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............................................................................................................................................... 7
1.......................................................................................................................................... 11
................................................................................................. 11
1.1. ................................................................................................................................................................. 11
1.1.1. ............................................................................................................. 12
1.1.2. ; .............................................................................................. 13
1.1.3. - ................................................................................................................................ 17
1.2. ...................................................................................................................... 19
1.2.1. ...................................................................................................... 19
1.2.2. ....................................................................................................... 19
1.3. ...................................................................................................................................................... 21
1.3.1. ................................................................................................................ 21
1.3.2. ................................................................. 22
1.3.3. ............................................................................. 24
1.3.4. Holmes ........................................................................................... 24
1.4. ........................................................................................................................................... 28
..................................................................................................................................................................... 29
............................................................................................................................................................................ 31

2.......................................................................................................................................... 36
.......................................................................................... 36
2.1. ................................................................................................................................................................. 36
2.2. ................................................................ 36
2.2.1. .......................................... 37
2.3. .............................................................................................................. 38
2.3.1. .......................................................................................................... 39
2.3.2. ........................................................................................... 40
2.4. ....................................................................................................................................... 46
2.5. ............................................................................................................................................. 49
2.5.1. .................................................................................................................... 50
2.5.2. ......................................................................................... 52
2.6. ........................................................................................................................................... 53
2.6.1. ....................................................................................................................................................... 54
2.6.2. ............................................................................................................................................... 54
2.6.3. ................................................................................................................................................... 57
2.7. .............................................. 58
2.8. ........................................................................................................................................... 60
..................................................................................................................................................................... 62
............................................................................................................................................................................ 64
3

3.......................................................................................................................................... 69
....................................................................................... 69
3.1. ........................................................................ 69
3.1.1. ................................................................................................................................... 70
3.1.1.1. ............................................................................................................................ 71
3.1.1.2. ................................................................................................................... 74
3.1.1.3. ....................................................................................................................... 75
3.1.1.4. ........................................................................................................ 76
3.1.1.5. ....................................................................................................................... 78
3.1.2. ......................................................................... 79
3.1.2.1. .................................................................................................... 79
3.1.2.2. .................................................................................................................... 83
3.2. ........................................................................................... 86
3.2.1. ................................................................................................................................... 87
3.2.2. .................................................................................................................................. 91
/ ................................................................................................................................................... 95
.................................................................................................................................................... 100

4........................................................................................................................................ 103
H ........................................................................................ 103
4.1. ............................................... 103
4.1.1. .......................................... 103
4.1.2. : ...................................................... 105
4.2. ........................................................................................................................................ 107
4.2.1. Pierre Bourdieu ..................................................................................................................................................... 107
4.2.2. Niklas Luhmann.................................................................................................................................................... 109
4.2.3. : ............................................... 111
4.3. ........................................ 112
4.3.1. .................................................................................... 112
4.3.2. :
.................................................................................................................................................................................. 113
4.3.3. ...................................................................................................................................................... 121
................................................................................................................................................................... 122
.......................................................................................................................................................................... 127

5........................................................................................................................................ 129
H ..................................................................................... 129
5.1. : ...................................................... 129
5.2. ........................................................................................................................... 131
5.3. ................................................................................................................... 132
5.4. ................................................................................................. 134
5.5. .............................................................................. 136
4

5.5.1. Roman Jakobson............................................................................................................................................... 136


5.5.2. Roman Jakobson ......................................................................................... 137
5.5.3. Roman Jakobson ....................................................................................... 137
5.6. ............................................................. 138
5.7. .................................................................................... 139
5.8. ................................................................................................. 143
5.9. ................................................................................ 146
................................................................................................................................................................... 148
.................................................................................................................................................... 152

6........................................................................................................................................ 155
....................................................................................... 155
6.1. ............................................................................................................................................. 155
6.1.1. : ................................................................................................... 156
6.2. : ................................................................................................... 157
6.3. : ..................................................................................... 159
6.3.1. .............................................................................................. 159
6.3.2. ....................................................................................... 160
6.4. : ....................................................................... 164
6.4.1. ................................................................................. 164
6.4.2. ......................................................................... 165
6.4.2.1. ........................................................ 165
6.4.2.2. / ............................... 167
6.4.2.3. .................................................................................... 168
6.5. .................................................................................................................................. 169
6.6. ....................................................................................................................................... 170
................................................................................................................................................................... 171
.................................................................................................................................................. 175
...................................................................................................................................................... 175

7........................................................................................................................................ 179
H ..................................................................................... 179
7.1. : ..................................................................................... 179
7.1.1. .................................................... 179
7.1.2. : ................................................... 180
7.2. : .............................................................................................. 181
7.2.1. ......................................................................................... 181
7.2.2. .......................................................................................................................................................... 188
7.3. ............................................................................................................................. 202
7.3.1. , , ..................................... 202
7.3.2. / , ............................................................................ 209
7.4. ......................................................................................................................................................... 211

................................................................................................................................................................... 212
.......................................................................................................................................................................... 216
............................................................................................................................................................... 218


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24

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, (Gentzler, 1993: 93).

27

Holmes (translation psychology)


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1.4.


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The name and nature of Translation Studies.
,
.

28


Baker, . (1997). Translation Studies. M. Baker (ed.). The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation
Studies, London/New York: Routledge, 277-280.
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propositions didactiques, Lille: Presses Universitaires, 223-261.
Bassnett, S. (1980). Translation Studies. Revised Edition. London and New York: Routledge.
Benjamin, W. (1923/1999). , * , . , :
.
Benveniste, E. (1974). Problmes de linguistique gnrale, Paris : Gallimard.
Berman, . (1985). La traduction et la lettre ou Lauberge du lointain, Les Tours de Babel, Mauzevin, TransEurop-Repress, 35-150.
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Catford, J. C. (1965). Linguistic Theory of Translation. An Essay in Applied Linguistics, London: Oxford
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, . (1988). . : .
, . (1998).
, .
, . (2007. . . . .
(.), 20 ....., , : , 195-209.
, . (2014).
Holmes: , , :
, ...

30


1

1. :
.
. 19
.
2. , :
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31

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Les dfinitions de la traduction diffrent selon les points de vue des thoriciens mais il y a des composantes
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traduction :
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33

/ 1
1: , 2: , 3: , 4: , 5: , 6: , 7: , 8 :, 9: , 10: , 11: , 12: , 13: , 14: , 15: , 16: , 17: , 18: , 19: , 20:
, 21: , 22: , 23: , 24: , 25: , 26: , 27: , 28: , 29: , 30:

2
.
: , ;
1. . (1996). Y . . : University Studio Press.

2. Vermeer H. (1989). Skopos and commission in translation action. A. (ed.), Readings in Translation
Theory. Helsinki: Oy Finn Lectura Ab, 173 187.

3. Yourcenar, M. (1958). Prface de la traduction des pomes de Constantin Cavafy. Marguerite Yourcenar,
Prsentation Critique de Constantin Cavafy, Paris: Gallimard.

4. Culioli, A. (1973). Sur quelques contradictions en linguistique. Communications no 20. Paris: Seuil, 83 90.

5. Guidre, M. (2008). Introduction la traductologie, Bruxelles: De Boeck.

6. Hugo, V. (1873). Prface de la nouvelle traduction de Shakespeare. William Shakespeare, uvres compltes,
traduction de Franois-Victor Hugo, 3me dition, Paris : Pagnerre.

/ 2
1: , 2: , 3: , 4: , 5: , 6:

3
) 1
,
2006 (http://www.frl.auth.gr/sites/trad_congress/index.htm.
Holmes, (),
() () .
1. : ,

2. : :

3. :

4. Seel Olaf-Immanuel: :

34

5. :

6. : ( ;)

7. : :

8. :

9. :

10. : .

/ 3
1: , 2: , 3: , 4: , 5: , 6: , 7: , 8: , 9: , 10:

35

.
,
.
(Jakobson, Nida, Newmark).

, Culioli. ,
Vinay Darbelnet
. ,
.

1 .

2.1.
,
.
,
, .
, , ,
,
. : , ,
-, . ,
, .
,
, .
,

. , ,

.
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. , ,
,
.
J.P. Vinay J. Darbelnet,
,
. , ,
.

2.2.
, ,

, . ,
,
.
, ,
36

.
.
. 1950 1960, .
1940, ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
,
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,
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Morten Tyldum
).

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1, 20 ,
.


. .
.
, ,
.
.
, N (2004, . 387) ,

.

- -.
H ,
- ,
, .
Vinay Darbelnet (1958), Mounin (1963), Nida (1964) Catford (1965),
50 60, ,
,

. 20 ,
-
O Vinay Darbelnet Stylistique compare du franais et de langlais. Mthode de
traduction (1958) .
, ,
.
de Saussure
. :

,

.

37

,
, .
Pergnier (1981, . 258),
,
,
, -, -.
O Mounin Les problmes thoriques de la traduction (1963)

.
(Martinet, Hjelmslev, Jespersen ),
, ,
, ,
, , . O Nida Toward
a Science of Translation (1964), ,

, , Chomsky.

. ,
. Catford,
Linguistic Theory of Translation. An Essay in Applied Linguistics (1965),
Firth Halliday, ,

(, , , ) (, , , ,
..).

,
.
,
, , ,
.
.
Culioli (.. Guillemin-Flescher 1981), --
Halliday (House, 1977, Hatim Mason, 1990 & 1997), , ,
(Bell, 1991), ,
, Grice, (Baker, 1992).

2.3.

(quivalence equivalence). ,
.
,
.
. ,
,
. , , ,
, .
Jakobson (1959/2000) On linguistic aspects of translation.

.

38

2.3.1.
, (
. Munday, 2001/2002, Grammenidis, 2002 , 2011),
,
,
, .
:
1.
,
2.
,
3.
.
,

. Snell-Hornby (1995, . 3),
. , Gentzler (1993,
. 4) ,
. H

: , , .
, ,
. H Baker (1992, . 5),
, ,
, .
,
. Nouveau Petit Robert (1993, . 2284),
, traduire :
faire que ce qui tait nonc dans une langue naturelle le soit dans une autre, en tendant lquivalence
smantique et expressive des deux noncs.
Catford (1965, . 20), ,
() . Catford (1965, .
210), ,
, -
.

. , (textual
equivalence) (formal correspondence)
.
(, , .)

(Catford 1965, . 27).

[] (Munday 2001/2002,
. 107).
, Nida (1964, . 159)
.
, (formal equivalence)
(dynamic equivalence). H -
, -. ,
, . []
39


- (Nida 1964, . 159).
(gloss translations),
-
, - -.
, , Nida ,

(Nida 1964, . 159).

.
- (Nida 1964, . 166).
,
, .
,
-,
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, :

.

: ;
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. , Newmark ( Larose 1989, . 81):
.

2.3.2.
, ,
: - -.
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(langue). Koller
( Nord 1997/2014, . 30):
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40

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on . ,

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A
, plus-que-parfait,
( 1, 2 3):
1. Les gens qui mavaient connu dix-sept ans lors de mon voyage en France ont t impressionns
quand ils ils mont revue, deux ans aprs, dix-neuf ans.
O , ,
, .
(M. Duras, LAmant / E: 10/10)
2. LA REINE: Vous, monsieur le Juge, que fait-on? Javais ordonn moins de condamnations mort te
davantage de travaux forcs.
BAIIA: E , ;
.
(J. Genet, Le Balcon / : 124/92)
3. Carmen: Je lavais compris. Mon pre, le colonel dartillerie...
K: T . E, , ...
(J. Genet, Le Balcon / : 67/50)
( 4, 5 6):
4. Le petit frre est mort en dcembre 1942 sous loccupation japonaise. Javais quitt Saigon aprs mon
deuxime baccalaurat en 1931.
1942 .
, 1931.
(M. Duras, LAmant / E: 71/64)
5. Elle habitait avec D. Elle avait encore peur. Elle avait achet un fusil (...) Elle avait achet aussi une
proprit son fils an prs d'Ambroise.
T N. . . (...) A
A .
(M. Duras, LAmant / E: 39/36)
6. Le Bourreau: Cet aprs-midi, juste avant votre arrive, trois points principaux sont tombs aux mains
des rvolts. Ils avaient allum plusieurs incendies: aucun pompier nest sorti.
: ' , ,
. , .
(J. Genet, Le Balcon / : 34/27)
H ,
:
7. - K -E;
- ! . , ,
.
41

- Et tu las cru vraiment, Ekavi?


- Non, bien sr! J'tais, moi aussi, incrdule, comme Thomas et comme toi. Le moine a oubli le nom
de famille, pensai-je, et il rejette la faute sur la Sainte.
(. , : 77/91)
8. E. , .
..
"Erasmia a raison. Jai pch et Dieu me punit". Et ainsi de suite. Un soir, en entrant dans notre chambre
je le surpris agenouill devant l'iconostase.
(. , : 30/36)
9. , , .
-
Ce vendredi aprs midi, vers les cinq heures, nous entendmes un taxi, s'arrter dans la rue du bas.
- Ils sont venus.
(. , : 54/66)
pass compos pass simple.
8 9
, . ,
, , ,
. , ,
,
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,
. , 7
, 8.
( 7 8) .
,
,
(time) .

, on
. on
,
. ,
,
je (), tu (), nous (), vous () il(s) (-), elle(s) ( ).
,
. Atlani (1981, . 23),
on .
:


on


2.1. on

,
, on .
, (
), on , :

42

10. Dans le rituel aragonais, on relve, entre autres, des pomes d'Isaac Halevi, de Joseph Bakri, d'Isaac
Benghiat, etc.
, , ,
, , ..
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 194 /. 1, 320)
11. On enregistre un grand nombre de legs immobiliers

(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 111 /. 1, 326)
12. On tient de moins en moins compte des droits des occupants
..
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 165 /. 1, 361)
:
13. Cette nouvelle unit synagogale vit le jour dans des conditions qu'on n'a pas pu exactement dterminer.
,
.
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 86 /. 1, 310)
14. De mme, on tombe aisment d'accord pour l'entretien du Talmud Tora
,
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 102 /. 1, 321)
15. On est pourtant autoris cumuler des hazakas la condition expresse qu'elles proviennent d'une
tradition normale
hazaka

(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 162 /. 1, 359)
(, , ,
, , )
.
, ,
. , on
:
16. On trouve utile de rappeler, cette occasion, que le devoir primordial de tout homme de bien est de
secourir d'abord les membres de la famille


(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 111 /. 1, 326)
17. Comme on est loin du faste des premiers temps o les fidles de Gurouch, de Catalan et de Lisbonne
se complaisaient des fantaisies architecturales
,

(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 96 /. 1, 316)
18. En gnral, comme on le voit par les responsa du temps, on a un grand respect pour la foi jure.
, responsa ,
.
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 79 /. 1, 306)
16 on .
, .
. ,
17 18 .
.

43

- .
(, , ).

, :
19. On comprend sans peine avec quelle joie les Marranes se prcipitent.
.
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 62 /. 1, 295)
20. On dirait qu'il porte dans ses bagages sa petite patrie, sa synagogue.
, .
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 66 /. 1, 298)
21. Si l'on nglige les diffrences de dtail et de classement on peut ramener tous les rituels deux types:
le romaniote et le sfaradite.
,
: .
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 191 /. 1, 378)
on ,
:
22. A travers toute la judat, on se proccupe constamment d'accumuler des ressources pour la rdemption
des captifs.

.
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 115 /. 1, 329)
23. Pour les questions plus graves, on convie toute la population dans la vaste aula qui est au centre de
Talmud Tora.
,
.
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 101 /. 1, 320)
24. On combat comme on peut les vellits sparatistes, et si on ne parvient pas toujours les freiner, du
moins on les rprouve unanimement et sans rserve.
,
, .
(J. Nehama, Histoire des Isralites de Salonique : Tome III, 99 /. 1, 31)
,
, on ,
. on ,
, . ,
, -
,
. , Jakobson (1959/2000, . 114)
-
.
on:

44

On

2.2. on


: pass compos
pass simple; on , ,
; ,
Nida,
;

. .
, ,
,
-
-. ,
.
,
.
(langage),

, . plus-que-parfait
, .
,
(. on) (
, , ,
, )
( ser estar, ,
: , tre, to be), .
Jakobson (1959/2000, . 116)
.
, ,
. ,

, .

. H
, .
,
, ,
. ,

,
, (Grammenidis, 2002).
,
,
. , ,
, ,
45



.

, (. 1). H
.
,
, , .
, ,
,
, , ,
. Jakobson (1959/2000, . 114),
. ,
. , ,
. ,
Culioli (1982, . 4),
,
,
, ,
.
, .
Culioli (1987, . 29) ,
.

. ,

.
,
.

(
,
), (langage) (

). ,
,
, , .
N (2001, . 46),
( . 1).
, ,
, .
,
, .

2.4.
1950,
(
. Munday, 2001/2002). ,
, Jean-Paul Vinay Jean Darbelnet (1958).
,
, .
. ,
. :
46

,
. (
J. Delisle &
al (1999/2008) ):
(emprunt / borrowing).
,
.
.
(.. time-out, dj-vu, Ersatz).
,
/ - (, , ).
,
:
: , ,
, , la plante, le paragraphe.
: cycle
, / premier cycle dtudes,
, -
: cercle vicieux, milieux gouvernementaux.
, ,
( ): crayon ,
(le rouge lvres),
:
philologue, gologue gyncologue,
, , biologiste, conomiste
lectricien. : idoltre,
sympathique.
, , :
fantastique fantme f ph,
(philatliste, philologie, phnomne).
(calque / calque).
.
,
:
Mariage de convenance = marriage of convienence = .
Cold war = .
Skyscraper =
chemin de fer =
lenfant prodige =
(traduction littrale / literal translation).
,
.
,
-.
.
,
, .
,
.
Abitur baccalaurat,
Abitur ( ) baccalaurat ( )
47

(), ,
.
,
. .
,
:
M (transposition / transposition)

, -.
, .
:

Ds son entre, je lai reconnu M , . (-)


Dfense dafficher . (-)
He will soon be back (-)
En ce printemps 62, elle na pas voulu dun nouveau dpart 62
. (-)
Elle a lu dans mes penses (-)

,
, entre, Dfense, dpart penses,
soon.
M (modulation / modulation).
,
.
,
. ,
,
-:

Un film en noir et blanc


Keep dry
The time when (the moment where)
It is not difficult to show (it is easy to show)
Allons-y, e nest pas loin, jai propos , ,
Javais pris une semaine de cong

,
.
,
-, -
. .
, :
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
48

(quivalence / equivalence)
,
, -
-,
. ,
, , :

,
Aie!, ouche! !
Chat chaud craint leau froide
Une hirondelle ne fait pas le printemps

(adaptation / adaptation),
,
- .
,
, .
:

He kissed his daughter on the mouth (


)
- cest pourquoi par la suite
je nai jamais pu manger de tripes grilles

.

2.5.
,
. ,

, , . ,
,
. .
, ,
,
( & 1999, . 63).

. ,
, . ,
, .
,
, , , ,
, , , ..
,
(. de Beaugrande &
Dressler 1981, Hatim & Mason 1990, Hatim 1998, & 1999). ,

.
,
.
Trosborg (1997: 17), ,

49

2.5.1.

Katharina Reiss.
Reiss ,
, , -
- (Reiss 1971/2000, . 160). ,
-,
, . ,
:
(phase of analysis)
(phase of reverbalization) (Reiss 1971/2000, . 162).
:
,

.
(Text-typ),
, (Textsorte),
, , De
Beaugrande & Dressler, (text type).
genre ( ) (
. 3).
, ,
,
, .
, Reiss
(1971/2002, . 42) (pragmatic text/texte pragmatique)
, , ,
. ,
, Karl Blher ( Ulirich
Stiehler Eugenio Coseriu) (,
), (, ,
). , :
(informative text/texte informative),
(expressive text/texte expressif)
(operative text/texte incitatif) (Reiss 1971/2002: 42, 1977/1989: 108).
,
:


2.3.


, . ,

. / .
:
, , , ,
50

, , , , ,
, , , , ,
.
.
,
. ,

. ,
,
(Reiss 1971/2002: 51). , (,
, ), (, , ,
, ..), . Reiss
(1971/2002, . 53) , ,
. ,
, ,

.
,
.

( , ,
). ,
,
.
. .

.
. , -.
, ,
. , ,
.
,
, .
( ), ,
,
, , .
Reiss , ,
, (audio-medial texts).
,
( , ,
, , , ..).
,
, (Reiss 1971/2002, . 63). ,
(
, , , .),
(, , ..) (,
, ..).
(. 2009, . 144):

2.4.

51

,
. ,
.. .

( ). ,
, .
.
, .

(Munday 2001/2002, . 126).
, ,
. , ,
( ),
( ).
,
. ,
. ,
(..
)
. , Jonathan Swift
, ,
( - ),
, (Reiss
1977/1989, . 114).
,

. , ,
,
,
(.. , ,
, ).
, , Reiss (1971/2000, . 165),
,
- - ( .

).
, ,
, ,
,
(Reiss 1971/2000, . 166). ad hoc
,
/ .

2.5.2.

, ,
. Reiss (1981/2000, . 166)
.
.
-
(Reiss 1971/2002, . 41).
,
. ,
52

, ,
. , ,

, ,
,
. Reiss (1971/2002, . 45),
, ,
.
,
. ,
.
, , .
,
, , ,
.
. ,
, .
,
,
-.
, ,
, , ,
.
, , -
-.
,

.
,
. ,
-,
,
.
,

. ,

. ,
,
.

2.6.
,
. , , ,
.
(Delisle & al., 1999/2008, Nord, 1997/2014) ,
, .
, ,
, , ,

( , , ,

53

).
.

2.6.1.
-
, , , .
:
(inappropriate expression / improprit)
,
:

* = .
* = .
* = .

() (barbarism / barbarisme)

:
* =
* =
* =
* =
(solecism / solcisme)
,
.

( ).
. , ( ).
( ).

,
, .
(repetition / rptition)
, .
, ,
.
, ,
.

( ) .
( ) , , , .

2.6.2.

, .
,
.

54

(nonsense / non-sens)
,
,
.
() :
* the materialization of the process = the implementation of the
process
The meeting will take place in the new annex.
= .
() (barbarism / barbarisme)
,
, -.
(actualization) (fast food) , , ,
, .
( )
,

. ,
,
. ,
.
(incorrect meaning / faux sens)

, (. ).

(. 2.4.1).
, . ,
.
,
:
Its a fair price for such a car. . =
.
(omission / omission)
,
:
Two thirds of the customers (whose monthly consumption is less than 900 kWh) will receive a 0,5%
increase per year. * (
900 kWh) 0,5% . = (
900 kWh)
0,5% .
(misinterpretation / contresens)
,
, :
To avoid world wars, world starvation, and world epidemics, international bodies have been set
up. * , ,
. = ,
, .
.

55

Henry VIII was soon to take the steps which would cause his break with the Pope in Rome, and
with the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. * 8

5. = 8

5.


.
(addition / ajout)
,
:
About 85% of beer sold is ale. * 85%
. = 85% .
, ,
, ,
.
(overtranslation / surtraduction)
,
, :
No parking at any time * =
.
OSE, the Hellenic Railways Organization, agreed to participate to the establishment of a high
performance railway network in southeastern Europe. * ,
,
. =
.
(under-translation / sous-traduction)
,
, -
,
.
Statistics can show how and where women workers are employed. *
. =
.

. , ,
( . Delisle & al., 1999/2008).


()


()

()

2.5. .
56

2.6.3.
(Reiss 1971/2000, Vermeer 1987, Nord 1997/2014),

.
,
. , ,
.

, -
-
.
Sigrid Kupsch-Losereit ( Nord, 1997/)
:
,
,
,
,

,
.
, Nord (1997/2014)
,
:

,
, ..
.
: . ,

.
,
.

,
.
(Nord 1997/2014, . 150):
, . Aus Tradition in
die Zukunft (
Desde la tradicin hacia el futuro), ,
-. ,
- . Tradition et modernisme
, ,
-.
, (
).
.

,
, ,
.
-,
, .
57


, .
, .
. ,
,
. , ,
. ,

.
, - ( .. ,
), . ,
, - .

-.
,
.
( ),
. , ,
,
, .

-.
,
.
- -.

2.7.

-- - -. H
Fawcett (1997,
. i), , .


. H 1990. H
.
,
,
.
O Vermeer (1987, . 29), Reiss
,
:
Linguistics alone wont help us. First, because translating is not merely and not primarily a linguistic
process. Secondly, because linguistics has not yet formulated the right questions to tackle our problem.


. Venuti, Lederer,
,
, Basnett Lefevere. O Venuti (1998, . 23)
58


. Lederer (1994, . 90),
,
. H Basnett Lefevere (Munday 2001, . 127), ,
,
,
, , ,
.
,
, .

(, -, , ..)
. .
, ,
a priori
. ,
, ,
, .
,
. ,

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
. , Guillemin-Flescher (1986, . 59),

.
H
,
.

, , Nord (1997, . 44),
.
, , ,
,
, . , Toury (1999, . 18),

.
, , .
Venuti ,
. , ,
Lederer,
,
. , ,
pass compos,
on, ;
, Lederer (1994, . 89)

, ; , ,
, ; , ,
, , ,
,
59


,
, ;
, , -
, , ,

, .
,
, ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
(. Nord 1997/2014).

. , ,
,

. ,
.
Pergnier (1981, . 255),
. , ,

.

2.8.


,
. ,
, ,
M .

---
- -. ,
.

(quivalence-equivalence). ,
,
,
.

, . ,
.
H Jean-Paul Vinay Jean Darbelnet (1958)
: , , , , ,
.
K. Reiss , ,
. ,

.

,
. ,
60

.
, . ,
,
, ,
, .
(, ,
), ( , , , ,
, , ) (
),
, ,
.

61


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63


1

1. E. Nida :
. . Chomsky
. A. Culioli
. Grice
2. E. Nida :
.
.
.
3. :
.
.
.
4. :
.
.
.
5. J-C Catford :
.
.
.
6. Katharina Reiss :
. ,
. ,
. ,
7. :
.
.
.
8. :
.
.
.
9. :
.
.
.
10. :
.
64

.
.
11. :
.
.
.
12. :
. ,
. ,
.
13. :
.
.
.
14. :
.
.
.
15. :
.
.
.
16. :
.
.
.
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.
.
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18. :
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19.
:
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.
20. :
.
.
. ,
21. , :
65

.
.
.
22. , :
.
.
.
23. , :
.
.
.
24. :
.
.
. produire
25. :
.
.
.
26. :
.
.
.
27. :
.
.
.
28. :
.
.
.
29. :
.
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30. :
.
.
.

1
1: , 2: , 3: , 4: , 5: , 6: , 7: , 8 :, 9: , 10: , 11: , 12: , 13: , 14: , 15: , 16: , 17: , 18: , 19: , 20:
, 21: , 22: , 23: , 24: , 25: , 26: , 27: , 28: , 29: , 30: .

66

2
,
, /
:
1. Il avait eu le temps dy recruter une centaine dadeptes qui se groupent en une petite glise docile aux
conseils des anciens.
,
.
2. .
Deux chiens un os ne saccordent.
3. Entre documentaire et imaginaire, lhistoire dune femme de lex-Union sovitique qui cherche une
meilleure vie
:

4. Le graisseur du chemin de fer

5. quand le mariage ?
;
6. Il ma offert un chausson aux pommes

7. Beaucoup ont vu cela comme une insulte

8. Supprimer tout

9. On ne fait pas domelette sans casser les ufs.
.
10. Je trouve que le rsultat nest pas si mal

2
1 =
2 =
3 =
4 =
5 =
6 =
7 =
8 =
9 =
10 =

3
67


:
1. La traductologie est la discipline qui tudie le phnomne traduisant dans tous ses tats.

.
2. La sieste est prfrable la grasse matine
.
3. Sex in an art gallery? Klimt would approve
; ..
4. is a fitting homage to the art of Gustav Klimt.
Gustav Klimt.
5. Le bon jouet est dclencheur de limaginaire.

3
1 = ( )
2 = ( )
3 = ( )
4 = ( )
5 = ( )

68

3 . ,
, ,
,
, .

,
. ,
( ),
( ).

1 2 .

3.1.


. ,
,

,
,
.
, , ( )

. ,
.
1970, ,

-.
1970 ,

(cultural turn),
.
:

,

(),
,
.


, ( )
( ).
.

. , ,
69

, ,
,
.
,
.
/

, . ,


, .. (
[continental law], ) (
[common law], ). ,

,
( ) . , ,

,
.
, ,
,
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.

, .

,

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,

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, ,

.

3.1.1.

. ,
,
. ,
,
,
, . ,
.
, ,
, . ,

.

70

3.1.1.1.

. 19 .
civilisation (> . civitas)
. ,
( ),
, ,
. ,
( )
(culture, Kultur > . colere = , , , .., . Oxford
Latin Dictionary 1968, . 345).
,
( ),
(cultura animi, . Niedermann 1941, . 2).
,
.. .
;
18 19 .
, .
, civilisation , ,

, , , culture

, (. Hansen
1995).
, (. 1999)
culture (, ) Kultur ()
, ,
, civilisation (, ) Zivilisation
()
(
, .. Lvi-Strauss 1958,
1962). , , .. contemporary American culture Maja
civilization.
:
, , ,
.
,
, , ,
,
,
, ,

, (2000, . 126). ,
,
( ) civilization ( culture)
,

71

. 1
, ,
, -, - , -, -.
, .. . , ,
, , ..
(. 1998). ,
, ,
/ .
, , ;
.
,

.
. , Kroeber
Kluckhohn (1952) 164 ,
. ,
Edward B. Tylor (1871 [1979]), :
, ,
, , , , , ,
(Culture or Civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that
complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society, . 1). ,
,
,
, .
,
, .. Marvin Harris (1983, . 5):

, (
) (Culture is the learned, socially acquired traditions and life-styles of the members of a
society, including their patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling and acting (i.e., behaving)).
,
( ),
, .
, ,
.
,
,
, .
,
.
, ,
. Kroeber Kluckhohn (1952)
,
.
Katan (1999, . 27-31),
. (.
2009, . 32), Katan :

,
,


(2009) , Williams (1994),
Cuche (1996), Baldwin, Faulkner Hecht (2006) .
72

,
,
,
,
,
, .

Katan
. , ,
,

.
Simon (1996, . 137),
,
.
1970 ,
, , 1980,
(. Floros 2002 2005, . 68), .. Nida (1964), Catford
(1965), Kade (1968) Lev (1969).

, (.
Tylor ). Tylor
Goodenough (1964, . 36),
Tylor ,
:
,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, , .

([] societys culture consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a
manner acceptable to its members, and do so in any role that they accept for any one of themselves.
Culture, being what people have to learn as distinct from their biological heritage, must consist of the
end product of learning: knowledge, in a more general, if not relative, sense of the term. By this
definition, we should note that culture is not a material phenomenon; it does not consist of things,
people, behavior, or emotions. It is rather an organization of these things []).
Ghring (1978, . 10)
, , , :
, ,

,
,

(Kultur ist all das, was man wissen, beherrschen und empfinden knnen muss, um beurteilen zu knnen,
wo sich Einheimische in ihren verschiedenen Rollen erwartungskonform oder abweichend verhalten,
und um sich selbst in der betreffenden Gesellschaft erwartungskonform verhalten zu knnen, sofern
man dies will und nicht etwa bereit ist, die jeweils aus erwartungswidrigem Verhalten entstehenden
Konsequenzen zu tragen [...]).

73

, ,
, Rei & Vermeer (1984), Holz-Mnttri (1984),
Vermeer (1986), Snell-Hornby (1988), Nord (1993), Ammann (1995), Lauscher (1998)
Schmid (2000).
Mudersbach (2002), ,

,
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
-,
,
, . ,

,
. , , .. ,
, , ,
. ,
().
( )
,
,
, ,
(., , Vermeer 1986,
Mudersbach 2002, Attridge 2004, Floros 2006).

3.1.1.2.
, ,

(. 3.1 ),
. , ,
.
. , , ;
, mediation
mdiation .
, . , , ,

( - -
) , ,
, , ,
, .
( ).
. ,
, , ,
,
( ) .
,
,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
74

.
Bhabha (1994) , Bakhtin
(1986) , Kristeva (1980) Spivak
(2000) , ,
,
,
() .
, Wolf (2000),
Baker (2006), Tymoczko (2007), Maier (2007), Bachelor (2008), Milton & Bandia (2009).

,
.
,

(. Floros 2011).

, ..
, , ,
, ,

. , ,

.
, . ,

,

, .

3.1.1.3.

. correspondence
(), correspondance (), Korrespondenz (),
equivalence (), quivalence () quivalenz ().
, ,
( ),
,
. ,

, . ,
.
( ) ,
, (). ()
. , ,
, .
Ferdinand de Saussure (. 2002) langue,
parole, , , ,
. , langue
parole ,
, ,
(context). , ,

75

, .
, :

cat: ,
langue ( , ), .
, Its raining cats and dogs parole (
), (
),
.
Once beaten, twice shy:
langue ( ,
),
, .

.
,
, .

, . ,
, , ,
.
(. 3.2)
.
( ),
, , ,
, , ..
.
,
. , , ( ),
.. , , ,
. , ..
. ( )
,
,
. ,
.2

3.1.1.4.
,
, . ,
, ,
,
. ,
. , ,
, .
Rei (1976),
(., , 2 ),
,
.
; text
type (), type de texte (), Texttyp ().
2

Kenny (2009) (2001).


, . 2.
76

, ,
. ,
(informative text type) ,
(informative) (referential) , .. ,
, ...
. genre ( ), text variety
(), Textsorte (). (genre
theory), (, , )
Halliday & Hasan (1991).

,
,
.
()
. ,
,
, , ,
. ,

,
.
,

( ).
, ,
.
,
, , . ,
,
. , , ,
(. Schffner 2002),
,
, ,
.

(. House 1997). ,
Trosborg (1997),
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
(. , ).
, ,
, ,
Rei .

Chesterman (1989, . 105) (
Roland Freihoff). Chesterman 3.1
( ),
,
,
, .

77

3.1. Chesterman (1989).

, .. (satire) (expressive)
(operative), (informative) ,
o . , ..
(biography) (
) , .. (tourist brochure)
,
.

3.1.1.5.
,
: .

(. 3.2 ),
.
,
, ( ),
. ,
,
. , , ..
, , , , ,
... ,
,
, .
Gestalt ( )
, .
,
, , ,
, ... ,
.

. ,
,
78

,
. ,
(.
Floros 2005).
. ,
..,
().

3.1.2.

,
.
, ,
, ) ,
, )

. ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
.

3.1.2.1.

. 1950
Vinay & Darbelnet (1958),

(. 3.2 ). , ,
,
Jiri Lev
, 1963 ( : Umeni prekladu),
. 1964,
, Eugene Nida,
,
( ), 20 .
, 1960 1970, (Leipziger
Schule/Leipzig School), .
Otto Kade, Gert Jger Albrecht Neubert, Fremdsprachen
( ), ,
(situation) ,
,
1970 1980.
,
, ,

.
79

Mary Snell-Hornby
(turns) ,
, ,
, Snell-Hornby (2006, . 35 ..) .
, (speech act theory) John
Austin 1962 John Searle 1969, Eugenio Coseriu
, ( : Sistema, norma y habla) 1970,

.

, Coseriu
Ferdinand de Saussure langue parole, ( )
.
, (Descriptive Translation
Studies), .
Noam Chomsky,
Snell-Hornby
,

- , ,
, .
Susan
Bassnett (Bassnett & Lefevere 1990), , .
, Snell-Hornby ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
(Skopostheorie) Rei & Vermeer (1984)
(Theorie des translatorischen Handelns) Holz-Mnttri (1984),
Rei (1976) ( , .
3.1.1.4) Nord (1991) 2. ,
Snell-Hornby (2006, . 63),
Itamar Even-Zohar (1979) ,
(Manipulation School) Hermans (1985) Toury (1978, 1995)
.
,
-
.
(> . : , )
,
.
, .. ( :
) ,
. :
, ,
,
, (). , ,
,

, ( Funktionsnderung, function alteration).

80

( Funktionskonstanz, function constancy),


,
. , ..,

( ),
. , (, ,
, ..)
, , ,

/. , , -
-,
, /
, (Brief, commission)
.

. Vermeer (1986),
, (kultureller Transfer). ,

(Adquatheit) .
.
/
. ,
,
/ ,
,
,
/ ,

. , /
,
. , Kaindl (1997),
,
. ,

.
, ,
,
. ,
( )
( ,
), (
). ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,

. ,
,
,
,
. 3.2 ,
, ,
.
81

3.2. .

, ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
, .
1980
Theo Hermans 1985,
,
,
(. Hermans 1985, . 11). ,
Hermans (1985, . 10-11), :
,
[],
,
,
, , ,

,
,

([] quite simply, to establish a new paradigm for the study of literary translation, on the basis of a
comprehensive theory and ongoing practical research [], briefly, a view of literature as a complex
and dynamic system; a conviction that there should be a continual interplay between theoretical models
and practical case studies; an approach to literary translation which is descriptive, target-oriented,
functional and systemic; and an interest in the norms and constraints that govern the production and
reception of translations, in the relation between translation and other types of text processing, and in
the place and role of translations both within a given literature and in the interaction between literatures).

. ,
Gideon Toury
, , , .
82

, ,
. , Snell-Hornby (2006, . 73),
, , ,
,
,
, (intersubjective factors).
,
. 1960 1970
. ,
.
Roland Barthes (1977)
Jacques Derrida (1978). ,
, 1980.
, Barthes ,
,

, .
,
, .
Derrida ,
, ()
. Derrida ()
,
.

Rosemary Arrojo 1986, , .

.
,
, ,
. Arrojo (1986), ,
, ( ,
), Barthes Derrida,
.
,
. ,
(. ),
(. Barthes),
(. Derrida). Arrojo,
,
,
, . ,

, .

3.1.2.2.

1960,
Bassnett Andr Lefevere, Translation,
History and Culture (1990).
, ()
, , ,
,
. , ,
83

,
.

,
,
(
).
1990

(.
2009, . 74 ..), .. .
Michaela Wolf (2002, . 186),
, ,
, , , ,
, (. Wolf
2000). /
,
(. Bhabha 1994).

. ,
,

:
, ,
.. , ,
,
,
. ,
Roman Jakobson (1960),
,
, (A linguist deaf to the poetic
function of language and a literary scholar indifferent to linguistic problems and unconversant with linguistic
methods are equally flagrant anachronisms).
,
,
. ,
, ,
, , .. , , ,
, . , ,
, ,
, , ,
( ),
, , ,
, ,
.
,
, (
) (
, .. ) (. Jakobson 1959).
,
,
- , , ,
, . -
, /
, ,
84

, (
),

. , ..
, .
, ,
, ,
.
,
(. ) ,
,
, ..
, ,
,
.. , , -

, (
) . , ,
, ,
, .
,
,
, (Rushdie 1991).
-
(transculturality).
,
.
, ,
,
(interculturality), ,
,
,
(. Pratt 1992). Orientalism (Said 1978),
-
Niranjana (1992), Mehrez (1992) Dingwaney & Mayer (1995),
Bassnett & Trivedi (1999), Simon & St-Pierre (2000).
,
,

. ,
,
,
, , ,
, .
,
, ,
.

.
,
, .
1970,
, Louise von Flotow
(1997) Sherry Simon (1996) , ,
85

( ). Godard ( 1990),
Grbi & Wolf (1998), Messner & Wolf
(2001), Lawrence Venuti
The Translation Studies Reader (2004) Keith Harvey
.
,
,
15 .
, , ( ),
, , .

, , .
, , ,
,
. (
) ,

(localization),
. ,

,
(.. ),
.

, . ,
(transcreation),
( transcreation ., ,
Pedersen 2014). , ,

. ,
,
- (transediting) Stetting (1989),
. .
., , Valden (2007), Bielsa & Bassnett (2009), Loupaki (2010).

,
.
,
,
(community interpreting),
, ,
.

3.2.
,

.
,
. ,
.

, . : ,
,
86

.
, , , .
. ,

, . ,
,
, .
2 , Delisle et al. (2008)
, .

3.2.1.
.
, , ,
,
, / , ,
, ,
. ,
/ , .
, , .
(literal) (free) .
,
- -,
. , ,
( ), ,
. ,
-, ,
-. Jean-Ren Ladmiral (1986,)
(sourciers)
(ciblistes), ,
(foreignization) (domestication).
,
-.
-, ,
. :

:
. ,
keftedes, ,
.
:
-, .. meatballs,
,
,
.

,
Lawrence Venuti (1995),
,
, ,
, .
, , (. 3.1):

87

(foreignization)

(domestication)

(Venuti 1995)


(formal equivalence)


(dynamic equivalence)

(Nida 1964)


(semantic translation)


(communicative translation)

(Newmark 1988)


(documentary translation)


(instrumental translation)

(Nord 1991)

3.1. .


, . ,
.
. ,
. ,
, . ,
.
, ,
, ,
. 3.3
.

3.3. .

() ,
Koller (1979), ,
,
. Koller
,
. ,
,
. Koller 3.2.

88


(denotative quivalenz)
:

1:1

crosscultural
cat
figure ,
cozy


()


(konnotative quivalenz)

notorious (
)

()
,
,


(pragmatische quivalenz)


(textnormative quivalenz)


(formal-sthetische quivalenz)

, ,
,

3.2. Koller (1979).



, . ,
Loves Labours Lost, ,
.
Koller, Vinay & Darbelnet (1958)
Stylistique compare du franais et de langlais ,
.
.
: (direct translation)
(oblique translation).
, .
. ,
, 3.3.
. 2.

(emprunt)

(calque)


(traduction littrale)

.
.

.
,
.
,
.

89

(transposition)

(modulation)

(quivalence)

(adaptation)

,
,
.
,
,
, .
,
/
,
.
,
, ..
, , .

3.3. Vinay & Darbelnet (1958).

,
. (.,
, Kade 1968, Rei 1971, Koller 1979, Barchudarow 1979, Kutz 1981, Neubert 1985, Kupsch-Losereit
1990, Williams 1990, Valero-Garcs 1995, Aixel 1995, Markstein 1999),
Peter Newmark (1988), ,
. ,
Vinay & Darbelnet, 3.4
. Newmark
,
, Realia (Rei 1971).


(transference)

, ..
STOP, gadget, Bauhaus.


(naturalization)


-, .. , , .


(literal translation)


,
-.

(neutralization)


, .. have a split tongue
.


(cultural equivalent)


, .. pub .

(label)

,
, .. a washback-effect .


(componential analysis)

,
, .. cozy .

(deletion)



, .. Oh my God! ! ( ).

90


(couplet)


, .. Samurai (
).

10


(accepted standard translation)


, , .. actualization .

11

, ,

(paraphrase, gloss, notes)

,

.
,
.

12


(classifier)

, ,
, .. in the city of Volos.

3.4. Newmark (1988).

, (Delisle et al. 2008)


, , :

(explicitation): ,
,
, .. 21 The Greek Revolution of
1821.
(implicitation):
,
, .. OSE, the Greek Railway Organization .
:
, ,
. ,
, .. .

3.2.2.

(), .
.
George Steiner After Babel (1975),
, /
, .
Steiner
, .
/ ,
.
, .
,
. ,
, Radegundis Stolze (2011),
, Fritz Paepcke (1986),
.
, , ,
,
.
,
91

.
,
(scenes and frames semantics) Fillmore (1977).
Vannerem & Snell-Hornby (1986), ,
(frames) , ()
(scenes) . /
, ,
-, -,
.
/
,
,
.
,
,
Gestalt,
.
Christiane Nord (1997, .
59 ..), .
Nord ,
.
. ,
:
1. ,
2. ,
3. .
(1), / , ,
. ,
, .
:

,
,
,
( ),
( ).

Lasswell ( ,
, , ;),
1960, .3 (2),
, .
:

,
, () ,
:
,
,
: , ..,
: , , ..,

: WHO says WHAT, in WHAT CHANNEL, to WHOM, with WHAT EFFECT?.


92

,
: , , .

(3), /
:

( ),

(. [1]),
,
,

(2).


, . ,
,
. ,
translation commission,

/ ,
.
,
Floros (2002) (.
Floros 2007).
,

(Mudersbach 2002, . 3.1.1.1),
. , ,
, , ... , ,
,
. ,
(kulturelle Konstellation, cultural constellation),
(Gestalt), ,
(concretizations). ,

.
, , . ,

. ,
,
(. 3.4 ). , ,
,
, .

93

3.4. .

,
,
, ,
.

94

/

, . (2009). : ,
. : .
, . . (1998). . : .
, . (2001). . : University Studio Press.
, . (1999). . . - (.),
:
(. ). : ...
, . (2000). : . :
.
Delisle, J., Lee-Jahnke, H. & Cormier, M. C. (eds.) (2008) (. . ).
: ( ).
Williams, R. (1994). (. . ). : .


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99


1

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.
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.
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.
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102

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, :
[ ]
( ,

).
Gambier,
, Holmes
.
,
,
.

. , ,
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, ()
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103

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,
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,
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. , ,
.
,
.
. , ,
- .
,
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.
: ( )
Pierre Bourdieu (champ) (capital symbolique)
, Pascale
Casanova, (1999).
,
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.
. , ,
, , ,
, Gambier
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104

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1980 .

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,
. Wolf:
, ,
. ,
, , , .
/ (agents) ,

, (2007, . 4).
, ,

, - ,
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.

,
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,
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:
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, ,
. ( ),
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. 47).
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Bourdieu Luhmann. , ,
,
,
Bourdieu, . Codde,
( Bourdieu Luhmann, ,
)
(2003) (

,
[] ), Bourdieu Luhmann,
. ,
, Chesterman,

105

,
(2006, . 12).

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/ (rewriting), , .. (1992).
.
,
, , (patronage),
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1992 &1998). , ,
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,
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,
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,


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.
.
, Gambier
:
106

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,
(Friedland & Mohr 2004, 3).
. ,

, , ,
. , ,
. ( ,
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, , .., . 2009)
, (Tenbruck
1979)., ,
.

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. ,
, Pierre Bourdieu,
Luhmann Latour Callon.
,
. ,
, .
,
,
. :
.
, (
, ): , ,
, ,
.
,
.

, () ,
, , ,
. , ,
, Roland Barthes
, (1984, . 100, Wolf, 2007, . 2).
.

4.2.1. Pierre Bourdieu


, ,
Pierre Bourdieu, ,
( 2012),
. Bourdieu
Marx Max Weber.
, .
, : Chesterman
107

Alasdair MacIntyre ,
,
. ,
: Mona Baker
Translation and Conflict (2006),
. , Bourdieu,
,
. , ,
, Bourdieu:

: ( ),
, .
: (, ,
..) (
, , ..)
(, , , )
(, ,
).
,
.
: .
, . ,

(1992, . 79-80). .
(positions), ()
, , (dispositions)
(habitus) , .
(trajectoire).
,
,
.
, (2005, . 27),
.
(Habitus): , , ,
, ,
( )
( ). , ,
, , , (Bourdieu
2006, . 90-91). ,
, , (, , ,
..).
: () ,
, .
.

,
Bourdieu, ( ), ,
,
(-, -, - ..).
:
, (1987, . 20).
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, , ,
,
.
. Karin Boklund- (1980, . 7-8),
,
, ,
.9 O (1977, . 1)
,
, , (
), .

. (1994, . 17) []
(, , ),
, .
.
, Alexandros-Phaidon Lagopoulos Karin
8


,
(Rossi-Landi 1968, . 62).
9
(cultural studies) .
, Nth (1997, . 326)
,
Voloshinov Gramsci.
133

Boklund-Lagopoulou , ,
. , :

, .
.
, ,
,
, ,

, ,
( ) []
,
(Lagopoulos
Boklund-Lagopoulou 1992, . 32).
,
, ,
, .
; , ;

, -,

;

5.4.

.
,
.
. , , Jean Delisle, Hannelore Lee-Jahnke Monique Cormier (2008 [1999],
. 92) ,
. , ,
. H Michaela Wolf (2009, . 77-78), ,
[] []

. Eco (2003, . 314)
[],
( ).
.
, .

,
,
.
(Semiotics of translation)
80 Gideon Toury (1980, . 12), (Semiotics and
translation) (1980, . 7), . ,
, Charles Peirce, Dinda Gorle (1994, . 226227) (semiotranslation),
. , Gorle
, ,

134

. , Peeter Torop (1998) , , ,


, Paolo Fabbri (2008 [1998], . 161) (transduction),
. Fabbri

.
, , Umberto Eco & Siri
Nergaard (2001 [1998], . 218) (Semiotic
approaches),
. Eco & Nergaard (2003, .
221) ,
, ,
. Eco, ,
, ,
, (Eco
2003, . 342). Eco & Nergaard Mathieu Guidre (2008, . 58), o
,
[],
.
Toury Torop, ,
. , Susan Petrilli (2007, . 311)
(Semiotics of translation),
. ,
. Stiste & Torop (2007, . 196),
,
(ranslation semiotics), , ,

, ,
. , , o Torop (2008, . 253)

.10 , Routlege
Encyclopedia of Translation Studies,
, Umbaldo Stecconi (2009, . 261)
. A Stecconi
11, Peirce,
(translation semiosis).

, ,
, , . ,

-,
Semiotics of Translation Translation Semiotics,
.

10

Torop (2010, . 2) ,
- .
11
H , Stecconi (2009, . 260),
, .
135

5.5.
5.5.1. Roman Jakobson

Roman Jakobson (1959) On linguistic aspects of translation12,
Jakobson (1959, . 233) ,
. Jakobson
: ) (intralingual translation reformulation),

, , , : = , =
, () = , ()= , .. )
(interlingual translation translation proper),
, , , : auto
, pretty , )
(intersemiotic translation transmutation),
. Jakobson
, , ,
,
( )
. ,
( 5.1.), bleu [] ,
. , ( 5.2.),
,
. , (
5.3.), cheval () ,
.
Jakobson ,
,
, .
Torop (2002, . 593),
,
Jakobson,
.

5.1.
13

5.2.
5/11/2011

12

, Stiste (2008, . 309),


, , ,
,
.
13
.
136

5.3. 14

,
, . Hermans (2001 [1998], . 134)


, , .
, Jakobson.
, , , Jacobson (1971
[1961], . 576) ,
, , , ,
.

5.5.2. Roman Jakobson


Jakobson, , Peirce (1931-1966), Welby
(1983 [1903]) Bakhtin (1986 [1950-1951]), . H
Peirce, 19 , Jakobson,
. Eco & Nergaard (2001 [1998], . 219-220),
Peirce,
Jakobson , , Peirce (1931-1948, 4.127),
.
Victoria
Welby, 20 . Welby (1983 [1903], . 34)
,
, .
, Welby (1983 [1903], . 150), ,
.
, Jakobson (1959) Louis Hjelmslev.
O Hjelmslev (1963 [1946], . 109) , ,

. ,
, .
20 Mikhail Bakhtin. Bakhtin
,
(Torop 2002, . 598), Bakhtin
: ,
(Bakhtin 1986 [1950-1951], . 106).

5.5.3. Roman Jakobson


Jakobson ,
Bakhtin, Yuri Lotman (1990)
, . Lotman (1990, . 143)
, ,
14

.
137

,
. Lotman (2009, . 6), []
,
,
. Lotman
. Lotman (1990, . 269)
,

.15 Torop (2002, . 593) Bakhtin Lotman,
,
- , , .
Umberto Eco (2003, . 23) , ,
, . ,
, (,
, ) . Eco (2003,
. 24) ,
,
. , Eco (2003, . 483),
, , ,
. Eco
Peirce
Lotman Jakobson.
. ,
.16
Paolo Fabbri (2012 [1998], . 16-18) ,
,
. Fabbri
(, , ..),
. Fabbri


,
. , , ,
.

5.6.
Jakobson ,
, . Toury (1994 [1986], . 1114) ,
,
Jakobson. ,
(intrasemiotic translation) (intersemiotic translation).
, (intrasystemic translation),
, (intersystemic translation), . Toury
, ,

,
.
Eco,
(2003, . 326). , Eco (2003,
. 315-316)
15

. Hermans 2001 [1998], . 134.


. (2007, . 200)
Eco, .
16

138

,
. .
Eco : (interpretation by transcription),
(intrasystemic interpretation) (intersystemic
interpretation).
, ,
Petrilli. Petrilli (2003, . 19)
(intersemiosic translation) (endosemiosic translation),
,
. Petrilli

.
,
, Jakobson
,
. Torop (2002, . 593),
,
,
Jakobson Eco. Torop, ,
,
.

5.7.

Peirce, Jakobson, Lotman Eco.
-.

,
. ,
,

,
(, 2004, . 126-127). Peeter Torop,
Lotman,
. Torop, 17 Lotman
, ,
.
Torop (2002, . 603)
. Torop (2002, .
602)

.
, , ,
.18 Peirce
. ,
(Petrilli 2003, . 17).
, , ,
Jakobson,
17

Lotman (1990, . 123-124)


, ,
, .
18
Dinda Gorle, Susan Petrilli, Augusto Ponzio, Bruno Ossimo, Ubaldo
Stecconi, Ritva Hartama-Heinonen, Pirjo Kukkonen, ..
139

.19
, ,
-. Barthes
, ,
,
. , Georges Mounin
(intersemiosis)
(
, ) ,
(Mounin 1963, . 16).
,

. ,
(Coquet et al.1982, . 5),
. Algirdas Julien Greimas,

, Eric Landowski (2009, . 75). , ,
;

, (audiovisual
translation).20
, , ,
,
.21


Lund . : )

) ,
. , Gran Sonesson (2014, . 275-276),

Jakobson, 22,
, () . 23
, Sonesson
, ,
. , ,
, ,
,
. Sonesson ,
, , ,
,
. , ,
,
.
19

(2004, . 159-160),
. , ,
Algirdas Geimas, ,
(Bremond, Todorov, Genette, Barthes), .
20
Yves Gambier, Henrik Gottlieb,
Jorge Diaz Cintas, Dirk Delabastita, Pilar Orero, Patrick Zabalbeascoa, Fotios Karamitroglou, ..
21
Baldry & Thibault (2006, . 4):

.
22
Eco (2003, . 320-326).
23
. Yoka & Kourdis 2014.
140


, Ritva Hartama-Heinonen. HartamaHeinonen (2008, . 31-32),
,
. ,
,
Jakobson. , De Campos,
,
, , . ,
,
, (. Gentzler 2012 [2001], . 314). ,
, ,
(Jakobson Lotman),
.
,
Peirce , Dinda Gorle
. Gorle (1994, . 226-2227),
(
). , Gorle ( ,
, Jakobson, ,
) .
,
(Lev Popovi). Jiri Lev, ,
,
, ,
.24 , Lev ,
,
(Lev 1969, . 72-73). Anton Popovi

, . Popovi (1970, .
78)
.
.

, (
Even-Zohar Toury). Itamar Even-Zohar
1970 .
,
,

,
(Munday 2004 [2001], . 181). Gideon Toury
, ,
. Toury (1994 [1986], . 1123)
, , ,
,
,
-: .

, Eugene Nida.25 Nida

24

. Gentzler (2012 [2001], . 134).


Nida , 80,
.
25

141

,

(Munday 2004 [2001], . 73).
,
(Petfi, Wilss, Hatim, Mason). Janos Petfi, 1970,
,
. Wolfram Wilss (1982, . 49)
,
,
,
. Basil Hatim Ian Mason,

.
-
.
,
,
(Munday 2004 [2001], . 165-166).
Hartama-Heinonen (2008, . 32)
: ,
, ,
. , ,
26, ( )

,
, .27
, , Hartmama-Heinonen,
( 2),
,
, Jakobson Lotman,
Torop, Lotman
,
. Jakobson Lotman, Eco Fabbri,
, Jakobson Lotman,
Gorle, Petrilli, ,
Peirce, ,
.
2.

26
27

, Eco Fabbri .
B. Peeters (1999, . 17).
142

5.8.
, ,
:
.
-,
.
, ,
.

( ).
. , Munday (2004,
. 216)
, .
Mona Baker (1992, . 42) ,

,
, . ,
(. 5.4.),
,
.

5.4.
, .28

5.5.
,


, ,
. O Eco (2003, . 301-302) []
, Jakobson
[],
[]. Eco Petrilli (2003, . 18),
,

[]. Fabbri (2012 [1998], . 84) , ,
:
, , , ..
, , ,
,
. , , ,
28

.
143

, ,
,
, .

( ) .
Petrilli Fabbri
29,
, .. (. 5.6 5.7.).

5.6.
The Seven Year Itch [ ] (1954).

5.7. - Sexy Football


Calendar 2014.30

.
:
) / ,
. Patrick Zabalbeascoa (1997, .
338)
, (support).
.

. , ,
,
(5.8.), Le renard et lenfant
.
: . ,
,
, , .
, (5.9.), (2008) Action frgr I, ,
, ,
.

29

. Kourdis & Yoka 2014.


http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/picturegalleries/10413979/Sexy-football-and-sports-calendar-AlexFerguson-Jose-Mourinho-Arsene-Wenger-Sachin-Tendulkar-and-Andy-Murray-as-youve-never-seenthem.html?frame=2718015 ( : James Husbands).
30

144

5.8. Le
renard et lenfant.

5.9. -
Action fr-gr I (2008).31

) . O Barthes (1964, . 130-131)


,
. ; Barthes (2007 [1970],
.19-20), , , ,
, , ,
[],
[],
,
, , .
.
maman.
,
,

,
. , George Mounin (1963, . 166) Christiane
Nord32, .
Petrilli (2007, . 335)
.
) / . O
Stecconi (2009, . 260)
, ( )
, .
Greimas & Courts (1993, . 197)

.
) . Jacques
Derrida (2004: 428),
. Eco (2003, .
350)
.
Nord33

. ,
, / -
/ -.
) , ,
. Eco (1992, . 65)
(, , , ) ,
31

61/3-1-2012 .
. Munday (2004 [2001], . 139).
33
. Munday (2004 [2001], . 142).
32

145


. ,
,
. . , Nord 34,
.

repo(we)r Greece (5.10.)
(, , , layout, )
,

.

5.10. repo(we)r Greece.

5.9.
, ,
(Stiste & Torop 2007, Torop 2008), (Toury 1980),
(Snell-Hornby et al, 1999) Umberto Eco & Nergaard (2001 [1998]),
,
.

, ,
.

,
,
.

.
Peirce, Lotman, Jakobson Eco,
. , ,
Lotman Eco
Lotman (1990),
. Eco
Peirce Jakobson.

,
, ,
34

. Munday (2004, . 139).


146

.
,
(Stecconi
2009, . 262), . ,
Peirce
, , , .
,
, .
-
, ,
. ,
(, , , , ),
: ,
, , , ,
. ,
,

(. 5.2 5.3 ).
(
) , ,
.
;

147


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151


1

1.
:
. Juri Lotman
. Giles Deleuze
. Umberto Eco
. Paolo Fabbri

2. Saussure (, ) :
.
.
.

3. , , ,
:
. -
.
.
.

4. Charles Peirce
:
. (icons)
. (index)
. (symbols)

5. Roman Jakobson,
:
.
.
.

6. H
Roman Jakobson:
.
.
.

7. Roman Jakobson :
.
.
.

8.

:
. Victoria Welby
152

. Mikhail Bakhtin
. o Louis Hjelmslev
. o Paolo Fabbri

9. ,

:
. -
.
. ()
.

10.
:
. Susan Petrilli
. Roman Jakobson
. Mona Baker
. o Jeremy Munday

11. ,
:
. Umberto Eco
. Georges Mounin
. o Roland Barthes
. o Gran Sonesson

12. :
. Jacques Derrida
. Mikhail Bakhtin
. o Roland Barthes
. Victoria Welby

13. ,
:
.
.
.
.

/ 3
1: , 2: , 3: , 4: , 5: , 6: , 7: , 8: , 9: , 10: , 11: , 12: , 13: .

2
Jakobson On linguistic Aspects of translation
, .
Jakobson ;

153

7.12 , . 25.35

/ 2
,
, ,
( ). ,
,

.

3

-;

5.13 Pablo Picasso


Guernica

5.14 Guernica
,

/ 3
-,
( Pablo Picasso Guernica,
) ( Guernica
, ), ,
Susan Petrilli Paolo Fabbri. , ,
, ..
.

35


http://www.pi-schools.gr/books/dimotiko/glossa_st/st_mat_3.pdf .
154

6

Ideas are what men and women live by, and will occasionally die for,
Eagleton, 1991, . xiii

,
,
- -.
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
.

1, 2, 3, 4 5 .

6.1.
. Norman Fairclough (1989,
. 3), , Robert Hodge
Gunther Kress (1993, . 15),
[] . ,
, ,
, , ,
.
, .
, Bruce Hawkins (2001, . 27),
.
, .
, ,
,
. ,

(Lukes 1974). Hegel
(Mitchell 1986, . 3-4Eagleton 1991, . 101). ,
,
. 36
, ,
.
Hodge Kress Language as Ideology (1993),
.
, , ,
,
36

, ,
( ).
155

.
, , , ..,
(. ).
,
.
,
.

6.1.1. :

,
, 20 .
(Critical Discourse Analysis).
( ) 90,
, ,
Teun van Dijk, Norman Fairclough, Gunther Kress, Theo van Leeuwen Ruth Wodak,
.
.
, ,
, , , , ,
, , .
,
(Wodak Meyer 2001).
van Dijk (2005, . 352),
60 70
.
,
. (discourse)
.
, (Fairclough
Wodak, 1997, . 258). , ,
, ,
..
(critical), .
37 Jrgen Habermas,
,
, , ,
(Wodak Meyer 2001, . 6-7). ,
,
,
.
(conceptual metaphors).
(conceptual metaphor), George Lakoff Mark Johnson (1980, . 25)
.
,
,
. , , argument is war
( la discussion cest la guerre, 1985, . 15)
: indefensible claims, to attack every weak

37


.
( Britannica).
156

point of an argument, to win an argument critique qui vise droit au but, se


dfendre, attaquer chaque point faible dune argumentation.
, :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

1:
,
(Malmkjaer 2002, . 102-103) .
, ,
(, -, ..),
. , van Dijk (..,
. 353-355),
. ,
, , , , , , , ..
, .
, - (socio-cognitive approach) van Dijk,
,
38, (topics) (
). , , . ,
, , ,
, , .., , , (context),
, , - .
,
,
, , . ,
Eagleton (1994:11), ,
, ,
.
-,
.

6.2. :

. :

38

, van Dijk,
(Routledge Dictionary of Language and
Linguistics, Bussmann, 1996, . 292).
157

39 (Mounin 2002)
-,
Sigmund Freud (Mason 1994)
,
40 (Baker 2006). ,
,
. ,
in Algeria

,
.41
. Basil Hatim
Ian Mason (1997)
(ideology of translating) (translation
of ideology). ,
( 42 vs. 43),
( ,
, ). Christina Schaeffner (2003, . 23),
, -
- ,
.
, Peter Fawcett Ideology and Translation,
Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies (2001), 44

. (cultural turn) Mary SnellHornby,
1990 , Susan Bassnett, Andr Lefevere, Mary Snell-Hornby,

. ,
,

39


,
(Mounin 2002, . 63-..).
40
17
, [] .
( Britannica).
41
...the seven near-simultaneous bombs against security forces in February, and this weeks apparent use of suicidebombers, a rare tactic in Algeria. : The Economist, 12/04/07, 7 , :
, ,

. , 15/04/07 ( , .
2012, 2010, 2008b c).
42
(domestication) ,
,
. (Delisle, Lee-Hahnke, Cormier 2008, . . ).
43
(foreignization) ,

. (Delisle, Lee-Hahnke, Cormier 2008, . . ).
44

Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)
,
, , .. ( , Crystal, . .
).
158

-45.
, ,
,
. Translation, Rewriting and the
Manipulation of Literary Fame (1992) Lefevere, Siting Translation Tejaswini Niranjana
(. 6.6, ).
(. 1.1),
. , Christina Schffner, Ewa Gumul, Chantal Gagnon, Christiane Nord
..,
, . ,
, Apropos of Ideology. Translation Studies on Ideology. Ideologies in
Translation Studies, Maria Calzada Perez (2003). ,


.
Political Discourse, Media and Translation,
Schffner Bassnett (2010).
, ,
.

6.3. :
6.3.1.

(Van Dijk 1997, .14). ( ), ,
,
. 46,
.
, , .
, ,
, , , ..
, ,
,
.
. ,
(purge), McCarthy,
(Chilton Lakoff,
1999, . 44), (restore/stabilize the balance)
, ,
(Schffner, 1999). new
world order, G. Bush
=
(Chilton Lakoff, 1999, . 42).
, John
Wilson (1990, . 104) :

45

, . 2009, . 67-76
Munday 2002, . 205-212.
46
Karl Bhler ([1934] 1990, . 35),
. ,
(representation), (expression),
, , / (appeal).
159

1. .
2. .
3. .
, Roger Goffin (1994,
.639),
.
(lEurope plusieurs vitesses), (lEurope la carte)
(piliers europens, european pillars), ,
. ,

. ,
,
, .

6.3.2.

. ,
,
24 .
,
.
1,

1,

This report strongly suggests that the reform


proposals in Agenda 2000 should be radically
altered, as it is now very clear that cutting prices
has not resolved the problems of market balance,
nor has it arrested the continuing decline in farm
incomes, which are a vital factor in stemming the
haemorrhage of young people from rural areas.
Gillis (PPE), 16/06/98



2000,



,
,

.

,
. ,
,
. ,
, haemorrhage ,
suicide, .
.

. ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, .

160

2,

2,

S'ils ne sont pas lettre morte aujourd'hui, les


accords de paix sont en tout cas mis mal et le
processus de paix semble l'agonie. Pradier
(ARE), 17/06/98

,


.


. tre lagonie,
, ,
. ,
mort ,
.
Wilson (1990, . 128-129),
, ,
. van Dijk (1991, . 142),

, (Loony Left). ,
Chilton Lakoff (1999, . 43),
.

, ( ),
.

, . ,
, ,
. ,
, (). semble l'agonie
, ,
.

.
, Gideon Toury.47
,
.
3,

3,

En 1995, la rflexion institutionnelle postMaastricht en tait ses balbutiements. En juin


1997, le trait d'Amsterdam est n. Il s'agissait
d'un nouveau pas significatif sur la voie de
l'unification europenne. Santer, 11/01/99

1995

. 1997
.

.

, tait ses balbutiements .


, Jacques Santer,
.
Santer,
, .

47

(1995, . 82),
: ) , )
, ) .
161

-, ,
Christina Schffner Peter Porsch (1998, .157),
. balbutiements,
.
Trsor de la Langue Franaise ( TLF),
, dbuts, premires manifestations encore
timides.
(a commenc)
,
.
4,

4,

Mr President, can I also take the opportunity to


congratulate the rapporteur. He certainly proved
during the time that negotiations were going on
that he had a very big back indeed, because
there were a lot of people throwing knives at
him during that period. Nicholson, ECR Group,
22/06/2011



,

.


, .
van Dijk (Ideological Square).
(1997, . 28),
,

. ,
/ /
.48 ,
throw knives .
,
. , ,
.
5,

5,

Mais le Sieur Le Pen ne peut s'en empcher.


L'antismitisme est sa passion, le ngationnisme
son dlire. Dans sa comptabilit inhumaine, la
mort d'un enfant juif, gaz parce que n Juif, est
de mme nature que la mort d'un soldat au
combat., Duhamel (PSE), 5/10/98

. Le Pen , , .
,

. ,
,
,

.


Jean Marie Le Pen. ,
, ,
.
,
, Sieur . ,
48

(2014, . 191): 1) /
, 2) / , 3) /
, 4) / .
162

Sieur , , ,
(
) .
Paul Grice (1975, . 41-58),
(maxim of quality),
.
. ,
, , .
, ,
, , .
, Hatim Mason (1994, . 99),
.
,
, .
.
Sieur . (),

. ,
.
6,

6,

tous les affams du monde, toutes celles et


tous ceux qui doivent payer plus
cher pour s'alimenter ou pour s'habiller attendent
que nous contrions avec plus
d'nergie la plus grande calamit qui s'abat
aujourd'hui sur la plante, c'estdire
celle que produisent les rapaces de la
spculation sur l'alimentation. Ce sont
eux qui font flamber les prix alimentaires
contre les paysans et contre les
consommateurs., Le Hyaric, GUE/NGL,
16/02/2011

...

.

.

, -
(GUE/NGL)
. rapace, ,
avide de gain, de profit, le plus souvent au dtriment d'autrui (TLF),
les affams du monde payer cher pour salimenter
, .
, ,
.

. ,
,
, .
, ( 2008a, 2007, 2005)
(Schffner & Adab 1995, Dollerup 1996, 1998, Goffin 1997, 2000, Koskinen 2008, ..),
,
.
, .

163

6.4. :
6.4.1.
Claude Chabrol, Patrick Charaudeau Anne-Marie Houdebine (Charaudeau 1988, .
5),
,
, , ,
. , ,
- , , ,
, . ,
, , ,
/ (, ..).
,
,
, , (, ,
..), 49, ..

(news translation).50 ,
. ,

. ,


. Bielsa
(2005, . 143),
,
.
, -
,
Schffner (2005) Spiegel International,
.
. Baker (2006),
, .
, Schffner Bassnett (2010, . 2),

(recontextualisation)
. , ,
. , ,
Schffner (2005, 2008) Schffner Bassnett (2010),
.
, , Halliday
(1985) / Martin (1992),
, .
Van Leeuwen Wodak (1999, . 96),
49

, , ,
, , .
, ,
. ,
,
... .. (
, . 2007).
50
, , Mona Baker (2006), Esperenca Bielsa (2005),
Kyle Conway (2010), Georges Floros (2012), Brook Johnathan (2012), Christina Schffner (2010, 2008, 2005) ..
164

, , ,
.

(Van Leeuwen Wodak 1999, Blackledge 2005, Fairclough 2006):
1.
2.
3.
4.

(Deletion).
(Rearrangement).
(Substitution).
(Addition).

,
. , .

( ,
...). ,
, , , , ..,
.
, . ,
,
.
,
.

6.4.2.
.
, , .
, ,
. , ,
.
/
,
.
,
:
1. .
2. / .
3. .

6.4.2.1.
-
- .
Le Monde diplomatique,
The Guardian, The New York Times .
,
,
:

165

1,

1,

Nous ne torturons pas, a affirm M. George


W. Bush. Ctait le 7 novembre dernier,
Panam, la fin dune tourne de cinq jours en
Amrique latine, rgion longtemps martyrise
par des rgimes dictatoriaux soutenus par
Washington qui pratiquaient massivement les
disparitions de suspects et la torture.
Le Monde diplomatique, Ignacio Ramonet,
12/2005

,
, 7 , ,

,

,

. , 04/12/2005

Tortures Ignacio Ramonet,


Le Monde diplomatique
. , ,
Le Monde diplomatique George W. Bush:
Nous ne torturons pas, . ,
, rgion longtemps martyrise, rgimes dictatoriaux, disparitions de suspects,
torture,
.
,
,
, ,
.
2,

2,

Le prestigateur a russi. Spectaculairement


mis en scne, le dpart des 8000 colons de la
bande de Gaza a hypnotis la plante, dsormais
aveugle, sourde et muette face au sort des
Palestiniens.
Le Monde diplomatique, Dominique Vidal,
02/2006

.
8.000 ,
,
,
,
.
, 19/02/2006

Saint Sharon Dominique


Vidal, . , ,
,
. ,
, ,
. , dsormais aveugle, sourde et muette
, ,
.
.
.
3,

3,

Mais comment un Etat rput irresponsable


peut- il inspirer une telle confiance ?
Le Monde diplomatique,

Quelle Europe pour briser les marchs?,


James Galbraith 2010 Le Monde diplomatique.
166

, 2015, .
, 2010,
.
,
, /
, .

6.4.2.2. /

.
, , ,
,
. :
4,
At the Pentagon, Mr. Wolfowitz began
advocating going to war with Iraq just a few days
after Sept. 11, 2001, and continued pressing over
the next year to oust Saddam Hussein.
The New York Times, 17/05/07, 7

4,
,
, 20/05/07


.
, , .
: ) )
-.
, Bassnett
(2005, . 125). , ,
,
, (2004, . 25).
The New York Times
Bush, Paul Wolfowitz,
.
,
n ,
51.
5,

The Bush malaise could also provide a pickme-up for Europe Guardian, 16/05/07, 10

...
. ,
27/05/07.

The
Guardian The Badness of George II. , ,
Georges Bush, . , Simon Tisdall

Paul Wolfowitz . ,
51

, .
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/18/washington/18worldbank.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1& .

167

(malaise)
(pick-me-up).
, /
. ,
, (,
).
6,

6,

Cette vidence, la gauche de la gauche nen


a pas tenu compte non plus, qui, malgr la
richesse de ses propositions, a offert le plus
souvent un spectacle consternant de dsunion et
dgotisme.
juin 07, Le Monde diplomatique, 6

,
, ,
,

.
3/06/07, , 9

Populisme franais
2007 Le Monde diplomatique
.
, ,
Sgolne Royal, .
, consternant, dsolant, navrant
,
.

6.4.2.3.
,
. ,

. Harvey (1998, . 37)
(compensation). ,

. , ,
, .

(explicitation). (2008, . 36),
.
7, .
7,
,
The New York Times, 17/05/07

7,
...,

. , 20/05/07

,
,
.52
-;
. Van Dijk (1993),
,
52

, . http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/18/washington/18worldbank.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 .
168


.
8,

Le Monde diplomatique, Dominique Vidal,


02/2006

8,

, 19/02/2006

(.
2).
,
.
, , Le Monde
diplomatique
/.
9,

9,

after the death of Abu Hamza Rabia, another


Egyptian who was killed by a missile strike in
Pakistan in 2005.
The New York Times, 02/04/07, 7

... ,
,

2005. , 15/04/07

, , .
The Reach of the War. New Generation of Al-Qaeda Chief is seen on the Rise,
The New York Times
- . ,
, , |by missile strike ( : )
.
,
.
.

6.5.
,

.
:
,
,
.

,
.

- .
:


.

169


,
(- , , - ,
..).
,
,

, .
, :
) , ) /
, )
, , , - .

6.6.
53 Itamar Even-Zohar
54, Lefevere
, , ,
, ,
. ,
( , , , , ,
) , Lefevere

. ,
,
,
.
Niranjana,
, (strategies
of containment),
. ,
,
, , ..
, . ,

,
. ,

, (Munday, 2002, . 217 ..)

53

(polysystem theory), Itamar Even-Zohar 1970,


,
(Munday, 2002, . 179).
54

, .
Manipulation of Literature. Studies in Literary Translation, Theo Hermans (1985).
170


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, . (1998). . : .

174


1. (
: , , , ).
. ,
.
2. ,
;
3.
; , ;
4.
.


1
.
1. ;

2. :



3. :
.
.
.
4. Hatim Mason;
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changer radicalement lOrganisation mondiale du commerce et travaille plus avec la FAO pour revenir des
systmes de coopration qui incluent des droits de douane variables aux frontires.
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214

Babylon, http://translation.babylon.com/
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Dragon, , http://www.nuance.com/dragon/index.htm
European Parliament DocHound http://termcoord.eu/dochound/
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Lantra-l, , http://lantragallery.ijlant.com/cheatsheet.html
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Copyright , 2015

www.kallipos.gr
ISBN: 978-960-603-213-4
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224

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ISBN 978-960-603-213-4