 1st form+s/es+object
I, we, they, you, plural name → 1st form + object

He, she, it, singular name→ does not + 1st form +
I, we, they, you, plural name →do not + 1st form +

Does + he, she, it, singular name → 1st form +
Do + I, we, they, you, plural name → 1st form +
He, she, it, singular name → is +3rd form + by + object
I → am + 3rd form + by + object
We, they, you, plural name → are +3rd form + by +
He, she, it, singular name → is + not +3rd form + by +
I → am + not + 3rd form + by + object
We, they, you, plural name → are + not +3rd form + by +
Is + he, she, it, singular name → 3rd form + by + object+?
Am + I → 3rd form + by + object+?
Are + we, they, you, plural name → 3rd form + by +

2. Present Continuous Tense
He, she, it and singular name → is + 1st form + ing
+ object
We, they, you and plural name → are + 1st form +
ing + object
I → am + 1st form + ing + object

He, she, it and singular name → is + not + 1st form
+ ing + object
We, they, you and plural name → are + not + 1st
form + ing + object
I → am + not + 1st form + ing + object

Is + he, she, it and singular name → 1st form + ing +
object + ?
Are + they, you and plural name → 1st form + ing +
Am + I → 1st form + ing + object + ?
He, she, it and singular name → is + being + 3rd form +
by + object
We, they, you and plural name → are + being + 3rd form
+ by + object
I → am + being + 3rd form + by + object

He, she, it and singular name → is + not + being + 3rd
form + by + object
I → am + not + being + 3rd form + by + object
We, they, you and plural name → are + not + being + 3rd
form + by + object

Is + he, she, it and singular name → being + 3rd form +
by + object + ?
Are + we, they, you and plural name → being + 3rd form
+ by + object + ?
Am + I → being + 3rd form + by + object + ?

3. Present Perfect Tense
He, she, it and singular name → has + 3rd form +
I, we, they, you and plural name → have + 3rd
form + object

He, she, it and singular name → has + not + 3rd
form + object
I, we, they, you and plural name → have + not +
3rd form + object

Has + he, she, it and singular name → 3rd form +
Have + I, we, they, you and plural name → 3rd
form + object+?
He, she, it and singular name → has + been + 3rd form + by
+ object
I, we, they, you and plural name → have + been + 3rd form
+ by + object

He, she, it and singular name → has + not + been + 3rd
form + by + object
I, we, they, you and plural name → have + not + been + 3rd
form + by + object

Has + he, she, it and singular name → been + 3rd form + by
+ object + ?
Have + we, they, you and plural name → been + 3rd form +
by + object + ?

4. Past Indefinite Tense
He, she, it, I, we, they, you, plural name
and singular name → 2nd form + object

He, she, it, I, we, they, you, plural name
singular name → did not + 1st form +

Did + he, she, it, I, we, they, you, plural
and singular name → 1st form + object + ?
He, she, it, I and singular name → was +3rd form + by + object
We, they, you and plural name → were + 3rd form + by + object

He, she, it, I and singular name → was + not +3rd form + by +
We, they, you and plural name → were + not + 3rd form + by +

Was + he, she, it, I and singular name → 3rd form + by + object +
Were + we, they, you and plural name → 3rd form + by + object +

5. Past Continuous Tense
I, he, she, it and singular name → was + 1st form +
ing + object
We, they, you and plural name → were + 1st form +
ing + object

I, he, she, it and singular name → was + not + 1st
I, he, she, it and singular name → was + being + 3rd form
+ by + object
We, they, you and plural name → were + being + 3rd
form + by + object

I, he, she, it and singular name → was + not + being + 3rd
form + ing + object
We, they, you and plural name → were + not + 1st
form + ing + object

Was + I, he, she, it and singular name → 1st form +
ing + object + ?
Were + they, you and plural name → 1st form + ing
+ object+?
form + by + object
We, they, you and plural name → were + not + being +
3rd form + by + object

Was + I, he, she, it and singular name → being + 3rd form
+ by + object + ?
Were + we, they, you and plural name → being + 3rd
form + by + object + ?

6. Past Perfect Tense
He, she, it, I, we, they, you, plural and singular
names → had + 3rd form + object

He, she, it, I, we, they, you, plural and singular
names → had + not + 3rd form + object

Had + he, she, it, I, we, they, you, plural and
singular names → 3rd form + object + ?
He, she, it, I, we, they, you, plural and singular names →
had + been + 3rd form + by + object

He, she, it, I, we, they, you, plural and singular names →
had + not + been + 3rd form + by + object

Had + He, she, it, I, we, they, you singular and plural
names → been + 3rd form + by + object + ?

7. Future Indefinite Tense
I, we → shall + 1st form + object
He, she, it, they, you, singular and plural
names → will + 1st form + object

I, we → shall + not + 1st form + object
They, you, he, she, it, singular and plural
names → will not + 1st form + object

Shall + I, we → 1st form + object + ?
Will + he, she, it, they, you, plural and singular
names → 1st form + object + ?
I, we → shall + be + 3rd form + by + object
He, she, it, they, you, plural and
singular names → will + be + 3rd form + by + object

I, we → shall + not + be + 3rd form + by + object
He, she, it, they, you, plural and
singular names → will + not + be + 3rd form + by + object

Shall + I, we → be + 3rd form + by + object + ?
Will + he, she, it, they, you, plural and
singular names → be + 3rd form + by + object + ?

8. Future Perfect Tense
I, we → shall + have + 3rd form + object
He, she, it, they, you, singular and plural
names → will + have + 3rd form + object

I, we → shall + not + have + 3rd form +
They, you, he, she, it, singular and plural
names → will + not + have + 3rd form +

Shall + I, we → have + 3rd form + object + ?
Will + he, she, it, they, you, plural and
names → have + 3rd form + object + ?
I, we → shall + have + been + 3rd form + by + object
He, she, it, they, you, plural and
singular names → will have + been + 3rd form + by + object

I, we → shall + not + have + been + 3rd form + by + object
He, she, it, they, you, plural and
singular names → will + not + have + been + 3rd form + by +

Shall + I, we → have + been + 3rd form + by + object + ?
Will + he, she, it, they, you, plural and
singular names → have + been + 3rd form + by + object + ?
3. Active To Passive Voice (General Sentences)
General active sentences can also be changed into passive sentences. Specific rules about the conversion of
different kinds of sentences from active to passive are discussed below in detail.
Further More
1. Sentences Starting With 'Who'
If a sentence of any tense starts with 'who', voice will be changed by replacing it with 'by whom'. All other
changes will be made according to the rules mentioned in the particular tense to which that sentence belongs.
In these sentences whom works as subject. Thus contrary to other passive sentences these start with 'by' and
'subject', as;
A.V. Who begins the war?
P.V. By whom the war is begun?

Note: The sentences of present indefinite and past indefinite, starting with 'who', do not need do, does or did
in order to make an interrogative sentence because after using 'who', we do not need any other word to make
a sentence, interrogative.

2. Imperative Sentences
1st form + object

Do not + 1st form + object
Let + object + be + 3rd form

Let + object + not + be + 3rd form

3. Optative Sentences
1- May + subject + 1st form + object
2- Subject + might + 1st form + object
1- May + object + be + 3rd form + by + subject
2- Object + might + be + 3rd form + by + subject

4. Use Of Can And Could
1- Subject + can + 1st form + object
2- Subject + could + 1st form + object

1- Subject + can + not + 1st form + object
2- Subject + could + not + 1st form + object

1- Can + subject + 1st form + object + ?
2- Could + subject + 1st form + object + ?
1- Object + can + be + 3rd form + by + subject
2- Object + could + be + 3rd form + by + subject

1- Object + can + not + be + 3rd form + by + subject
2- Object + could + not + be + 3rd form + by + subject

1- Can + object + be + 3rd form + by + subject + ?
2- Could + object + be + 3rd form + by + subject + ?

5. Use Of Must And Must Have
1- Subject + must + 1st form + object
2- Subject + must + have + 3rd form + object

1- Subject + must + not + 1st form + object
2- Subject + must + not + have + 3rd form +
1- Object + must + be + 3rd form + by + subject
2- Object + must + have + been + 3rd form + by + subject

1- Object + must + not + be + 3rd form + by + subject
2- Object + must + not + have + been + 3rd form + by +

6. Use Of Should
1- Subject + should + 1st form + object
2- Subject + should + have + 3rd form + object

1- Subject + should + not + 1st form + object
2- Subject + should + not + have + 3rd form +
1- Object + should + be + 3rd form + by + subject
2- Object + should + have + been + 3rd form + by + subject

1- Object + should + not + be + 3rd form + by + subject
2- Object + should + not + have + been + 3rd form + by +

Chapter 9 : Pairs Of Words
1. Introduction
A word is a meaningful group of letters and a pair shows two things of the same kind. Thus a pair of words
1- Two words of the same kind.
2- Two words supposed to be confusing on account of some sort of resemblance based on meanings, spellings
and sound.

These similarities enable us to divide pairs of words into three types:
Further More
1. Homophones
Two or more words pronounced alike but have different spellings or meanings; like some and sum.

2. Connotations
Two or more words having same meanings but different pronunciations or spellings; like same and alike.

3. Homonyms
Two or more words spelt alike (may be pronounced alike as well) but have different meanings; like can
means 'be able' as well as 'put something in a container'.
2. Homophones
Two or more words pronounced alike but have different spellings or meanings; like some and sum.
Further More
1. Pairs Of Words Starting With A
1- Abject: ·=.ر
He is an abject deceiver.
Object: ----
These days, I am learning Object Orientated Programming.
2- Accede: '-·´ ل·-·
Government always accedes American dictation.
Exceed: '-·´ زو'=- ﮯ-
You should not exceed your limits.
3- Accept: ق '-·´ ل·-
I shall not accept your offer.
Except: ءا·- ﮯ´
Except Najam, everyone is present today.
4- Addition: ہ·'-ا
Rashid is a new addition in our company.
Edition: -='-ا
Imran prepares the Sports Edition of our newspaper.
Audition: ما '´ زاو' ن'=-
He was failed in first audition.
5- Access: ئ'-ر.
I have no access to Prime Minister.
Excess: ز.تدا.
Excess of everything is bad.
6- Adopt: -=ا. '-·´ را / ل د·' .'-
I have adopted a child.
He has adopted Islam and left Christianity.
Adapt: ·-'=- '-'-- / '-''هڈ
We should adapt our lifestyle according to the needs of time.
Adept: ·ﮨ'-
He is adept in bating.
7- Advice: .-. -=
Government is ready to accept the advice of Supreme Court.
Advise: .-. '-·´ -=
I advise you to be careful.
8- Affect: ثا'-·´ ر
The medicine will start to affect soon.
Effect: ·`ا
He takes no effect of my advice.
9- Air: ا·ﮨ
Air is full of fragrance in this garden.
Heir: ثراو
He is the only heir of his father's property.
10- All ready: ت ·- ر·= .-´-. را / ت -- .را
We are all ready for the match.
Already: ﮦ ﮯ'ﮩ-.
I have already complete my work.
11- Allusion: '-ﮩ´ ً '-ر'-ا
I can understand his allusion about my problems.
Illusion: ·=- ِ ﮦ'---ا/ '´·هد '´ ·=-
Hopes of better future seem an illusion these days.
12- Altar: ﮦ'' ن'-··
The camel is being taken to the altar.
Alter: '-·´ .----
I shall try to alter his mind.
13- Apposite: .=-·- / -·و·-
I love to say apposite verses.
Opposite: ﮯ--'- / ف·= -''=-
His house is opposite to mine one.
14- Artist : ر'´-·
Saadiqain was a great artist of the past.
Artiste: ر'´ادا
Nadeem is a nice artiste of our film industry.
15- Audible: -='-- ِ .-'·
The sound of the blast was audible even at a distance of five kilometres.
Edible: `او ﮯ-'+´ / .-'· ﮯ´ ﮯ-'+´
The prices of edible oil are increasing day by day.
16- Aught: ª÷´ / ئ·´ . چ.ز
I am not finding aught to eat.
Ought: ﮦ'÷.ے
We ought to keep the environment clean.

2. Pairs Of Words Starting With B
1- Bail: --'--
Rehman Malik is on bail.
Bale: ªﭩ-''
The bale of clothes is being loaded on the train.
2- Ballot: ٹوو
In Pakistan ballot has no dignity.
Ballet: دو·- و .·ر ِ .-=-
Ballet is not a part of our culture.
3- Barren: ·=--
Lake of rain has made our land barren.
Baron: با·-
Akbar Bughty was a powerful baron of Baluchistan.
4- Beach: .='-
Beach of Karachi is very beautiful.
Beech: ا. م'- '´ -=رد =
I like beech tree a lot.
5- Bear: ر.ª÷
I saw a bear in the zoo.
Bear: '-·´ --اد·-
I am ready to face the problems for the cause of common good.
Beer: ·-با
Muslims are not allowed to drink beer.
6- Beat: '-ر'-
You should not beat this poor cat.
Beet: ر---÷
Sugar is obtained from beet.
7- Berth: ·ﭨ.م ن.= ﮯ-·- ں. ہ'=
I have reserved a berth in Shalimar Express.
Birth: پ..-اد
Happy birth day to you.
8- Block: اﮍ´ﭨ اﮍ-
I am going to buy a block of ice.
Bloc: د'=-ا / ﮦو·'
Some countries have decided to form their separate bloc.
9- Born: پ.'-·ﮨ اد
Another child is born to her.
Borne: '-'+ﭨا
You have to borne new responsibilities.
10- Brake: '-´ور
Police is standing here to brake the suspected vehicles.
Break: '-ڑ·-
The child has broken pink dinner set.
Brakes: .´. را·-. ·- ﮯ´.=
Brakes of my bike are out of order.
11- Breath: .-'-
He is at his last breaths.
Breathe: ل .-'-.'-
It is good to breathe in fresh air.
Breadth: ئاڑ·÷.
The breadth of my room is five metres.
12- Bridal: '´ .ﮩ'د
This tailor deals only in bridal dresses.
Bridle: م'''
I have bought a new bridle for my horse.

3. Pairs Of Words Starting With C
1- Calendar: ·--.م / --را·- ِ لو-=/ را·- ﮦرا·-·'.خ
I am going to buy the calendar of 2010.
Calender: ª´ ·´ ےﮍ-´ ﮯ-·ﮨ ےﮍ'--.لاو ﮯ-·ﮨ ل'-·--ا ﮯ-'ﮯ´ ﮯ-÷-. .-.ن
Every textile mill has a calender.
2- Canon: ل·-ا
We must obey the canons of Quaid.
Cannon: پ·-
Cannon is an old weapon but still in use.
3- Canvas: = ےﮍ-´ ﮯﭨ·-. ا.»-· =
I have two canvas suits.
Canvass: '-=. = ل·-= ﮯ´ ت. .-·´
We are going to canvass for our candidates.
4- Cast: »'· ،ﮯ-ارڈ . ر'´ادا ﮯ´ ر'ﮩ--ا ا / ª- .'-´-
The cast for this play is yet to be finalised.
Caste: تاذ
Allama Iqbal was Sheikh by caste.
5- Cettle: ·-.ش.
Our cattle are our wealth.
Kettle: =..-.
Get the kattle going, it's a thirsty work.
6- Cell: ﮍ+ﭨ·´.
Unfortunately, Dr. Afia is in American cell these days.
Sell: ب.'-÷
He sells potatoes.
7- Cemetery: ن'--·-·
This city has a thousand years old cemetery.
Symmetry: --'--
Houses of our street have no symmetry.
8- Censor: ·-- و ت'=·-=-.م تا. -ﮨ-- ﮯ- ں . .س ا.سا. دا·- `او ﮯ-´- .- -='- '´ .-'-- .= سا ا. --'=
·-·ا ر·-'- ·-
This film will be censored today.
Censure: '-·´ ----
We censure the terrorist attacks strongly.
9- Check: '-´ور / =ور
Teacher is checking my copy.
Cheque: ب.چ '´ --.=
He gave me a cheque of ten thousand.
10- Cite: ہ'ا·= .د ل'`- ا.'-
He uses to cite many verses in his conversation.
Sight: ﮦر'=-
Every sight of Murree is worth seen.
Site: .´. = تر'-=.ہ'= .-=- ﮯ-'
The site of bank is serving as a parking these days.
11- Clock: ﮍ+'.لا
This city has an old clock tower.
Cloak: ہ·÷
Arabs use to wear cloak.
12- Cloth: اﮍ-´ `- نا
My suit is prepared in six metres.
Clothes: ےﮍ-´ ﮯ-·ﮨ ﮯ'-
I have bought some beautiful clothes in my wardrobe.
Clothe: '---'هڈ .-
It has become difficult for the poor to clothe themselves these days.
13- Coarse: ارد·+´
This table is very coarse.
Course: ب'--
The course of Matric is being revised.
14- Coma: ب.ش·ﮨ./غ.·-= ر. ن.--
The patient is in coma after accident.
Comma: ﮯ-´- ،ﮯ-·و .ش·-'= ا. =. --`=
Commas and full stops help us to understand a sentence.
15- Complement: .´. چ.= ز. »´-.`او ﮯ-·´ ل
Last paragraph of this essay is a complement to the whole thought.
Compliment: ··-.ف. ت'-'´ / =·- .م. ت'-'´
The teacher gave compliments to me on my result.
16- Confidant: رادزار
He is one of my confidants.
Confident: د'--=ا ·-
He is confident of his success.
17- Crop: .-·
Wheat crop is ready for harvesting.
Corps: ہ-·- '´ ج··
Medical Corps of Pak Army is serving in Iraq these days.
18- Council: »´.ٹ.
The election of Punjab Bar Council is just to end.
Counsel: .-. -=
Government is taking counsels of unqualified persons.
19- Cue: ﮦر'-ا
Singer is waiting for the cue of the director.
Queue: ر'=·
The queues of the poor waiting for subsidized wheat are very pitiable.

4. Pairs Of Words Starting With D
1- Dairy: ود = هدود روا هد. شا.= ءا. ت.را. ·´·- '´ -=و·· روا
I bought some milk from the dairy.
Diary: ·-اڈ./ ہ÷-'-زور
I am writing my diary.
2- Date: ر'-. خ / ر·=+´
Muslims break their fasts by eating dates.
August 14 is the date of Pakistan's independence.
Data: دا·- / ·-'-= / ت'-·'·-
He is a data-entry operator.
3- Dear: پ.ارا
Pakistan is our dear homeland.
Deer: ن·ﮨ
A deer has four legs.
4- Diseased: ب.ر'-
This hospital is treating one thousand diseased persons now.
Deceased: م·=·-
This graveyard has hundreds of deceased men and women.
5- Defy: '-·´ --=ا·- / '--'- ہ- »´=
Soldiers never defy their officers.
Deify: د.'-و
Hindus deify idols.
6- Dependent: `او ﮯ-·´ ر'-=-ا ·- / ·-=--
Pakistan is a dependent country.
Dependant: `او ﮯ-·´ ر'-=-ا ·- ںو·-ود ہ÷- ص·-=''-
Children are dependant of their parents.
7- Device: ·=. ہ· / ہ''
Calculator is a very useful device.
Zakat is a good device to help the needy.
Devise: ب--. '-·´ ر / =·- .'-+=·- ب
We shall devise some way to reach this impossible target.
8- Dew: --»-
Dew is falling on the grass.
Due: ہ=و
Rashid is absent due to illness.
9- Die: '-·-
We live for Islam and shall die for it.
Dye: د --ر.'-
They dye only silk clothes.
10- Differ: '-·´ ف`-=ا / '-+´ر
PML and PPP differ in views.
Defer: .--.ن·´ م ا / ·-'- . '-·´
We defer your plan.
11- Disperse: '-·´ ·---- / '-·ﮨ
The police is dispersing the crowd.
Disburse: د »·ر ص·-=''-. '- / '-ﭩ-'-
Muslims disburse money particularly in Ramadan.
12- Diverse: -'-=-
Computer performs diverse functions.
Divers: -=- -´ روا -'.م را--- ر.ں
Divers papers are published in Lahore.
13- Dose: = اود. =ار·=
I have taken a dose of medicine today.
Doze: '-+'-وا
He is dozing in the class.
14- Draft: ﮦد·--
Iltaf Gohar drafted six points of Sheikh Mujeeb.
Drought: ل'- --=.
Pakistan is facing draught for last six months.
Draught: '´-·+= '´ ا·ﮨ
A cold draught made us shiver.
15- Dual: ·ﮨد. ح.ث. .-'= '´ ں·-
He has a dual personality.
Duel: .'-د / --´ ./م دا··ا ود.ئاﮍ' ں.
Every knight of Arabia was defeated by Hazrat Ali (RA).
16- Drop: ﮦ·=· / '-·'
Rain is falling drop by drop.
Droop: '-'+=·-
Flowers droop in summer.

5. Pairs Of Words Starting With E
1- Economics: ش'·-.تا
Economics is a subject in which we study to utilize our scare resources to satisfy maximum needs.
Economic: ش'·-.
The economic condition of Pakistan is very bad.
2- Eminent: '--. ںا / ز'---
Dr. Mahateer Muhammad is an eminent person of Muslim world.
Imminent: د·-. = / '-·ﮨ اﮍ+´ ·- ·-
Another war is imminent in South Asia.
3- Empire: --='-
America has emerged as a most violent empire.
Umpire: ª´. ---- '´ ل
Khizar Hayat is a famous cricket umpire.
4- Envelope: ہ·'-'
I need five envelops to keep my papers.
Envelop: -'. '-ﭨ / '---'هڈ
Lahore has been enveloped by pollution.
5- Essay: ن·---
I am writing an essay on Allama Iqbal.
Essay: = ﮯ-·´ ª÷´. '-·´ .-·´
We shall essay to complete our work.

6. Pairs Of Words Starting With F
1- Fair: ف'-- / ا . را--'- / ا·ﮨ ا·+´- ،ف'-
One must play fair.
Her complexion is fair.
Fare: ا·´.ﮦ
They did not pay fare and ran away.
2- Farther: ·-.رود د
karachi is farther than Lahore from Bahawal Nagar.
Further: ·-. د / ز . ﮦدا / ﮦو`= ﮯ´-ا
For further instructions, you can consult the doctor.
3- Feet: ود .ز ﮯ- ود ا.ںؤ'- ﮦدا
A man has two and a cow has four feet.
Feat: --·´
I saw many feats in the circus.
4- Fiance: ---. '´ﮍ' ·-
He is Razia's fiance.
Fiancee: ---.=ﮍ' ·-.
Saima is Ahmad's fiancee.
5- Find: '-·´ ش`- / '-·´ م·'·-
I am finding the truth.
Fined: '-·´ ہ-'-·=
Police fined him for the violation of rules.
6- Flour: 'ﭨ'
Wheat is grinded to obtain flour.
Floor: ش·· / ل·--
She is washing the floor.
7- Forward: ª- ﮯ''. '-= / = ﮯ'' . ف·=
I am looking forward to make Pakistan one of the greatest nations of the world.
Foreword: پ. =-' ش
Allama Iqbal did not like to write foreword for his books.

7. Pairs Of Words Starting With G
1- Gamble: ª´ ءا·=. '-' / ءا·=
Muslims avoid gambling.
Gambol: '-د·´ '-'+÷ا
Children love to gambol round the clock.
2- Gate: ﮦزاورد
Knock at the gate before stepping inside.
Gait: ل'÷
She walks with a different gait.
3- Ghostly: ج ت·+-. '- / = ت·+- . ح·=
Some ghostly persons have shaken off the peace of Pakistan.
Ghastly: = ےد·-. `او --ر درز ح·=
Illness has made him look ghastly.
4- Great: ==. م / اﮍ-
Quaid-i-Azam is the only great leader in the history of Pakistan.
Grate: ناد .-'
The heat of grate has made me relax.
5- Guilt: ر·-·
His guilt led him to the jail.
Gilt: ا·ﮩ--
Gilt curtains were hanging in the throne room.

8. Pairs Of Words Starting With H
1- Hail: ر'- ہ'اژ.
It is hailing today.
Hale: --ر---
Patient can not be discharged before being hale and hearty.
2- Hang: '-'´ﭩ'
We hang dresses on this hook.
Hang: .-'+-. د.'-
Tara Maseeh hanged Bhutoo.
3- Heard: '--
I have heard the sweet songs of Noor Jehan.
Hard: -=-
I can not sleep on hard bed due to spinal pain.
Herd: ر.ڑو
A herd of cows is being grazed.
4- Heel: ا.ڑ.
She always wears the shoes of high heel.
Heal: '-·+-
The wounds of the injured are not healing so far.
5- Hew: '-ﭨ'´ ﮯ´ ·´ ہ'-=
The forest guard arrested those who were hewing the trees.
Hue: --ر
The hue of her dress is very charming.
6- Hoard: خذ.'-·´ ﮦر
The terrorists are hoarding weapons.
Horde: ﮦو·'
A horde of people was coming towards the mosque.
7- Hole: 'هﮍ'
A hole is being dug by the labourers.
Whole: ار'-
The whole nation was waiting for the Prime Minister's speech.
8- Human: ن'--ا.
Human welfare should be the motto of a Muslim.
Humane: ن'-·ﮩ- / در--ﮨ
One should be humane by heart.

9. Pairs Of Words Starting With I
1- Idle: ب.ر'´
Don't sit idle.
Idol: --
Hindus worship idols.
2- Illegible: هﮍ-. لاو ﮯ-´- '= ہ-. ·=-.ر
My hand writing is illegible so I use computer for writing.
Eligible: .ﮨا
I am eligible for the post of lecturer.
3- Illicit: غ.ن·-'· ر./·-'='-
Illicit plazas are being demolished.
Elicit: '-·´ .-'= .-=در
Media has got the power to elicit response from government.
4- Immigrant: م -'- ·´ ' ﮯ- ·ﮨ'-.`او ﮯ--- ں
Mrs. Aena Molka was an immigrant in Pakistan.
Emigrant: `او ﮯ-'= ·´ ڑ·+÷ -'-
Many Pakistani emigrants live in America.
5- Impossible: .´--'-
Nothing seems to be impossible in this fast and brutal world.
Impassable: ر·' .-'·'-
The way to my home is impassable due to broken road.

10. Pairs Of Words Starting With L
1- Later: م -·-.ں
He met Shahid first and visited me later.
Letter: ==
Ghalib loved to write letters to his friends.
Latter: ·´·'ا·=·-
Jinnah and Iqbal both were great men but latter was a great intellectual.
2- Lessen: »´
May God lessen your pains.
Lesson: ·--
Please learn your lesson carefully.
3- Liar: 'ﭨ·+=
Islam dislikes liar.
Lawyer: =و.ل
Jinnah was a great lawyer.
Lair: ر'+÷´
Lion is sitting in his lair.
4- Lightning: ن'--'. .=-.
She always gets afraid of lightning.
Lightening: '-·´ »´ ª=·-
We should try to lighten others' load.
5- Loathe: --.'-·´ ت·-- د
Islam loathes the double faced persons.
Loth/Loath: '-ﮨ'÷ '- / غ . ﮦد'-'ر
Pakistanis loth to allow the American forces to operate on their land.
6- Luxurious: .-'-'·-
Islam discourages luxuries lifestyle.
Luxuriant: .´. چ.= ز. ﮍ-. .-'= '´ را---
Zam Zam is still luxuriant in water.

11. Pairs Of Words Starting With M
1- Mail: =اڈ
There are five letters for me in today's mail.
Male: ·´--
The order of Jehaad is only for the male members of the Muslim community.
2- Main: .-.دا./·´·-./»ﮨا
Main goal of a student is to get education.
Mane: ا. لا / »- .ل.= ںور·-'= ا. ل'- ﮯ'او ﮯ-'ا ·- ند·'
All mammals keeps mane.
3- Minor: ل·-·-.
I received a minor wound in an accident.
Miner: .´ ن'´
Miners are digging more oil wells in Pakistan.
4- Marry: د'-. '-·´
Ali is going to marry Alia.
Merry: ش·= / را·'-·=
Prayers lead us to a merry life.
5- Mean: »´.ہ-
None likes mean persons.
Mien: .=. ﮦ / زا--ا / ·=· ·-و
From mien, he looks a decent person.
6- Meat: --·'
Hindus don't eat meat.
Meet: '-'-
I shall meet you in the morning.
7- Medal: ہ·--
Pakistan got gold medal in the Olympic Games.
Meddle: د .=د.'-
Indians have started to meddle in the affairs of Pakistan.
8- Metal: ت'هد
Gold is a precious metal.
Mettle: ہ'-·=/ تا·=
Pakistanis have yet to show their mettle.
9- Moral: ق`=ا.
Moral values should be respected by the whole society.
Morale: ہ'-·= / ہ--= / -·'=
War against terror has brought the morale of soldiers down.

12. Pairs Of Words Starting With N
Naughty: ا·-تر.
The principal punished the naughty boys.
Knotty: پ.چ. ﮦد / -'+=-'
The story of his life is very knotty.

13. Pairs Of Words Starting With O
Oar: ·-÷
Now boats are being run by engines and not with oars.
Ore: ت'هد -´
Metallic ores are purified here.

14. Pairs Of Words Starting With P
1- Pale: درز
The patient is looking pale.
Pail: ﭧ''-.
He brought a pail of milk from the market.
2- Pain: درد
I am feeling pain in my head.
Pane: =ﮍ+´. م.ش ''' ں. اﮍ´ﭨ -=او '´ ﮯ- / .´ . چ. اﮍ´ﭨ '-·'´ا '´ ز
I shall fix a pane of glass in my window.
3- Pat: --+-.
A single pat of love can take the confidence of a child to climax.
Pet: ر·-'= ·-''-
She loves to play with pets.
4- Pattern: .-- / ہ-·--
She is designing a beautiful pattern on her shirt.
Patron: --·-·-
He is the patron of three orphans.
5- Patrol: '-·´ --'
A police party is patrolling on the road.
Petrol: لو·ﭩ-
In Pakistan, petrol prices are increasing on monthly bases.
6- Plan: ہ-·---
Terrorists are planning to devastate Pakistan.
Plain: را·-ﮨ
This is a plain table.
Plane: ·---.
He teaches us plane geometry.
7- Pour: ﮉ-ا.'-'
He is pouring ink in the pen.
Pore: م'--
Human body has countless pores.
8- Practice: ·--
Practice makes a man perfect.
Practise: =. '-·´ ·--
He is practising medicine for ten years.
9- Prescribe: ·=- اود.'-·´ ز
The doctor prescribed me a medicine for five days.
Proscribe: ن·-'·. '-·´ ·-- ·- ر·=
The court proscribed defaulters to leave the country.
10- President: ر--
Asif Ali Zardari is the president of Pakistan.
Precedent: ہ-·-- / ل'`-
Quaid-i-Azam was a precedent of determination and honesty.
11- Principal: ﮦا·-·- / اﮍ- / »ﮨا
Faiz Ahmad Faiz was the first principal of National College Of Arts Lahore.
Principle: ل·-ا
He is learning the principles of economics these days.
12- Proceed: '-هﮍ- ﮯ''
Pakistan is not proceeding on the road of progress.
Precede: '-·ﮨ ﮯ'ﮩ- ﮯ-
July precedes August.
13- Profit: ··'--
Traders are earning huge profit by selling sugar on high prices.
Prophet: پ.·--=
Holy Prophet(SAW) was the last prophet of God.
14- Prosecute: .´. را-=·· ·-. '-`÷ ہ----
General Musharaf should be prosecuted.
Persecute: ا.د ءاذ.'-
American agencies are persecuting several innocent people in Goanetana Moby's torture cells.

15. Pairs Of Words Starting With Q
Quiet: ش·-'=
Please keep quiet.
Quite: ف'´./.´''-
It seems quite hard to control terrorism.

16. Pairs Of Words Starting With R
1- Rain: شر'-
It is raining cats and dogs.
Rein: م'''
The rein of this horse is very long.
Reign: --·´= ِ رود
The reign of Hazrat Umer (RA) lasted for ten years.
2- Right: ئاد.ں
I write with my right hand.
Right: --رد
Your answer is right.
Right: ·=
Islam puts great stress on human rights.
Rite: -ﮨ--. »-ر
In Pakistan, everyone is free to practise his religious rites.
Write: '-+´'
He is writing an essay.
3- Ring: ªﭨ·'-ا.
She has worn a diamond ring in the little finger of her left hand.
Ring: ﭧ-+'.
Please ring the bell.
Wring: '-ڑ·÷- / '-ڑو·- / '-'-د
She is wringing the wet clothes.
4- Role: راد·´ / ہ-=
Quaid played a great role in gathering the Muslims for a common cause.
Roll: '-´هﮍ'
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
5- Root: ﮍ=
This plant has a delicate root.
Root: ہ=و
Unjust and cruel rule is the root cause of terrorism.
Route: ہ--ار ﮦر·-- / سار ہ-
The bus has changed its route due to broken road.
Rout: --´- .-´- / د --´- .-´- .'-
Pak Army has routed the terrorists in Sawat.

17. Pairs Of Words Starting With S
1- Sale: -=و··
He has decided to sale his house.
Sail: --´. . '-·ﮨ ہ-اور '´ ز'ﮩ= ا
The boat is sailing in the deep sea.
2- Seem: '-''
She seems thinking since long.
Seam: ئ`-.مرد ﮯ´ ںو..-` نا
His dress was split along the seam.
3- Seen: د.'+´
They have seen the thief.
Scene: ·=--
They are enjoying a beautiful scene of Murree.
4- Seller: ب.`او ﮯ-÷
An ice-cream seller is standing on the street corner.
Sailor: ح`-

5- Shall: '' / گ ./ﮯ'

Shell: ل·=
As soon as the egg shell broken, a beautiful chick came out of it.
6- Sheer: ف·- روا ف·- / .´''-
It was by the sheer force of his personality that Jinnah managed to snatch Pakistan from the opponents.
Shear: ª-. '-ﭨ'´ ل'- ﮯ´ ڑ
Today he will shear his sheep.
7- Soar: '-ڑا
Aeroplane will soar at 2 pm. for Rawalpindi.
Sore: ا·ﮨ '-+´د
Her sore throat resulted in high fever.
8- Sole: ںؤ'- . ا·'- '´ ﮯ-·= ا
The sole of my shoe is very hard.
Sole: -=او
He is the sole son of his parents.
Soul: حور
Dearness has made it difficult to keep the relation of sole and body for long.
9- Soot: ئ·هد.= ں. -''´
Due to the soot of the factory his dress spoiled.
Suit: س'-'
She is pressing her golden suit.
Suite: ا.س =. چ. ہ'-'- '´ ںوز
There is a suite of general stores in this street.
10- Stair: ز.= ﮯ-. ا.س =.هڑ.
This flight of steps consists of eighteen stairs.
Stare: '-ر·+'
I stared blankly at the paper in front of me.
11- Steal: ر·÷. '-·´
They use to steal our lunch-boxes daily.
Steel: د`··
Steel is used as raw material in many industries.
12- Straight: س.'هد
This is not a straight road but has several turns in the way.
Strait: '--' / ب' --- `او ﮯ-`- ·´ ںور---- ود . ہ--ار
Strait of Basphoras consists of cold water.
13- Stationery: ·=- ن'-'-.ر
The office is not providing any stationery to its workers.
Stationary: .´'-
Stars are stationary while planets are revolving.
14- Story: ن'ﮩ´.
The story of civilization is about five thousand years old.
Storey: ل·--
This college is housed in a three storey building.
15- Sweat: .-.ہ-
Little drops of sweat have made my face wet.
Sweet: م.'+ﭨ
Sweet people smile sweetly but don't eat too much sweets.

18. Pairs Of Words Starting With T
1- Tale: ن'ﮩ´.
He is writing the story of his dangerous travels.
Tail: مد
The tail of dog always remain curved.
2- Team: ﮦو·'
Cricket and hockey teams of Pakistan have made new records of defeats.
Teem: '-·+-
This machine is teeming the bottles of juices.
3- Tenor: م·ﮩ--
I can not understand the tenor of the president's speech.
Tenure: --ز`- ِ ت--/ن·-'· ·- ·+'. ہ--·
The tenure of his job is three years.
4- Tire: '-'= -+-
I am feeling tired.
Tyre: ہ-.ﮦ
The tyre of his bike has punctured.
5- Tore: اڑ'+-
Qais tore his shirt in anger.
Tour: '-'= ·- ےرود
Pakistan team is leaving on a tour of England next month.

19. Pairs Of Words Starting With U
1- Unwanted: ----'-. ﮦد / غ .ب·'=- ر
For four times Pakistan has gave birth to the unwanted child of military dictatorship.
Unwonted: غ. ل·-·- ر.
Benazeer was an unwonted personality of Pakistan.
2- Urban: ·ﮩ-.
I have no urban property.
Urbane: ب-ﮩ-
Islam wishes us to be urbane.

20. Pairs Of Words Starting With V
1- Vacation: ﭧ+÷.ںا
Summer vacation will start soon.
Vocation: پ.ہ-
He has joined the vocation of barber.
2- Vain: --.
Vain children never obey their teachers.
Vein: گر
Human body has countless veins.
3- Voice: زاو'
Mehdi Hassan has a sweet voice.
Voice: .··
Change voice of the following sentences.
Vice: --'-
Sardar zulfiqar Khosa is Vice Chief Minister Of Punjab.
4- Vale: داو.
Vale of Kashmir is yet slave of the Indians.
Veil: ب'--
She is habitual of wearing a veil.
vial: = اود. ٹ·+÷. ش.ش.
Nurse mixed two vials of anti-biotic in the drip.
5- Veracity: ئ'÷-.
Islam preaches veracity.
Voracity: -'`. .-
He has inherited voracity.

21. Pairs Of Words Starting With W
1- Waist: ·-´
Her hair come down to her waist.
Waste: '-·´ ·-'-
We should not waste our time.
2- Wait: '-·´ ر'=--ا
I shall not wait for you after 9 O' clock.
Weight: نزو
His weight is increasing day by day because he eats too much.
3- Wander: د·' ﮦراو'. '-·´
You should not wander in streets at night.
Wonder: ح.'-·ﮩﮨ نار
I wonder how the rulers are devastating Pakistan.
4- Way: ہ--ار
We should follow the way of Islam only.
Weigh: '-'·-
Human brain weighs only three pounds
5- Weak: رو·-´
She is too weak to walk.
Week: ہ--ﮨ
A week has seven days.
6- Whether: ﮦا·= / ﮯﮨ'÷
Weather you do believe or not but I believe in democracy.
Weather: »-·-
Weather is changing these days.
7- Wine: با·-
Islam does not allow Muslims to drink wine.
Vine: = ر·'-ا. ب.ل
I have planted a vine in my garden.

22. Pairs Of Words Starting With Y
Yoke: ب ود. = ﮯ-+´ر '+ﭩ´ا ·´ ں·'. ﮍ´' `او ﮯ-·ﮨ ل'-·--ا ﮯ-'. ·· '´.م
Farmers use yokes to keep two oxen together.
Yolk: درز.
I like to eat yolk.
3. Connotations
Two or more words having same meanings but different pronunciations or spellings; like same and alike.
Further More
1. Pairs Of Words Starting With A
1- Able: ·-` / .-'·
Saeed is a very able computer engineer.
Capable: ح`-'-.ت
Saeed is capable to teach C++.
2- Abolish: . د ·´ »-= ·-´.'-
We have abolished back-biting from our office.
Demolish: د ڑ·-.'-
Chief Minister ordered to demolish illegal plazas.
Destroy: '-·´ ﮦ'--
America has destroyed Iraq and Afghanistan.
3- Admit: .--.'-·´ م
Great men admit their mistakes.
Confess: '-·´ فا·-=ا / ='= . '--'-
One should confess his faults.
Acknowledge: ل ن'- --رد.'-
Everyone acknowledged his report.
4- Admission: ہ'=اد
He has got admission in college.
Admittance: = ﮯ'=اد. تز'=ا
The principal has allowed me admittance in the college.
5- Illusory: د ہ´·هد.و ﮯ-`ا
He is spreading an illusory news.
Delusion: »ﮩ· ='=.
He is under the delusion of being an intellectual.
6- Amiable: را·'-·= / ہ-'--ود / .´'د
Noor Jehan had an amiable voice.
Amicable: م زا--ا ہ-'--ود.ئ·´ ں. '-·´ م'´
Finally an amicable settlement was reached by them.
7- Amount: را---
A large amount of wheat has been smuggled from Pakistan.
Number: دا-·-
The number of terrorist activities is increasing day by day.
Quantity: را---
This milk has a large quantity of water.
8- Ancient: -·.م
These days I am learning abut ancient civilizations.
Old: 'هڑ·-
She is an old lady of seventy two years.
9- Arise: '-' ﮯ--'- / پ .'-·ﮨ اد
Imran Khan did not arise as a great political leader.
Rise: '-+ﭨا ·´ ·-
They use to rise at 9 O' clock.
10- Astrologer: م·=-.
Astrologers predict about fate.
Astronomer: ت'-´'·ِ ·ﮨ'-
Pakistan lakes in well-knowledge astronomers.
11- Attain: '-·´ .-'= ﮯ- .-·´
Pakistan can attain a respectable status in the committee of nations if we work hard.
Obtain: '-·´ .-'=
Luckily he has obtained a good position in the society.
12- Autobiography: ·-= --ا·- --·- د·=.
President Ayub wrote his autobiography.
Biography: ا.س. ·-= --ا·-. .´ ·=. ª´' ﮯ- ے·-ود. ·ﮨ
Gul Badn Baigam wrote his brother, king Humaiyoon's biography.
13- Award: م'·-ا
Ashfaq Ahmad received life time achievement award.
Reward: ہ'-- / ہ-و'·-
Everyone will receive the reward of his deeds in the life hereafter.

2. Pairs Of Words Starting With B
1- Ban: ---'-. '-'''
The government has baned the cultivation of poppy in Pakistan.
Restrict: '-·´ دو-=-
His father restricted him to house.
2- Base: پ. ﮦ-- / `-
Her shoe has a soft base.
Basis: .-.دا
Human rights are the basis of the teachings of Islaam.
3- Battle: ئاﮍ'.
Indo-Pak battle has restarted across the LOC.
War: ج--
War against terrorism is spreading in more and more countries.
4- Beautiful: تر·--·=
Saif-ul-Mulook is the most beautiful lake in Pakistan.
Pretty: .´'د
His performance was pretty impressive.
Handsome: .´'د . د·-'---·= ا / او ل'=و-= ےﮍ- ےﮍ- روا ط·--- ،.´'د لا. تر·=
Today he is looking very handsome.
5- Between: مرد ﮯ´ ود.نا
Tomorrow a match will be played between Pakistan and India.
Among: ز ﮯ- ود.مرد ﮯ´ ﮦدا.نا
An unending war is continued among American Allies and some private military organizations.
6- Blame: '-''' ما·'ا
India blamed Pakistan for Bombay bombing without any proof.
accuse: د را·· م·=-.'-
Police accused him for theft.
7- Breeze: -'ﮨ. ا·ﮨ
A cool breeze has encircled the whole city.
Wind: ت.ا·ﮨ ز
In deserts wind keeps blowing all the night.
8- Broadcast: ر.ڈ.و .ٹ ا. و. '-·´ ·-- ﮯ-
Radio Pakistan always broadcasts confirmed news.
Telecast: ٹ. و. '-·´ ·-- ﮯ-
More than fifty channels are telecasting their programms in Pakistan.

3. Pairs Of Words Starting With C
1- Censure: '-·´ ر·=--'- / '-·´ --`- /'-·´ ----
Foreign Office censured Indian accusations regarding terrorism.
Criticize: ·--.'-·´ د
I welcome those who criticize me.
2- Character: راد·´
Quaid was a man of character.
Conduct: ر·=/ہ--·= .-=ِ ز·=
Islam is a complete code of conduct.
3- Cheat: هدد ہ´و.'-
We should avoid to cheat others.
Deceive: د ہ´·هد.'-
He always deceives me.
4- Cheerful: ش·=
I love to see the cheerful faces of the children.
Happy: ش·=
Happy birth-day to you.
5- Circus: .´·-
I saw feats of animals in the circus.
Theatre: +-.·ﭨ
Shakespeare's plays are still being staged in every theatre.
6- Climate: و ب'ةاو
Pakistan has a hot climate.
Weather: »-·-
Weather of Kashmir is very cold these days.
7- Cold: ل·-·-. .اﮉ-+ﭨ را·'-·='- ا
Weather of Bahawal Nagar is very cold these days.
Cool: اﮉ-+ﭨ ·- ر·= --او / اﮉ-+ﭨ را·'-·=
He is a cool minded person.
8- Common: =·--- / م'=
Muslim countries have so many common problems.
Mutual: »ﮨ'-.
A mutual agreement has been signed between Pakistan and Iran.
9- Compare: '-·´ ہ-زا·-
Gawader can not be compared with Karachi.
Contrast: شا.ءا .م دا··ا ا. '-·´ ہ-زا·- '´ ف`-=ا د·=·- ں
There is a great contrast in his sayings and deeds.
10- Competition: ہ'-'--
Our cricket team is being defeated in every competition.
Conflict: اﮍ'+=
Kashmir is the main cause of conflict between Pakistan and India.
Contest: ہ'-'--
A mega debate contest held in our college last month.
11- Contemptible: ---- ِ .-'·
These days terrorists are busy in contemptible activities.
Contemptuous: م' ت·--.ز
His treatment with the poor is very contemptuous.
12- Corpse: ن'--ا. ش`
The corpse was buried after funeral.
Carcass: = ر·-'=. ش`
Carcass of horse was buried after the war.
13- Cost: ق. -- / چ·=
Coast of living is very high in Pakistan.
Price: ق.--
Prices of petroleum products are increasing every month.
Expenditure: چ·=
Please try to reduce your expenditure.
14- Crowd: م·=ﮨ
A huge crowd gathered to welcome the Prime Minister.
Mob: ---. م·=ﮨ `او ﮯ-+´ر ----
A mob burnt several markets on M.A.Jinnah Road Karachi.
Procession: س·'=
Nawaz Shrif led a procession of thousands of people for the restoration of judiciary.
15- Crime: م·=
Bukhtiar is our crime reporter.
Sin: ﮦ'-'
Sins lead one to hell.

4. Pairs Of Words Starting With D
1- Deny: '-`ﭩ+= / '-·´در
The accused denied the charges resting upon him.
Refuse: '-·´ ر'´-ا
She refused to accept my request.
2- Disability: رو-·-.
In spite of his disability, he got the first prize.
Inability: .-'·'-. ت / ·-`'- ./.ﮨا'-.
He was failed in Physics because of his inability.
3- Disinterested: غ. را---'= ر / ث·' ﮯ- /ض·= ﮯ-
China is disinterested in Indo-Pak disputes.
Uninterested: --÷'د. ل ہ-.`او ﮯ-
She is uninterested in cricket.
4- Drown: '-'= ·- ﮯ´ بوڈ
He was drowned in the sea and his corpse could not be found.
Sink: '-'= بوڈ
As soon as he sank, rescue workers reached to save him.

5. Pairs Of Words Starting With E
1- Economics: ش'·-.تا
Economics is a subject in which we study to utilize our scarce resources to satisfy maximum needs.
Economy: ·-.--
Pakistan's economy is on the fall.
2- Economic: ش'·-.
Economic revival of Pakistan is the greatest need of hour.
Economical: ا`او ﮯ-·´ -÷- / '--- / چ·= »´
Saqlain Mushtaq was a very economical bowler.
3- Effective: ·`ا ·-
Islam is the most effective religion in the world.
Efficient: --÷ / ت·+- .`
Shoib Akhter is a very efficient cricketer.
4- Elder: م نا--'=.اﮍ- ں
I am his elder brother.
Older: اﮍ- / '-ا·-
Quaid was older than Iqbal.
5- Eminent: ز'---
Islamic Conference made a group of eminent persons of the Muslim world.
Imminent: ·--=.···-- ب
An announcement about his resignation is imminent.
6- Empire: --='-
Muslim empires are developing very slowly.
Umpire: ª´. ---- '´ ل
Dicky Bird is a very stylish umpire.
6- Empty: ل'=.
Iqbal declared that the soul of Europe is empty of concord.
Vacant: خلا.
In our office situation is vacant for a composer.
7- Essential: مز` .
She is busy in a very important matter.
Necessary: رو·-.
Struggle is necessary for success.
8- Excite: '-ر'+-ا
Clever leaders excite the public to win their favour.
Incite: ا'-'-´
Drug pushers incite the children towards this evil.
9- Extra: ف'-ا.
Nobody could understand the extra clever trick of the President.
Surplus: `او ﮯ-'= --
We should spend our surplus money for the betterment of the poor.

6. Pairs Of Words Starting With F
1- Famous: ر·ﮩ--
Imran Khan is a famous leader of Pakistan.
Notable: '--.ںا
Today I heard a very notable speech of Prime Minister.
2- For: =.ﮯ-'
He has been learning lesson for two hours.
Since: =.ﮯ-'
They have been distributing sweets since evening.

7. Pairs Of Words Starting With G
Guard: -='-= / =·÷ .راد
He is the guard of our colony.
Gunman: -·و---.
He hired the services of a gunman for his security.

8. Pairs Of Words Starting With H
1- High: --'-
Japan produces high standard machines.
Tall: '--'
She is 5 inches tall.
2- Hijack: .´. را·- . . '-·´ ءا·=ا ·´ ز'ﮩ= ا
Terrorists hijacked a school bus from Islamabad.
Kidnap: .´. '-·´ ءا·=ا ·´ .=- / ناو'- ﮯ-ا·- ءا·=ا
Criminals kidnapped young Sahil from Jehlam.
Abduct: .´. ا·=ا ·- روز ﮯ´ -·'= ·´ .=-ل ·´ ء.'-
Dr. Afia Siddiqi has been abducted by American soldiers from Afghanistan.
3- Historical: ر'-.خ.
Lahore is a historical city.
Historic: ر'-.خ. »ﮨا. .-'= '´ ت
Badshahi Mosque is a historic building of Pakistan.
4- House: ن'´-
My house is under construction these days.
Home: ·+'
May God bless our home.

9. Pairs Of Words Starting With I
1- Ice: ع·---. ف·-
He runs an ice factory.
Snow: تر-·. ف·-
Snow has been falling in Murree since morning.
2- Insensible: او·- ﮯ- / ب . ش·ﮨ / »--- .ز
His untidy way of living shows that he is an insensible person.
Insensitive: .= ﮯ-
The patient is still insensitive.

10. Pairs Of Words Starting With J
1- Jealous: --'=
He is jealous of Rashid's wealth.
Envious: '-·´ --ر
I am envious of Abdullah and wish to be like him.
2- Judicious: ہ-ارا-+=-- / ہ-'---- / »ﮩ· ہ'-'·- /
America is not taking judicious decisions about the Muslim world.
judicial: -'ا-=.
Holy Prophet (SAW) introduced judicial procedure first time ever in the history.

11. Pairs Of Words Starting With L
1- Lane: ر·'ﮨار / ہ÷·´ / =ﮍ- --- ..' ا./= =ﮍ-. ذ.ل. .--.م
This road has four lanes.
Alley: ہ--ار
This alley leads to Bahawal Nagar.
Street: .'.
Shahbaz lives in this street.
Avenue: .´. م ·ﮩ-. .' د·=·- ں./مرد ﮯ´ ں·-=رد ہ··= ود.لاو ﮯ-ر·' ﮯ- نا. =ﮍ-
Jinnah Avenue passes through Johar Town.
Road: =ﮍ-
This road links Bahawal Nagar with Haroonabad.
Slum: ر'- و ---. .' راد ·- -- روا =.
Government should pay attention on the improvement of the slums of underdeveloped areas.
Boulevard: ں·-=رد ہ··= ود مرد ﮯ´.لاو ﮯ-ر·' ﮯ- نا. ·ﮩ- ﮦد'-´. .'.
Traffic moves on a very high speed from Gulberg Main Boulevard.
2- Less: م را---.»´ ں
Today he is looking less active.
Fewer: م دا-·-.»´ ں
Books are fewer than pens.
3- Lovable: --=- ِ .-'·
She is polite and lovable.
Lovely: پ. ارا / تر·--·=
She has a lovely cat.

12. Pairs Of Words Starting With M
1- Male: ·´-- / ·-
We are living in a male dominant society.
Masculine: ·´-- / ·- / ہ-اد·-
She should not wear that suit because it makes her look masculine.
2- Mausoleum: را·- / »·- د·' ﮯ´ ·-· . تر'-= را--'- ﮦد·´ ر
The mausoleum of Quaid-i-Azam is situated in Karachi.
Shrine: .´. .=- س---.ت . تد'-= ﮯ-'= ب·--- ﮯ- ہ··او ا
The Shrine of Hazrat Bal has a sacred hair of the Holy Prophet (SAW).
Tomb: ﮍ-. س. ·-· / -- . ·-·
The Tombs of Jehangir and Noor Jehan are situated in Shahdra.
3- Mistake: ='=.
Afridi made a mistake of biting the ball.
Blunder: ='= ہ-'--=ا.
A series of political blunders can be observed in Pakistan.
4- Momentary: ت'=-'.
A momentary happiness was enjoyed by Pakistanis after elections but then nothing left.
Instantaneous: ت'=-'.
The velocity of a body in a particular moment is called instantaneous velocity.
5- Mettle: ہ'-·= / تا·=
Pakistan showed its mettle by nuclear explosion.
Morale: ہ'-·=
The morale of Pakistan Army is very high.

13. Pairs Of Words Starting With O
1- Observe: '-·´ ﮦ-ﮨ'--
Media has started to observe police brutalities.
Watch: د.'-+´
Yesterday we watched a cricket match between Pakistan and India.
2- Oral: ن'-ز.
An oral agreement can not be challenged in the court.
Verbal: ن'-ز.
Applicants must have good verbal skills.

14. Pairs Of Words Starting With P
1- Pair: اڑ·=
I have learnt about three hundred pair of words.
Couple: اڑ·= / دا··ا .چ ا.ا '´ ںوز. ﮦو·' '- 'ﭨ·+÷ =
Mr. and Mrs. Rashid have proved themselves to be the most inspiring couple.
2- Person: .=-
Every person should enjoy equal rights.
Personality: .=-.ت
Twentieth century had not seen a leader greater than Quaid-e-Azam.
3- Pitiful: ہ-`--=ر / ='--·-·ا
We should be pitiful for the poor.
Pitiable: »=ر ِ .-'·
The people of Pakistan are living in a very pitiable condition.
4- Politician: س.نا---ا
Bhutto was an intelligent politician.
Statesman: س ز··- روا را-+=--،'-اد.نا---ا
Mir Zafarullah Jamali was a statesman.
5- Practical: .-=.
One should have practical approach.
Practicable: .-= ِ .-'·
Kala Bagh Daim is not a practicable project.
6- Prove: '-·´ --'`
America has failed to prove the presence of Ussama in Afghanistan.
Proof: ت·-`
He has no proof of his innocence.

15. Pairs Of Words Starting With R
Rich: ما.ر
Islam has ordered the rich to help the poor.
Prosperous: ل'=-·=
Pakistan is not a prosperous country.

16. Pairs Of Words Starting With S
1- Sad: ﮦد·-·ا / ª´د .
Failure in the examination has made me sad.
Gloomy: سادا / ما'- .د
Loneliness has made me gloomy.
2- Salary: ﮦا·=--
His salary is thirty thousand per month.
Wages: رود·-.
Islam encourages the wages earned through honest means.
3- Sensible: را-+=-- / ل·-·-
A sensible person never deceives others.
Sensitive: س'-=
She can not see anyone in trouble because she is very sensitive.
4- Scent: ·--·= / ·==
The scent of these flowers is very pleasant.
Flavour: ہ--اذ / -ﮩ-
Artists are considered more sensitive than others.
5- Severely: -=-. ﮯ-
Teachers should not treat the students severely.
Strictly: -=-. ﮯ- / ª-'- ﮯ´´ -··' ر·-·+- / ªﭨ .ªﭨ =.ﮯ- ح·= =
She is preparing her assignment strictly.
6- Shade: ہ-= ا·ﮨ 'هﮍ- '´ -+÷ / ںؤ'+÷ / '- .ﮦ
I love to sit under the shade of trees.
Shadow: '-.ﮦ
He is standing under four lights so I can see his four shadows.
7- Shall: '' / ﮯ' / گ .
I shall visit Karachi on Sunday.
Will: '' / ﮯ' / گ .
He will go to Karachi tomorrow.
8- Sick: '-´ا. ا·ﮨ ا / ب . ر'- / با·=
Today I am not going to school because I am sick.
Ill: ب.ر'-
She is ill with fever.
9- Spread: ª-.'-`
We should not spread pollution in our atmosphere.
Scatter: ª´-.'-ر
Muslims are a scattered nation.
Sprinkle: '-´ﮍ+÷
She is sprinkling water in the garden.

17. Pairs Of Words Starting With W
Willing: --- '-ر
Saeed is not willing to listen to me.
willful: ہ---اد
Saeed's visit to the garden was not a wilful act.
1. Pairs Of Words Starting With A
1-Angel: ہ--··
The revelations of God were brought by Angel Hazrat Jibraeel(AS) to the Holy Prophet(SAW).
Angle: واز.ﮦ
A triangle has three angles.
2-Ascend: '-'= ·-وا / '-هﮍ÷
It is difficult for me to ascend the mountain.
Ascent: ئ'هﮍ÷.
The cart began its gradual ascent up the hill.
3- Assent: ---'-ر.
The principal gave assent to the students to enjoy three consecutive holidays.
Accent: ہ=ﮩ'
She has Punjabi accent.

2. Pairs Of Words Starting With B
Beside: ··.ب
He is sitting beside me.
Besides: ﮦو`= ﮯ´
Besides Aslam, everyone was present in the class.

3. Pairs Of Words Starting With C
Command: د »´=. '- / ق .'-·´ تدا/ج··. »´=
America is commanding the world as an only super power.
Commend: ··-.'-·´ ف
The teacher commended me on my performance in the test.

4. Pairs Of Words Starting With D
Disease: ب.ر'-.
Fever is a very common disease these days.
Decease: ت·-
The decease of his wife made him sad.

5. Pairs Of Words Starting With G
Glass: ش.ہ-
A glass-wall separates my room from his.
Glass: س`'
Please give me a glass of water.

6. Pairs Of Words Starting With L
Luxuriant: .´. چ. = ز. ﮍ-. .-'= '´ را---
Zam Zam is still luxuriant in water.
Luxuriant: ز -ﮩ-. ےد·- ﮯ'او ﮯ-'·+- ﮯ-'+- ﮦدا .ل'- ا
She has very luxuriant hair.

7. Pairs Of Words Starting With R
Right: ·=
Human rights should not be violated.
Right: --رد
Might should not be considered right.
Chapter 10 : Idioms & Phrases
1. Introduction
Definitions Of Idiom
A group of words whose meaning differs from the meanings of individual words.

Expressions particular to a language.

Verbs followed by some particular adverb or preposition form idioms.

Idioms are approved collections of words through years, rather centuries. They need no more experiments. Thus
known and approved by all nations and faiths, they remain unchanged.

Definitions Of Phrase
A group of those words which have a particular meaning, when used together.

A group of words without a fine verb, particularly one that forms part of a sentence.

A group of words smaller than a clause.
Further More
1. Relation between Idioms and phrases
Idiom is a word or phrase to which all the people begin to use and it spreads in the society as a general
expression. Thus we can also conclude that idiom and phrase are coin words, but to some extent.

Idiom is a type of phrase but can not be understood from the meanings of individual words present in it.

A group of words that makes sense is a phrase, no matter whether it is a complete sentence or not. Whereas a
group of words that makes sense and also has a moral lesson or teaching in it, is an idiom.

Hence we can conclude that a phrase is an incomplete sentence and an idiom is a phrase but not exactly, i.e.
with some extra qualities.

2. Idiomatic Phrases
Idiomatic phrase is a complete or incomplete sentence that makes sense and its meaning differs from the
meanings of individual words.

Following hints must be kept in mind while using the idioms or phrases in sentences, or while making
sentences with the help of idiomatic phrases:

1- If an idiom is to be used in a sentence which starts with 'to', it is not a binding to use 'to' in the sentence by
all means, i.e. use it if necessary and neglect it, if not necessary. As 'to take to heart' can be used in sentences
with, as well as without 'to'.
i- Rasheed took his defeat to heart and left politics forever.
ii- It is cowardice to take failures to heart.

2- 'To be' of an idiom can be changed into the required helping verb, if necessary. 'To be taken aback' can be
used with 'be' as well as with any other helping verb.
i- Pakistan has been taken aback by the adverse circumstances of Afghan War.
ii- Presidential Order is enough for us to be taken aback.

3- 'One' can be used according to subject or object, if necessary. 'Apple of one's eye' can be used with 'one' as
well as by replacing it.
i- I am an apple of my mother's eye.
ii- It is difficult for everyone to lose the apple of one's eye.

4- If a phrasal verb is being used in a sentence, it is not a binding that verb and preposition always come
together, i.e. at times these come together, and at times not. 'Put off' can be used together as well as with
some words between.
i- He put the matter off til tomorrow.
ii- Don't put off the issues for coming generations.
However in some cases it is binding that verbs and prepositions can not be parted, as 'look after' can not be
divided in segments, i.e. it always come together.
i- Doctor is looking after the patient.
ii- I shall look after you.
1. Set A
All in all: ع:··-=- ،ر'··-=- د:··=s :··- ر:··=
In many matters, president is all in all in Pakistan.
My mother is all in all to run the house.

Above board: V'···- ﮯ···~ ~···~
His devotion is above board.
The decision of the Supreme Court is above board.

A bed of roses - ں:······-:+-s سsج
Life is not a bed of roses but an amalgam of pains and joys.
I have the courage to reject the bed of roses for common good.

At sea: :····-sن'···~
Everybody is at sea to this political situation.
I am at sea to cover both books within one month.

A bolt from the blue: ن'······ﮩ-'-s ~····-'
His father’s death was a bolt from the blue.
Failure of business was a bolt from the blue to him.

A broken reed: غsر sقsنs ار'ﮩ···~
Don’t trust him because he is a broken reed.
Pakistan is depending upon the broken reed.

A laughing stock: c····-ﮨs ہ-'·····~- '·····-
He made himself a laughing stock.
Our system of government has become a laughing stock.

A red letter day: ش:=s ند '····-
Fourteenth of August is a red letter day for every Pakistani.
His birth brought a red letter day for the whole family.

A rolling stone: ہ······-'×+ﭨ ﮯ······- / پ ﮯ····- s '····ﭨ:- '····- ے-····-
He is still unsettled like a rolling stone.
Ahmad is a rolling stone since long.

At home in: '··-:ﮨ :ﮨ'··-
Akbar is at home in solving problems.
Our teacher is at home in his subject.

2. Set B
A wet blanket: ó×·····~ ہ-·····~:=s Vاو ﮯ-:········-
Please do not consult a wet blanket like him.
Instead of helping us, she proved to be a wet blanket.

A bird of passage: :····ﮨ '····- ہ····-'×+ﭨ J--····~- '····- c····=
I shall soon quit, as I am a bird of passage here.
There are many Afghans in Pakistan like birds of passage.

A feather in one's cap: زا:-ا
Another national award is a feather in his cap.
Nobel Prize is a feather in Dr. Salam's cap.

A dark horse: م ےر'···- ﮯ···- c···=sپ ںsئ:····- شs - ہ···-s ~×·····~'=s --····~ر '····-+= ،:····ﮨ
His victory in the elections proved him a dark horse.
He is a dark horse, as he solved such a complicated problem.

A cat and dog life: ئاﮍ··-s گ-····-ز ر:-:····+- ﮯ····~ ںوﮍ····×+=s
They are not yet settled, still leading a cat and dog life.
Indian Army is leading a cat and dog life in Kashmir.

A far cry: ~·····--=- ~·····ﮩ-
Style of governament is a far cry in Pakistan as compared to other countries.
His teaching method is a far cry from mine.

At variance with: '-:ﮨ ﭧ-ُ ا
All you claimed is at variance with your condition.
Pakistan's negative development is at variance with our expectations.

All and sundry: م'- و ص'=
All and sundry were present in the fair.
The meeting was an amalgam of all and sundry.

Again and again: ر'···- ر'···-
The people asked the same question again and again.
The magician showed the same tricks again and again.

An axe to grind: تاذs د'····--
Everybody has an axe to grind.
All the countries have thei own axes to grind in Afghanistan.

3. Set C
At one's wit's end: '····-:ﮨ سا:=-····-
Question paper made him at his wit's end.
During the interview, she was at her wit's end.

At cross purposes: '-:ﮨ ﮯ-ارِف>-=ا
Quiet often I find his family at cross purposes.
President and Supreme Court are at cross purposes on the issue of the appointments of new judges.

At one's beck and call: c····-s ت ﮯ····-- ﮯ····- ﮯ····--= :····- ےر'····~ا ﮯ····-sرا
We find our Political system at America's beck and call.
Our Premier seems at President's beck and call.

At an arm's length: '·······-+-ر ہ-·······~'-
The MD keeps the junior staff at an arm's length.
The Chief of Staff always keeps politicians at an arm's length.

A bone of contention: - ہ······-ز'--s ہ=و
Kashmir is a bone of contention between Pakistan and India.
Ghaza is a bone of contention between Israel and Palestine.

An apple of discord: - ہ······-ز'--s ہ=و
Property is an apple of discord between the two brothers.
The new doll is an apple of discord between the two sisters.

A close fisted man: س:·······=--
Do not demand anything from Akbar, he is a close fisted man.
Hindus are mostly close fisted.

A man of straw: اs'···~ - c··= c=··~s ئ:····-s :···ﮨ ہ···- ﮯ···-ار
Ask your question from some other one as Akbar is a man of straw.
Our leaders seem to be the men of straw before American orders.

4. Set D
A man of letters: --'··-
Allama Iqbal was a man of letters.
Akbar had nine men of letters in his court.

A wild goose chase: c······~:- J·····~'=V
Governament's attempt to solve the Kashmir issue is not a wild goose chase.
UNO's resolution about the solution of Kashmir issue is a wild goose chase.

At daggers drawn: ن'=s ó-··~د
Both of are at daggers drawn on the dispute of the the brothers division of property.
The surgeon and MS are at daggers drawn with each other.

At the risk of: م ے:==s:····- لاڈ ں
The diver saved the child at the risk of his own life.
He fought for his rights at the risk of his career.

At large: داز'
The defaulters of Punjab Bank are still at large.
The victims of NRO are at large even now.

Apple pie order: ت:····-sﮯ···~ ب
My books are placed in an apple pie order.
I followed my teacher's instructions in apple pie order.

Apple of one's eye: ن'ار'····- '····- ں:····+-
My grand daughter is an apple of my eye.
Supreme Court is an apple of everyone's eye.

At the eleventh hour: عs :···- ~···-و ن
The police reached at the eleventh hour.
A good idea struck to my mind at the eleventh hour.

A drug on the market: اsسs چs ئ:····- ﮯ···~= زs :=s ت ﮯ····-- ﮯ····- ﮯ····-دs :··ﮨ ہ··- را
A rotten egg is a drug on the market.
This fashion is drug on the market now.

Across the board: ·····-·-- ﮯ····~ ں:····--= م'····-- ﮯ····- ما:····-
The resolution was across the board, therefore passed unanimously.
All the people gathered there to discuss across the board matters.
By leaps and bounds: ó····-د ندs ó-:····= تارs
His devotion made him progress by leaps and bounds.
Pakistan is making progress by leaps and bounds.

Bread and butter: ó····-sداs-رو:···~s-مزV s-زورs
Aslam is striving hard to get bread and butter for his family.
Employment and taxation are the bread and butter issues of politics.

By and large: ع:-=-s :··- ر:··=
My plan was approved by and large.
The resolution was passed by and large.

By hook or by crook: :···= :-'···= '···- و :-'···=sﮯ···~ ﮯ···-
You have to achieve target by hook or by crook.
By hook or by crook we entered Athens.

Black sheep: م ں:+=اsا:····- ں
There are many black sheep in our society.
Black sheep must not be tolerated.

Bear out: -······~-s'······-:- ق
Everyone bore out the danger of flood.
His statement was borne out by the second witness.

Burn the candle at both ends: بs م ں:-'····- ~····--=- ~····-و -sئ'······-ا:- ںs '·····-:- -·····-=
If you continued burning the candle at both ends, you will collapse.
Our government is burning the candle at both ends instead of reviving Pakistan.

Burn one's fingers: -···-=s مs -····= '····- م'····- ﮯ····-- ﮯ····-- ںs'···········--×+- ﮦزا
If you over look rainy days, you are burning your own fingers.
Plan your future well in time otherwise you will be left burning your own fingers.

By fits and starts: گ-···-'- ﮯ···-s ª-'·····~ ﮯ·····-
If you continue working by fits and starts, you will succeed.
The habit of working by fits and starts has made me fatigued.

Bag and baggage: ª-'·····~ ﮯ·····- ن'-'·····~وز'~
The trader left the city with bag and baggage.
He boarded the bus without bag and baggage.

By and by: ہ·······--ر ہ·······--ر-ہ-·······~ﮨ'
The ship sank by and by.
The clouds swept across the sky by and by.

2. Set B
Burn the mid night oil: د تارs '····-هﮍ- ~····- ر s'·····-:- م'·····- ا
Without burning mid night oil no goal can be achieved.
Quaid-e-Azam burnt the mid night oil to make Pakistan a reality.

Burn one's boats: c····-اوs '·····-:- -·····-- ﮯ-·····~ار ﮯ·····-
To burn your boats means nothing less than a victory, is acceptable.
Victory greets only when you burn your boats behind you.

Blue stocking: هﮍ····- ~····ﮩ-s ª····×-s ن:-'····=
Emily Bronte proved to be a blue stocking.
Quraatul Ain Hayder was a blue stocking in Urdu literature.

Blue blood: '···- نا-···-'= ز:····-
Akbar was a blue blooded king.
To be a man of blue blood is a divine blessing.

Blue eyed boy: ہ=s '···-
Elder sons are the blue eyed boys of every father.
Hafeez Peerzada was the blue eyed boy of Bhutto.

Back out: '···-'= :···+- ﮯ···~ ے-···-و
So called friends of Pakistan assure us of their help but back out every time.
Don't rely on his promises, he has a habit of backing out.

Back bone: ار'ﮩ···~ اﮍ···- ﮯ···~ ~···~
Remittances of Pakistani immigrants are the back bone of country's revenue.
Only Islamic Constitution is the back bone of our sovereignty.

Bad blood: ~····~ار'-s
The two tribes can reconcile if bad blood wipes off.
Islam wiped the bad blood among the tribes.

Beat about the bush: غsر :···········×--- ہ···········--·--
The judge restricted the advocate to beat about the bush.
The victory can be achieved if beating about the bush is avoided.

Beggar's description: ف'····-'- ظ'····--ا ﮯ····-- ﮯ····- ر'····ﮩ=ا ﮯ····- c····=s ں:·ﮨ
It will be a beggar's description to say him just a good man.
To call her honest is a beggar's description.

3. Set C
Bring to light: '····-:- :ﮨ'····=
All his short comings were brought to light ultimately.
Auditing is a system that brings everything to light.

Bear the brunt of: '·····-:- ~·····~اد:- ہ--·····~
The heirs had to bear the brunt of their father's death.
The company had to bear the brunt of deflation.

Between the devil and the deep sea: ود s م ںو:····== ، تV'····= را:×····~:='- ں'····~-s'······-:+- ں
Due to America and Taaliban Pakistan is between the devil and the deep sea.
Pakistan is between the devil and the deep sea because of presidency and judiciary.

Break the ice: '·····-ڑ:- ت:×·····~- '······-:- ز'······-' '······- :······×---
I broke the ice when the whole hall was silent.
Now it is your turn to break the ice.

Better half: -···-و'= / ب sوs
Better be contented to better half otherwise you will suffer.
Imran and his better half failed to understand each other.

Bury the hatchet: '·····-:- *-·····~
Pakistan cannot bury the hatchet with India unless Kashmir issue resolved.
Let us bury the hatchet and come to friendship.

Blow one's own trumpet: ó····-اs :······-s '···-:- د:···= ف
To blow your own trumpet, will isolate you.
Every government blows its own trumpet.

Bring to mind: s'······-:- دا
The doctor has forbidden me to bring to mind the previous loss.
Let us bring to mind the sweet memories of the past.

Build castles in the air: ئا:·ﮨs '·······-'-- ﮯ········--
Realistic persons do not build castles in the air.
To build castles in the air is a bad habit.

Bring to book: د ا:···~s'···-
His evil intensions brought him to book.
New principal brought all the idle students to books.
Call a spade a spade: ~-s ﭧ·····--s ¿····- ﮯ····+-رs'····-:- ت'····- ف'····~ ف'····~ ر
This is the time to call a spade a spade to America.
This is our moral duty to call a spade a spade.

Call in question: '····-:- ~····~
The peon was called in question after the robbery.
Inspector'sِcharacter was called in question in the court.

Carry the day: م'····-sباs '·····-:- J····~'=
Aslam carried the day by dint of his wit.
He carried the day by answering all the questions.

Crocodile tears: :·····~-' ﮯﭨ:·····+=
He saved his skin by shedding crocodile tears.
Aslam is habitual of shedding crocodile tears.

Cast pearls before swine: ª····-s ب ﮯ···-' ﮯ···- c···-s'······-'=- ن
Softness of public is like casting pearls before swine.
Any advice to him is casting pearls before swine.

Cry in the wilderness: اsسs ئ:···- :···- c···= ر'···×-s ےد ہ···- ہ···=:-
Afridi's appeal proved to be a cry in the wilderness.
My request before the principal was a cry in the wilderness.

Come of age: - ~······-:--s '····-=-ﮩ- :····- :····--
Akbar has come of age now so he is liable to be sentenced.
Right after coming of age, Raten Bai married Mr. Jinnah.

Cock and bull story: ض:····-s ن'····ﮩ-s
He told us a cock and bull story about his late arrival.
Cock and bull stories are not fit for every situation.

Come to grief: '·····-:ﮨ م'·····-'-
All my plans came to grief.
Despite very strong efforts all came to grief.

Cool one's heels: :=sر'······=--ا ل
After cooling my heels, I had a word with the minister.
I had to cool my heels to achieve the goal.

2. Set B
Cut out: '·····-:- -·····-=
Let us cut out all this fuss and plan about the next day.
I have cut out all soft drinks.

Cheek by jowl: :···-sبs '·····-:ﮨ ······-·-
Books and students are cheek by jowl.
Lunch and dessert are cheek by jowl.

Cut a sorry figure: گ---:·····~s -s '····-:- ر:····-- -=:····~-:-·······~ s :···-وا ارذ ﮯ···~ لاوز ا
Afridi cut a sorry figure only once in the tournament.
Due to shortage of sugar no utility store is able even to cut a sorry figure.

Cry over spilt milk: '-'=- ر:~ :- ن'~-- _->- ِ J-'-'-
After accident the driver kept mum as he knew that it was useless to cry over spilt milk.
If you play a wrong short, it will be no use of crying over spilt milk.

Catch one napping: '-ﮍ×- :- _~- ﮯ-:ﮨ ﮯ-:- مار' م'- ِ نارود
The supervisor caught her napping after lunch.
The owner caught the salesman napping during his absence.

Carry weight: '····-:ﮨ نزو / '······-+-ر
His arguments carried weight so the judge accepted them.
Each and every word of the Holy Quran carries weight.

Child's play: م'···- ن'···~'
To argue before the court is not a child's play.
To challenge Australian Team is not child's play.

Cry wolf: '···->= ہ···=و >···-
The invigilator was habitual of crying wolf.
Our officer is in the habit of crying wolf.

Casting vote: فs ٹوو ó····- ہ-····~
My vote proved a casting vote in APNS Elections.
The casting vote decided the crucial issue of the election of President.

3. Set C
Catch someone red handed: '······-ﮍ×- ں:+-'······ﮨ ﮯ······×-ر
The inspection team caught the presiding officer red handed.
Afridi was caught red handed while tempering the ball.

Chip of the old block: Vاو ﮯ·····-+-ر ~ﮩ-'·····~- ﮯ·····~ پ'·····-
All his habits are chip of the old block.
The prince looked chip of the old block.

Cut to the quick: خز ا:····ﮩ-د مs '··-
Cricket Team cut the nation to the quick by losing all the matches.
ICC cut us to the quick by imposing ban on Afridi.

Call to account: '······-:- ہ-······~'=-
All the officers should be called to account regularly.
All the parliamentarians should be called to account during their tenure.

Come to light: '··-:ﮨ :ﮨ'··=
All his secrets came to light during discussion.
New decisions came to light during the press Conference .

Call to mind: s'······-:- دا
Please let me call to mind the whole story.
Some times it is easier to call to mind your past.

Carry one's point: '····-ا:-- ت'····-
I managed to carry my points in the court.
Mr. Jinnah carried his points and the Hindus got a defeat.

Come down upon: '·····-ﮍ- ٹ:·····ﭨ
Kashmir issue can only be solved coming down upon India.
The advocate came down upon the witness and won the case.

Cast aside: د ڑ:+= ار:هداs '··-
The running projects of the previous government can not be cast aside.
I can not cast aside to continue vocabulary practice.
Do someone a good turn: '···-:- د-···--'-=s'······-:- ت
She really did a good turn to save me from bankruptcy.
Share market did a good turn to save me from a good loss.

Dog eared: ﮯ-:··ﮨ ےﮍ··--ﮯ·······ﭩ+- ﮯ·······ﭩ-
I hate dog eared books.
People don't like take dog eared notes.

Dot the i's and cross the t's: c·······--sم لs'···-'= ں
Please do not dot the i's and cross the t's, just overview it.
Even after dotting the i's and crossing the t's, he could not reach a decision.

Die in harness: '···-'= :···ﮨ ت:···- نارود ﮯ···- م'···-
President Zia-ul-Haq died in harness.
It is better to die in harness than in disability.

Do away: '·····-:- -·····-=
Interest on loan is not yet done away in Pakistan.
Let us do away smoking right now.

Drop in: ¿····-sئد ع>··=ا رs '··-' ے
The peon dropped in when I was busy in discussion.
My guests dropped in and failed my plans.

2. Set B
Drop out: ﮦ جر'='···-و
The foul players have been dropped out by FIFA.
Army dropped him out due to lack of discipline.

Deal in: '·····-:- تر'·····=-
Aslam deals in tyres.
Most of our ministers deal in sugar.

Do or die: و:····- sو:- ا- '····-:- c····~:- ó····×-- :····ﮨ
He tries to achieve the targets at do or die cost.
Do or die for Islam.

Drop a line: '····-+×- =····= :····~-=-
He dropped a line to remind me the schedule.
I shall drop a line for you before going.

Dead letter: -و:-···-
This law has been repealed and now it is a dead letter.
UN Resolutions on Kashmir are not dead letters at all.

Day in and day out: تار ند
Quaid had to struggle day in and day out to achieve his target.
Day in and day out working is the key to success.

Drawn game: اsئ:····- '····- c····= ہ····--'-- '····~s فs ﮯ×···~ :···ﮨ ہ···- ہ-···~
Kashmir issue has unfortunately become a drawn game.
Test matches are not more than drawn games.

3. Set C
End in smoke: '·····-:ﮨ م'·····-'-
All discussions on Kashmir ended in smoke.
The five day match ended in smoke.

Every inch: :··- ر:··= J··-×-
He is every inch a gentleman.
America is every inch an aggressor.

Egg on: '-'········~-ا
Americans egged on Pakistan to support them in war against terrorism.
Mother egged on her daughter to continue her studies after graduation.

Eat one's words: ل c·····-او ظ'·····--اs '··-
The judge advised the advocate to eat his words.
Quaid-e-Azam never ate his words.
For good: -·ﮨs ﮯ····-- ﮯ····- ہ····~
He left his house for good.
He withdrew from his share for good.

Far and wide: د:···- ورودs-
Hazrat Haajra (R.A) searched for water far and wide.
America is searching for Usama far and wide.

First and foremost: ó····-sداs :··- ر:··=-لواsن
Kashmir is the first and foremost issue for Pakistan.
Please take the first and foremost issue of this meeting.

Few and far between: -····- ~····ﮩ-
Universities are few and far between in Pakistan.
Pakistan had had good rulers but few and far between.

Flesh and blood: ﮦ-···-ز-را-···-'=
Kashmiries are suffering more than the capacity of flesh and blood.
Eid is a great opportunity to recharge flesh and blood.

From hand to mouth: '····-:- ﮦرا:····- ﮯ····~ J×····~-
Most of the Pakistanis are living from hand to mouth.
Those who are living from hand to mouth are being used by the terrorists for their evil goals.

Fight shy of: :····-s'······-:- ز
Officer seems to fight shy of telling the facts.
Inzamam fights shy of playing good cricket.

Fair weather friend: ~··-=-s ~···~ود
Fair weather friends are abundantly available.
Please be careful of fair weather friends.

Face the music: '·····-:- ل:·····-- :·····- ¿-'·····-- ﮯ·····- ل'·····--ا ﮯ·····--ا
You wasted your time in cricket, now face the music.
Everyone will have to face the music on the Day of Judgement.

Feather one's nest: ش:-'=s تاذ ﮯ···~s '····-:- J····~'= تاد'····--
Everyone is feathering his own nest, no one cares for others.
You feather your nest at the cost of national interest.

2. Set B
Fish out of water: c····-s م ل:='-s~···-=ا ںs '······-×-
Aslam looks like a fish out of water in this city.
I was not more than a fish out of water in their party.

Fair play: ف'·····~-ا
Our rulers do not believe in fair play.
The motto of fair play is good to ears but bitter to bear.

Fall a prey: '····-:ﮨ ر'×····~
Rashid fall a prey to drugs.
In our society children easily fall prey to bad company.

Fall short of: '·····-ﮍ- -·····-
Pakistan has fallen short of sugar.
Yesterday, I fell short of money.

Find fault with: =··--s '·····-:- ش>·····--=··--s '········--'×-
She is habitual of finding fault with everyone.
Those who find fault with everyone, lack in knowledge.

Follow suit: پsورs '······-:-
To follow suit of Britain is an anti-Islamic move.
I follow suit of Islam.

Flog a dead horse: م ں:-'······- ﮯ······ﭩ- ﮯ······~+- ﮯ-ا:······-s '·····-:- ¿-'·····~ ~·····-و ں
Muslims are flogging a dead horse and not doing anything new.
Western scientists never flog a dead horse and always remain busy in inventing new things.

Fall through: '···-'= :···ﮨ م'···-'-
The student fell through in first year due to bad company.
Lack of devotion and sincerity made the plan fall through.

Fall flat: '····-:ﮨ :····-ا ﮯ····-
All advices fell flat on him.
All his tricks fell flat on us.

Fall back upon: c····-s چsم'·····-'- :·····- زs sد اs - ¿····-ارذ :····-s -····-s -s '····-:- ل'-·-····~ا ﮦر'····-ود ﮯ····~ ہ····=و
We have to fall back upon the last year's strategy due to lack of funds.
We have to fall back upon thermal power due to lack of water in the rivers.

Figure head: ﮦا:-:····~ '····- م'····- ف:····~
The principal could not terminate any teacher because he was only a figure head.
Our Prime Minister is simply a figure head.

3. Set C
Give and take: ود ª····=- :····- ª····=-
Politics is not more than give and take.
Give and take policy should not be designed at the cost of national interest.

Go through fire and water: '····-ر:- ﮯ····~ تV'····= J×····~-
One has to go through fire and water to get his earnings.
Victory welcomes those who go through fire and water.

Give oneself airs: شsخs '·······-ر'+×-
If you are not able to achieve a task then don't give yourself airs.
Her habit of giving herself airs, invites others to laugh at her.

Get rid of: '····-:- J····~'= ت'····=-
Please get rid of bad company.
May we get rid of selfish rulers.

Get into hot water: م J×····~-s '·····-'= c····-+- ں
You will get into hot water because of bad company.
The deer left the herd and got into hot water.

Get wind of: '·····-'- :-·····=
The agencies got wind of the terrorists but took no measures.
I am trying to get wind of my result.

Give someone a cold shoulder: :··ﮩ- د:··~s پ ﮯ···~s '··-' ش
Everyone gave a cold shoulder to the new principal.
The audience pretended a false smile and gave him a cold shoulder.

Give someone a hard time: م J×····~-s'····--اڈ ں
Inspector General wanted to restore law and order but his staff gave him a hard time.
Australia always gives a hard time to Pakistan.

Go against the grain: ف>···= ﮯ···- cﮨا:···= و ل:···~ا
Pakistan went against the grain to shoulder America in every thick and thin.
We shall not go against the grain to support her cause.

Go to dogs: '···-:ﮨ ل'···= -···-
Every director wanted a major share and let the college go to dogs.
Afghanistan has gone to dogs after the attack of Americans.

4. Set D
Go to the wall: '·····-:ﮨ ﮦ'·····--
In the competitive environment weak financer mostly go to the wall.
Akram's competitors tried their best to let him go to the wall.

Go at long way: '···-:ﮨ ~···-'- ر'···- د-···-
Interaction between America and Pakistan will not go at long way regarding Taliban issue.
We can not go at long way to solve any matter.

Gird up one's loins: '--- cَ - :--
For success, we should gird up our loins.
If you do not gird up your loins then forget victory.

Give a false colouring: د ~··-ر =··--s '··-
Everyone gave a false colouring to my words.
He is in a habit to give a false colouring to everything.

Give the devil his due: ª····- ª-'····~ ﮯ····- c=····~ ے:····-s و:····- ف'····~-ا
At the quenquest of Makkah, Holy Prophet gave the devils their due.
The soul of justice is to give the devil his due.

Give up the ghost: '··-'= :-
Benzir gave up the ghost in before thousands of followers.
He gave up the ghost due to cancer.

Give vent to: '·····-:- ر'·····ﮩ=ا'- ﮯ·····~- ص:·····~=-'- ت'--·····=
She gave vent to her anger by chewing her lips.
Afridi gave vent to his anger by cutting the thread of ball with his teeth.
He gives vent to his feelings by beating the cat.

Go without saying: s- ﮯ·······-ﮩ- ﮦs ہ···- ترو:···~sں
It goes without saying that patriots always face the hardships.
Let it go without saying that I have to pay full attention to my lesson.

Go to pieces: :·····- '·····--اs ﮯ···ﮨر ہ···- :-'···- :···- د:···= ہ···- ن'···~
He quitted education because failure made him go to pieces.
Akbar has gone to pieces due to loss in business.

Grass root level: J···=-s *=···~- ما:-s *=···~
The benefits of democracy have never reached at grass root level in Pakistan.
At grass root level people are living from hand to mouth.
Hard nut to crack: ہ--·····~- را:·····~د
However it may be a hard nut to crack, I shall not stop effort.
Kashmir issue is not a hard nut to crack if India shows sincerity.

Heart and soul: ﮯ··~ ن'··= و لد
He worked heart and soul and achieved victory.
They threw themselves heart and soul into the politics.

Hand in glove: ·······-·- ا:······ﮩ-
We are hand in glove with each other nowadays.
Rain and sea are hand in glove with each other.

Hue and cry: چsر'·····×- و خ
People are raising hue and cry on sugar crises.
The Government has turned a deaf ear to people's hue and cry.

Hard of hearing: ﮦ:·····ﮩ-
Government is hard of hearing on people's protest.
This child is hard of hearing.

Head over heals: :··- ر:··= J··-×-
He is head over heals busy in his studies.
Quaid devoted himself head over heals for Pakistan Moment.

2. Set B
Hold water: ó--- ِ J-'-- ó····- '··-s
To give more freedom to women does not hold water.
His arguments did not hold water.

Hair breadth's escape: '····-=- ل'····- ل'····-
I was saved from bullet at hair breadth's escape.
Musharaf found only a hair breath's escape.

Hard and fast: *···~او--····-=s
There are no hard and fast accountability rules in Pakistan.
We have no hard and fast future plans.

Hit below the belt: :··= =--s '····-:- ہ···--= ﮯ···~ ﮯ···-
America is hitting Pakistan below the belt through drone attacks.
Through the increase in fuel prices people are being hit below the belt.

High time: *···~s~···-و ح
It is high time to start new business.
It is high time for rains.

Harp on the same string: اs ﮦ -s '·······--Vا گار
You should not insist to harp on the same string.
India is harping on the same string on Kashmir issue for sixty years.

Hotchpotch: چ ~·····--=-sت:····- ﮯ····- '····- ںوزsہ-:-=- ب
Urdu is a hotchpotch of different languages.
My room is a hotchpotch of various antiques.

Have several irons in the fire: c····-s اsم -sم'····- ںsباs -s ماsا :····- دs ﮦ -s م ~···-وs ں:-:·····~-- ےر'·····~ ~·····ﮩ- ں
مs '···-:ﮨ فو:···~- ں
He is upset because he has several irons in the fire.
If you have several irons in the fire, you can not justify among them.

3. Set C
In the long run: :·····=>-
In the long run, truth finds the triumph.
Pakistan got victory in T Twenty Tournament, in the long run.

In broad day light: د ندs ےڑ'ﮨ
Robbery in broad day light is very common today.
It is dangerous to conspire in broad day light.

In the nick of time: عs :···- ~···-و ن
The first bullet was fired in the nick of time.
The plane took off in the nick of time.

In high spirits: م ج:-s'····-:ﮨ ں-¿···-واs م ا:·ﮨs '···-:ﮨ ں
He is in high spirits nowadays because he has earned a good profit.
After getting first position, I am in high spirits.

In the good books of: -s ª=اs م ﮯ····-ارs '···-:ﮨ ں
Pakistan is in the good books of America nowadays.
Aslam is in the good books of the principal.

In cold blood: م زا-·······-ا ہ-'-'-·······~sں
Pakistanis are being killed in cold blood in suicide attacks.
UNO never takes notice of India, murduring Kashmiris in cold blood.

In black and white: :····=-sرs :··- ر:··=
He was handed over a notice in black and white.
The instructions were circulated in black and white.

In full swing: '····-:ﮨ :····- ںوروز
The study has started in full swing after vacations.
Aslam's business is in full swing these days.

In the teeth of: -s م ~······--'=-sں
He drew his victory in the teeth of adverse circumstances.
Akhtar participated in the match in the teeth of his rivals.

4. Set D
In good time: م ں:······--و ﮯ······-+-sں
We got Pakistan in good time.
Aslam completed his education in good time.

In a fix: فs '····-'- :····- ہ····- ہ-····~
I am in a fix about choosing my subjects.
Board management is in a fix about the selection of new captain.

In a nutshell: م ظ'·····--ا -····-=sں
She told the story in a nutshell.
Quran has described the knowledge of all times in a nutshell.

In hot water: م J×····~-sں
You will remain in hot water due to your bad company.
I remained in hot water unless I got the result.

Ins and outs: c····-- J····-×-sتV
This directory will give you all inns and outs of the government.
This book has all inns and outs of Physics.

In short: :······~-=- sہ····- ﮦ
In short, he is a cheater.
In short, the electronic media is playing a vital role.

In the wake of: ~···- ﮯ···-s م ہ=sں
In the wake of poverty, people are facing countless problems.
In the wake of rain, roads have been blocked.
Jack of all trades: اs ر'···~ ~···ﮩ- :···= c=···~ '···~s چsم ےر'····- ﮯ····- ںوزsc····- روا :····ﮨ '····--'= ںs اsچ -sےر'····- ﮯ····- ز
مsª····- ںs :···ﮨ '···--'= ہ···- :···- ر:···= J···-×-
Do not believe him, he is jack of all trades but master of non.
It is the era of specialization so one must not become a jack of all trades.

Jaundiced eye: - ~········~·-s ﮯ····~ ﮦ'····×-
Everything looks ugly to him, because he is jaundiced eyed.
Australian umpirs keep a jaundiced eye on Pakistan.

2. Set B
Kiths and kins: راد ہ-······~ر
One can not avoid his kiths and kins.
He left his kiths and kins and flew abroad.

Keep abreast of: '·····-:ﮨ :-='·····- / '····-ﮨر
He keeps himself abreast of every whisper.
Television keeps us abreast of the whole world.

Kick the bucket: '····-:ﮨ ت:····-
There was non in the house when he kicked the bucket.
He has kicked the bucket, may his soul rest in heaven.

Keep open house: ﮦد'······~- لد
The nature keeps open its house to all creatures.
Islam teaches to keep open house.

Keep up appearances: راد ¿····~وs '······-+-ر --'······-
He kept up his appearances even in utmost poverty.
It is difficult to keep up appearances when the time is unfavourable.

Keep the ball rolling: - م'····-s '······-+-ر را:-:······- ر'······--ر
Please keep the ball rolling during my visit to Europe.
Keep the ball rolling and look alive.

Keep an eye on: '····-+-ر :····=-
To keep an eye on everyone is the core duty of a watch-man.
The Prime Minister keeps an eye on all ministers.

Kick up a row: '·····-ﮍ×+=
He kicks up a row every now and then.
Aslam is habitual of kicking up rows with his neighbours.

3. Set C
Loaves and fishes: ندsواs تاد'····--
His life revolves around loaves and fishes only.
The love for loaves and fishes snatches your dignity.

Lead someone by the nose: ó····-اs ض:-s '····->= :····-
The MD leads everyone by the nose.
I don't like to lead anyone by the nose.

Leave no stone unturned: '······-:- c······~:- ر:-:······+-
I shall leave no stone unturned till victory.
Success can only be achieved by leaving no stone unturned.

Leave someone in the lurch: c-sم ~····-s'·····-ڑ:+= ª-'·····~ ں
The chief accountant left the company in the lurch.
If a single person had left Tariq in the lurch, Spain could not be conquered.

Let the cat out of the bag: '---ُ ا زار
Opposition is just to let the cat out of the bag.
The retired army officers let the cat out of the bag just to spread disunity.

Loin's share: ہ·······~=اﮍ-
The Government consumed loin's share of the loan on foreign trips.
Loin's share of my wealth has been lost.

Long and short of: ہ·····~>=
Unsincere leadership is the long and short of the poverty in Pakistan.
Please tell me only long and short of your story.

Lose one's temper: طsم شs '··-' ں
The severe pain made him lose his temper.
As soon as she spoke a word, he lost his temper.

Lick the dust: '······-'+- ~······~×~
America will have to lick the dust in Afghanistan.
Australia made Pakistan lick the dust in every match.

Look up to: c····-s -s ت:- / :······- s'······-:- ف
I always look up to the heroes of Islamic history.
Muslims are still looked up to in the field of Chemistry.

Look down upon: - ت:······--s د ﮯ····~ ﮦ'····×-s'······-+-
She looks down upon the poor.
To look down upon others is not a good habit.
Make amends for: ف>·····-s '······-:-
We should try to make amends for our sins.
To make amends for your sins later, will not benefit you.

Maiden speech: J····ﮩ-s :······--sر
President's maiden speech could not win the hearts.
His maiden speech was the outline of his future plans.

Make a clean breast of: '·····-:- فا:-·····-ا
The President could not make a clean breast of his flaws and drawbacks.
One should be bold enough to make a clean breast of his wrong deeds.

Make out: '-+=-·····~
I could not make out what you were saying.
She spoke so low that I could not make out any meaning.

Make one's blood boil: م ہ···~-s'···-' ں
His speech made my blood boil.
Hardships can make one's blood boil.

Move heaven and earth: ر:····-s '······-:- c······~:-
He moved heaven and earth to make his business a success.
Aslam moved heaven and earth to achieve success.

Make both ends meet: '······-:- ﮦرا:······- J×······~--
Aslam is trying hard to make both ends meet.
It is difficult to make both ends meet in this salary now.

Make good: ماsم'····- روا رs '···-:ﮨ با
Only honest ways should be used to make good.
One should not be crazy to make good.

Make one's mark: پ م'···-s'······-:- اد
Imran made his mark by winning the World Cup.
China made its mark in the production of cheap electronic items.

Make up one's mind: '······-:- ﮦدارا
Make up your mind and go ahead till success.
She made up her mind to study further.

Make headway: '·····-هﮍ- ﮯ·····-'
Our company is making headway towards new products.
Life must make headway.

2. Set B
Now and then: ª·······--s ر'·······+--
I listen to BBC now and then.
I go to the university now and then.

Null and void: م-········-'- / -و:-···-
Telegraph system is null and void nowadays.
NRO has been declared null and void by the Supreme Court.

Nip something in the bud: c····-s چs م ءا-·····--ا :·····- زs ﮦ ںs د -ورs '··-
One should nip the evil in the bud.
Ghulam Muhammad nipped the democracy in the bud.

3. Set C
Off and on: ª·······--s ر'·······+--
I go for a walk to Jinnah Gardens off and on.
She takes coffee off and on.

Over and above: :-sںا:····- د
The accused was sentenced for one year, over and above he was fined rupees one lac.
He was terminated from the job, over and above his social security rights were seized.

Out of date: '······-ا:-
The medicine is out of date.
This camera is out of date now.

Over head and ears: :··- ر:··= J··-×-
He is over head and ears busy in his studies.
He has over head and ears devoted himself to his passion.

On the spur of the moment: عs :···- ¿···-:- ن
Police reached at the spot on the spur of the moment.
On the spur of the moment they changed the rout and escaped.

Out of the way: ف>··= ﮯ··- ل:··-·-
The inspector was sleeping in the room out of the way.
The English teacher was delivering a lecture on Chemistry out of the way.

On the eve of: :····- ¿····-:- ﮯ····-
On the eve of eid, we enjoyed the company of relatives and friends.
On the New Year's Eve, the Chinese enjoy a great feast.

Once in a blue moon: رد'···- و ذ'···~
She comes to us once in a blue moon.
I eat chocolate cake once in a blue moon.

Of one's own accord: ó····-اs ض:-s ﮯ···~
She left studies of her own accord.
I selected this book of my own accord.

On the whole: ع:-=-s :··- ر:··=
On the whole he is an honest man.
My performance is not bad on the whole.

Off hand: ¿····-sت رsراs ﮯ····-
Mr. Jinnah delivered many speeches off hand.
He Pak Army fought the war of 1948, off hand.
Part and parcel: مزV s ہ···~=
Mobile is a part and parcel of today's life.
Dictionary is a part and parcel of my life.

Pros and cons: ~···--'=- روا ····=
An assembly is a forum to discuss the pros and cons of national affairs.
We weighed up the pros and cons.

Pay off old scores: '·····-'×= ﮯ--·····- ﮯ-ا:·····-
One should be tolerant enough to avoid paying off old scores.
Pakistani team entered the field to pay off old scores.

Pocket an insult: ت:··- ﮯ··-s '······-:- ~······~اد:-
Patience does not mean to pocket an insult every time.
One should never pocket an insult if he is rightful.

Put out: '······-'+=-
Please put out unnecessary lights.
She put out the light while I was studying.

Put up with: '······-:- ~······~اد:-
I can not put up with your disturbance any more.
It is always difficult to put up with enemies.

Put off: '·······--'ﭨ
The habit to put off everything, will darken your future.
Indi is successfully putting off Kashmir Issue for years and years.

Pay through the nose: -=s'···········--×+- ﮦزا
Descendants have to pay through the nose for the ancestral enmities.
One has to pay through the nose for his dishonesties.

2. Set B
Pull someone's leg: '-اڑُ ا قا--
He is in habit of pulling everybody's leg.
Don't hurt anyone by pulling his leg.

Pass away: '····-:ﮨ ت:····-
Tufail passed away in an accident last night.
After a long ailment his grandfather passed way yesterday.

Play truant: '···= گ'···+- ﮯ···~ ل:×···~ '··-
Aslam used to play truant round the year and failed in the examination.
He plays truant in fourth period daily.

Poke one's nose: '···-:- ~-=ا-···- ﮦا:···=-ا:=
She always pokes her nose in my matters.
To poke your nose in others' matters, is a bad habit.

Pick holes in: م'=s'········--'×- ںا
Who picks holes in others, digs his own grave.
I request you to pick holes in my poem.

Pull a long face: '···-'= :···-ا ہ···--
She pulled a long face, after getting B grade.
Everyone pulled a long face after being defeated from Australia.

Put the cart before the horse: '-ﭩ-ُ ا :- ~--:- _- م'-
To sleep daylong and awake all night is like putting the cart before the horse.
To earn latter and spend first, is to put the cart before the horse.

Play with fire: ﮦ'·····-- ﮯ-:·····- م'·····- -'·····-:==s د ت:··-د :··-s '··-
Terrorists are playing with fire.
To deal in heroin is just like playing with fire.

3. Set C
Rain cats and dogs: '···-:ﮨ شر'···- ر'···هد >···~:-
It has been raining cats and dogs for two hours.
Deserts remain devoid of cats and dogs rains.

Read between the lines: ش:····-só···- ﮦدs '······-هﮍ-
Please read between the lines to know the intention of the writer.
Unless you read between the lines, you can not answer to it.

Red tape: :-·······-دs م ر:-اs غ ںsرو:···~ رs ٹو'····-رsں
Red tape is a serious threat to our progress.
His file was detained due to red tape.

Rule out: '····-:- در ن'····×-ا
We can not rule out a better crop next season.
Chances of your first position can not be ruled out.

Without rhyme or reason: ہ·····=و>-
Your arguments are without rhyme or reason today.
He rejected my plan without any rhyme or reason.

Rise to something:غs '·····-:ﮨ J·····-'- ﮯ·····- ﮯ·····-ﭩ-- ﮯ·····~ تV'·····= ¿·····-:-- ر
Musharaf could not rise to the occasion on nine eleven.
Afghanis are determined to rise to the challenge of foreign attack.

Royal road: :··= ن'··~'sہ···-
There is no royal road that may lead us to victory.
I don't want to seek a royal road to pass the examination.
Slow and steady: جا:····- J--····~- :····×- ہ-····~ﮨ's ª-'·····~ ﮯ·····-
To be slow and steady, is a key to success.
Slow and steady wins the race.

Sum and substance: ہ·····~>=
Please tell me the sum and substance of your story.
An interview is a sum and substance of a personality.

Safe and sound: ~········='-=-
My mother reached back after Umrah, safe and sound.
The parachuters landed safe and sound.

Side issue: ہ--~- -ﮨا :-- ً '--~-
Democracy is a side issue for us.
Good governance is not a side issue for Pakistan.

Square deal: J···= ~···~'--
No square deal of Kashmir Issue has been found so far.
The politicians are seeking a square deal to save democracy.

Square meal: -ار:···= ~···~'--
A square meal is the main problem of the poor.
We should have square meal in order to safeguard our health.

Square peg in a round hole: '···-:ﮨ :···- م'···-- =···--
An engineer as a finance minister is equal to a square peg in a round hole.
The use of a spoon as a toothbrush is like a square peg in a round hole.

2. Set B
Snake in the grass: ~=só-···~د ﮦ-~···~'s ~-'····~ '····- ن
He is a snake in the grass, be careful.
I believed in him but he proved to be snake in the grass.

Stick to one's guns: '·····-ﮨر --'·····- :·····- ےدارا ﮯ·····--ا
I stick to my guns in every thick and thin.
She stuck to her guns till she got her doctorate.

Spick and span: ﮦز'·······-و:-
Her laughters are telling that she is spick and span today.
You were dull yesterday but today you look spick and span.

Set up: '······-:- --'······-
I have set up my own textile factory.
We have set up a quality control system in our office.

Smell a rat: ل ~····-'+- ﮦ:····==s '··-
To smell a rat is not too easy for everyone.
Science helps us in smelling rats well in time.

Sow one's wild oats: نا:=s مs~···-'-= ںs'······-:- ں
There would hardly be one who never sowed his wild oats.
After sowing his wild oats for a long time, he has come to maturity now.

Spread like wild fire: - J·····×-=s - گ's ª··- ح:··=s'····--
The news of his death spread like wild fire.
A wave of uneasiness is spreading like wild fire in Pakistan due to sugar crisis.

3. Set C
Storm in a tea cup: ل:-·-s سs د لاڈ ر:···~ :···- ت'···-s '··-
Intellectuals of present time are just raising storms in teacups.
Do not raise storm in a tea cup, just be patient.

See eye to eye: '·····-:ﮨ ······---
Pakistan and China see eye to eye on every issue.
Kasmir Issue is not being seen eye to eye by Pakistan and India.

See through: ل ~······-'+-s'···-
Some people can see through the intentions of others by their gestures.
The court has seen through the plans of these criminals.

Sell like hot cakes: '········-×-ﮍهداﮍهد
Bang-e-Dara is not selling like hot cakes now.
Nawa-i-Waqt is selling like hot cakes.

Show the white feather: لد:····-s '······-'+-د
Twice in this film, villain showed the white feather and fled away.
Muslims never show white feather.

Split hairs: '-ُ ا ل'+- _- ل'- '··-ر
She has a habit of splitting hairs in every matter.
Lawyers use to split hairs to reach a conclusion.

Soul searching: خs:···= '···- تVاs:····=- لsﮦ
Despite a lot of soul searching, she could not evaluate the truth.
The method of soul searching is used to know about a personality.
Through thick and thin: م تV'··= ے:··- ﮯ··+=اsں
I always helped her through thick and thin.
Armed forces protect the country through thick and thin.

Take the bull by the horns: رد'····ﮩ-'- تV'····= را:····- ش:='····-s '·····-:- ہ·····--'-- ﮯ·····~
I took the bull by the horns and got success at last.
If Pakistan takes the bull by the horns then all worries will dissolve in smoke.

Turn a deaf ear to: د ہ···- ہ···=:-s '··-
Let us turn a deaf ear to devil right from now onwards.
If you turn a deaf ear to my advice, difficulties will not dissolve.

Turn over a new leaf: :··= ر:··= ے:··-sگ-····-ز :-····ﮩ- :····- ڑ:····+= ﮯ····-s '····-:- عو:····~
Tariq turned over a new leaf and got success.
Khalid-bin-Waleed turned a new leaf by becoming a soldier of Islam.

Tooth and nail: ر:····-s ﮯ···~ ت:···-
The wolf fought tooth and nail against two tigers.
He struggled tooth and nail to prove his worth.

To and fro: :هدُ ا :هدا
He walks to and fro while learning his lesson.
In anxiety, she starts walking to and fro means.

To loose ground: '·····-ﮍ- رو:·····--
Our hockey team had lost the ground in the first half.
Argentine did not loose the ground till the last whistle.

To win laurels: م'····-sباs'·····-:- J·····~'= ںا
Imran Khan won many laurels in his cricket career.
May you win a lot of laurels in rest of your life.

2. Set B
To take to task: '······-:- c-ز:······~
Every criminal should be taken to task.
Court has decided to take corrupt ones to task.

To abide by: -·········--'-s '······-:-
Please abide by the rules for your own security.
Make your children habitual of abiding by the principles of Islam.

To take heart: '····-:- ~···-ﮨ
Battles can only be won by taking heart.
Let us take heart to conquer this peak.

To lose heart: '··-ر'ﮨ ~··-ﮨ
There were many chances for victory but Pakistan lost heart.
A single defeat does not mean to lose heart.

To take to heart: '···-'×- -···- :···- لد
He took his failure to heart and died.
A minor loss should not be taken to heart.

Take to one's heels: '···-'= گ'···+- :···- '···-د مد
In 1965 War Indian Army took to its heels.
Muslims do not take to their heels.

To be true to one's salt: '··-:ﮨ ل>··= ~··--
I shouldered him through every thick and thin and proved true to his salt.
One should be true to his salt.

Time and tide: ار'··هد '··- ~··-و
Time and tide is flowing against Pakistan.
Time and tide cares for none.

3. Set C
Take into account: خs'······-:- لا
Inzamam's past services should be taken into account by the nation.
We should take into account the poor and the needy.

To my mind: مsخ ےرsم لاsں
According to my mind he is an enthusiastic young man.
To my mind India is Pakistan's worst enemy.

To be all ears: '--····~ ﮯ····~ ر:····-- '···-:ﮨ ش:···- -···~=-
The audience was all ears to me during my speech.
I am all ears to you, please continue.

To turn turtle: '-'= ﭧ-ُ ا
After my arguments the situation turned turtle.
The match turned turtle after a century scored by Afridi.

To get away: '···-'= :···ﮨ را:···- ﮯ···~ ¿···-:-
The thief got away after collecting all the precious things.
The British got away by leaving Kashmir Issue unresolved.

Throw light on: ó···~ورs '····--اڈ
Please throw light on coming World Cup.
Imam Sahib threw light on the importance of Eid-Milad-un-Nabi(SAW)

To be taken aback: '····-'= ﮦر ر-····~~
He was taken aback to see me after so many years.
We were taken aback to hear the news of bomb blast.

To be at a loss: ا:-·······+-s ا:·ﮨ ا
I am still at a loss because of the bomb blast.
The thief was at a loss when he saw the police.

4. Set D
To be on one's guard: '····-:ﮨ ط'····-=-
Everyone should be on his guard about the strangers.
Pakistan should be on its guard about the friendship of America.

Turn down: '-:- دَ ر
My fee concession request was turned down by the principal.
The judge turned down his bail request.

Turn one's coat: راد'····-وs '---·······-
Politicians are habitual of turning their coats.
Men of principles never turn their courts.

To the bitter end: :='s ~···- مد
He is committed to remain in Muslim League to the bitter end.
Pakistan will remain nuclear power to the bitter end.

Take over: راد ہ-ذs لs'···-
Pak Army took over the charge of government four times in the past.
Shoib Malik has taken over the charge of government.

Turn out: '··-:ﮨ ¿··-=
People turned out at airport to greet their leader.
People turned out on the road to protest against load shedding.

Turn up: '···········-ﭩ---'···-'
She did not turn up after her refusal.
Nawaz Sharif could not turn up for seven years.

Take one's time: ó····-اs '·····--= ﮯ·····~ ر'·····--ر
Please take your time, we have no hurry.
The SHO took his time to investigate the case.
Under a cloud: م ~···-'= -:×···~-sں- - ~··~ :··- c··=sﮯ-'····= ا
His business is under a cloud nowadays.
Your progress is under a cloud nowadays.

Up to date: -=sد
Pak Army is not lacking in up to date weapons.
We should keep our knowledge of science up to date.

Up to the mark: ¿-s ·-'···=- ﮯ···- را
Up to the mark candidates were chosen through a test.
The candidates chosen up to the mark, were called for inter-views.

Ups and downs: c···-sزا:····- و ب
Life is full of ups and downs.
Ahmad has seen many ups and downs till now.

Underhand: د -····-s~···-ا
Aslam believes in underhand tactics.
India is habitual of underhand tactics against Pakistan.

2. Set B
White elephant: ز :····×- ﮦ-····-'- -····-s لاو چ:= ﮦداs چsز
Pakistan Television Corporation has become a white elephant now.
The foreign coach is just a white elephant for cricket board.

Wet blanket: ó×·····~ ہ-·····~:=s Vاو ﮯ-:········-
Wet blankets take the students away from the right path.
Wet blankets force the government not to fight against India.

With flying colours: :···= را--'···~sﮯ···~ ﮯ···-
Aslam passed the examination with flying colours.
Quaid won the battle from British and Hindus with flying colours.

With open arms: ª-'·····~ ﮯ·····- لد ﮯ·····-+-
The guests were being received with open arms.
She greeted her friends with open arms.

With a high hand: ª-'····~ ﮯ····- -····-=
Indians are treating the Muslims with a high hand.
High handed British rule was ended in 1947.

Work out: -····=-s '····-'×- ہ····-
Our plan is being worked out nowadays.
He worked out his expenses and decided to cut them short.

Wolf in sheep's clothing: c=···~ ں'···~ر ر:···~ :···×- ر:···~ ﮯ···- :ﮨ'···=-
Meer Jafer proved a wolf in sheep's clothing.
Beware of wolves in sheeps’s clothing.

Wear and tear: '·········-ﭩ+- '·········-ﭩ-
Everything faces wear and tear with the passage of time.
Much wear and tear has been done by this flood to our fields.

3. Set C
Zero hour: c····-s ﮯ-:········~-- sج:····- اs ~··-و ﮦ-··~ ﮯ··= '··- ز'··-' ﮯ··- ﮯ··--=
Zero hour for Ghori Missile I was 6:00 am.
Pakistan has not yet decided the zero hour for Kala Bagh Project.
Chapter 11 : Correction
1. Introduction
Students are generally asked to correct those wrong sentences that have problems with nouns, pronouns, verbs,
adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions. Urdu and English are two different languages with quite
different modes so most of the mistakes occur due to this particular difference. Both these languages not only
represent different cultures and ideologies but also follow different theories and trends of grammar.
Different rules of English Grammar are given in this chapter in order to enable the students to understand some
common errors or problems being found in the sentences.
Further More
1. Problems
Following problems regarding grammar will be discussed in this chapter.

1- Problems With Agreement
2- Problems With Nouns
3- Problems With Pronouns
4- Problems With Adjectives
5- Problems With Articles
6- Problems With Adverbs
7- Problems With Verbs
8- Problems With Conjunctions
9- Problems With Prepositions
2. Problems With Agreement
Problems with agreement means verb should be used according to the gender, number and person (1st, 2nd or
3rd) of the subject.

Some common problems with agreement are discussed here.
Further More
1. Major Problems With Agreement
1- If the subject of a sentence is singular, verb will also be that of singular and if the subject is plural, verb
will also be that of plural. As;
W.S. She are playing with dolls.
C.S. She is playing with dolls.
W.S. My neighbours works hard.
C.S. My neighbours work hard.

2- If two nouns or pronouns are joined together with ‘and’, they will represent plural subject and will take a
verb that agrees with plural subjects, e.g.
W.S. Pakistan and India is playing a match.
C.S. Pakistan and India are playing a match.
W.S. You and I has many good friends.
C.S. You and I have many good friends.

3- At times, two things are joined together with ‘and’ to form one new thing which is considered singular
noun, i.e. bread and honey join together to form ‘breakfast’. As;
W.S. Bread and honey are my favourite breakfast.
C.S. Bread and honey is my favourite breakfast.

4- If two words, joined together with ‘and’, point out the same person or thing, subject will be singular. And
if different persons or things are pointed out, subject will be plural, e.g.
W.S. Our principal and teacher are teaching us.
C.S. Our principal and teacher is teaching us. (Same person is principal as well as teacher.)
W.S. Our principal and our teacher is teaching us.
C.S. Our principal and our teacher are teaching us. (Principal and teacher are two different persons.)

5- Two persons or things will behave as one subject if ‘each’ and ‘every’ are used before these to limit these,
W.S. Each man and each woman are eager to perform Hajj.
C.S. Each man and each woman is eager to perform Hajj.

6- If we join two subjects with one of the following words, verb will be used according to the first subject.
Besides, but, except, including, with, along with, together with, in accordance with, as well as, and not, in
addition to, instead of, accompanied by.
W.S. I, as well as he, is going for shopping.
C.S. I, as well as he, am going for shopping.
W.S. Mother, as well as children, watch a drama daily.
C.S. Mother, as well as children, watches a drama daily.

2. Minor Problems With Agreement
1- Verb will be used according to the latter subject, if two subjects are joined together with following words:
or, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also.
W.S. Her friends or she were going for a picnic.
C.S. Her friends or she was going for a picnic.
W.S. Not only my uncle but also his sons was coming.
C.S. Not only my uncle but also his sons were coming.

2- In some sentences, subject is to be written after the verb so it should be used after identifying the subject,
W.S. Writing on the board, are our teacher.
C.S. Writing on the board, is our teacher.
W.S. Playing inside is my friends.
C.S. Playing inside are my friends.

3- After 'here' and 'there' verb will be used according to the subject, written after them.
W.S. There were a new book in my bag.
C.S. There was a new book in my bag.

4- Following subjects are singular so they carry singular verbs:
what, whatever, anyone, anything, nothing, everyone, everything, either, neither, no one, each, whoever,
someone, somebody, every boy, every girl, many a.
5- Following subjects will take singular or plural verb according to the meaning of the sentence.
some, any, all, none, the rest.
W.S. All are well that end well.
C.S. All is well that ends well.
W.S. Some likes to play cricket.
C.S. Some like to play cricket.

6- Titles of books, stories and essays take singular verb, e.g.
W.S. "Into The Broken Images" are an excellent poem.
C.S. "Into The Broken Images" is an excellent poem.
W.S. "The Arabian Nights" are a wonderful story.
C.S. "The Arabian Nights" is a wonderful story.

3. Infrequent Problems With Agreement
1- If infinitive form of verb (to + 1st form) is used as a subject, it will take verb of singular subject, e.g.
W.S. To help others are a great virtue.
C.S. To help others is a great virtue.

2- If some verbal noun (1st form + ing) is used as a subject, it will take verb of singular subject, e.g.
W.S. Laughing make me energetic.
C.S. Laughing makes me energetic.

3- If the subject of one part of a sentence is being used as the subject of the whole sentence, it will take verb
of singular subject, e.g.
W.S. Whoever works hard get success.
C.S. Whoever works hard gets success.
W.S. As she is busy do not meet us.
C.S. As she is busy does not meet us.

4- Adjectives with 'the' before them are considered plural subjects so verbs of plural subjects will be used
after them.
W.S. The poor needs our help.
C.S. The poor need our help.

5- If singular subject is being used before "of" and plural noun / pronoun or uncountable noun is being used
after "of" then verb will be used according to the singular subject.
However if 'some' is being used before "of", and plural noun / pronoun is being used after "of" then verb will
be used according to the plural subject. Whereas if 'some' is being used before "of", and uncountable noun is
being used after "of" then verb will be used according to the singular subject.

W.S. One of the boys are absent today.
C.S. One of the boys is absent today.
W.S. Some of the food are ready.
C.S. Some of the food is ready.
W.S. Some of the men is standing out at the gate.
C.S. Some of the men are standing out at the gate.
3. Problems With Nouns
Some common problems with nouns are discussed below.
Further More
1. Major Problems With Nouns
1- Following nouns are singular so verbs of singular subjects are used with them. However some of these
nouns can be made plural but some other word like 'piece' is to be added before them in order to show their
progress, poverty, hair, poetry, permission, information, knowledge, luck, leisure, music, money, news,
patience, anger, advice, courage, damage, equipment, ignorance, homework, fun etc.
W.S. Homework of every subject are done by him.
C.S. Homework of every subject is done by him.
W.S. She gave me an information about the new agenda of the government.
C.S. She gave me a piece of information about the agenda of the new government.

2- If following nouns combine together to form a unit or a Compound Noun then singular verb will be used
with them. However if these nouns represent different persons then verb will be plural.
audience, fabric, board, orchestra, band, chorus, faculty, staff, series, committee, class, crew, jury, family,
W.S. The faculty of English have announced the result.
C.S. The faculty of English has announced the result.
W.S. The family was divided in their decisions.
C.S. The family were divided in their decisions.

3- Following nouns will be singular if these are written before singular subjects or objects, and will be plural
if written before plural name, i.e. subject or object.
any, all, half, more, most, none, two-third, part, some, such, percent, etc.
W.S. Some tea are still there in the caddy.
C.S. Some tea is still there in the caddy.
W.S. Some men plays cricket in this ground daily.
C.S. Some men play cricket in this ground daily.

4- Although following words are singular and verbs of singular subjects are used with them but these words
look plural from their spellings:
civics, economics, electronics, ethics, gallows, innings, linguistics, measles, mumps, mathematics, news,
physics, politics, semantics, summons, whereabouts, etc.
W.S. This news are very interesting.
C.S. This news is very interesting.
W.S. Semantics are learnt by the students of literature with great interest.
C.S. Semantics is learnt by the students of literature with great interest.

5- If in a sentence, the words 'mathematics, statistics, acoustics, politics', etc. simply mean some data and do
not represent their subjects then the verbs of plural subjects will be used with them.
W.S. My statistics does not approve your claim.
C.S. My statistics do not approve your claim.

6- As the following nouns are plural so verbs of plural nouns will be used with them.
ashes, assets, athletics, breeches, drawers, embers, gymnastics, pants, pliers, scissors, tactics, tongs,
trousers, tweezers.
W.S. My trousers is new.
C.S. My trousers are new.

2. Minor Problems With Nouns
1- Following nouns are plural in use but singular in shape:
cattle, gentry, people, poultry, vermin, etc.
W.S. The gentry of the town was absent from the town.
C.S. The gentry of the town were absent from the town.

2- Following nouns are same in both forms, i.e. singular as well as plural:
deer, fish, gross, heathen, paisa, pence, salmon, sheep, species, swine.
W.S. I have many sheeps.
C.S. I have many sheep.

3- Following words are considered singular individually but plural if 'of' is used after them:
dozen, hundred, million, thousand, score, etc.
W.S. There are ten millions rupees in my account.
C.S. There are ten million rupees in my account.
W.S. I have passed three score of my life.
C.S. I have passed three scores of my life.

4- Uncountable Nouns are not used in plural form:
gold, silver, abuse, mischief, rice, flour.
W.S. Silvers are used in making ornaments.
C.S. Silver is used in making ornaments.

5- Verbs of plural noun are used with "A number of" and verbs of singular noun are used with "The number
W.S. A large number of mobiles is sold in Hafeez Centre daily.
W.S. A large number of mobiles are sold in Hafeez Centre daily.
W.S. The number of houses in my street are very small.
C.S. The number of houses in my street is very small.

6- Verbs of plural noun are used with "Majority of" and verbs of singular noun are used with "Majority".
W.S. Majority of people was listening her songs.
C.S. Majority of people were listening her songs.
W.S. Majority are against India in Kashmir.
C.S. Majority is against India in Kashmir.
4. Problems With Pronouns
Some common problems with pronouns are discussed below.
Further More
1. Use Of Subjective Case
1- Subjective case is written before the verb, e.g.
W.S. Go you to school daily.
C.S. You go to school daily.

2- Subjective case is written before helping verbs, e.g.
W.S. Will she go for shopping in the evening.
C.S. She will go for shopping in the evening.

3- Subjective case is used after 'as' and 'than' for comparison, e.g.
W.S. She is more intelligent than myself.
C.S. She is more intelligent than I.

4- However objective case is also used after 'than', e.g.
W.S. He is stronger than hers.
C.S. He is stronger than her.

5- At times, possessive case is also used after 'than', in order to clear the meanings of the sentence, e.g.
W.S. My dress is more beautiful than you.
C.S. My dress is more beautiful than your dress.
C.S. My dress is more beautiful than yours.

2. Use Of Objective Case
1- Objective case is used after verb, e.g.
W.S. Aslam received my at the airport.
C.S. Aslam received me at the airport.

2- Objective case is used after 'verb + preposition' or 'but', e.g.
W.S. She will come to I in the evening.
C.S. She will come to me in the evening.
W.S. You know none but he in the office.
C.S. You know none but him in the office.

3. Use Of Possessive Case
1- A noun is always used after possessive cases, e.g.
W.S. This is our.
C.S. This is our homeland.

2- However following possessive cases do not require any noun after them as they point out towards that
noun which has already been used in the sentence:
mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs.
W.S. Blue bag is my and red is her.
C.S. Blue bag is mine and red is hers.

3- Apostrophe is not used with following possessive cases:
mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs.
W.S. This book is mine's.
C.S. This book is mine.

4- However apostrophe can be used with 'one', 'other' and 'everyone', e.g.
W.S. One should do ones own job.
C.S. One should do one's own job.

5- Verbal noun is also used after possessive cases, e.g.
W.S. I do not mind you rash driving.
C.S. I do not mind your rash driving.

6- Possessive pronoun should indicate the noun or pronoun used before it according to the quantity, gender or
person, e.g.
W.S. You should offer his prayers regularly.
C.S. You should offer your prayers regularly.

4. Use Of Two Or Three Pronouns
1- If two pronouns are connected with 'and', their cases will be the same, e.g.
W.S. He and me are going to visit Murree Hills.
C.S. He and I are going to visit Murree Hills.

2- For two or three persons, the order of pronouns will be 'you, he, I' if a general or good work is discussed in
a sentence, e.g.
W.S. He and You will write a book.
C.S. You and he will write a book.
W.S. I and he are going to America next week.
C.S. He and I are going to America next week.

3- For two or three persons, the order of pronouns will be 'I, he, you' if a bad or unpleasant work is discussed
in a sentence, e.g.
W.S. I, you and he planned to tease our teacher.
C.S. I, he and you planned to tease our teacher.

5. Relative Pronouns
1- 'Who' (Subjective Case) should only be used for human beings, e.g.
W.S. It is the cat who comes to our home daily.
C.S. She is the lady who teaches us English.

2- 'Whom' (Objective Case) should only be used for human beings, e.g.
W.S. It was my cat with whom you were playing last night.
C.S. It was my brother with whom you were playing last night.
3- 'Whose' (Possessive case) is used only with human beings and some bigger animals.
W.S. Hen is an animal whose power is considered as a symbol of victory.
C.S. Lion is an animal whose power is considered as a symbol of victory.

4- 'Which' is used for animals and non-living things, e.g.
W.S. He is the writer which is very famous in students.
C.S. This is the book which is very famous students.
5- Relative pronouns should be written right after the noun for which they are being used, e.g.
W.S. I want a computer for my office which can solve my problems.
C.S. For my office I want a computer which can solve my problems.

6- After 'such' and 'same' as should be used in place of Relative pronouns, e.g.
W.S. He is such a man who always plays fair.
C.S. He is such a man as always plays fair.

6. General Sentences
1- If plural noun is indicating a unit, singular pronoun will be used with it and if it indicates individuals
(different persons), plural pronoun will be used, e.g.
W.S. Our team has won their match.
C.S. Our team has won its match.
W.S. Our team is quarrelling among one another during its match.
C.S. Our team are quarrelling among one another during their match.

2- If 'each' and 'every' are connected with 'and', singular pronoun will be used, e.g.
W.S. Each politician and every general should perform their duty honestly.
C.S. Each politician and every general should perform his duty honestly.

3- 'Each, each other, either, neither' are used for two things and persons, and singular pronouns are used with
these (except 'each other' which needs plural pronouns), e.g.
W.S. Neither of these two men are serving their nation.
C.S. Neither of these two men is serving his nation.

4- 'Every, none, one another, anyone' are used for more than two men or things and singular pronouns will be
used for these (except 'one another' which needs plural pronouns), e.g.
W.S. Pakistanis have started to learn from each another.
C.S. Pakistanis have started to learn from one another.

5- Objective case of "one" is "one" and possessive case is "one's".
W.S. One should fulfil his duty.
C.S. One should fulfil one's duty.

6- When a person or thing has been specified by a noun or pronoun in the first part of the sentence then it is
not necessary to use another pronoun for the same person or thing in the second part of the sentence.
W.S. One who seeks he finds.
C.S. One who seeks finds.

7- Subjective case will be used if pronoun is the subject of the verb, e.g.
W.S. Your are learning your lesson.
C.S. You are learning your lesson.
W.S. Whom you think was flying kite on the roof ?
C.S. Who you think was flying kite on the roof ?

8- Objective case is used if pronoun is not the subject of the verb, e.g.
W.S. Who do you protest against ?
C.S. Whom do you protest against ?

9- Plural pronoun and verb of plural pronoun will be used for 'many, several, a few, both, others', e.g.
W.S. Both the students tries his best to satisfy his teachers.
C.S. Both the students try their best to satisfy their teachers.

10- Reflexive pronouns (pronouns with 'self') are used with following verbs like 'enjoy, resign, avail, absent',
etc., e.g.
W.S. We enjoyed on hearing the jock.
C.S. We enjoyed ourselves on hearing the jock.
5. Problems With Adjectives
Some common problems with adjectives are discussed below.
Further More
1. Identification Of Some Adjectives
1- Adjectives with 'ing' show some particular effect on others, e.g.
Yesterday we heard an amazing story.
You are an interesting person.

2- Adjectives with 'ed' and 'en' show that these are affected adjectives, e.g.
She has submitted her written request in the office.
At the end of exams, Rizwan is looking a relaxed person.

2. Problems With Degrees Of Adjectives
1- Second degree of adjective is used to compare two persons or things and 'than' is used after it, e.g.
She is more beautiful than me.
He is cleverer than Abid.

2- However to compare two persons or things by using 'inferior, junior, prefer, prior, senior, superior', "to" is
used after these words, e.g.
I prefer fruit to sweets.
My dress is inferior to hers.

3- Third degree is used to compare more than two persons or things and 'the' is used before it, e.g.
He is the tallest boy in the class.
This officer is the fatest man in our office.

4- 'The' is not used before second degree but if 'of' has been used for comparison then 'the' will be written
before it, e.g.
Of the two computers, this one is the more efficient.
This child is the prettier of these two babies.

5- If both parts of a sentence start with second degrees then 'the' will be used before both of these, e.g.
The nearer the mosque, the stronger the faith.
6- Some particular adjectives behave as plural nouns if 'the' is added before first degrees
Chapter 12 : Translation : Urdu To English
1. Translation Of Some Paragraphs
Translation of a sentence, a passage or an essay does not only mean to convert the words of a language into that
of another but it is to convert a message from one language into another, without any change in its meaning.

Following things about a particular language should be known in order to translate a sentence into it from any
other language:

1- Mode of that language
2- Method of using words in that particular language
3- Arrangement of words in a sentence.

The points mentioned above can only be understood by learning:
• Tenses
• Active and Passive voice
• Use of Prepositions
• Idioms and Phrases of a particular language
Note: Students should consult chapter no. 3 & 4 of Grammar & Composition Part I and chapter no. 2 & 3 of
Grammar & Composition Part II before studying this chapter.
Further More
1. Paragraph A
م رود ﮯ´ ج'.= ت`'-= ں. »ﮨا.ز -ﮩ- ت.ﮯﮨ ﮦدا. ۔ ﮦ ﮯ-'-- را·'-·= ·´ ا·ﮨ و ب' ﮦ.ں. ۔ = »-·- ﮦ. ·´ ت--
ﮦ ﮯ-·´ »´.ں. ۔ه--' ﮦ.س ،ںو.س روا ں·-`. ﮦ ﮯ-´ور ·´ ر·+- و م.ں۔ ﮦ ﮯ--- --- '´ شر'-.ں۔ ·´ ف·-
ﮦ ﮯ-´ور ﮯ- ﮯ-'+'- -'=.ں۔ مز.= ن. خرز.ز. ﮦ ﮯ-'=ﮍ- ·´.ں۔ = -'- ت`'-=. ش'·-. ق·-. م.»ﮨا ں
ﮦ ﮯ-·´ ادا راد·´.ں

Forests are very important nowadays. They make the climate pleasant. They reduce the intensity of the
season. They stop the dust-storms, floods, soil salinity and Water logging, cause rain, stop snow to melt early
and increase the fertility of soil. Forests play a significant role in the economic development of a country.

2. Paragraph B
--ر---. ﮍ-. ﮯﮨ --·-۔ ل.مد' .´. = --·- سا ﮯﮨ '-ﮨر --ر--- -- -=. ہ- ر-·.'-·´ ں۔ ئ·´ -=.
ل·-·-. س. ب.ر'-. ª-. ª' ﮯ-ا ·´'.= سا ·- ﮯ' ر. قت·ﮨ م·'·- رد. ﮯﮨ۔ .´ ﮯ´ »-= ·'ا. م ﮯ-=.ں
ئ·´. .´-.ت'= ·ﮨ ف. ﮯﮨ '-·´ ل·-· ·`ا »-= ار'- ·- ﮯﮨ۔ --ر---. پ ﮯ-'+´ ·- ·ﮨ. ﮯ-·+- ﮯ-'÷ ،ﮯ-
م ﮯ-·´ م'´ روا.ج ں. ﮯﮨ '-''۔ .´ ·- ﮯ-'= ·ﮨ با·= -=-. چ.م ز.ہ- ا·- ں.'-' ں۔ ب ·`´ا گ·' ·=.ر'-
ﮦ ﮯ-ﮨر. = نا ں. گ--ز. وا ﮯ´ نا د·= ·'·-- ے·-ود ﮯ´ نا ر. ت'= .- ن'= ل'-و ﮯ-' ﮯ´ ن. ﮯﮨ۔

Health is a great wealth. But man does not give it a value as long as he is healthy. When even a minor ailment
seizes him, he recognizes its importance. If any part of body is affected, entire body suffers. In the state of
health, one enjoys food, movement, and work. Lose of health deprives of every enjoyment. Those who are
every now and then sick, their life becomes a trouble to them and their other loved ones.

3. Paragraph C
چا·´. ا.ب =. ما··`ا ن. ﮯﮨ ·ﮩ-. ۔ ﮯﮨ ·ﮩ- اﮍ- ﮯ- -- '´ ن'--´'- ﮦ۔داز'. '´ -'- ﮯ-ا -·- ﮯ´
'-- --·´='اراد.گ ا.ا۔ م -·-.= سا ں. د '-- --·´='اراد ·´ د'-' م`-ا ہ'=.گ ا.ا ۔ = سا ﮯ- سا ·'-.
»ﮨا. ہ- »´ ت.ئ·ﮨ ں۔. ا .-ارد.ﮍ- =. -= روا. = ﮯ-·ﮨ ﮦ''ر--- د. = -'-ﮯ- ہ=و. سا را--وراد '´ تر'=-.
ﮯﮨ·-۔ چا·´. ئا·ﮨ '´. ا ﮦڈا.ش. ئا·ﮨ ےﮍ- ﮯ´ ا. م ںوڈا.ا ﮯ- ں.ﮯﮨ =.۔ گ--ز ن'ﮨ. ت -ﮩ-. فو·-- روا ز

Karachi is an international city. This is the biggest city of Pakistan. After independence it was made the
capital of the country. Afterwards the Islamabad was made the capital. But it did not lessen its importance.
Actually, being a big and modern sea port, country’s trade is based on it. Karachi Airport is among the
biggest airports of Asia. Life is very busy and fast here.

4. Paragraph D
ا. پ ﮯ- --ود '-اد ﮯ--ا ﮯ- .=- =م ہ´ '+÷و.= ں. = ں·'·' ںو·´ ا. م ﮯ- ہ=و.·- -=- ں.ن'-
ں·ﮨ۔ ل ﮯ´ ت'·`- ·`´ا. ﮦ ﮯ-ﮨر ﮯ-' ے.ں۔= نا. -·رو--' ' ت·ﮨ -=·- '´ ن'--- ﮯ´ ں·-ود ﮯ-ور روا -·و .
ﮯﮨ۔د با·= ﮯ- سا.·= ·= ہ´ ا. ما ·= روا ےد ےد ض·· ·´ نا ں·ﮨ ب. --'- ª÷´ ﮯ- نا ں·ﮨ ر۔ ئ·´ ·+-. ت.ےر
ہ- س'-.'' ﮯ-' ں۔

Someone asked his wise friend that what should he do, as he was much worried about the people who often
come to see him. Their visits cause wastage of time and money both. He answered that he should lend some
money to those who are poor and borrow something from the rich. Then nobody would come to him.

5. Paragraph E
ز'- 'ﭨر. ا. ﮯﮨ ض·- =۔ م ء'-'= ﮯ- سا.پ د'--=ا ں.ہ- اد.'-·ﮨ ں۔ ر'-=-ا د·= ﮦو. ہ-.س ں. ﮯ-'- ª´۔ -=
ا.= سا ہ--·- =. پ ﮯ- سا ·- ﮯ-'= ﮍ- -'. ﮯﮨ '-'= ·ﮨ .´-- '-اﮍ+÷ '+÷۔ ﮦو ہ´ ﮯﮨ ض·· '´ ﮦ--'-ا
ئا---ا. ﮦ ·- -=-. م ء'-'=.پ د'--=ا ں.·´ اد.ا روا ں.= ء'-'= ﮯ-. ا··ا ہ'-·=ئ. ·´. د·=·= ں
= ﮯ-·´ ﮦ·---. .ﮨا.پ ت.·´ اد.ں ۔ ا. ﮦ ﮯ-'= .- ر'´-'· ﮯ+÷ا·´ ·ﮨ ےﮍ- ء'-'= ﮯ-.ں۔ = ںو·-ود ﮦو.
.-- --هد 'ه--ا.ہ- د.ﮯ-·´ ں

Cramming is a disease. It does not let the confidence to develop in the students. They fail to learn self-
reliance. When one is addicted to it once, then it becomes difficult to get rid of it. Teachers should develop
confidence in students in the early stages, and should encourage such students who develop the ability of
criticism in them. Such students grow as good writers. They do not imitate others blindly.

6. Paragraph F
'+-ا·ﮨ »-'· ·- م'- ﮯ´ م`-ا ن'--´'- ۔ﮦ م`-ا ف·-. = سا. = ء'--. ﮯﮨ '-´- ·ﮨ --'--۔ ﮯ´ ن'--´'-
م ں·'·'.س -ﮩ- ں. چ.ز.ﮦ =·--- ں.ں۔ م ن'--´'- ہ´ ﮯﮨ --رد.س -ﮩ- ں. ن'-ز.ل·- ں. ت'=. ﮦ.ں۔ نا
خذ ﮯ´.ا '´ ظ'-'ا ﮦر. ﮯﮨ =·--- ہ-= اﮍ- =۔ ﮦ ﮯ-ﮩ´ گ·' ª÷´. گ·' ﮯ´ ن'--´'- ہ´ ں ´. ں·'--
ﮦ ﮯ-+´ر ·'·- ﮯ-.ں .۔ ہ- --رد ﮦ.ں۔ -- گ·' ﮯ´ ن'--´'-. ﮦ ﮯﮨر ﮦر ﮯ+ﭩ´ا ﮯ- ںو.ں۔ ·- ت'- تاذ ﮦو
.ق.ہ- ن. ﮯ-+´ر ں ۔ ہ- اﮯ- م`-ا.ا ں.د '-- .-- =.ﮯﮨ ا۔ ﮯﮨ ·- `'- ﮯ- .-- و --ر م`-ا۔
Pakistan was founded on the basis of Islamic Ideology. Only Islam can guarantee the existence of Pakistan.
There are so many things common among Pakistanis. It is true there are many languages spoken in Pakistan.
A major proportion of their treasure of vocabulary is common. Some people say that Pakistanis belong to
many races. It's false. Pakistanis have been living together for centuries. They do not believe in casts. Islam
made them one race. Islam is beyond colours and races.

7. Paragraph G
م·· ےر'-ﮨ ل'-·ا ہ-`=. ﮦ ·='-.ں۔ س ﮦو.م ٹ·´'ا.پ ں.ﮯ-·ﮨ اد ۔ ئا---ا. .·-.ª- م. ﮦ ں'ﮨو. = .-'=۔. سا
ﮯ-' ﮯ'÷ ر·ﮨ` -·- ﮯ´۔ م ہ--'· ﮯ- ں·+-ا ﮯ- ں'ﮩ=.ا ں.م-= ےا.ا۔ م ر·ﮨ` -''´ ﭧ---ر·' ﮦو ند ª÷´.ں
فو·-.ª-·-. ﮯﮨر۔ ﮯ-' ﮯ'÷ ن'--''-ا ﮦو ·+-۔ .-او ﮯ- ن'--''-ا. م ر·ﮨ` ﮯ- ں·ﮩ-ا ·-.-''´و ں
= عو·-۔. ل. ہ-ا .´.ں . '+- ہ- ---- م'´ ﮦ۔

Allama Iqbal is our national poet. He was born in Sialkot. He got his early education from there. Afterwards
he came to Lahore where he did Masters in Philosophy. For some time he remained a professor at
Government College, Lahore. Then he went to England. After returning from England, he started practice as
a lawyer but he disliked this profession.

8. Paragraph H
م ت`'= ﮦد·=·-.پ ترو·- »ﮨا ﮯ- -- ں.ق روا ﮯ-'هﮍ- راواد.= ﮯ-·´ »´ ·´ ں·--. ﮯﮨ۔ مد' م'=. ش'·-. ر·=
·- -ﮩ- ·-. ﮯﮨ ن'-۔ = سا. ن--'. ﮯﮨ »´ ﮯ- ت'=ا·=ا ﮯ´ ﮦ·- زور ﮯ´ سا۔ م' »´ ل'-·--ا ﮦ·-زور ·=- ِ .-- ﮯ´ -د
=. چ.= ںوز. ق.--.ن·ﮨ »´ ں. ﮨ'÷.ں. ۔ سا ﮦ. م تر·-. -=ارز ہ´ ﮯﮨ .´-- ں. -·-- روا. پ.مراواد.ں
·´ --=- تار ند گ·'روا ·ﮨ ہ·'-ا --د·-ز.ں۔

In the present circumstances, most important requirement is to boost production and decrease prices.
Common man is too worried, economically. His earning is too short of his daily expenses. On the basis of
low income, the prices of commodities of daily use must be low. It is only possible if agricultural and
industrial production may be boosted and people work day and night.

9. Paragraph I
ِ ما··ا -'- نو·-- ﮯ- ں·ﮩ-ا ۔ﮟ-ﮨ -·´ د-- ´ ں·'·' ہ- ﮟ-- .ﮍ+' ·ﮨ ´ .´-- ۔ﮟ-ﮨ »´=--- روا ط·--- ح·= ´ د`·· ن'--´'- جا··ا
'´ =-- و »=- روا ---·- ´ نا ۔ﮯﮨ'-'= '+´-د ﮯ- ﮦ''- ´ ت·= ﮟ-- '--د .ر·- ·´ ج··ا .ر'-ﮨ ۔ﮟ-ﮨ ﮯ-´ .-´- .-- -´ ﮯ´ ﮦ-=--
ٰ'=ا --'ﮩ- ر'-·- ﮯﮨ۔ =ا ل·´'´.مڈ. ند.= ا. ·-ﮩ-.ب·- ن.م ں·ﮨ'' ت.ا ﮯ- ں.ﮯﮨ =۔

Pak-Forces are as strong and stout as steel. They help the people in every hour of need. They have
accomplished several assignments of UNO outside the country. Our forces are viewed with dignity round the
world. The status of their training and discipline is of very high caliber. Kakool Academy is one of the best
training centres in the world.

10. Paragraph J
م ں·'·´- ےر'-ﮨ. ن'--= ·´ ں·÷- ں. د ا·-. ت'=. ﮯﮨ۔ = ﮯ÷- ·ﮨ ·ﮨ'=- ---- '´ سا. '-·ﮨ '-·´ ح`-ا ﮯﮨ۔
ل.د .´.گ '+´. = ا·- ہ´ ﮯﮨ ا. د'--=ا د·= ﮯ÷- ﮯ- ہ=و. د ·+´.ﮦ ﮯ-.ں۔ م نا.ور ہ-'=ر'= ں. پ ﮦ.·ﮨ اد
ﮯﮨ '-'=۔ غ'- ﮦو.ور ہ-ا.-=ا ﮦ.ل ·´ ر ا.ﮦ ﮯ-.ں۔ م ں·-را·- ﮦا·=-ا·= ﮦو.ﮦ ﮯ-+='ا ں.ں۔ ﮯ- ﮦ--'-ا ﮦو
د ·´ عو·- '-·´ ت·--.ﮦ ﮯ-.ں۔

In our schools students are punished physically. Apparently it aims at betterment of students. But it is
observed that the children lose confidence because of punishment. They become offensive. They take up
revolting attitude. They get entangled in mischieves for nothing. They start hating the teachers.

11. Paragraph K
د.م ﮯ-+´.م ·- ں.ا ں.م =. ل ں·ﮨ ر'-. ·= .´.م -·.م ں. = ن'--´'- ر--ا ےر. ر·-. ر'-. -+÷ خ. ئ·ﮨ.
ﮯﮨ۔ م. ªﭨ ں·ﮨ اﮍ+´ ج' ں'ﮩ= ں.سا =. ہ'= 23 چر'- 1940 ا '--ﮨر ن'-'-- ﮯ- -ﮩ- ·´ ء .ف اﮍ- =.ﮯ-·´ ہ'-
ل ﮯ´. ﮯ-·ﮨ ·-= ے ۔م`= ﮦو. =. گ--ز. --- ﮯ- ·'-ا ·´ -'- ﮯ--ا روا ﮯ+- ﮯ´÷ '. ﮯ- ='-- ﮯ´ ز
ﮯ+- ﮯ-ﮨ'÷ '-ا·´ داز' ۔ 1947 ز ﮯ- -- ·- ﮯ--- ن'--´'- ·´ ء.ش·= ﮦدا. ئ·ﮨ ﮯ+=-۔. م -·و سا ہ÷·'ا.ر.
ح.ث.مز ت.ا ﮯ´ ن. ز ﮯ- ےﮍ´ﭨ =. ª- ہ- ﮦدا. ل.ª- ·+- .´. م. '+- ش·= -ﮩ- ں۔

Apparently I am a minaret but in fact, whole history of Pakistan is veiled in me. Many Muslim leaders
gathered to take a great decision on March 23, 1940, where I am situated today. They were fed up of slavery
and wanted to set their country free from the grip of the English. When Pakistan came into being in 1947, I
was pleased at the most. Although at that time my value was not more than a piece of land but still I was
much pleased.

12. paragraph L
ٹ.ل. و.·-- ف·- ہ- نژ. .·- ہ´'- ح. ª- '´ م. ا.رذ »ﮨا =.ﮯﮨ ہ=۔ = سا. د'·ا. ئ·´ ﮯ- ت. ہ- ر'´-ا.ں
'-´-·´. ۔م·· ﮦ. »·-.ق·- و ر. م.ﮯﮨ '-·´ ادا لور »ﮨا ں. ۔م ما·= ﮦ.ز -ﮩ- ں.ﮯﮨ ل·--- ﮦدا۔ ن'--´'-
ٹ.ل. و. پ ما·'و·- ﮯ+÷ا ﮯ+÷ا -ﮩ- ﮯ- نژ.ﮦ ﮯ-´ ش.ں۔ .´ ﮯ-ارڈ ﮯ´ سا. ٹ ے·-ود. و. ں·-ارڈ ﮯ´
ہ- »´ ﮯ-.ں ۔ ·- ·´ ں·-''و·- ﮯ´ سا ل'= ·ﮩ-.= ﮯ-'-- ·-ﮩ- د. ﮯﮨ ترو·-۔

Television is not only a means of entertainment but also a means of education. None can deny its benefits. It
plays a significant role in national progress and development. It is very popular in public. Pakistan Television
has presented very good programs. The standard of its plays is not less than that of any other's. Anyhow its
programs need to be made even better.

13. Paragraph M
ﮯ-÷·- ارذ ! = ش·= پ' . ﮦ ﮯ-´- ﮦر ﮯ-. خ -= ؟ں ع ·- ں'ﮨ ﮯ´ پ' دو. '-- .-= '´ د. ر·-=- پ' ·'- ·ﮨ 'ﮨر '= ا
ئ'= ر·' ﮯ- ﮯ´-÷ ﮯ- س'- ﮯ´ ں·'·' .- ﮯ- روا.ں۔ ا ہ´ ﮯ-ﮨ'÷ ·´ پ'. .- ار'ﮩ- '´ ں·'·' ﮯ-.ں۔ نا
.-= ª-'- ﮯ´. ش·=.ﭧ-'- ںا. ﮯ' ں ' = پ' . ش·=.م ںو.''·ﮨ ہ·'-ا ں۔

Just think! How can you remain happy when eid festival is being celebrated in your house but you skip away
by the helpless? You should be a shield for such people. The more pleasures you share with them, your
pleasures will be multiplied.

14. Paragraph N
ضر.-'ا .-- ہ-'='- ﮦ.= .--'ا ن. ﮍ-. ب.ٹ. ª-۔. »-'ا پ -ﮩ- ﮯ-ا ش. '+- '-·´را۔ = .--'ا ﮦو. ر'-.
م د`وا. ز ﮯ- -- ں. ﮦذ ﮦدا. ن ' ª- ·-` روا --- .-= ۔. ضر. ئ'+- -- ﮯ´ ﮦ. .ﮨذ --´ ' ےرﮉ-'+´ روا ﮯ-´-
ﮯ+-۔ ﮦ '-- روا ﮯ-''+- ﮯ- ﮯ-+´' ﮯ-هﮍ- ﮦو. ج ﮯ- ں·'·-- ہ-ا. ﮯ+- ﮯ-ا·÷۔ ضر ·'-.ج ب·= ﮦ. '''
-+´' ·´. -هﮍ-. ª-. ·- م'´ ·ﮨ روا ·- +´-د -·= ہ- ﮟ-- ·=- ِ ر·- --ا ﮯ- .--'ا ۔+- -·´ ﮯ- ق·- روا ہ=
-'-. م ت`-'·-.ª- ں. ل ےر·-- ﮯ- سا. ''' ﮯ-۔

Razia Sultana was the eldest daughter of Shamas-ud-Din Altamash. Altamash loved her very much. She was
the most intelligent, wise, and able among all the children of Altamash. All Razia's brothers were dull, useless
and playful. They used to skip away from studies and war-fare activities. But Razia used to pay full attention
to studies and used to do everything with attention and zeal. When Altamash noticed this quality in her
beloved, he started to take her councils in state affairs as well.

15. Paragraph O
م··. .=·'ا -= و·= `ﮩ- '´ راد·´. ﮯﮨ۔ .=·'ا -=. ا.ا =. تاذ ·= ﮯﮨ ہ--= '-. م·· ·´ تاد'--. ·- تاد'--
د ·´ ن'-··.ﮯﮨ '- ۔ ·ﮩ- ﮯ´ -'- داز'. = ·ﮨ ·´ ا ہ´ ﮯ-ﮨ'÷ '-÷·- ﮯ'ﮩ- ﮯ- ما. ل ﮯ´ م·· '-·´ '-.ے
ﮯﮨ --- ﮦ--'· .ہ- ا.ں۔ م··. گ--ز و·= »ﮨا ا·-ود '´ راد·´. م ﮯ-·- ·ﮨ ﮯ´.د ں.را---ا. '--·- ف'--ا روا

The first part of national character is patriotism. Patriotism is such a passion, which sacrifices personal
interests. Patriotism is such a passion that sacrifices personal interests to national interests. As a citizen of an
independent country, one should think before doing everything whether it is beneficent for nation or not. The
second important phase of national character is to be honest and just in every aspect of national life.

16. Paragraph P
ا.مد' =. =. ª- ﮯ-''۔. م هدود ﮯ´ سا ﮦو.ن'- ں. '+- '-`-۔ س ﮯ-''. = ب`. م دز. ' بوڈ ·´' ں۔. '´ سا
'ﮩ- -''-.--= ت.ب ·´ ·ﮨ ن.گ ªﭨ.ا۔ ب ﮯ´ سا. ·´ ہ- »= پ'- ےا'ﮩ´ ﮯ- ﮯﭨ۔ ن'- ﮦو. م هدود »ﮨ ·=.ﮯ-`- ں
س ·´ ·ﮨ ·-= ﮯ+-.گ .- ب`. د·´ ق·= ·´ ﮯ- '' ﮯ- سا روا ا.ا۔

A man had a cow. He used to mix water in its milk. The cow drowned in a flood. Its master sat in great
gloom. His son said, "O! Father, do not be sad. The water, we used to mix in the milk, gathered to cause a
flood and it drowned the cow."

17. Paragraph Q
.'' روا ﮯ--= .= ﮯ-' ﮯ´ م'-· ﮯ´ ن'--´'- ﮯ- ء'-'= ہ´ ﮯ+- ﮯ-ﮨ'÷ پ' ۔'+- ·=· ·- ن·-ا·=·- »'= ِ -''= ﮯ´ م·· --ا ·´ »==ا ِ --'·
= م'´ ﮯ-.سا '+- ا. = سا ª-'- ﮯ´ .'' روا ﮯ--=. »·-. ق·- و ر. ·´ .-·´ ﮯ-' ﮯ´ م'´=--ا روا.ں۔
چر'- 1948 م ء . ا ﮯ´ ء'-'= ں. == =. '-·· ﮯ- ں·ﮩ-ا ﮯ-·ﮨ ﮯ-·´ ب'== ﮯ- ع'--=ا م. ا " ﮯ--ا ·´ ن'--´'-
»ﮨ ·= ﮯﮨ ·=· ·- ء'-'=. .'ا ہ-. م ں·--. = م·· روا ﮯﮨر ں. ے·-ا ےر·- ·- ت'···-۔ ار'-ﮨ ء'-'=
ﮦ .-----.ں۔ ﮦ ر'-·- ﮯ´ .----- ﮦو.ں۔ -ﮨ'÷ =-- و »=- م·· ﮯ- نا. چ ﮯ´ -·و ﮦو ہ´'- ﮯﮨ.'´ ں·=-'
.-'--ة -- ·´.ں"۔

Quaid-i-Azam was proud of young students of his nation. He wanted that the students should struggle with
the same enthusiasm and devotion build, develop and strengthen it as they had done for the creation of
Pakistan. In March 1948, addressing a great gathering of students, he said, "Pakistan is proud on its students
who have always been in front lines and come upto the expectations of the nation. Students are our future.
They are the builders of the coming times. Nation demands from them to be disciplined so that they may be
able to face the challenges of the era.

18. Paragraph R
´ ﮯ-'÷-ﮩ- ن'--- ﮟ--ﮨ تار ند .--ُ د ےر'-ﮨ ۔ﮯﮨ ا·ﮨ ا·+' ﮟ-- .-'-- -ا··`ا .-- روا ´'- ﮯ- -ﮩ- ن'--´'- -·و سا ﮟ-- ·´÷ ﮯ
--ا ﮟ--ﮨ ﮯ-'ﮯ´ ﮯ-'´- ﮯ- ت`´-- م'-- نا ۔ﮯﮨ =`'÷ روا ·='- -ﮩ- .--ُ د '´ ہ--`-ا -'- ۔ﮟ-ﮨ ﮦ''' ﮯ- سا -·=- -- »ﮨ ۔ﮟ-ﮨ
د روا .'=-. = ·-ﮨر را---ا. ﮯﮨ ترو·-۔ »ﮨ ·=.ﮦ'-- ں. ذا روا. ﮯ´- ل'´- ﮯ- »''= ﮯ´ ت۔ »ﮨ.ﮯ--ا ں
ض'- را--'-. س ·-- ﮯ-.= ﮯ-+´. ﮯﮨ ترو·-۔

Pakistan has been surrounded by many national and international problems nowadays. Our enemies are bent
on hitting us a violent blow. All of us are well aware of it. The enemy of Islamic Nation is very cunning and
deceitful. To come out of these problems we need a sincere and honest leader, who could take us out of this
state of calamity and torture. We need to take a lesson from our glorious past.

19. Paragraph S
ب'=--. ا.-· =.ﮯﮨ ن'-ز م۔ ل..´ .ﮦ ب'=-- ف·- ﮦ. م.ہ- ں.ل·- ں. ت'=۔. ں·-·- ے·-ود ﮯ´ ن'--´'-
م.ں -'=-- ۔ں·ﮨ ﮯ-ﮨر ہ- ﮯ'او ﮯ-'·- -'=-- ں'ﮩ= ·ﮨ '--ا -'- -·´ ﮨ --'- '´ '--ُ د ﮦو`= ﮯ´ سا ۔ﮯﮨ -'= +=-- روا '·- +-
ر·ﮩ-- ﮟ-- '--ُ د .ر'- ں'--'ﮩ´ =·' -'=-- ۔ﮟ-ﮨ -'= +´' ﮟ-- =='ا »-ر ﮨ --ا ﮟ--'-ز ں·-ود ۔ﮯﮨ -'= -'- ﮯ- ودرا -- -= -ﮩ-

Punjabi is an ancient language, but it is not spoken in Punjab only. It is spoken and understood in other
provinces of Pakistan also. Besides this there may hardly be a country in the world where Punjabi speaking
people don't live. Punjabi is very similar to Urdu. Both the languages are written in the same script. Folk-tales
of Punjabi are well-known all over the world.

20. Paragraph T
و -'- -·- ﮯ´ ں·''- ª÷´ ﮯ- ں·ﮩ-= ﮯﮨ '-·´ »ﮨا·· -'--ﮨر ·´ دا··ا نا ﮦو ۔ﮯﮨ '-·ﮨ .´ُ ر ---- روا »ﮨا ﮯ- -- '´ ے·-'·- د'--ا --ا
.-ا·· ﮯ´ م·· ا-ٰﮩ' ۔ﮯﮨ '-·´ ط·--- ﮯ-'-´ -·و ﮯ'او ﮯ-' ·´ ںود'--- ´ ے·-'·- ﮦو ﮯ- ح·= سا ۔ ﮟ-ﮨ ﮯ-·ﮨﮯ-''+---
۔ﮟ--'= ﮯ-´ '-ﮩ- ت`'= ·-ﮩ- ﮯ-ا روا ﮯ-'= '-´ ﮯ- ط'--=ا -'ﮩ--ا ر·-- '´ د'--ا ہ´ ﮯﮨ ´ ·-َ ا سا ترو·-

A teacher is the most important and useful member of the society. He guides those who have to take the
responsibilities of the nation and country after few years. In this way, he paves deep the basis of the society
for the time to come. So the need of time is that the appointment of teacher must be made with utmost care
and he should be provided with better conditions.

21. Paragraph U
.=--=- »==ا --'·. ق'´ ن'--´'- ہ-'-ر'´ اﮍ- ﮯ- -- '´ ح'-=.ﮯﮨ ما۔--ا. .=-. ´ ﮯ´ ت. ·'ﮩ-
ﮯ+-۔--ا -ﮩ=و-= .-'--. گ--ز. '+- '-'='´۔ م'´ ·´ --=- -+--ا ﮦو.با. ز'´. ﮯ+- ﮯ-+=-- ہ-۔= م'´.
ز.تدا. =. جوب ﮦو ﮯ- ﮦ.ﮯ' ﮍ- ر'-۔ ª-ا ﮯ- ںو·ﭩ´اڈ.د ﮦر·--'´ مار' ں.ا۔ ل.ےر·-- ﮯ´-ا ﮯ- ں·+-ا .´
د ·´ ر'´-ا ﮯ- ﮯ-·´ .-=·-.ا۔ = م'´·=`ا'-. .ﮦ. ز.تدا. --ا. .- ---'´ ت·-۔.

The creation of Pakistan is the greatest achievement of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. His personality
had many facets. Continuous struggle was his specialty. He believed that unflagging hard-work is a key to
success. He fell ill due to excessive work. Doctors advised him to take rest. But he refused to act upon their
advice. At last this over-work caused his death.

22. Paragraph V
'-·´ ··- »ﮨ ·'ا -- ﮯ- ۔ ﮯﮨ ت·· »-== --ا »'= ہ´ 'ﮩ´ ﮯ- ں·ﮩ-ا ۔-`د ف·= ´ »'= ِ ل·-= ہ=·- ´ ء'-'= ہ---ﮨ ﮯ- »==ا ِ --'·
ﮦ ﮯ-ﮨ'÷. »ﮨ ·- ں..·- ں.د ہ=·- .-´- ·- م. گ·ﮨ '- ۔ . ١٣ ر·-=. م`-ا ·´.ﮯ- ء'-'= ﮯ´ رو'-- -''´ ﮦ
ئ·ﮨ ﮯ-·´ ب'=='-·· ﮯ- پ' ے. ،ا " ا ہ-''=- '´ ن'--´'- ﮯ- »ﮨ . مز =. = ﮯ-·´ .-'= اﮍ´ﭨ '´ ن.ﮯ-'
ہ-.= ں. ا »ﮨ ہ´'- '+- ا.ا =.س. -- '-ز' ·´ ں·'·-ا ﮯ´ م`-ا »ﮨ ں'ﮩ= ﮯ+- ﮯ-ﮨ'÷ ﮦ'' ہ-·=-.ں"۔

Quaid-i-Azam always made the students attentive about knowledge. He said that knowledge is a great power.
Undoubtedly if we want to make progress, we have to pay full attention on education. While addressing the
students of Islamiya College Peshawer, he said," We had not demanded Pakistan in order to get a piece of
land instead we wanted such a laboratory where we can test the principles of Islam.

23. Paragraph W
س ·-. ر·-= ·´ دﷺ '+- ·-= ہ-'ﮩ'او ﮯ-۔ م ں·-د .=. = رو. ب'-´ " --=- ف' --` ﷺ" ﮯﮨر ª´' با·= '´
ا ·´ -'-'ا .-=- ﮯ- ں·+-ا ،ﮯ+-. ،'+´' == = " م ں·-د نا . ﮯﮨ شز·- ·´ لد ےر۔ لو.م م.ب'-´ ·= ﮯ- رو
پ'ﷺ ح ﮯ´ ª´' ·'·-- ﮯ´ ت`ا. ·´ سا ﮯﮨ م.د ں.ں·ﮨ 'ﮨر ª´۔ د `= ·´ لد ﮯ- سا.ا۔ = سا. ف'--ا'-.ںا
د ت'--·- روا. گ ·ﮨ ب'-´ لد ·´ ª´.= ﮦدارا »--- روا ا.ت·-=-' ہ´ اﷺ =. س.·- تر د ª´' ب'-´.
ﮯ-'= ۔ پور م'-- ·'ا.م روا چ·= ﮦ.·· ں.ª- ر. ﮯ- `- ·- ںؤ '= ·ﮨ ·-` ﮯ´ ﮯ-'-'- =۔ ق.--ا م.·- ں .ﮦ
·· سا ہ´'' ﮯ- '= ار'´- ·´ ہﮩ´.--- ر. --=- '·' ﮯ--ا ·= و·´ ·-'= ·´ --=ا نﷺ ···- م'- ﮯ´.·ﮨ ر
گ ·- ·´.ا"۔

Sir Syed had an infinite adoration for the Holy Prophet(SAW). While he was writing answer to the "Life of
Muhammad(SAW)," he wrote a letter to Muhsin-ul-Mulk, "During these days my heart is dazzling, I am
reading the book which William Maur has written about Holy Prophet's life. It has burnt my heart. My heart
faded away to see its violations and partialities and I made a firm decision to write biography of the Holy
Prophet(SAW). It does not metter wheather the whole money may spend and I may become a bagger as on
the Day Of Judgement, it will be called that present that humble bagger who died in the name of his Master

24. Paragraph X
ﮟ-- .-·--'´ ·-- ل·' ﮯ- ·ﮨ·= '= --=- »ﮨ'-۔''·ﮨ ﮨ ت'-د'-'·- ہ=رد ہ´'- ﮟِ ﮩ- .داز' .-´- -'=- '´ جار·- ہ´ '+- '-ﮩ´ '´ = ه--''
= ن`=ا. ا " م .د'-' ·- ہ=رد ں. ہ- .-'· '´ تا.ں۔ م.داز' ·- ں. ں·ﮨ '´÷ ےد را·· -'-- '--ا ·´ .-'´۔م.-·و سا ں
م -'- م`= ﮯ--ا --..-او ں ﮟ-- ن'--و--ﮨ ﮟ--ﮨ ﮯ- »- ·'ا ںؤ'= ہ- ·´ ﮯ' ·´ .داز' ِ حور ﮦا·-ﮨ ﮯ--ا ہ´ -- -= '' ںؤ'= ﮟ-ﮩ-
داز'. د ہ-. ﮯ+=- ·´ »- ·- . = ·-· ں'ﮨ. د ہ'=.ن. گ ·ﮨ . " ۔

Gandhi Ge's point was that freedom does not mean complete freedom but it will be of colonial status.
However Muhammad Ali Johar announced "I don't believe in colonial status. I have declared that my school
of thought is complete freedom. I will not go to my slave land until I shall not be able to take the soul of
freedom with me. If you don't give us freedom in India, you will have to give me the place for grave."

25. Paragraph Y
·-=ا ِ ل`ﮨ۔'+- ª-'ﮨ -ﮩ- '´ را----ز روا ں'= '= ·-= '-`·- ﮟ-- ﮯ-`÷ --·=- ﮟ-- --'-= ´ ´·- ﮟ-- ں·'-= ´ ن'-'- روا .'-ا·=
=. ·=-.= =. = ﮯ-·´ ·-= ﮦ--÷ ﮯ-'. م »ﮩ-. ا ﮯ´-ا روا ر'-=ا ں.ڈ.نود ·- پ ںو.پ ش.ﮯ+- ش۔ ﮯ- ں·ﮩ-ا
١٩١٢ ﮯ- --·´= ﮟ-- ا·- ´ سا ۔'-'÷-ﮩ- ہ--ﮨ ہ- '´ --ﮨ ِ ن'-'-'-- ·´ ´·- »==ا ·-زو ·´ '= ہ--=-=-· ﮟ-- ء١٩١٣ را----ز ﮟ-- ء
۔'-' '-' ·´ =-- --'-- ِ رز ہ--ور را·ﮨ ود '´ .-·-١٩١¯ م ء.پور را·ﮨ سد ں.·- روا --'-- رز ﮦ.·ﮨ =-- ں·-ود س

Molana Zafar Ali Khan and Zameendar played a vital role in launching a movement in favour of Turky
during the Wars of Tripoli and Balqan. The paper and its editor both were in front line in the movement
raising funds for the movement of Hilal-i-Ahmer. In 1913, he went to Constantinople to present contribution
of the Muslims of India to Turkish Prime Minister. On this, the government held the security of Zameendar as
a punishment for it in 1913. In 1914, ten thousand security and press both were seized.

26. Paragraph Z
س.م --ا.= ح'-= ·ﭩ-- ں. --÷'د. ئ·ﮨ عو·- -·و سا. م ن'--''-ا ﮦو -=.ﮯ+- ں۔ س·'-'´ ر·ﮩ-- ں'ﮨو.
ئ'+- اداد '--ﮨر. ج ور·-. اﮍ' ب'=--ا '´ ما··'اراد ﮯ-۔ = نا ح'-=. ﮯ-·ﮨ --'` .´ر'´ .´ ·`'-- ﮯ-'۔
.-او ن'--و--ﮨ. م س·'-'´ ح'-= ·-.ﮯ-·ﮨ .-'- ں۔ س »'--. '-- '´ --ا.ا·'ﮩ- ں 'د·-=' .·= ´ »==ا ِ --'·
۔ﮯ-' -+= ف·= ´ س·'-'´ ·- ر·= .·=· ﮦو ا-ٰﮩ' ۔'+- مد'--- ﮯ- -·--=١٩٠°م ء.ئ'+- اداد ں. جور·-. ﮯ´ س·'-'´
ئا·- ﮯ´ نا پ' روا ﮯ+- ر--.و.س ٹ.·´.·ﭨ۔. م .'-'´. ج ·´ ح'-= ·ﭩ-- ں. = ﮯ'+´·' ﮯ´. لا--=ا
ª- ---- -ﮩ- شور راداور روا ----. وا ،ﮯ-·´ 'ﮩ´ ·`´ا ح'-= ·ﭩ-- ۔ﮯ-' ' ·`اِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ·-ز ﮯ´ نا ﮦو ر"م. '´ ں·-'-'-- ں
ں·ﮨ '-ﮨ'÷ '--- ﮯ'+´·'"۔

Mr. Jinnah started taking interest in politics when he was in England. There famous leader of Congress Dada
Bhai Noro Ge contested the election of the House Of Commons. Jinnah proved to be an impressive worker
for him. On return to India Jinnah joined Congress. 'Stagnation' which was a salient feature of Muslim
politics, was against to the fighting spirit of the Quaid-i-Azam. So, he naturally leaned towards Congress. In
1906, Dada Bhai Noro Ge was the President of Congress and Quaid became his private secretary. In
Congress, Mr. Jinnah liked G. K. Goklay's moderation and impartiality, very much and got influence from
him. Mr. Jinnah used to say, "I want to become the Goklay of Muslims."
1. Words Starting With A
Preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show relation of the person or thing to something

Three kinds of prepositions follow the words:

Simple Prepositions: At, by, to, in, from, of, on, up, off, with, till, through, for, out.

Compound Prepositions:About, above, across, along, amidst, among, amogst, around, before, behind, below,
beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, without, within.

Phrase Prepositions (Groups of words used with the force of a single preposition.): According to, along with,
away from, agreeably to, because of, by dint of, by means of, by virtue of, by way of, by reason of, conformably
to, for the sake of, in accordance with, in case of, in addition to, in behalf of, on behalf of, in favour of, in lieu
of, in place of, in order to, instead of, inspite of, in reference to, in compliance with, in course of, in
consequence of, in the event of, owing to, on account of, with reference to, with regard to, with a view to, with
an eye to.

Following prepositions come after some of the words that start with A.
Further More
1. Set A
Accustomed to:د'=. '-·ﮨ
I am accustomed to recite the Holy Quran daily.
The whole lot is accustomed to violate the rules.

Aquit of:·-. '-·ﮨ / '-·´
The accused was aquitted of all the allegations.
He was acquitted of the corruption cases.

Act on/upon: '-·´ .-=
You did not act upon my advice.
She acted upon my instructions and got victory.

Acquanted with: '-·ﮨ -·او
The people were not acquanted with Railway Rules.
I was not acquainted with her in-laws.

Adapt to: '-''هڈ
I am not adapted to local customs.
Afridi has adapted to stay on the pitch.

Addicted to: د'=. '-·ﮨ
Akram is addicted to sleeping pills.
Akbar was addicted to reply every SMS.

Absorb in: ·+´.ا·ﮨا-ق··---
The lioness was absorbed in enjoying her prey.
The child was absorbed in his lesson.

Abstain from:ه·-.'-·´ ز
Abstain from bad company.
One should abstain from stealing.

Accede to:.-ل.'-·´ م
Please accede to my apology.
I acceded to your wise decision.

2. Set B
Adequate to:ف'´. '-·ﮨ
I am leaving due to inadequate salary.
Adequate stock has been maintained to meet Eid holidays.

Adjacent to:·='-
Our office is adjacent to that of Director's.
The cash counter is adjacent to my table.

Adhere to: '-ﮨر ﮯﭩ-÷
We should adhere to the rules of traffic.
We should adhere to the Islamic Character.

Adorn with:'-'=-
The bride's bed was adorned with flowers.
A harsh word adorned with smiles breeds respect.

Adverse to: '-·ﮨ -''=-
His intentions were adverse to his words.
The decision came adverse to his expectations.

Affection for: '-·´ --=-
The teacher showed a lot of affection for her student.
I have a great affection for my cat.

Affectionate to:ﮯ- پ.'-·´ را
The lioness was affectionate to her cubs.
The teacher is affectionate to you.

Acceptable to:ل·-· .-'·
Your arguments were acceptable to the court.
No conditions are acceptable to us.

Accompanied by:ﮦا·-ﮨ
The Governor entered the hall accompanied by the Chief Justice.
I was accompanied by the Chief Guest.

Accord with:'-+´ر ---'=-
The answer does not accord with the question.
Your actions do not accord with your family character.

According to: '-·´ ·-'=-
According to my view point, he is not accused.
The trains are not running according to the scheduled time.

3. Set C
Afflicted with: .´- ﮯ-.م ف.'-·ﮨ ں
He is afflicted with injection.
Akbar was afflicted with joblessness.

Afraid of:ﮦدز ف·=
Iram is afraid of a cockroach.
I am not afraid of the contests.

Agree to: --- '-ر ·-
IMF agreed to help Pakistan.
I agreed to start a search for old book houses.

Agree with:.´. ضار ﮯ- .=-.
She seems to agree with my plans.
It was unusual for her to agree with my proposal.

Allied to: ·'·-- ﮯ-
Your question is not allied to the problem.
State Bank's policy is not allied to Presidential Orders.

Alive to: '···- :···ﮨ ﮦ'···- '
Iram was alive to the problems after marriage.
I am alive to your condition.

Allude to: د ہ···-ا:=s '··-
The judge was alluded to the actual problem.
The police officer alluded us to the rule of traffic.

4. Set D
Alternative of:'-·ﮨ لد'---
Except education there is no alternative of our problems.
Do not seek the alternative of studies.

Amateur at: '-·ﮨ ہ-=- '-
He is amateur at comprehension.
She is still amateur at spoken English.

Amazed at:ح.'-'= ﮦر نار
I was amazed at her success.
The world is amazed at our atomic power.

Ambitious for:=. '-+´ر .ﮨ ا·=
She is still ambitious for M. Phil.
He is ambitious for immigration.

Angry at:.´. ضار'- ·- ت'-
My father is angry at my failure.
The referee was angry at his foul.

Answer for:ل ﮯ´.'-·ﮨ ﮦد با·= ے
We shall answer for our actions on the Day of Judgement.
He was answering for his duties.

Answer to: ﮦد با·= ·´
Please answer to my question.
I can answer to the principal.

5. Set E
Angry with:.´. ضار'- ﮯ- .=-
My father is angry with me for poor result.
Your mother is angry with you for disobedience.

Anxious for:--- ·´·
I am anxious for your arrival.
The passengers are anxious for the departure.

Annoyed at: ن ·-ضارا
The director was annoyed at late delivery of the letter.
The president was annoyed at the Supreme Court's decision.

Annoyed with:ضار'- ª-'- ﮯ´
I am annoyed with you.
She got annoyed with the mechanic.

Apologize to: تر-·- ﮯ-
She apologized to her professor.
I apologized to my mother.

Apologized for:ل ﮯ´. تر-·- ے
The servant apologized for his mistake.
The manager apologized for his late arrival.

Appeal to: '=-'ا ﮯ-
I shall not appeal to this judge.
Pakistan will not appeal to IMF.

6. Set F
Apply for:=.د --ا·=رد ﮯ-'.'-
I applied for the position of station officer.
Akram applied for the registration number.

Apply to:د --ا·=رد ·´.'-
He will apply to the director.
She will apply to the manager.

Approved of: '-·´ ر·=--
The director approved of our proposal.
The judge approved of the factual events.

Argue with: '-·´ -=-
We need not to argue with our parents.
To argue with him is not so easy.

Allot to: '-·´ م'- ﮯ´
This land was first allotted to an industrial estate.
These rooms were allotted to the visitors.

Add to:م. '-·´ ہ·'-ا ں
Your words added to my injuries.
New tax added more loss to my business.

Amend for:ف`-. '-·´
I shall amend for my mistakes.
The law has been amended by the parliment.

7. Set G
Arrive at: ٹ·+÷. '-÷-ﮩ- ·- ہ'=
The court could not arrive at any decision today.
The plane arrived at the airport in time.

Ashamed of:'-·ﮨ ﮦ---·- ·-
She was ashamed of her behaviour.
You should be ashamed of stealing.

Ask for: '-·´ ہ-''=-
I asked for a glass of water.
She asked for a tissue paper.

Ask after: '- ·´ م·'·-
I asked after her mother's health.
The doctor asked after the patient.

Assure of: .ق.'- `د ن
I assured him of my favour in this regards.
The pilot assured us of safe landing.

Attend to: د ہ=·-.'-
Please attend to your assignment.
Attend to the customer first.

Attach to: '- ·´ -'--- ﮯ-
My house is attached to his office.
The window is attached to my bed.

8. Set H
Avail of: '·····- '·····+ﭨا ﮦ-····-'-
I shall avail of this opportunity.
You will avail of the chance of watching a match.

Avenge on: ل -····- ل ﮦs '··-
My intention is not to avenge on the accused.
Zia did not avenge on his friend.

Aware of: '···- :···ﮨ :-···= '···-
The office is aware of my proposal.
Be aware of neighbours before buying a house.

Applicable to: '···- :···ﮨ :···- V :···-
Labour Laws are applicable to pharmaceutical companies also.
These rules are applicable to all the students.

Appetite for: '····-+-ر cﮨا:····=
I have no appetite for wandering about.
He has no appetite for further studies.
Back out: '··- '··= :··+- ﮯ··~ ے-··-و
You can not back out as the agreement has been signed now.
To back out, is against Islam.

Bare of: ہ····-ﮨ :····- s ل'= اs '···-:ﮨ
This house is bare of trees.
The ceiling fan was bare of canopy.

Bad / Good at: J······-'- s J····-'- '····- ا
She was good at painting but bad at shooting.
The teacher was good at teaching but bad at cooking.

Based on: .-- ·-. '-·ﮨ
The complaint was based on facts.
The news is not based on facts.

Become of:'-·ﮨ ··او
What will become of the retired judges?
What will become of the surplus food?

Bear up: '····-+-ر ہ-····~ :····=
Don’t worry and bear up all the hardships with patience.
Bear up this heat a while we will soon get shower.

Bear upon: '- ·´ ·`'--·´
His arguments did not bear upon the judge.
Ahmad wished to bear upon the Principal but could not.

Bear away:ج م'·-ا.'--
Who will bear away the world cup this year?
Pakistan once bore away the world cup.

Bear out: ---.'-·´ ق
The result bore out his claims.
The last kick bore out the victory.

Bear with:'-·´ --اد·-
Being strict she could not bore with her colleagues.
Despite intolerance she bore with her colleague.

2. Set B
Beware of: '-ﮨر راد·-=
Beware of pickpockets in the bus.
We should beware of selfish rulers.

Blame for: '-·ﮩ+ﭨراو ر·-·
He was blamed for the theft.
Who should be blamed for the loss?

Beg for: '-·´ '=-'ا
The accused begged for mercy.
The student begged for apology.

Believe in:.ق.'-·´ ن
I believe in honesty.
My mother believes in truth only.

Belong to: '-+´ر ·'·-
This room belongs to my nephew.
That car belongs to my neighbour.

Benefit from: '-'+ﭨا ﮦ--'· ﮯ-
You should benefit from your uncle's presence.
We should benefit from rain water.

Bent on:.-ا. '-·ﮨ ·-- ·- ت'-
He was bent on selling this house.
She was bent on taking the revenge.

Beset with '-·ﮨ ا·ﮨ ا·+'
Akbar was beset with shortage of rice.
The ant was not beset with shortage of food.

Bestow on: '-·´ '==- '- ·´ زا···-
The director bestowed on me a new assignment.
The manager bestowed on me new responsibilities.

3. Set C
Bound for:.´. '- ·´ ·-- --'=
Akbar was bound for the function hall.
She was bound for the zoo.

Blind of:--ا ﮯ-'ه . ·-= ﮯ- ا
The judge was blind of the actual facts despite police report.
He was blind of the next question.

Blind to: '-·ﮨ .·'=
The Government was kept blind to the epidemic.
The chief accountant kept the director blind to the loss.

Born to:پ.'-·ﮨ اد
The child was born to the elderly woman.
He was born to a native woman.

Born of:.´. .´ ﮯ- ہ=و. چ.'-·ﮨ ··او '´ ز
This question was born of the last argument.
Present rains are born of the seasonal winds.

Boast of:ش.خ. '-ر'+'-
She always boasts of her fair complexion.
The hare boasted of his speed.

Bother about:=. '- ·´ ·´· - .´- ﮯ-' ﮯ´.'-'+ﭨا ف
Please do not bother about my health.
I always bother Iqbal's thoughts while learning Political Science.

4. Set D
Break with: '····-:- اﮍ····×+=
I gave him no chance to break with me.
Instead you break with others, better reconcile.

Break into:~······~د:-زs ر-···-ا '--+'
The burglars broke into the house and snatched gold necklace.
The police broke into the house and caught the accused.

Break away: -'ا ﮯ- .'-·ﮨ رودا
She wanted to break away the bridge.
Akbar wanted to break away the contract.

Break down: با·= . '-'= ·ﮨ م'´'- ا
Akbar's car broke down by the coast.
The jack broke down when the driver was under the car.

Break in:--د·-ز. '-' .+'
The burglars broke in through the rear wall.
The thief broke in through the broken window pane.

Break off: '-·´ »-= ·'·- '´ --=-
Akbar and Rashid broke off suddenly.
My friend broke off within seconds.

Break out:. ª- م-´.'-'= ل
The epidemic broke out in the city.
Why the chemical was not spread before the epidemic break out?

Break through:.'-'= .-+- م-´
The accused succeeded to break through the police.
It is not easy to break through many obstacles.

5. Set E
Bring about:c····-s c··- ہ··=وs چs '····-:ﮨ '···- ز
His weak assessment brought about this situation.
Akmal’s hot temperament brought about the worst situation.

Bring forth:c····-s چs د -···-= :···- زs '··- s'······-'-اا
Luxuries bring forth idleness.
Longer idleness brings forth starvation.

Bring up: ب·-.د ت.'-
Akbar was brought up in Europe.
The infant was brought up by her aunt.

Brood over:'-·´·´·ور·=
Should the UNO brood over the Muslims, unprejudiced?
The court was requested to brood over its decision.

Burst into: '····-ور :···- ٹ:···+- ٹ:···+-
She burst into tears.
The result forced her to burst into tears.

Burst out: ﮦ :····- >····+- J····+- '····-ﮍ- ﮍ····- c····-
She burst out to see me.
The children burst out to watch the cartoons.

Buy in:ﮍ-. م را---. ·= ں.'-د
We are buying in for Eid.
The buying in of shoes and garments has started for Eid.

Buy off·= ·´ ےد ت·-ر.'- د
To buy him off is a difficult job.
It is hard enough to buy off a hard nut like him.
Call at: .´. '-'= ·+' ﮯ´
I called at his house last Monday.
You called at my house the other day.

Call for: '-·´'-'--
I have called for the new samples.
The directress called for the chief accountant.

Call in: ª- `-ﮯ-' ﮯ´ د--.'-=
Please call in the doctor immediately.
He shouted and called in the police.

Called off: '-·´ »-=
The afternoon meeting was called off.
The director called off the interviews.

Call on: .´. '-'=ﮯ-' ﮯ´ ت'·`- ﮯ- .=-
I called on the Governor last week.
My sister called on her daughter this week.

Capacity for:= ﮯ-·´ ª÷´. ح`-.ت
Iram has the capacity to serve the guests.
Wajid has the capacity to face the challenges.

Capable of:.´. چ. '-·ﮨ .-'· ﮯ´ ز
Wajid is capable of handling such assignments.
My father is capable of dealing with foreigners.

Care about:خ.'-+´ر لا
She cares about the domestic problems bravely.
My mother cares about the guests specially.

Care for: --=- .خا. '- ·´ لا
The nurse really cared for me.
We should care for our neighbours.

Careful about: -=ا.'-·´ طا
One should be careful about his plans.
He was careful about minor things also.

Careful with:.´. چ. -=ا ·'·-- ﮯ- ز.'-·´ طا
You should be careful with the chemicals.
One should be careful with passengers travelling along.

2. Set B
Carry on: ر'=. '-+´ر
Please carry on your journey until you reach Karachi.
Carry on with your lesson steadily.

Carry out: '-` '=- »´=- »·-.'-·´ ل
I shall carry out your demand.
You have to carry out the instructions given on the paper.

Catch at : '-ﮍ´- ·´ ﭧ-+=
The lizard caught at the cockroach.
A drowning man catches at a straw.

Catch on: '-+=--
She did not catch on my words first.
At first attempt I could not catch on the lesson.

Caution against:---.'-·´ ﮦ
The police officer cautioned against the law.
The judge cautioned against the violation of law.

Certain of:'´.ق.'-·ﮨ ن
I am quite certain of my arguments.
My mother was certain of my success.

Change over:ا. = م'´ ے·-ود ﮯ- م'´ =. '-·+- ف·=
I went to Europe for a change over.
A rapid change over makes a man, a rolling stone.

Change into:ا. ·-ود ﮯ- -''= =. م -''=.--- ں. '- ·´ ل
Water changes into gas at hundred degrees centigrade.
This course will bring changes into your personality.
Charge with: '-''' ما·'ا
The accused was charged with theft.
Musharraf is charged with treason.

3. Set C
Clever at: م ﮯ····- :····- ª····=-s ش:·ﮨ ںsرا
She was clever at hiding her feelings.
He was clever at hiding his mistakes.

Collide with: '·····-:ﮨ :····×ﭨ
The bus was collided with the rail car.
He collided with me in a hurry.

Come about: '····-'=:ﮨ ہ·····-او
How did the accident come about?
A new drama has come about the stage.

Come across: c····-s '···-'=:ﮨ ت'···->- ﮯ···~ c=···~
We came across in the super market.
She came across when I was waiting for a taxi.

Come by: '-:- J~'=ً '-'--ا
You came by the invitation card quite unexpectedly.
I came by the victory.

Come of:-s '····-:ه ·····-·-- ﮯ····~ J····~-
He comes of a respectful family.
Majority of Indians come of Mongols.

Come off:م'····-s '···-:ﮨ با
They finally came off after a long time.
It is difficult to come off the goal.

Come out: '····-':- م'····-:=--
The special issue was expected to come out before Eid.
Our new design has come out.

Comment on: '········-:- ﮦ:········~--
I shall not comment on the issue of power politics.
Please comment on the Kashmir issue.

4. Set D
Compare to: c····-بs د ﮦs '··-
He compared me to Rashid.
As compare to us their complexion is very fair.

Compare with: اsج -sسs چs'······-:- ہ······--'-- '······- ںوز
Compare Punjab's education system with that of Sindh.
Compare your intelligence with mine.

Compensate for: ف>·····-s '······-:-
No one can compensate for the loss of time?
I shall compensate for today's lesson on Monday.

Compete for: c····-s چsل ﮯ····- زs '·····- :·····- ہ····--'-- ے
Pakistan will compete for the World Cup.
She will compete for CSS.

Compete with: '····-:ﮨ J····-'--
To compete with ISO standards is not a joke.
Our cotton can compete with international standards.

Complain against: c····-s '×···~ ف>···= ﮯ···-s'······-:- ت
Before complaining against anyone you must have solid proof.
This is our right to complain against poor sanitary conditions.

Complain about: '×····~s'······-:- ت
No use to complain about shortage of power.
He always complains about public security.

Composed of: '····-:ﮨ J--····~-
Our family is composed of seven members only.
Normally every hand is composed of five fingers.

Comply with: -s -·····×-s'······-:- ل
I shall comply with your orders.
Please comply with the judicial orders.

Confer with: '····-:- ﮦر:····~-
I like to confer with others.
The advocate requested the court to confer with the party.

Confess to: '····-:- فا:-····-ا ﮯ--'····~ ﮯ····-
He has confessed to the police.
I always confess my mistakes to God.

5. Set E
Confide in: د'···---ا s '····- :····- ہ····~و:+- ا
At last he confided in his advocate and told him the facts.
I con fide in my friends.

Confidence in: '···-:ﮨ د'···---ا
She had no confidence in herself.
The sales girl had confidence in us so she told the truth.

Confident of: '·····-:ﮨ د'·····---ا:-
The driver was confident of his skill.
Sitara was confident of her success.

Confined to: '··-:ﮨ دو-··=- ~··-
Akbar was confined to zeero due to deflation of dollar.
Akbar was confined to failure due to long absence.

Conform to: '·····-+-ر ~·····--'=- ﮯ·····~
Your ambitions conform to your struggle.
All the conditions conform to the agreement.

Congratulate on: د د'···- -ر'···--s '··-
My mother congratulated me on my safe return.
The engineer congratulated him on the approval of his plan.

Conscious of: س'···~=ا s'····-:ﮨ ﮦ'····-' ا
The accountant was conscious of his bad blunders.
The teacher made Akbar conscious of his weakness.

Consist of: '····--- :····- J····- ﮯ····~
This team consists of sixteen players.
The faculty of our college consisted of eighteen professors.

Conspire against: '····-:- شز'····~ ف>····= ﮯ····-
One should not conspire against his own country.
Your name is not among those who conspired against the principal.

Conducive to: ر'-ز'······~
Environment not conducive to learning, will spoil the repute of our college.
Your thoughts are not conducive to my project.

Content with: ,-=-s'····-:ﮨ ن
One should be contented with his fate.
I am contented with Almighty's blessings.

6. Set F
Contend with: '····-:- -····ﮩ=و-=
One can not contend with the whole society.
Always be contended with the fate.

Contribute to: '······-:- -ﮨا:·····--د ﮦ-····-=s '··-
All contributed to this success.
You should contribute to make our show a success?

Control over: ~=اsرا
The Government has no control over inflation.
The father has no control over his children.

Convince of: '···-'·····-:- J·····-
It is difficult to convince the public of shortage of power.
We should convince the children of their short comings.

Cooperate with: '·····-:- نو'······- ﮯ·····~
The relatives of the patient should cooperate with the paramedical staff.
The parents should cooperate with the teachers.

Cope with: '····- :····- ہ···--'-- ﮯ···~ ~···-ﮨ
We should cope with the international community.
Our team failed to cope with the pressure of the opposition.

Correspond to: '·····-+-ر ~·····--'=- ﮯ·····~
In an equilateral triangle each angle corresponds to opposite side.
Fuel prices in Pakistan must correspond to international rates.

Count on: '·····-:- ر'·····~=-ا :·····-
I count on my own skills.
Pakistan counts on its atomic capability.

Cry out: '·····-ر'×- ﮯ·····~ روز
The passengers cried out for help.
The infant cried out for mother.

Cure for: '····-:- ج>····-
It is difficult to cure a liar.
Doctors are trying to cure the my father for many days.
Deal in: '······-:- ر'······-ور'-
Aslam deals in jewellery.
America deals in arms.

Deal with: پ ﮯ···~s'···-' ش
The president deals the foreign delegates with due respect.
The Labour Director deals with trade unions politely.

Demand for: ~··-=- ~-'-
Pak Army demands for most recent arms.
There is a great demand for sugar during these day.

Depend on: '·····-:- ر'·····~=-ا :·····-
Our power system depends chiefly on water.
Our power system can depend on coal energy also.

Deprive of: '···-:- مو:···=- ﮯ···~
The passengers were deprived of their precious belongings.
The visitor was deprived of his mobile.

Derive from: '···-:- -···=ا ﮯ···~
Most of the laws in the British Constitution are derived from Islam.
Basic human rights are derived from the last sermon of the Holy Prophet(PBUH).

2. Set B
Desire for: c····-s چsل ﮯ····- زs'·····--- ے
We desire for the best option.
It is natural to desire for the victory.

Despair of: ما'··-s'···-:هد
To be despair of means not to believe in Almighty.
If you are despaired of then you have accepted hell.

Develop into: '···- '···هﮍ- sز اs'····-:ﮨ ﮦدا
One bacteria develops into a bacterial colony.
The addicted Chinese of past have now developed into a great nation.

Differ from: '······-:- ف>······-=ا
The fake note differs hardly from the real one.
Every face differs from the other.

Distinguish from: '····-:- س:····~=- ق:····-
It is difficult to distinguish the fake from the original.
To distinguish from wrong to right is a difficult job.

Drop out: ن'···= J···×- ﮯ···-ﮩ- ﮯ···~ ~···-وا
Kamran Akmal has been dropped out from the team.
The board has dropped me out from the list of winners.
Eager for: '····-:ﮨ ق'-····~-
Iam eager for Pak India Cricket Series.
You seem eager for a hearty meal now.

Efficient in: '······-:ﮨ -·-······~- روا J·····-'-
She is very efficient in maintaining the house.
Afridi is efficient in getting fifty, but not beyond.

Eligible for: '···-:ﮨ J···ﮨا '···-
I am eligible for the post of camera man.
You are eligible for this assignment.

Emphasis on: د روزs '··- / -·ﮨا sد تs '··-
The chief justice emphasised on facts only.
The advocate gave more emphasis on FIR.

End in: -···- م'···=-اs'····-:ﮨ ر
The last match ended in a draw.
The meeting ended in a confusion.

Engaged in: c····-s م :···- :···~s مs '···-:ﮨ فو:···~- ں
He is engaged in import export nowadays.
I am engaged in improving my hand-writing.

Enlist in: م ج:····-s'···-:ﮨ J-'···~ ں
Imran has been enlisted in Sindh Regiment.
Children of army officers are being enlisted in every regiment out of the way.

Entitled to: '····-:ﮨ ·=-····~- '····-
Akbar was entitled to every favour from my side.
We are entitled to protest for our rights.

2. Set B
Excel in: ز'···- ﮯ···~s '···-'= ﮯ···-
Iran has excelled in nuclear field on the rest of world.
I have excelled in the business of plastic products.

Expel from: د ل'····×-s '··-
Musharraf was expelled from the President House by democratic procedure.
The miscreants are expelled from the college.

Expert at: مs'··- :··ﮨ :ﮨ'··- ں
She is expert at asking questions and deriving results.
The police officer was expert at tracing the actual acause.

Envious of: '····-:- -····~= ﮯ····~
They are envious of her progress.
India is envious of Pakistan's nuclear power.

Equiped with: ہ-····~ار' ﮯ····~
Our Army is equipped with modern arms.
We should equip ourselves with latest knowledge of science
Fall off: '···-'= :···ﮨ -···-
The fall off oil prices in the world is being observed these days.
Dollar fell off due to Dubai World's crises.

Familiar with: ن'···=ﮩ- ن'···= / ئ'-·····~' s
Our Army is familiar with modern tactics of war.
One should be familiar with modern scientific developments.

Famous for: '···-:ﮨ ر:ﮩ···~-
Newton is famous for his laws of motion.
Faiz is famous for his beautiful poetry.

Feel for: در-··-ﮨ ﮯ··~s '··- :··ﮨ
One should feel for the poor.
All of us must feel for the victims of terrorism.

Find out: :····= ہ=····~ا:--s - ﮯ-:····- م:····-·- ﮯ····~ ﮯ····-s '······-:- c······~:-
Try to find out the causes of loss.
Court is trying to find out main defaulters of Pakistan.

2. Set B
Full of: ا:···ﮨ ا:···+- ﮯ···~
This bag is full of books.
This park is full of flowers.

Fire at: ل:····-s '····->=
He fired at a lion.
Pak Army has started to open fire at its own country-men quite often.

Fit for: ز:-ںو
Akbar is fit for fielding now.
You are fit for the post of court acrobat.

Focus on: د ہ··=:- ص'··=s '··-
Keep focus on your flaws.
Government should focus on energy crisis.

Fond of: '····-:ﮨ ·-'····~ '····-
My son is fond of ice-cream.
She is fond of travelling.
Gaze at: '······-ر:+-
The cat was gazing at the rat.
The judge gazed at the murderer and sentenced death.

Get at: ل ﮯ·····~ c·····~:-s'···-
To get at first position is not a kidish task.
The fox tried to get at the vein of grapes.

Get down: '······-:-ا
Soon the passengers got down the plane.
I get down the roof at 6 am daily.

Get in: '··-:ﮨ J··=اد
Akbar got in the business just by chance.
The candidates got in the hall after showing their slips.

Get over: ل'·········-:-'-s '··-
She was trying hard to get over her loss.
To get over the loss was not too easy.

Give away: مsc······-- ںs'······-:- م
The prizes were given away by the Governor.
The degrees were awarded by the Chancellor.

Give up: د:····- -:····-s '··-
Give up smoking for your own safety.
She gave up her bad habbits.

Glad at: '····-:ﮨ ش:=:····-
The father was glad at his flight to New York.
Akbar was glad at leaving to Pakistan.

Go about: '·····-ﭩ-- ح:·····= ص'·····= ﮯ····~ ہ--····~-
I shall go about in a different way.
It may be a long way yet I shall go about.

Go after: پs '··-'= ﮯ··+=
I shall go after the enquiry deeply.
The director wanted to go after this conspiracy deeply.

2. Set B
Grasp at: '····- ﮍ····×-
He grasped my neck with his right hand.
The shooter grasped at his gun in no time.

Greedy for: '·····-:ﮨ '·····-:+- '·····-
The crow was greedy for meat.
The fox was greedy for the grapes.

Grow into: :····- هﮍ····- '······--- ª······=-
She grew into a fine singer by long practice.
He grew into a good player after getting training.

Guard against: - ﮯ·····-=- ﮯ·····~s '······-:- c······~:-
Everybody has the right to guard against the enemy.
Pak Army guards the country against India.

Guess at: ﮦزا-···-ا '······-'×-
I tried to guess at his capabilities.
Imran guessed at the probable time of my arrival.

Grateful to: '······-:ﮨ را:-:×······~
I am grateful to you for your help.
He was grateful to his friends for their visit.

Guilty of: '·····-:ﮨ راور:·····~-
She was found guilty of backbiting.
He is guilty of his wqife's murder.
Hand over: '····-:- ﮯ-ا:····=
Please hand over all the files to me.
I have handed over my CV to the manager.

Hang over: '······-:ﮨ -······--:×-
His conscience hung over drawing close to the grave.
World Cup hung over everyone about security risks.

Hang up: د -ور ل'-·-·······~اs '··- / ہ--·······~-

America should hang up Drone Attacks
Poverty is a greart hang up for Pakitan.

Hard on: ~=···~s پ ﮯ···~s '··-' ش
Do not be hard on your employees.
We should be hard on our enemies.

Hatred for: ت:······--
Germans have hatred for the English, even now.
She has hatred for none.

2. Set B
Hope for: ماs'······-+-ر د
One should hope for the best.
Doctors have a great hope for his recovery.

Hostile to: ó-···~د ﮯ···~s '······-:-
Jews are hostile to Arabs.
Israel is growing hostile to Lebanon.

Heir to: '···-:ه ثراو
Her daughter is the only heir to his property.
An adopted daughter can not be a heir to the deceased.

Hint at: '····-:- ﮦر'····~ا
Present situation is hinting at mid-term elections.
Government hints at the need of power generation.

Hold out: '······-+-ر ےﮍ······×-
She held out her books in her right hand.
She hold out the camera for photography.
Ignorant of: '····-:ﮨ ~-او'····-
I am an ignorant of traffic laws.
You should not be an ignorant of Islamic laws.

Inform of: '····-:- ¿····-=-
The police was informed of the accident.
I informed of the actual facts to the judge.

Impose on: '······-:- -······-'-:-
The duty was imposed on all imported items.
The fine was imposed on the late comers.

Impart to: '······-'=-ﮩ- ~······-
The teacher imparted the lesson to the students.
Islam imparts to us the concept of right and wrong.

Inclined to: مs'········-+-ر نV
She is inclined to participate in speech contest.
One who is not inclined to studies, must be withdrawn.

Increased by: -s ہ-'····~ا ﮯ····~ ح:····~
The literacy rate is not increased by fifteen percent.
Performance should be increased be leaps and bounds.

Indebted to: '···-:ﮨ -···-- ن'···~=ا
I am indebted to her timely help.
The student was indebted to the teacher's extra time.

Involved in: مs '··-:ه ث:··-- ں
Akbar was not involved in this theft.
His brother was involved in this business.

2. Set B
Indifferent to: '····-:ﮨ ﮦاو:····- ﮯ····- ﮯ···~
Man can be indifferent to nature.
He is indifferent to all sorts of advices.

Indulge in: '···-:ﮨ ث:···--
He was indulged in smuggling.
You were indulged in learning.

Inferior to: ندا ﮯ···~s
This paper is inferior to that.
Our product is not inferior to the standard.

Injurious to: ﮦد ن'········~--
Cold water is generally injurious to human health.
It is injurious to cross the road blindly.

Innocent of: '····-:ه ﮦ'····-- ﮯ····-
I am ignorant of the company laws.
The government is not innocent of suguar crisis.

Insist on: '-:-را:············~ا:-
I always insist on getting education.
The child insisted on having ice-cream.

Interfere in: مs '····-:- ~-=ا-····- ں
I do not interfere in other's matters.
She always interfere in my plans.

Interest in: c···=-دپs '····-:ﮨ
She was interested in fine arts.
I am interested in Psychology.

Introduce to: '·····-ا:- فر'······--
Afzal was not introduced to public ever before.
The children were not introduced to Chemistry.
Junior to: :··-- -··- sم :-- اs'····-:ﮨ '····ﭨ:+= ں
Akbar is junior to Akram.
There are seven teachers junior to me in this college.

Jealous of: م -···~=s>········--- ں
She was jealous of my seniority.
I was not jealous of her prosperity.

2. Set B
Keen about: ت ﮯ·····-- ﮯ·····-sرا
I was keen about my result.
She was keen about her profession.

Key to: زار- J=- :=sہ···-
Perseverance is a key to success.
Hard-work is a key to success.

Kind to: '···-:ﮨ ن'···- :···ﮩ-
My teacher is kind to me.
Almighty is kind to every one.

Knock at: د ~-····~د :····-s '··-
Fortune knocks at the doors of industrious persons.
I shall knock at your door at 10 am tomorrow.

Knock down: '····-'×- ب:····~ ﮯ····~ روز
Power does not mean to knock down everyone.
India was knocked down by Sri Lanka in third One-day.

3. Set C
Lack of: -s -····-s
Lack of knowledge leads to destruction.
He has lack of confidence.

Late for: دsﮯ···~ ر
I got late for school today.
The bus is late so we have to wait.

Laugh at: c····-ﮨs '···-اڑا
Everyone laughed at her stupid suggestion.
She laughed at me because of the funny dress I wore.

Lay down: د :·····- -·····-= ل'-·-·····~اs '··-
Please lay down your pens, the time is over.
She laid down her pen after five hours.

Long for: '···-:ﮨ -···--وزر'
She is longing for immigration to Canada.
I am longing for another opportunity.

Look after: -s نا:·····×-s '······-:-
Akbar will look after my business.
She hired a midwife to look after her child.

Look for: - ﮯ···- '···-s '······-:- c······~:-
She is looking for a job now.
Ahmad is looking for a good hotel.

Look into: ~·······--sش s·····=- اs'······-:- ق
I am looking into the matter seriously.
You should look into the Taliban Case.

Looking forward: '-:---··············~-- ن:···ه :···=---ا
I am looking forward to see you.
She was looking forward for her degree.

Loyal to: راد'····-و '····-
Some people are loyal to this company.
He looks loyal to his officer.

Liable for: راد ہ-ذ
The officer on duty was liable for the negligence.
The caretaker is liable for our comfort.

Liable To: ·=···~- '···- / ·=-·····~- ﮯ·····-
Citizens are liable to abide by the traffic rules.
After confession he was liable to punishment.
Make of: م'····-sباs '····-'+ﭨا ﮦ-····-'- ﮯ····~ ¿····- :····- ﮯ····-
After appointment you can make of your wit.
He made of his authority with his intelligence.

Make away with: '··-'= ﮯ··- اڑا ﮯ··~ ﮯ··- :··هد
The burglar made away with all his precious belongings.
Akbar skipped and made away with his bag.

Make out: '-+=-····~ ﮯ····~ J×····~-
I can not make out any meaning of this sentence.
You can make out my question if you try.

Meddle with: زا-··-ا J··=دs '······-:-
No body should meddle with my own matters.
I do not meddle with other people's affairs.

Married to: ب ª-'·····~ ﮯ·····-s '··-'= ﮯ··ﮨا
Hina was married to Jawad.
She was married to me, not with my property or my bank balance.

Mix up with: '····--- -ﮨ'····-
Sugar was mixed up with milk.
She avoids to be mixed up with us.

2. Set B
Necessary for: رو:···~s
Water is necessary for power generation.
Oxygen is necessary for life.

Notorious for: م'--······-
This market is notorious for pick pockets.
Bara is notorious for smuggled items.

Need for: -s ترو:···~
We need for another UPS.
She needs for a blank pepper.

3. Set C
Object to: '····-:- ضا:-····-ا :····-
I objected to his baseless apprehension.
The mother objected to my behaviour.

Obliged to: ó··-- '··-'···-:ه نو
Diana was obliged to him.
The administrator was obliged to the team members.

Opposed to: ف>···= ﮯ···-
I am not opposed to your opinion.
Presidential order was opposed to the Constitution.

Overcome with: '···-:ه ب:···-·- ﮯ···~ ت'--···=
She had been overcome with sorrow on his father's death.
He was overcame with joy and burst into tears.

Obedience to: -s '···-:- ~···-'=ا
Did you show the same obedience to his mother?
He has great obedience to his elders.
Part from: '··-'= :··ﮨ ا-··= ﮯ··~
A rose parted from the branch loses fragrance.
We must not part from the centre.

Part with: '··-'= :··ﮨ ~··-ا
I can not part with my belongings.
My son can not part with music.

Participate in: مs '······-:- ~-:······~ ں
Waheed Murad participated in many films.
I shall participate in coming tournament.

Particular about: خ ص'=s'······-+-ر لا
He is not particular about his health.
My friend is very particular about his status.

Passion for: '··- :··ﮨ ں:··-=
She has a passion for politics.
I have a passion for knowledge.

Play at: لد ﮯ····-s '····-:- م'····- ﮯ····~
Playing at business means making ruins.
He is just playing at learning and has no serious intensions.

Plot against: ~=s '········-'-- ﮯ-:········~-- ﮦ
There are many plots against the Pakistani cricket.
MQM is plotting against Sindh Government.

Pray for: '····-:- '····-د ﮯ····-- ﮯ····-
The whole nation prays for the best future of Pakistan.
I always pray for my son's success.

Prefer to: ج:····- :····-sد حs '··-
I prefer tea to coffee.
She prefers character to good dress.

Prejudice against: ~····~·- ف>····= ﮯ····-
Muslims have no prejudice against any religion.
We are prejudiced against every Indian.

2. Set B
Prepared for: c····-s چsت ﮯ·····-- ﮯ·····- زsرا
We are prepared for every sacrifice.
Lunch has been prepared for everyone.

Preside over: '····-:- ترا-····~
The chairman will preside over the meeting.
The MD will preside over today's session.

Proceed with: ر'=s '······-+-ر
I shall proceed working with my team.
You are allowed to proceed with recent proposals.

Proficient in: '··-:ﮨ :ﮨ'··-
My teacher is proficient in his subject.
Our gardener is proficient in his profession.

Prominent in: '··--s'····-:ﮨ ںا
He is prominent in resolving problems.
She was prominent in Fine Arts.

Proud of: '····-:ﮨ :····=-
He is proud of his skills.
Mrs. Akbar is proud of her dress.

Pull down: د ~·······~×~s'···- s'····-:- ر'-····~- ا-'······-ا:-
Australia pulled down Pakistan from the tournament.
CM ordered to pull down all illegal plazas.

Punish for: د ا:···~s '··-
The milkmen have never been punished for adulteration.
Rash drivers should be punished for violating the law.

3. Set C
Put down: د '···-د :···- ó-···~د ﮯ···~ ~···-'=s '··-
The resolution was put down by the majority.
The Principal put down my request.

Put aside: '····-+-ر :····- '····=- -····-ر ª····=-
We have to put something aside for future.
Ali uses to put aside nothing for the rest of his life.

Put across: c····-s خs- لاs c·······--sب لs'······-:- نا
The advocate put across the facts before the court.
I put across my views through my articles.

Put in: c····-s م م'····-s~···-و ں s '····-:- ف:····~ ت:····- ا
You will have to put in a lot of efforts to achieve the target.
The advocate put in a lot of efforts to win this case.

Put off: :·····---s د :····-s'···-
The arguments were put off till next hearing.
The meeting was put off till Monday.

Put on: '·········--ﮩ-
She put on quite a different dress yesterday.
Do not put on the coat before you knot the tie.

Put out: د '····+=-s '··-
Please put out the light before you leave the room.
Put out all surplus lights.

Put up with: '······-:- ~······~اد:-- '·····-:- ﮦرا:·····-
I can not put up with your rude behaviour.
Poor rabbits cannot put up with the roaming of the hungry wolves.

Prior to: ﮯ····-ﮩ- ﮯ····~
The judge interrupted the lawyer prior to the beginning of his arguments.
She collected all her belongings prior to leave from UAE.

Plunge into:~····->+= s '···-'×- ہ···=:-ا
I plunged into mud in the dark.
To plunge into a dispute without knowing facts, is a great mistake.
Quick at: c····-s م م'····-s '······-+-ر س:-······~د ں
She is quick at answering the questions.
I am not quick at understanding the facts.

Quarrel with: '····-:- اﮍ····×+= ﮯ····~
It is easy to quarrel with others but difficult to resolve the issues.
He always quarrels with me.

Quarrel over: اﮍ···×+= :···-
They quarreled over verbal agreement.
Pakistan and India are quarreling over Kashmir for 63 years

Reason for: ~-······~- ہ=و
There has never been any true reason for the discontinuation of dialogue process between Pakistan and India.
There should be some reason for a dispute.

Rebel against: '·····-:- تو'······-
Hindu Rajas always rebelled against the Mugals.
To rebel against the state law is treason.

Recover from: ~=···~s '···-:ﮨ با
The child has recovered from Malaria.
May you recover soon.

Refrain from: '·····-:- زا:-·····=ا
One can refrain from bad company.
A good citizen refrains from violations.

Rejoice at: '··-:ﮨ ش:··=
The people rejoiced at crowning the Prince.
All the relations rejoiced at this marriage.

Regard for: '····-:ﮨ ما:-····=ا s'······-:- ا
I have a great regard for my teachers.
Who does not regard others, remains regardless.

Relevant to: ······-·-- ﮯ·····~
Please be relevant to the topic.
Your statements are not relevant to the facts.

Relieve of: '·····-:- غر'·····-
The President relieved of Chairman PTCL.
The prisoners of very short sentence were relieved of.

2. Set B
Rely on: '····-:- د'····---ا :····-
I absolutely rely on my father.
Do not rely on others' help.

Remind of/about: s'····-Vد دا
Please remind me about this matter next morning.
She politely reminds me of my mistakes.

Repent on: '·······-'-+=- :·······-
I repent on my mistakes.
It is good to repent on sins.

Rescue from: '····-'=- ﮯ····~
We were rescued from dangers by them.
The drowned man was rescued from the river by Navy.

Respect for: -sما:-·····=ا ﮯ·····--
They showed great respect for their teachers.
Muslims have respect for all religions.

Responsible for: راد ہ-ذ
Everyone is responsible for his actions.
I am not responsible for any loss during my absence.

Retreat from: '······--'+- c······-او- '····-:+- ﮯ····~ ~····-:-
Indian Army had to retreat from the line of control.
She had to retreat from her claim.

Rob of: د:··- مو:··=-s '··-
Aslam was robbed of his motorcycle by the robber.
The lady was robbed of her purse at gun point.

Rule out: د :····- د:-····~- ن'····×-اs '··-
Aslam's proposal was ruled out.
The director ruled out his request.

Rule over: '····-:- ~····-:×=
The Muslims ruled over Europe for eight hundred years.
The British ruled over subcontinent for two hundred years.

Run over: د J····=-s '··-
The truck run over the dog.
The poor cat was run over by a speedy car.
Search for: '·····-:- ش>·····-
What are you searching for?
She searched for her teacher in the whole school.

See through: ل ~······-'+-s'···-
Public has seen through the evil designs of the government.
Islamabad should see through the New Dehli's violations.

See out: '··- '··= ﮯ··- ڑ:··+= ~··- ےزاورد
My mother went to see them out.
The peon came to see the visitor out.

See to: خs'······-+-ر لا
I shall see to their problems myself.
She will see to every convenience for her guests.

See off: '····-ﮩ- عاد:····-ا
We went to see off our brother at the airport.
My mother went to the gate to see off the guests.

Seek out: '····-:- ش>····- ª-'····~ ﮯ····- م:····-
He was seeking out a book for CSS.
She sought out more than one solutions of her problem.

Send for: '·······-ا:--
Saqib sent for his friends.
The MD sent for the accountant.

Set in: '···-:- ز'···-'
The rainy period will set in after June.
The examination fever has set in.

Set aside: - J---···········~-s'·····=- ﮯ·····-- '·····-+-ر :·····- / - ﮦ-······--' s '····-ڑ:+= ª····-ر ﮯ····--
I want to set the issue aside.
I have set aside some money for charity.

Set about: د :····- عو:····~ م'····- ª-'····~ ﮯ····- م:····- ےر:····-s '··-
We have set about the new session.
The academy has set about a new group.

2. Set B
Set out: '···-:ﮨ ہ···-اور
He will set out at dawn.
Ants set out in search of food early in the morning.

Set up: ئ:····-s '····-:- عو:····~ م'····-
We should set up more atomic power units in the country.
Pakistan could not set up a strong democratic system.

Slave of: '·····--- م>·····-
We are slaves of our desires.
Pakistan has become a slave of America.

Shocked at: '······-=-ﮩ- ہ--······~
Everybody is shocked at the constant failures of Pakistan Cricket Team.
The judiciary was shocked at the promotion of Mr. Hameed Dogar as CJP.

Shoot at: '·······-:- :-'······-
He shot at the flying crane.
I can shoot at the running tiger.

Short of: '····-:ﮨ -····-
He is short of sympathy for me.
We are short of sugar nowadays.

Shout at:c····-s '····->= :····-
Don't shout at me.
One should not shout at the needy.

Side with: د ª-'·····~ '·····-s'···-
I shall not side with you in this case.
America did not side with Pakistan during 1971 war.

Sorry for: در--ﮨs '······-+-ر
I feel sorry for the poor of my land.
We feel sorry for the victims of American terrorism.

Stand by: '······-:- ر'······=--ا-د ª-'······~s '··-
Please stand by the next orders.
I shall stand by you in every thick and thin.

3. Set C
Stare at: ~········ﭩ×ﭨs د :·····- ه-·····-'-s'······-+-
She continued string at me while going back.
Why do you stare at me in this way?

Start on: '···-:- ز'···-' '···- م'···-
The newly appointed judges have started on their duties.
We shall start on our work soon.

Start up: '····-:- عو:····~
He left the job to start up his own business.
The fresh campaign will start up next Monday.

Strive for: '·····-:- c·····~:- ~=·····~
If you strive for good result, you will be successful.
She strove for the position of principal.

Succeed in: م'····-s '···-:ﮨ با
He succeeded in touching the final string.
Pakistan succeeded in winning the title.

Sufficient for: ف'····-s
This ink is sufficient for one month.
Three cups of tea are sufficient for a day.

Suitable for: ںوز:-
This room is suitable for me.
Present government is not suitable for a sovereign Pakistan.

Sure of: sقs'····-:ﮨ ن
She was sure of her success.
Ahsan was sure of his immigration to Canada next week.

Suspicious of: '···-:ﮨ ~···~ :···-
Why are you suspicious of victory?
To be suspicious of success means defeat before time.

Sympathy for: در-··-ﮨ ﮯ··~s '···-:ﮨ
Everybody here has sympathy for you.
Everyone showed sympathy for the injured.

Sympathy with: ہ····~:- م:····- s در--ﮨ اs
I have no sympathy with the defaulters.
Pakistanis always show sympathy with Afghanis.
Take care of: =. '-·´ --ا-ﮩ'-
Please take care of pedestrians.
The doctor takes care of every patient.

Take down: '-+´'
Please take down my phone number.
We take down the notes while teachers deliver lecture.

Take off: '-ر'-ا ےﮍ-´
She took off her socks for ablution.
Take off your hat and wear my cap.

Taken in: '-'+´ ہ´·هد
She was taken in by his sweet words.
The patient was taken in by a quack.

Take on: -. تر·- .ص·-= ا. '-'--ا ت
He took on a different look after a new hair cut.
The office is taking on a new shape day by day.

Take over: ل ل'+--- لو·ﭩ-´.'-
I shall take over the charge tomorrow.
American Air Force has taken over the charge of our Tribal Area.

Take to: گ-='·'-. '-·´ عو·- ﮯ-
Early change over of season will take many to bed.
Positive decisions can take us to the peak.

2. Set B
Tally with: ت'- .--' ا. '-·´ ·-'=- ﮯ´
The third witness does not tally with the second.
Both sums tally with each other.

Train in: ب·-.د ت.'-
I am trained in essay writing.
Azra was trained in public dealing.

Thirst for: پ.'-·ﮨ سا-ش`--. '-·ﮨ
I still have thirst for better opportunities.
She has thirst for poetry.

Tired of: '-'= '-´ا ﮯ-
He is tired of driving.
I am not tired of learning.

Translate into: '-·´ ہ-=·-
Aslam's application was translated into English by me.
The poem has been translated into Urdu.

Triumph over: '-·´ .-'= --·
A single clue may triumph us over the whole plot.
Availability of flour does not mean triumph over all national problems.

True to: '-·ه ار·- '´ ے-=و
Akmal is true to his promise.
Azra is true to her words.

Trust in: '-·´ د'--=ا ·-
I trust in God.
You must trust in your advocate.
Ushered in: '-·ﮨ -='- '´ ز'=' ﮯ´ م'´
Pak-India Cricket Series ushered in diplomatic relations between the two countries.
These clouds will usher in a heavy rain, Insha Allah.

Usher into: '-`ر--ا ﮯ- ما·-=ا
Musharaf ushered Benzeer into Pakistan.
Some unseen enemy ushered him into the President House.

Vote for: د ٹوو.'-
To vote for the candidate means you trust in him.
We vote for a sociopolitical change.

Want of: »´.
He is in want of a big house.
We are not in want of hurry.

Warn of: ---.ﮦ . '-·´ ﮦ''' ا
The clerk was warned of his inefficiency.
Indian army was warned of trespassing LOC.

Watch out: '-ﮨر ط'-=-
Please watch out about the signals.
Police is watching out for terrorists.

Wind up: د·´ »-=.'-
Please wind up your painting by today.
We shall not wind up our business despite many hurdles.

2. Set B
Withdraw from: .´. پ ﮯ- م'´. '-'= ﭧﮨ ﮯ+÷
I withdraw from your lunch offer.
She withdrew from the discussion by herself.

Witness to: ﮦا·'
I was not a witness to this accident.
Hazrat Ayesha(R.A) was the witness to all the changes through which Islam passed during the thirty years of
pious khilaphat.

Work out: '-·´ ش`- .=
Please work out sugar crisis.
We cannot march forward without working out Kashmir Issue.

Worn out: ار'ﮨ '´+- . 'ﭩ- '-+' ا
This tyre is worn out so I am to change it.
Even this worn out democracy is better than military dictatorship.

Worthy of: .-'· ﮯ´ سا
Your suggestions are worthy of appreciation.
His sincerity made him worthy of promotion.

Write off: ر'´·-. د ·´ »-= ·- ر·=.'- .د·´ ف'·- ا.'-
Musharaf wrote off loans of millions of dollars at the cost of national interest.
America never writes off our loans even after our sacrifices.

Yield to: '-'= -+= ﮯ--'-
We should not yield to international pressure.
Drone Attacks prove that we have yielded to America.

Chapter 6 : Letters
1. Introduction
Letter is a mode of written conversation or conversation by post. Letters are written to express views.
Further More
1. Kinds Of Letters
Formal Letters: These are the official letters that focus on a particular subjet and no other details or
irrelevant things are included.

Informal Letters: These are the letters to family and friends which include the unnecessary details apart
from the main theme, as well.

2. Parts Of A Letter
Each letter has three parts; the beginning, the main matter and the ending.

Personal address
Name of the addressee

Main Matter
Greeting sentences
Main theme
Summing up sentences


Note: An official letter has a title of the subject matter also, but does not have the 'greeting sentences'.
2. Formal Letters
These are the official or business letters that focus on a particular subjet and no other details or irrelevant things
are included.
Further More
1. Letter To A Newspaper; For Donation For The Poor Students
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 7, 2010.

The Editor,
The Post,

Subject: Donations for poor students.

Dear Sir,
It is to inform the public about a book bank and a joint fund for the poor students of Govt. Post
Graduate College For Boys Bahawal Nagar. Account No. 0000486786 of The National Bank, Main Branch,
Bahawal Nagar, has been opened to welcome the donations of the public. Whereas the book bank housed in
the college building, with gratitude receives books on all subjects; not only course books but general ones as

The books and money donated by people to this joint fund and book bank, will be provided to the poor
students of Intermediate, Graduate and Post Graduate levels, of this college in order to make them able to
continue their studies further.

Those who like to donate, are welcome to visit the college to meet the Principal, teachers, deserving students,
and to see the arrangements made by us to make it sure that the bank and fund should work properly.

Yours truly,

2. Letter To A Newspaper; For Establishing Better Libraries In The City
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 7, 2010.

The Editor,
The News,

Subject: Need for better libraries.

Dear Sir,
It is an earnest desire of every citizen that some new larger and better libraries should be constructed
in our city or old ones shoul be equiped with thousands of new books on all subjects. As our city has a larg
amount of younger population, like school going children and collegiates, so the need for libraries has realy
become a very earnest one.

To achieve this goal, six small libraries of the city can be merged into two or three bigger libraries; by adding
a number of books on advance disciplines, in the each unit.

All kinds of newspapers and magazines should be present in these libraries.

More than one reading rooms, photocopying facilities, CDs and computers should also be provided in the

Members should be allowed to sit in the reading rooms, as long as they wish. Libraries should remain open
on the holidays so that students can take advantage of these. Like big cities, libraries should also be opened in
small villages and towns. The education of the village folks, is the greatest need of time and libraries are the
best way to make this dream sure.

Yours truly,
3. Informal Letters
The letters which include the unnecessary details apart from the main theme, and are written to family and
Further More
1. Letter To Uncle, Thanking For The Birthday Gift.
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 7, 2010.

My Dear Uncle,
Your parcel has been received today. I opened it with utmost curiosity. Once again, your love
has broken all records. Your sincerity and choice both are praise-worthy.

I was already thinking that now I must have a watch. So, you have filled my desire. I do not know, how did
you know this? A perfect gift at a perfect time, unimaginable.

Time telling gift reminds the value of time. Your choice and love are matchless. I was without a watch till
now. Since I am in college at present. Therefore, I needed it impatiently.

I wore it twice and it added to my personality. Then I put it on the table and started writing these lines of
gratitude. From today, I shall ask nobody to tell me the time.

Every tick of it will remind me of your love and affection.I am proud to be your nephew every second.


Your loving nephew,

2. Letter To Mother; Who Is Worried About Your Health
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 7, 2009.

My dear Mother,
I received your letter yesterday. My great Mama, you should not be as much worried about my
health. I had an attack of cold last week. As usual, I had a bad throat also. As per advice of the doctor, I
stopped to drink cold water. After two days of having medicine, I have recovered now and working as usual.
You should not get worried for such petty things.

Ali’s mother also came to see me, in the hostel. She gave me a good deal of advice, as well. Now, I am
perfectly all rigt and as active as before. So please, stop worrying about my health. No doubt, my early
recovery was due to your prays.

Your prays are a great shelter to my unforeseen set backs.

Your loving son,

3. Letter To Mother; Worried About Your Result
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 9, 2010.

My dear Mother,
I received your letter last week. I was busy in my monthly tests so, I could not reply it. Thus
you can not call it a negligence of mine. My full devotion was towards my tests.

Just one hour ago, I have collected my test report. Thank God, as usual I have got more than ninety percent
marks. My teachers were also very happy. But they do not know that I have a mother like you, who always
prays for my benevolence.

My thanks for the whole life, cannot be equivalent to your prays and I am sure that your affection and prays
will continue for ever. And thus, my victory will remain out of the reach of the devils. As long as the sun
shines, no eclipse can snatch my crown.

Your loving son,

4. Letter To Father; To Inform Him About The Result And To Request Him To Send Some Money
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 11, 2010.

My Dear Father,
I hope that you will read this letter of mine in the best of your health. It will once again add to
your mood and health that I have passed the 9th class examination with 722 marks, out of 850 getting A

Next year, I shall appear in the Secondary School Examination, Insha Allah. Our new session has set in. I feel
my duties to the best of my concern. I am not only a young boy now. I want a bright future without crutches.

Your prays and my devotion will always be supporting to my cause a lot. My devotion will not be able to
breed any result without your prays.

Now moving to the new class and its requirements; I need new books, new uniform, winter dresses, and some
other basic necessities as well. Therefore, I need rupees three thousand immediately. Please send this amount
to me, as early as possible.

Keep me in your remembrances and prays, as usual.

Your loving son,

5. Letter To Brother; To Advise Him To Take Proper Interest In Studies
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 2, 2010.

My Dear Brother,
Yesterday, I got your progress report from your college. I am glad, like everyone in the house,
about your standing first in the class. I appreciate your sincerity towards the studies. Since, I want to add that
it may be easy to catch a victory but it is most difficult to maintain it.

Naturally, your class fellows will also try to copy your schedule of studies and the duration of time, you
divide over the whole day. Some of them may plan to compete you in the next test. Some of your colleagues
may be prejudiced, and some envious. Therefore, you will have to face them both. I am your well-wisher. Not
only I desire or think, but also pray for your victory every time. But you are the sole manufacturer of the
excellent blend of your time and study, within your reach and choice. To maintain this, excellence should be
your goal and objective now. Do relax but sufficiently enough to maintain efficiency.

May God Almighty bless you a success even better in future.

With best wishes,

Your loving brother,

6. Letter To Father; Asking About Your Mother's Health
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 11, 2010.

My dear Father,
Yesterday, when I entered my hostel room, a letter from young Ahmad was waiting for me by
the door. I have come to know from his letter that mother was taken to the hospital two days back. Since that
time, I am restless. It is difficult for me to concentrate my lessons. I cannot attend to my lectures. Her face
always remains before me, in every direction. She was already very weak after a long ailment.

Please take care of her health and consult some adequately qualified specialist in this regard also. If my blood
is required, please do not hesitate for a single second to wait for it.

In every prayer, my prays have now been confined to her recovery. May God Almighty bless her with vigour
and health!

Only an immediate reply can give me some relief.

Your loving son,

7. Letter To Friend; Congratulating Him On Success In Examination
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 3, 2010.

My Dear Friend,
Ahsan made me a call yesterday, saying that you have cleared Matriculation Examination in
flying colours. I rushed to the computer to see the result. I had your roll number, as well. Therefore, it was not
difficult at all to see your result. It was not a wonder for me to find you clutching fifth position, whereas we
were expecting even a higher position, like first, second or third. You had burnt your midnight oil, and left no
stone unturned to achieve the position. It is really a fabulous success. Your father, mother, sisters and
brothers would be flying high in the air. Your marvelous success must have raised the heads of your parents
and teachers with pride. Everybody will be congratulating you even unwantedly.

I would suggest you to move forward with the same zeal and zest. My parents are also congratulating you and
your parents.

I intend to arrange a party for you in near future, then we shall invite you and your family. Please let me
know your future plans.

Say my regards and congratulations to all at home.

Yours sincerely,

8. Letter To Friend; Condolence On His Mother's Death
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 5, 2010.

Dear Friend,
I have just received your letter. When I was opening the envelop, I felt an unknown fear. I could
not understand it. When I read it, it put me in a deep well where I could not escape any way. I could not read
the whole of it because it got wet with my tears. It is not a legend, but a reality.

When I met your mother last year, she was quite fit. But nature has its own ways. Man cannot reach them.
Can man conquer nature? Impossible. Sooner or later, everyone has to die. Grave is the eternal destination of

Now instead of taking this loss to heart, it's better to be contented to nature’s decisions. There is no escape or
remedy to it. Words cannot pacify the ir-repairable loss.

I pray to the Almighty to bless eternal peace to the departed soul and relief to sobbing hearts, left behind.

Yours sincerely,

9. Letter To Friend; Inviting Him To Spend Summer Vacations With You
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 6, 2010.

My Dear Friend,
Our schools are closing from tomorrow. I have come to know that your schools are closing
from June 07, 2010. I would like you to come to me during the vacation. My father and mother are willing
that you should join us. Ahmad is also coming here.

You know well that Lahore is a big city. It has a historical background also. There are historical buildings
worth seeing and a big zoo. A big city has its own charm and beauty. There are many parks and swimming
pools also. There are shrines of famous and well known Saints; Data Darbar is among very prominent ones.

You must have seen the photo-graphs of Shahi Mosque. When you visit it personally, you will feel the
difference. Your visit to Lahore will remain in your memory for long time. To keep the memorable moments,
we shall use the camera also. These photo-graphs will become a part of our past.

Please reply urgently and tell about the date of your arrival, as well as the train in which you are arriving so
that I will be able to collect you at the Lahore Railway Station.

Please pay my regards to uncle and aunt, and love to youngsters.

Yours sincerely,

10. Letter To Friend; To Lend Some Books To You
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 9, 2010.

My Dear Friend,
I received your letter one week ago. I could not reply you earlier because my tests were in
progress. I am just coming after taking the last paper of Urdu. Unfortunately, my Grammar Book and the help
book of English have been lost during this time. I have asked the local stationers for these books but they
said, these books are not available nowadays so it will take some time to bring them. I am in need of them so
urgently. A delay of a single day will give me a great loss.

Therefore, you are requested to send these books to me. As soon as I get these books, I shall return them to
you without any delay.

I shall be thankful to you for this act of yours, everafter.


Yours sincerely,

11. Letter To Father; To Tell Him The Reasons Of Your Failure
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 11, 2010.

My Dear Father,
In your last letter you, quite expetedly and rightly, have asked me why I am failed so badly in
the exams of Intermediate. As you know about my illness which prevailed over the two very important and
close to examination months of January and Faburary, paved the way to my failure. My constant headache,
flue and fever never let me study continuously.

During these two months, I could neither attend the college regularly nor could I learn the whole course.

Another reason of my failure was the untimely transfer of our techer of Chemistry. After his departure, the
college administration could not provide us new teacher immediately and we had to learn Chemistry by
ourselves for two months. So, even after spending the time of other subjects on Chemistry, I not only failed to
understand it but also wasted away the time of other subjects over it.

Anyhow, no one can defeat the fait. Man is for work and God is for reward. So, after burrying the past
behind, I have started to work with new zeal. Now I am studying hard and hope to pass the examination with
prominent marks, Insha Allah.

Keep me in your remembrances and prays, as usual.

Your loving son,

12. Letter To Father; About The First Impression Of College Life
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 11, 2010.

My Dear Father,
I am writing this letter in order to satisfy your question regarding my first impression of college
life. Contrary to the school life, here we are free to move around and discuss all sorts of matters, not only
with students but also with teachers. Rules are there, but not so strict as they were in the school. The most
fantastic thing of college is that there is no home-work. The freedom of college life makes the students more
responsible. Here it is upto them whether they work hard and make their lives or mar it by de-utilizing its
freedom. All the teachers are not only very qualified and co-operative but are keen to impart education and
upgrade the intellectual caliber of the students as well.

College life not only equips the students with knowledge but also with confidence. I think, it is a laboratory
where we prepare ourselves for practical life.

However, regardless of all this freedom of thoughts and actions, it is our duty to concentrate our subjects and
develop a high moral character. And Insha Allah, you will find me determined.

Keep me in your remembrances and prays, as usual.

Your loving son,

13. Letter To Friend; To Tell Him About The Profession You Would Like To Adopt
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 11, 2010.

My Dear Friend,
I received your letter yesterday. You have asked me about the profession, I would like to adopt.
I want to become a doctor.

Life of today has become very risky; traffic accidents, bomb blasts, fires, short circuits, civil wars, terrorist
activities, floods, earthquakes and many other negative effects of directionless development of human society
have really made the medical profession a great benefactor of the human society. So, if anyone want to
comfort the suffering humanity and lessen the pains of those who are suffering and ailing, he should adopt the
medical profession. That is why I have decided to become a doctor. I have taken pre-medical subjects in
Intermediate and have started to apply maximum effort in order to make my dream real.

Please let me know your future plans as well.

Say my regards and to all at home.

Yours sincerely,

14. Letter To Friend; About A Bomb Blast You Witnessed
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 3, 2010.

My Dear Friend,
I am writing this letter to you in order to comfort my own self and to lessen my own sorrow by
sharing some sad memories with you. To tell you the truth, I am so sad nowadays that it really, has become
unbearable for me to absorb the whole sorrow, alone. I can not tell you how much frightened I feel even now,
when I think about that bomb blast which I witnessed a week before.

I was going for a picnic with my parents in a car along The Mall. As we approached the High Court, we heard
a loud explosion. The explosion shook up the whole surroundings. The smoke was being seen rising from
some of the buildings. But the windowpanes of many had been broken down. Cries of the people, wailing
children and the sobbing women were making the atmosphere gloomy to the last extent.

The whole traffic was at a standstill. A pool of blood could be seen even from a long distance. The parts of
the dead bodies of many unfortunate persons could also be seen spread all around. Those who were hurt,
could not be counted.

Ambulances, fire-brigades and rescue workers started reaching there, in no time. Eight people died at the spot
and dozens of them were injured so critically that there was only a least hope of their recovery. In addition to
it, there had also been observed a great loss of property.

May God save us from such accidents and show them the right path who use to play with the lives of the
innocent people.

Pay my regards to all at home.

Yours sincerely,

15. Letter To Mother; About Hostel Life
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 7, 2009.

My dear Mother,
I received your letter yesterday, in which you have asked about my hostel life. Although I
have a very busy schedule here but due to the presence of so many classmates and friends about, whole time
passes in great enjoyment.

I use to rise early in the morning and rush to the hostel mosque for Fajar prayers. Then I get back to hostel,
take bath, wear uniform and after having a light brakefast from the hostel canteen, I rush to college, with my
satchel on my shoulder. Here I take periods from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. and retun to hostel tires enough. After
changing uniform, I move to mess and have such a handsome lunch which lulls me enough that I find myself
only able to sleep. So on reaching my room I lie on my bed and become unconscious of my surroundings. I
get up in the afternoon, offer Asar prayers, take my evening tea along my roommate and classmates and then
all of us start a long, amusing, interesting and fruitful session of combine study with a sweet and hearty blend
of jokes, chunks, parodies, chuckles and healthy exchange of views and debates on different issues that range
from politics to cricket, religion to literature and science to current affairs. This session lasts till so late at
night that drowsiness takes hold of us and get helpless to sleep.
Thus sweet mother my days and nights are passing in a very healthy, educational and motivational
environment. You need not at all to get worry about me, by the grace of Good I am quite happy here, under
the shelter of your prays.

Pay my salam to father and good wishes to brothers and sisters.

Your loving son,

16. Letter To Friend; About The His Subjects In Intermediate
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 5, 2010.

Dear Friend,
Your last letter made me happy by informing that you have passed your Matriculation
examination with cradit. As for as your question of choosing subjects in Intermediate is concerned, I think
this question must be asked from none other than your heart. A student can learn properly, only when he has
keen interest in the subjects, he is taking up.

However, present trends and demand of a particular subject in the public or private sector, also have their
own significance.

I know that you are a born Mathematician. You have been taking good marks in Maths since childhood. you
are very sharp in Mathematical operations. Mathematics and Physics are very close to each other. A
handsome part of Physics has a Mathematical base. Due to the modern advancement in the industrial sector,
no one can deny the role of a Physicist in the modern developments.

As third subject, I think Chemistry will be the best option because by selecting it, you will be eligible to take
admission in some prominent branch of engineering.

so my dear this is what I thought but final decision will certainly of yours. May Allah award you with His
matchless guidance.

Pay my salam to aunt and uncle.

Yours sincerely,

17. Letter To Friend; To Invite Him To A Marriage Ceremony
Examination Hall,
City A.B.C.
January 3, 2010.

My Dear Friend,
I hope this letter will find you in the best of health and spirits. Today I am writing you for a
very special matter. My brother’s marriage is taking place on the 25th of this month. It will be a great honour
for me and my family to have your presence in the ceremony. We are to take the Barat to Okara in the
Saturday evening. After the holy ceremony of Nikah and other related conventional practices, the party will,
Insha Allah return at mid night. But don’t worry because the next day will be a Sunday and all of us will be
free to keep sleeping till late.

I shall dispatch the formal invitation card to you, three days later, as these are in printing process so far. Due
to our special relation, I find it necessary to inform you earlier so that you may finish the required
preparations in time.

I am sure that you will enjoy here a lot, and we shall enjoy your company, a lot. Many other old friends are
also coming to attend the ceremony. You will be happy to find a pleasant break in the arduous daily routine.
Try to reach at least two days before the ceremony. Inform me about the exact date of your arrival so that I
will be able to make further arrangements accordingly.

Pay my regards to all the members of your family.

Anxiously waiting for you,

Yours sincerely,
1. Applications
Application is a formal requesting statement.

Application is a formal statement to ask for someone’s permission for a particular purpose like a job, a grant of
money, admission to an institute or a leave etc.

Basic Components Of An Application
• Addressee: The person who is being addressed.
• Subject: Topic or purpose of writing.
• Salutation: Greeting phrase.
• Summary: Main theme or subject matter.
• Ending Phrases: Summing up sentences.
• Applicant's Details: Name and address of the writer.

Further More
1. Application For Leave On Account Of Illness
The Principal,
Government Science College,
City A.B.C.

Subject: Application For Leave On Account Of Illness.

Most respectfully, I very humbly request that I have been suffering from fever since last night. I went to
the doctor, he said that fever will diminish after 4 hours. The whole night passed but the fever is still

Therefore, I am unable to leave the bed. Kindly grant me leave for one day.
I shall be extremely obliged for your gracious favour in this regard.

Yours Obediently,
January 16, 2010.

2. Application For Leave On Account Of Urgent Piece of Work
The Principal,
Government College Of Arts,
City A.B.C.

Subject: Application For Leave On Account Of Urgent Piece Of Work.

With due reverence, I state that I have an urgent piece of work at home. Therefore, I am unable to come to
college today. Kindly grant me leave for one day.
I shall be highly obliged for this special favour to me.

Yours Obediently,
January 16, 2010.

3. Application For Leave To Attend A Marriage Party
The Principal,
Government College Of Commerce,
City A.B.C.

Subject: Application For Leave To Attend Marriage.

Most respectfully, it is submitted that I have to go to Karachi to attend a marriage of my cousin. It will
take me three days to come back.

Therefore, you are requested kindly to grant me leave for three days. I shall be highly obliged for the gracious
favour in this regard.

Yours Obediently,
January 16, 2010.

4. Application For Remission Of Fine
The Principal,
Government Post Graduate College,
City A.B.C.

Subject: Application For Remission Of Fine.

With due respect, it is submitted that I have been fined Rs. 200, for being absent from the college for nine

I am the only son of my father and I have two of my sisters and mother at home. My father is in Saudi Arabia
and my mother got ill so much that she was taken to hospital. I, being the only male member of my family
here, had to take care of my ailing mother in the hospital.

I am sorry, I could not send my application to you. Anyhow, now my mother is getting well and I am back to
college. I am submitting the copies of the hospital papers which are the proof of my factual absence.

Kindly remit my fine. I shall be highly obliged for the special favour in this regard.

Yours Obediently,
January 16, 2010.

5. Application For Fee Concession
The Principal
Government Inter College,
City A B C.

Subject: Application For Fee Concession.

With due reverence, I submit that I have joined this college as first year science student. I have got 844
marks out of 950 in Matriculation. In every subject I got A plus grade. My father’s earning is too poor to feed
six children.

Therefore, I request your gracious-self to give me full fee concession. I am sure that a man of your repute
shall consider and encourage a student who wants to bring the college a repute by achieving a position at the
Board level. Your favour will encourage me to continue my education with the same zeal and zest.

I shall be highly thankful to you for a very sympathetic favour in this regard.

Yours obediently,
October 16, 2009.

6. Application To Deputy Commissioner For Issuance Of Domicile Certificate
The Deputy Commissioner,
City A.B.C.

Subject: Application To Deputy Commissioner For Issuance Of Domicile Certificate.

I have just passed my B.Com. examination from Baha-u-Din Zikriya University, Multan. Now I intend to
get admission in M.B.A. in The Punjab University, Lahore.

Therefore, I need a domicile certificate, as this is the requirement of the admission. Since, my father was a
Government employee, he was transferred to Multan. Therefore, we remained with him and got admission
there. My father was retired in 1992. He died in 1999; his death certificate is also attached herewith. I got my
CNIC from Multan, whereas I was born in Lahore. My birth certificate, Matriculation Certificate and all other
necessary documents, duly attested by the first class magistrate, are attached herewith. All the necessities and
formalities are fulfilled accordingly.
Kindly issue me a domicile certificate, as soon as possible, so that I can submit my admission form in The
University on time.

I shall be highly obliged for this kind act at your gracious end.

Yours Obediently,
January 20, 2010.
1. Stories
Story is a piece of writing based on both factual as well as fictional narration of events.

A story is an explanation or description of something like an evevt or happening.

A report, a gossip, a fairy-tale, a fiction, an anecdote or a rumour can also be called a story.

A description of events and people that the writer or speaker has invented in order to entertain people.

There are two kinds of stories:
• Defined Stories
• Undefined Stories

Further More
1. Defined Stories
These are limited, clear and precised stories, with some definite message, lesson or moral lesson, between
the lines. That is why, these are also called close ended stories or "Stories Based On Moral Lessons."

2. Undefined Stories
These are imprecised, unlimited and unclear stories, without any message or lesson, between the lines.
2. Defined Stories
These are limited, clear and precised stories, with some definite message, lesson or moral lesson, between the
lines. That is why, these are also called close ended stories or "Stories Based On Moral Lessons."

Some stories based on Moral Lessons are given below.
Further More
1. Do Good And Have Good
Once there was a lion. Since he was very proud of being the king. Undoubtedly, he was strong enough to over
power anyone around him. Therefore, he used to look down upon the other animals.

One fine day, the lion was enjoying mild sun bath. His long and silky hair looked so beautiful. Enjoying the
cool breeze and mild sun, the lion got asleep. A mouse happened to pass by and saw the lion taking a nap.
The mouse could not help dancing on the body of the lion.

Soon the lion awoke. On finding the mouse jumping over his body, the lion got enraged with dignity of being
the king and caught the mouse, who was in the paws of the king, in no time. Now the mouse could appeal the
lion only to spare him but when the lion denied to release him at any cost, the mouse challenged the lion if he
spares him today, he would help him in the hour of calamity. The lion laughed, made fun of him, took pity on
him and released him.

It had not been too long a time that one day a hunter caught the same lion in a net. Now the king felt helpless.

By chance, the mouse appeared there and saw the lion traped in the net. Now it was the time to repay the
forgiveness of the lion. He came close to the net and started to cut its ropes. Soon, the lion was free. He
thanked the mouse and went away.

Moral: Do good and have good.

2. Greed Is Curse
Once three friends committed to try their luck in a neighbouring country. They travelled on foot. The distance
was too long. Soon they got tired, and took rest in a cave. There they saw something shining near by. They
started digging it. Soon they knew that it was a heap of gold. They were very pleased.

Now they started thinking how to get food because they were hungry. Soon they decided that one of them
will go to fetch the food and they will enjoy it.

Therefore, one of them went to the city to get the food. The huge wealth made them rivals of one another.
The two in the cave planned, as soon as the third comes back, they will kill him and both will divide the gold
in two equal shares.

At the same time, the third one started thinking how to get the whole gold alone. He planned that he will take
his share of food in the city and mix poison in the food of his friends. When they take the food, they will die
and he will be able to get the whole treasure alone.

As soon as the third one came back, the other two attacked him and killed in no time. Now they started taking
the poisoned food also died.

The treasure remained as it was but heir greed finished their lives.

Moral: Greed is curse.

3. Might Is Right
Once a wolf was very tired, hungry and thirsty. He came to a stream to quench his thirst. He drank water to
his fill. As he was tired, he wanted to take a nap in the cool breeze near the stream. Soon he felt the smell of a
kid. He woke up, and walked up stream. There he found a kid drinking water. The flesh of the kid increased
his appetite. It was intolerable for him to spare another moment to enjoy the flesh.

He came close to the kid and roared, "How dare you to mud my water?" The poor kid told that the water was
coming to him from the wolf so how could he mud his water? Now the wolf had no reply.

Mad with hunger, the wolf again roared, "You had done so six months before, as well". The kid replied that
before six months, he was not even born. Once again, the wolf was made speechless. Mad with hunger, the
wolf roared once again, "If it were not you, it would have been your mother." Saying so, the wolf jumped at
the poor kid, tore him to pieces, and devoured it up.

Moral: Might is right.

4. All That Glitters Is Not Gold/Pride Hath Fall
Once there lived a stag in a forest. The stag was not only stupid but also proud. He used to go to the stream
daily to enjoy fresh water to drink. As a daily routine, he used to see his horns in the reflection of clear water,
and felt proud of them. The stag took his horns as a part of his beauty and grandeur. He used to curse his
thin legs. He always complained to God, why He had made his legs such ugly. This displeased the Nature.

One day, a hunter entered the forest. The stag was drinking water as usual. The hunter started to chase him.
When the stag heard the noise of the hoofsof the horse, he looked back and started running. He took long
jumps and left the hunter far behind. At a time when the stag was passing through the thick branches, his
horns tangled among them. He tried his best to get rid of them but fruitless. At last, the hunter reached there.
He caught him alive.

The legs which looked ugly, took him to a great distance to safety. The horns which he was proud of, made
him prey to hunter.

Moral: All that glitters is not gold./Pride hath fall.

5. Honesty Is The Best Policy
Once there was a wood-cutter, he was very poor. He had a quality, that he was honest. Once he was cutting a
tree by the side of a river. Suddenly, his axe slipped from his hand and sank into the river. He did not know
what to do now. He was very sad. He used to earn his living with the help of that axe. He prayed to God. O’
God! Help me, I am ruined.

Just then an angel appeared in the garb of a man before him. The angel asked him, what had happened? The
wood-cutter told the angel that his axe had fallen in the river, now he had no means of earning. The angel
dived into the river and after a pause he appeared with a golden axe. The angel asked if it was his axe. The
wood-cutter refused. Then the angel once again dived into the river and brought another axe of silver. The
angel, as usual asked the wood-cutter if this was his axe. The wood-cutter refused as usual. The angel dived
for the third time, into the river and brought an iron axe. Now the wood-cutter was quite happy and satisfied.
He smiled and said that it was his axe.

The angel was much pleased to see the honesty of the wood-cutter. He gave both the gold and the silver axes
to the wood-cutter as a reward of his honesty.

Moral: Honesty is the best policy.

6. Look Before You Leap
Once there was a lion in a forest. Whenever, he was hungry, he used to come out of the cave and roared
loudly. Then the poor animals used to come to him and he made them his meal.

There were two jackals in the forest. They were very cunning.

One day, a jackal went to the other and said, "I have a plan to save ourselves." The other jackal was very
pleased to know that. He, very impatiently asked about the plan. The first said "You simply follow me and
see how I do this." So they went to the lion and said, "There is a big lion in another part of the forest. He
claims that he is bigger and more powerful than you so all of us should accept him as our king." The lion
roared and said, "Take me to that lion I shall see how does he dare to claim?"

Thus both the jackals took him to a distant well and told that the other lion was therein. The lion looked into
the well, saw his reflection in the water and mistook it as another lion. He started to roar but it was intolerable
for him to let another lion roar against him. So he grew outrageous and without caring how deep the well
will be, he jumped into it and never came back.

After this, all the animals of the forest lived happily.

Moral: Look before you leap.

7. Slow And Steady Wins The Race
Once there lived a hare and a tortoise by the side of a pool. They were fast friends. The hare enjoyed green
and fresh grass, and the tortoise used to enjoy water. Both lived happily.

The hare was proud of his swiftness. Therefore, he always rebuked the tortoise of his slow spead. Every
time, the tortoise tolerated hare’s remarks.

One day, when both of them were taking rest after lunch under a tree, the hare boasted that he was very swift
to compete any one. The tortoise kept quiet even then. All of a sudden, the hare said, "Let us have a race till
that distant well," saying so, he pointed towards a far off well. The tortoise agreed. They fixed the day and the

On the decided day, the race started in time. Since the hare used to run fast so he took a dashing start and
disappeared soon. Whereas the tortoise started to creep steadily with not even half of the speed, as compared
to that of the hare. On the way, the hare thought for a while, "How the tortoise can reach me? I have run
almost half the distance by now so I should take some rest under a tree for a short while and then restart."
Then his rest continued till late in the evening. But the tortoise continued moving non-stop. The sun was well
shinning when the tortoise reached the Alexander Well.

When the hare reached the Alexander Well, he saw tortoise already sleeping there and felt much ashamed.

Moral: Slow and steady wins the race.

8. Try, Try, Again/The King And The Spider
King Robert Bruce ruled Scotland for many years. During his regime, many battles were fought between
Scotland and England and he got defeat in every battle.

One day the king had to run away from the battle field to save his life. Luckily he found a cave to take
refuge. "Why bad luck is pursuing me every time?" he thought in himself.

All of a sudden he saw a spider, which had fallen from its web. The spider tried several times to reach the
web but slipped every time. Bruce was very keen to see when and how the spider will reach her web.

The spider did not lose heart, and continued her attempts even after falling many times. Bruce kept on
observing the spider, all the day long.

When the sun was going to set, and dark had started to prevail, Bruce thought that the poor spider must be
tired now and will stop her fruitless efforts soon; in the mean time he saw that the spider had managed to
reach her web.

At this he said to himself, "How coward I am? The spider did not lose heart even after countless defeats then
why should I?" This event gave him a fresh enthusiasm. Next day new Bruce awoke, full of action and
courage. He came out of the cave, gathered his forces and attacked the English Army. This time the
victorious Bruce had taken all revenges of past defeats. He crushed the enemies and won the victory for

Moral: Try, try, again.

9. Union Is Strength / United We Stand, Divided We Fall
There was a farmer who had grown too old. He had three sons, young enough but doing nothing. They used
to quarrel with one another quite often.

Once, the farmer fell so ill that the doctors were helpless to cure him. On feeling his death near, the farmer
got worried about the future of his children.

One day he called for his sons. When they came, the farmer asked one to fetch some sticks from the forest
and bind them tightly in a bundle. The boy obeyed him immediately. Then the father asked his sons to try to
break the bundle one by one. Everyone tried his best but failed.

At last, the farmer asked them to untie the bundle and break one stick each. It was quite easy for them and
they did so in no time.

On this, the farmer said, "My dear sons! If you remain united, no one can defeat you but if you got separated
like the sticks, you will collapse." The lesson of the old father inspired his sons so much that right from that
day they seized to quarrel with one another.

Union is strength.
United we stand, divided we fall.

10. God Helps Those Who Help Themselves
Once upon a timt here was a crow. He was very thirsty. He searched for water everywhere. But due to intense
hot weather, all the canals, lakes, pools and wells had gone dry and there was nothing for him to drink.

During his long and destinationless flight, he reached a garden and saw a pitcher of water placed on a
mound. The crow became happy and moved towards the pither. But when he reached there and peeped in
tthe pitcher, he got much worried to see that there was a very little water in it. He sat there and started
thinking about some way of bringing this water up to the brim.

All of a sudden, he saw a small heap of pebbles and conceived an idea. He went to the heap, seized a pabble
in his beak, flown towards the pitcher and dropped it in the pitcher. tThe water moved up but slightly. This
gave courage to the crow and he continued this practice for hours and hours untill the water reached very
close to the brim. The crow became happy to see it, drank water to his relish and flew away.

Moral: God helps those who help themselves.

11. A Rolling Stone Gathers No Moss
Once there was a very cunning bat. Whenever, there came an election between the birds and the animals, she
used to favour both of them, but just in the hours of progress.

When the birds were winning, she used to support and congratulate them saying that she can fly like them so
she is a bird. When the animals seemed winning, she supported them saying, she feeds her babies through
breast therefore, she is an animal.

Once before the elections, the animals realized that the bat is playing double game with them. So they
decided to quit her from their camp, if she comes to favour them.

When the election came, the animals won. As usual, the bat came to congratulate them on their success. But
the animals drew her away saying that she was a liar. The bat was very disappointed. Then she went to the
birds. But the birds also turned a deaf ear to her and pushed her away because they, too, had come to know
that she had been claiming to be an animal. Thus the bat left alone because of her selfishness.

Moral: A rolling stone gathers no moss.

12. Haste Makes Waste
Once a hunter had a very loyal hound. The hound was so dear to the hunter that it was considered as a family
member. Whenever the hunter went to hunt the prey in the forest, the hound remained with him for help. The
hunter had a son of six years. The mother of the child had died. The hound used to take care of the child,
every moment.

One day, the hunter went to the forest but forgot to take the hound with him. He had only a few bullets in the
pocket. On his way, he thought that the bullets are too short today. Therefore, he returned to collect more
bullets from his house.

When the hunter reached home, he saw his hound’s mouth and paws were red with blood. He could not think
anything except that the dog had killed his son. The hunter flared up and shot the dog at once.

When the son heard the shot, he came out of the house and told his father that there came a devouring wolf
but the hound killed it and saved his life. The hunter was ashamed of what he had done. He had killed his that
great guard, who had saved his son’s life.

Moral: Haste makes waste.

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