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Ability of a machine to perform tasks thought to require human intelligence. Typical applications include game playing, language translation, expert systems, and robotics. Although pseudo-intelligent machinery dates back to antiquity, the first glimmerings of true intelligence awaited the development of digital computers in the 1940s. AI, or at least the semblance of intelligence, has developed in parallel with computer processing power, which appears to be the main limiting factor. Early AI projects, such as playing chess and solving mathematical problems, are now seen as trivial compared to visual pattern recognition, complex decision making, and the use of natural language. See also Turing test. The subfield of computer science concerned with understanding the nature of intelligence and constructing computer systems capable of intelligent action. It embodies the dual motives of furthering basic scientific understanding and making computers more sophisticated in the service of humanity. Many activities involve intelligent action—problem solving, perception, learning, planning and other symbolic reasoning, creativity, language, and so forth—and therein lie an immense diversity of phenomena. Scientific concern for these phenomena is shared by many fields, for example, psychology, linguistics, and philosophy of mind, in addition to artificial intelligence. The starting point for artificial intelligence is the capability of the computer to manipulate symbolic expressions that can represent all manner of things, including knowledge about the structure
and function of objects and people in the world, beliefs and purposes, scientific theories, and the programs of action of the computer itself. Artificial intelligence is primarily concerned with symbolic representations of knowledge and heuristic methods of reasoning, that is, using common assumptions and rules of thumb. Two examples of problems studied in artificial intelligence are planning how a robot, or person, might assemble a complicated device, or move from one place to another; and diagnosing the nature of a person's disease, or of a machine's malfunction, from the observable manifestations of the problem. In both cases, reasoning with symbolic descriptions predominates over calculating. The approach of artificial intelligence researchers is largely experimental, with small patches of mathematical theory. As in other experimental sciences, investigators build devices (in this case, computer programs) to carry out their experimental investigations. New programs are created to explore ideas about how intelligent action might be attained, and are also developed to test hypotheses about concepts or mechanisms involved in intelligent behavior. The foundations of artificial intelligence are divided into representation, problem-solving methods, architecture, and knowledge. To work on a task, a computer must have an internal representation in its memory, for example, the symbolic description of a room for a moving robot, or a set of features describing a person with a disease. The representation also includes all the knowledge, including basic programs, for testing and measuring the structure,
plus all the programs for transforming the structure into another one in ways appropriate to the task. Changing the representation used for a task can make an immense difference, turning a problem from impossible to trivial. Given the representation of a task, a method must be adopted that has some chance of accomplishing the task. Artificial intelligence has gradually built up a stock of relevant problem-solving methods (the so-called weak methods) that apply extremely generally. An important feature of all the weak methods is that they involve search. One of the most important generalizations to arise in artificial intelligence is the ubiquity of search. It appears to underlie all intelligent action. In the worst case, the search is blind. In heuristic search extra information is used to guide the search. Some of the weak methods are generate-and-test (a sequence of candidates is generated, each being tested for solutionhood); hill climbing (a measure of progress is used to guide each step); means-ends analysis (the difference between the desired situation and the present one is used to select the next step); impasse resolution (the inability to take the desired next step leads to a subgoal of making the step feasible); planning by abstraction (the task is simplified, solved, and the solution used as a guide); and matching (the present situation is represented as a schema to be mapped into the desired situation by putting the two in correspondence).
An intelligent agent—person or program—has multiple means for representing tasks and dealing with them. Also required is an architecture or operating framework within which to select and carry out these activities. Often called the executive or control structure, it is best viewed as a total architecture (as in computer architecture), that is, a machine that provides data structures, operations on those data structures, memory for holding data structures, accessing operations for retrieving data structures from memory, a programming language for expressing integrated patterns of conditional operations, and an interpreter for carrying out programs. Any digital computer provides an architecture, as does any programming language. Architectures are not all equivalent, and one important scientific question is what architecture is appropriate for a general intelligent agent. In artificial intelligence, the basic paradigm of intelligent action is that of search through a space of partial solutions (called the problem space) for a goal situation. Each step offers several possibilities, leading to a cascading of possibilities that can be represented as a branching tree. The search is thus said to be combinatorial or exponential. For example, if there are 10 possible actions in any situation, and it takes a sequence of 12 steps to find a solution (a goal state), then there are 1012 possible sequences in the exhaustive search tree. What keeps the search under control is knowledge, which suggests how to choose or narrow the options at each step. Thus the fourth fundamental concern is how to represent knowledge in the memory of the system so it can be brought to bear on the search when relevant.
An intelligent agent will have immense amounts of knowledge. This implies another major problem, that of discovering the relevant knowledge as the solution attempt progresses. Although this search does not include the combinatorial explosion characteristic of searching the problem space, it can be time consuming and hard. However, the structure of the database holding the knowledge (called the knowledge base) can be carefully tailored to suit the architecture in order to make the search efficient. This knowledge base, with its accompanying problems of encoding and access, constitutes the final ingredient of an intelligent system. An example of artificial intelligence is computer perception. Perception is the formation, from a sensory signal, of an internal representation suitable for intelligent processing. Though there are many types of sensory signals, computer perception has focused on vision and speech. Perception might seem to be distinct from intelligence, since it involves incident time-varying continuous energy distributions prior to interpretation in symbolic terms. However, all the same ingredients occur: representation, search, architecture, and knowledge. Speech perception starts with the acoustic wave of a human utterance and proceeds to an internal representation of what the speech is about. A sequence of representations is used: the digitization of the acoustic wave into an array of intensities; the formation of a small set of parametric quantities that vary continuously with time (such as the intensities and frequencies of the formants, bands of resonant energy characteristic of speech); a sequence of
phons (members of a finite alphabet of labels for characteristic sounds, analogous to letters); a sequence of words; a parsed sequence of words reflecting grammatical structure; and finally a semantic data structure representing a sentence (or other utterance) that reflects the meaning behind the sounds. A class of artificial intelligence programs called expert systems attempt to accomplish tasks by acquiring and incorporating the same knowledge that human experts have. Many attempts to apply artificial intelligence to medicine, government, and other socially significant tasks take the form of expert systems. Even though the emphasis is on knowledge, all the standard ingredients are present. In careful tests, a number of expert systems have shown performance at levels of quality equivalent to or better than average practicing professionals (for example, average practicing physicians) on the restricted domains over which they operate. Nearly all large corporations and many smaller ones use expert systems. A common application is to provide technical assistance to persons who answer customers' trouble calls. Computer companies use expert systems to assist in configuring components from a parts catalog into a complete system that matches a customer's specifications, a kind of application that has been replicated in other industries tailoring assembled products to customers' needs. Troubleshooting and diagnostic programs are commonplace. Another widespread use of this technology is in software for home computers that assists taxpayers. One important lesson learned from incorporating
artificial intelligence software into ongoing practice is that its success depends on many other aspects besides the intrinsic intellectual quality, for example, ease of interaction, integration into existing workflow, and costs. Expert systems have sparked important insights in reasoning under uncertainty, causal reasoning, reasoning about knowledge, and acceptance of computer systems in the workplace. They illustrate that there is no hard separation between pure and applied artificial intelligence; finding what is required for intelligent action in a complex applied area makes a significant contribution to basic knowledge. See also Expert systems. In addition to the subject areas mentioned above, significant work in artificial intelligence has been done on puzzles and reasoning tasks, induction and concept identification, symbolic mathematics, theorem proving in formal logic, natural language understanding and generation, vision, robotics, chemistry, biology, engineering analysis, computer-assisted instruction, and computer-program synthesis and verification, to name only the most prominent. As computers become smaller and less expensive, more and more intelligence is built into automobiles, appliances, and other machines, as well as computer software, in everyday use. See also Automata theory; Computer; Control systems; Cybernetics; Digital computer; Intelligent machine; Robotics. Umbrella terminology for several main categories of research. They include natural language systems, visual and
voice recognition systems, robotic systems, and Expert Systems. Artificial intelligence generally is the attempt to build machines that think, as well as the study of mental faculties through the use of computational models. A reasoning process is involved with self-correction. Significant data are evaluated and relevant relationships, such as the determination of a warranty reserve, uncovered. The computer learns which kind of answers are reasonable and which are not. Artificial intelligence performs complicated strategies that compute the best or worst way to achieve a task or avoid an undesirable result. An example of an application is in tax planning involving tax shelter options given the client's financial position. Computer systems are becoming commonplace; indeed, they are almost ubiquitous. We find them central to the functioning of most business, governmental, military, environmental, and health-care organizations. They are also a part of many educational and training programs. But these computer systems, while increasingly affecting our lives, are rigid, complex and incapable of rapid change. To help us and our organizations cope with the unpredictable eventualities of an ever-more volatile world, these systems need capabilities that will enable them to adapt readily to change. They need to be intelligent. Our national competitiveness depends increasingly on capacities for accessing, processing, and analyzing information. The computer systems used for such purposes must also be intelligent. Health-care providers require easy access to information systems so they can track
health-care delivery and identify the most recent and effective medical treatments for their patients' conditions. Crisis management teams must be able to explore alternative courses of action and support decision making. Educators need systems that adapt to a student's individual needs and abilities. Businesses require flexible manufacturing and software design aids to maintain their leadership position in information technology, and to regain it in manufacturing. (Grosz and Davis, 1994) The history of artificial intelligence (AI) predates the development of the first computing machines. On a general level, intelligence has been the subject of philosophical study for 2000 years. At the computational level, mathematician Alan Turing constructed a framework for AI during the era of analog computers. While precise definitions are still the subject of debate, AI may be usefully thought of as the branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior. The intent of AI is to develop systems that have the ability to perceive and to learn, to accomplish physical tasks, and to emulate human decision making. AI seeks to design and develop intelligent agents as well as to understand them. Currently, the main fields of research and development include the following:
Natural languages: These studies focus on problems related to natural language interface, machine translation, understanding spoken language, and so forth.
Expert systems: No generalizable solutions are researched, but expertise is used to deal with illdefined problems and relationships. Cognition and learning: Investigations are being made into modes of thinking, learning, and problem solving. Computer vision: Efforts are being made to develop principles and algorithms for machine vision and the interpretation of visual data. Automatic deduction: This area deals with the resolution of problems, theorem proving, and logic programming.
The term "AI" was applied about 1956, giving a formal name to work that had been developing over the previous five or six years. Individuals and organizations have an abiding interest in AI for several important reasons, including the following: To preserve expertise that might be lost when an acknowledged expert is unavailable. 2. To create organizational knowledge bases so that others may learn from past problem-solving successes. 3. To help decision makers be consistent in their evaluation of complex problems.
During its early years AI was dominated by reliance on logic as a means of representing knowledge and on logical inference as the primary mechanism for intelligent reasoning. In the 1990s other paradigms arrived on the scene, some of which had a dramatic impact. Artificial
neural networks (ANNs) were motivated by assumptions about how the brain functions— particularly the ideas of massively parallel connections, each of which performs simple computational tasks. Taken together, they represent knowledge as a property of patterns of relationships. Genetic algorithms apply principles of biological evolution to the problems of searching complex solution spaces. The programs do not use logical reasoning either, but evolve toward better and better solutions to complex problems. Multiagent systems have recently come to the fore of AI research. This emergence has been driven by a recognition that intelligence may be reflected by the collective behaviors of large numbers of very simple interacting members of a community of agents. These agents can be computers, software modules, or virtually any object that can perceive aspects of its environment and proceed in a rational way toward accomplishing a goal. A variety of disciplines have influenced the development of AI. These include philosophy (logic), mathematics (intractibility, computability, algorithms), psychology (cognition), engineering (computer hardware and software), and linguistics (knowledge representation and naturallanguage processing). Long before the development of computers, the notion that thinking was a form of computation motivated the formalization of logic. These efforts continue today. Graph theory provided the architecture for searching a solution space for a problem. Operations research, with its focus on
optimization algorithms, used graph theory and other methods to solve complex decision-making problems. In 1950, Alan Turing proposed what has become known as the Turing Test for defining intelligent behavior. The idea was to specify requirements that a computer would have to exhibit in order to demonstrate intelligence. Briefly, the Turing Test proposes that the computer should be interrogated via telecommunications by a human. Intelligence is exhibited by the computer if the interrogator cannot tell whether there is a human or a computer at the other end. In order to pass the test, a computer would need to have capabilities for natural-language processing, knowledge representation, automated reasoning, and machine learning. An Evolution of Applications While computer systems have become commonplace, they are generally rigid, complex, and incapable of rapid change. According to A Report to ARPA on Twenty-First Century Intelligent Systems, for us and our organizations to cope with the unpredictable eventualities of an ever-more volatile world, these systems need capabilities that will enable them to adapt readily to change. The report argues that our national competitiveness depends increasingly on capacities for accessing, processing, and analyzing information (Grosz and Davis, 1994). One of the early milestones in AI was Newell and Simon's General Problem Solver (GPS). The program was designed to imitate human problem-solving methods. This and other
developments such as Logic Theorist and the Geometry Theorem Prover generated enthusiasm for the future of AI. Simon went so far as to assert that in the near-term future the problems that computers could solve would be coextensive with the range of problems to which the human mind has been applied. Soon difficulties in achieving this objective began to manifest themselves. In scaling up from earlier successes, problems of intractability were encountered. A search for alternative approaches led to attempts to solve typically occurring cases in narrow areas of expertise. This prompted the development of expert systems. A seminal model was MYCIN, developed to diagnose blood infections. Having about 450 rules, MYCIN was able to perform as well as many experts. This and other expert-systems research led to the first commercial expert system, R1, implemented at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to help configure orders for new computer systems. Sub-sequent to R1's implementation, it was estimated to save DEC about $40 million a year. Other classic systems include the PROSPECTOR program for determining the probable location and type of ore deposits and the INTERNIST program for performing medical diagnosis in internal medicine. The Future A Report to ARPA on Twenty-First Century Intelligent Systems identified four types of systems that will have a substantial impact on applications: intelligent simulation,
intelligent information resources, intelligent project coaches, and robot teams (Grosz and Davis, 1994). Intelligent simulations generate realistic simulated worlds that enable extensive affordable training and education that can be made available any time and anywhere. Examples may be hurricane crisis management, exploration of the impacts of different economic theories, tests of products on simulated customers, and technological design—testing features through simulation that would cost millions of dollars to test using an actual prototype. Intelligent information resources systems (IRSS) will enable easy access to information related to a specific problem. For instance, a rural doctor whose patient presents with a rare condition might use IRSS to help assess different treatments or identify new ones. An educator might find relevant background materials, including information about similar courses taught elsewhere. Intelligent project coaches (IPC) could function as coworkers, assisting and collaborating with design or operations teams for complex systems. Such systems could remember and recall the rationale of previous decisions and, in times of crisis, explain the methods and reasoning previously used to handle that situation. An IPC for aircraft design, for example, could enhance collaboration by keeping communication flowing among the large, distributed design staff, the program managers, the customer, and the subcontractors.
Robot teams could contribute to manufacturing by operating in a dynamic environment with minimal instrumentation, thus providing the benefits of economies of scale. They could also participate in automating sophisticated laboratory procedures that require sensing, manipulation, planning, and transport. Artificial Intelligence, a branch of computer science that seeks to create a computer system capable of sensing the world around it, understanding conversations, learning, reasoning, and reaching decisions, just as would a human. In 1950 the pioneering British mathematician Alan Turing proposed a test for artificial intelligence in which a human subject tries to talk with an unseen conversant. The tester sends questions to the machine via teletype and reads its answers; if the subject cannot discern whether the conversation is being held with another person or a machine, then the machine is deemed to have artificial intelligence. No machine has come close to passing this test, and it is unlikely that one will in the near future. Researchers, however, have made progress on specific pieces of the artificial intelligence puzzle, and some of their work has had tangible benefits. One area of progress is the field of expert systems, or computer systems designed to reproduce the knowledge base and decision-making techniques used by experts in a given field. Such a system can train workers and assist in decision making. MYCIN, a program developed in 1976 at Stanford University, suggests possible diagnoses for patients with infectious blood diseases, proposes
treatments, and explains its "reasoning" in English. Corporations have used such systems to reduce the labor costs involved in repetitive calculations. A system used by American Express since November 1988 to advise when to deny credit to a customer saves the company millions of dollars annually. A second area of artificial intelligence research is the field of artificial perception, or computer vision. Computer vision is the ability to recognize patterns in an image and to separate objects from background as quickly as the human brain. In the 1990s military technology initially developed to analyze spy-satellite images found its way into commercial applications, including monitors for assembly lines, digital cameras, and automotive imaging systems. Another pursuit in artificial intelligence research is natural language processing, the ability to interpret and generate human languages. In this area, as in others related to artificial intelligence research, commercial applications have been delayed as improvements in hardware—the computing power of the machines themselves—have not kept pace with the increasing complexity of software. The field of neural networks seeks to reproduce the architecture of the brain—billions of connected nerve cells —by joining a large number of computer processors through a technique known as parallel processing. Fuzzy systems is a subfield of artificial intelligence research based on the assumption that the world encountered by humans is fraught with approximate, rather than precise, information. Interest in the field has been particularly strong in Japan,
where fuzzy systems have been used in disparate applications, from operating subway cars to guiding the sale of securities. Some theorists argue that the technical obstacles to artificial intelligence, while large, are not insurmountable. A number of computer experts, philosophers, and futurists have speculated on the ethical and spiritual challenges facing society when artificially intelligent machines begin to mimic human personality traits, including memory, emotion, and consciousness. artificial intelligence (AI), the use of computers to model the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning. Research in AI is concentrated in some half-dozen areas. In problem solving, one must proceed from a beginning (the initial state) to the end (the goal state) via a limited number of steps; AI here involves an attempt to model the reasoning process in solving a problem, such as the proof of a theorem in Euclidean geometry. In game theory (see games, theory of), the computer must choose among a number of possible "next" moves to select the one that optimizes its probability of winning; this type of choice is analogous to that of a chess player selecting the next move in response to an opponent's move. In pattern recognition, shapes, forms, or configurations of data must be identified and isolated from a larger group; the process here is similar to that used by a doctor in classifying medical problems on the basis of symptoms. Natural language processing is an analysis of current or colloquial language usage without the sometimes misleading effect of formal grammars; it is an attempt to model the learning process of a translator faced with the phrase "throw mama from the train a kiss."
Cybernetics is the analysis of the communication and control processes of biological organisms and their relationship to mechanical and electrical systems; this study could ultimately lead to the development of "thinking" robots (see robotics). Machine learning occurs when a computer improves its performance of a task on the basis of its programmed application of AI principles to its past performance of that task. In the public eye advances in chess-playing computer programs have become symbolic of progress in AI. In 1948 British mathematician Alan Turing developed a chess algorithm for use with calculating machines-it lost to an amateur player in the one game that it played. Ten years later American mathematician Claude Shannon articulated two chess-playing algorithms: brute force, in which all possible moves and their consequences are calculated as far into the future as possible; and selective mode, in which only the most promising moves and their more immediate consequences are evaluated. In 1988 Hitech, a program developed at Carnegie-Mellon Univ., defeated former U.S. champion Arnold Denker in a four-game match, becoming the first computer to defeat a grandmaster. A year later, Gary Kasparov, the reigning world champion, bested Deep Thought, a program developed by the IBM Corp., in a twogame exhibition. In 1990 the German computer MephistoPortrose became the first program to defeat a former world champion; while playing an exhibition of 24 simultaneous games, Anatoly Karpov bested 23 human opponents but lost to the computer. Kasparov in 1996 became the first reigning world champion to lose to a computer in a game
played with regulation time controls; the Deep Blue computer, developed by the IBM Corp., won the first game of the match, lost the second, drew the third and fourth, and lost the fifth and sixth. Deep Blue used the brute force approach, evaluating more than 100 billion chess positions each turn while looking six moves ahead; it coupled this with the most efficient chess evaluation software yet developed and an extensive library of chess games it could analyze as part of the decision process. Subsequent matches between Vladimir Kramnik and Deep Fritz (2002, 2006) and Kasparov and Deep Junior (2003) have resulted in two ties and a win for the programs. Unlike Deep Blue, which was a specially designed computer, these more recent computer challengers are chess programs that run on powerful personal computers. Such programs have become an important tool in chess, and are used by chess masters to analyze games and experiment with new moves. Artificial intelligence may be said to have begun in 1950 when Claude Shannon of the Bell Telephone Laboratories in the United States wrote an ingenious program that was to be the forerunner of all chess-playing machines. This work drastically changed the accepted perception of storedprogram computers which, since their birth in 1947, had been seen just as automatic calculating machines. Shannon's program added the promise of automated intelligent action to the actuality of automated calculation. In Shannon's program the programmer stores in the computer the value of important features of board positions. A 'checkmate' being a winning position would
have the highest value and the capture of more or less important pieces would be given relatively lower values. So, say that the computer is to take the next move, it would (by being programmed to follow the rules of the game) work out all the possible moves that the opponent might take. It could then work out which moves are available to itself at the next playing period and so on for several periods ahead in the search for a winning path through this 'tree' of possibilities. Sadly, the amount of computation needed to evaluate board positions grows prodigiously the further ahead the computer is meant to look. This process of searching through a large number of options became central in AI programs throughout the 1960s and the early 1970s. Other intelligent tasks besides game playing came under scrutiny: general problem solving, the control of robots, computer vision, speech processing, and the understanding of natural language. Solving general problems requires searches that are similar to those in the playing of board games. For example, to work out how to get from an address in London to the Artificial Intelligence laboratory at the University of Edinburgh, the problem can be represented as a search among subgoals (e.g. get to Edinburgh airport) and the use of 'means' such as airlines, taxis, or railways. The paths through the scheme are evaluated in terms of the reduction of cost and/or the reduction of time to the user. Robot control is similar. The physical rearrangement of objects in a space has to follow a strategy that involves the most efficient path between a current arrangement and the desired one, via several intermediate ones.
Computer vision and the recognition of speech required the programmer to determine that some features of the sensory input generated as signals from a video camera or a microphone are important. For example, for face recognition, the program has to identify the central positions of eyes, nose, and mouth and then measure the size of these objects and the distances between them. These measurements for a collection of faces are stored in a database, each together with the identity of the face. So were a face in the known set to be presented to the camera, finding the closest fit to the measurements stored in the database could identify it. Similarly the features of voices and the sound of words could be stored in databases for the purpose of eventual recognition. Perhaps the most ambitious target for AI designers was the extraction of meaning from language. This goes beyond speech recognition and sentences could be presented in their written form. The difficulty is for the programmer to find rules that distinguish between sentences such as 'he broke the window with a rock' and 'he broke the window with a curtain'. This required a storage of long lists of words indicating whether they were instruments (rock) or embellishments (curtain) so that the correct meaning could be ascribed to them as they appear in a sentence. However, early enthusiasm that AI computers could perform tasks comparable to those of humans were to be curtailed by the mid-1970s when poignant shortcomings emerged because the techniques used suffered from serious limitations. In 1971, the British mathematician Sir James
Lighthill advised the major science-funding agency in the United Kingdom that AI was suffering from something he called the 'combinatorial explosion' which has been mentioned above in the chess-playing example. Every time the computer needs to look a further step ahead, the number of moves to be evaluated is that of the previous level multiplied by a large amount. In 1980, US philosopher John Searle levelled a second criticism at those who had claimed that they had enabled computers to understand natural language. Through his celebrated 'Chinese Room' argument he pointed out that the computer, by stubbornly following rules, was like a non-Chinese speaker using a massive set of rules to match questions expressed in Chinese symbols about a story also written in Chinese symbols. Given the time to examine many rules, the nonChinese speaker could find the correct answers in Chinese symbols, without there being any understanding in the procedure. According to Searle, understanding requires a feeling of 'aboutness' for words and phrases which computers do not have. Also a third difficulty began to emerge: artificial intelligence depended too heavily on programmers having to work out in detail how to specify intelligent tasks. In pattern recognition, for example, ideas about how to recognize faces, scenes, and sounds turned out to be inadequate, particularly with respect to human performance. These censures had a healthy effect on AI. The 1980s saw a maturing of the field through the appearance of new methodologies dubbed knowledge-based systems, expert systems, and artificial neural networks (or connectionism). Effort in knowledge-based systems used formal logic to
greater effect than before. The application of the logical rules of inheritance and resolution made more efficient use of knowledge stored in databases. For example, 'Socrates is a man' and 'All men are mortals' could lead to the knowledge that 'Socrates is mortal' by logical inference rather than by explicit storage, thus easing the problem of holding vast amounts of data in databases. Expert systems was the name given to applications of AI which sought to transfer human expertise into knowledge bases so as to make such knowledge widely available to non-experts. This employed a 'knowledge engineer' who elicited knowledge from the expert and structured it appropriately for inclusion in a database. Facts and rules were clearly distinguished to enable them to be logically manipulated. Typical applications are in engineering design and fault finding, medical diagnosis and advice, and financial advice. The aim of artificial neural network studies is to simulate mechanisms which, in the brain, are responsible for mind and intelligence. An artificial neuron learns to respond or not to respond ('fire' or not) to a pattern of signals from other neurons to which it is connected. A multi-layered network of such devices can learn (by automatically adjusting the strengths of the interconnections in the network) to classify patterns by learning to extract increasingly telling features of such patterns as data progresses through the layers. The presence of learning overcomes some of the difficulties previously due to the programmer having to decide exactly how to recognize
complex visual and speech patterns. Also, a totally different class of artificial neural networks may be used to store and retrieve knowledge. Known as dynamic neural networks, such systems rely on the inputs of neurons being connected to the outputs of other neurons. This allows the net to be taught to keep a pattern of firing activity stable at its outputs. It can also learn to store sequences of patterns. These stable states or sequences are the stored knowledge of the network which may be retrieved in response to some starting state or a set of inputs also connected to the neurons in the net. So in terms of pattern recognition, not only can these networks learn to label patterns, but also 'know' what things look like in terms of neural firing patterns. Despite the above two major phases in the history of artificial intelligence, the subject is still developing, particularly in three domains: new techniques for creating intelligent programs, using computers to understand the complexities of brain and mind, and, finally, contributing to philosophical debate.The techniques added to the AI repertoire are evolutionary programming, artificial life, and intelligent software agents. Evolutionary programming borrows from human genetic development in the sense that some variants of a program may have a better performance than others. It is possible to represent the design parameters of a system as a sequence of values resembling a chromosome. An evolutionary program tests a range of systems against a performance criterion (the fitness function). It chooses the chromosomes of various system pairs that have good fitness behaviour to combine them and
create a new generation of systems. This gives rise to increasingly more able systems even to the extent that their design holds surprises for expert designers. Such mimicking of a major mechanism of biological life leads to the concept of artificial life. For example, UK entrepreneur Steve Grand includes in his 'Creatures' game simulations of some biochemical processes to produce societies of virtual (computer-bound but observable) creatures with realistic life cycles and social interactions. This allows the game player to take care of a virtual creature in a game that gets close to the problems of survival in real life. The more general study of intelligent software agents takes virtual creatures into domains where they could perform useful tasks such as finding desired data on the internet. They are little programs that store the needs of a user and trawl the World Wide Web for this desired information. Also a burgeoning interest is in societies of such agents to discover how cooperation between them may lead to the solution of problems in distributed domains. Translated to multiple interacting robots, agent studies lead to a better understanding of flocking behaviour and the way that this achieves goals for the flock. A better understanding of the brain flows from the study of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Accepting that the brain is the most complex machine in existence, ANNs are now being used to isolate some of its structural features in order to begin to understand their interactions. For example, it has been possible to suggest a theoretical basis for understanding dyslexia, visual hallucinations under the influence of drugs, and the nature of visual awareness in
general. The latter and grander ambition feeds a philosophical debate on whether machines could think like humans that has paralleled AI for its entire existence. The question was first raised by British mathematician Alan Turing in 1950. His celebrated test was based on the external behaviour of an AI machine and its ability to fool a human interlocutor into thinking that it too was human. This debate has now moved on to discuss whether a machine could ever be conscious. The main arguments against this come from a belief that consciousness, being a 'first-person' phenomenon, cannot be approached from the 'third-person' position which is inherent in all man-made designs. The contrary arguments are put by those who feel that by simulating with great care the function and structure of the brain it will be possible both to understand the mechanisms of consciousness and to transfer them to a machine. The science of making machines do the sorts of things that are done by human minds. Such things include holding a conversation, answering questions sensibly on the basis of incomplete knowledge, assembling another machine from its components given the blueprint, learning how to do things better, playing chess, writing or translating stories, understanding analogies, neurotically repressing knowledge that is too threatening to admit consciously, learning to classify visual or auditory patterns, composing a poem or a sonata, and recognizing the various things seen in a room — even an untidy and ill-lit room. AI helps one to realize how enormous is the background knowledge and thinking (computational) power needed to do even these everyday
things. The 'machines' in question are typically digital computers, but AI is not the study of computers. Rather, it is the study of intelligence in thought and action. Computers are its tools, because its theories are expressed as computer programs which are tested by being run on a machine. Some AI programs are lists of symbolic rules (if this is the case then do that, else do another ...). Others specify 'brainlike' networks made of many simple, interconnected, computational units. These types of AI are called traditional (or classical) and connectionist, respectively. They have differing, and largely complementary, strengths and weaknesses. Other theories of intelligence are expressed verbally, either as psychological theories of thinking and behaviour, or as philosophical arguments about the nature of knowledge and purpose and the relation of mind to body (the mind–body problem). Because it approaches the same subject matter in different ways, AI is relevant to psychology and the philosophy of mind. Similarly, attempts to write programs that can interpret the two-dimensional image from a TV camera in terms of the three-dimensional objects in the real world (or which can recognize photographs or drawings as representations of solid objects) help make explicit the range and subtlety of knowledge and unconscious inference that underlie our introspectively 'simple' experiences of seeing. Much of this knowledge is tacit (and largely innate) knowledge about the
ways in which, given the laws of optics, physical surfaces of various kinds can give rise to specific visual images on a retina (or camera). Highly complex computational processes are needed to infer the nature of the physical object (or of its surfaces), on the basis of the twodimensional image. If we think of an AI system as a picture of a part of the mind, we must realize that a functioning program is more like a film of the mind than a portrait of it. Programming one's hunches about how the mind works is helpful in two ways. First, it enables one to express richly structured psychological theories in a rigorous, and testable, fashion. Second, it forces one to suggest specific hypotheses about precisely how a psychological change can come about. Even if (as in connectionist systems: see below) one only provides a learning rule, rather than telling the AI system precisely what to learn, that rule has to be rigorously expressed; a different rule will lead to different performance. In general, it is easier to model logical and mathematical reasoning (which people find difficult) than to simulate high-level perception or language understanding (which we do more or less effortlessly). Significant progress has been made, for instance, in recognizing keywords and grammatical structure, and AI programs can even come up with respectable, though juvenile, puns and jokes. But many sentences, and jokes, assume a large amount of world knowledge, including culture-specific knowledge about sport, fashion, politics, soap operas ... the list is literally
endless. There is little or no likelihood than an actual AI system could use language as well as we can, because it is too difficult to provide, and to structure, the relevant knowledge (much of it is tacit, and very difficult to bring into consciousness). But this need not matter, if all we want is a psychological theory that explains how these human capacities are possible. Similarly, research in AI has shown that highly complex, and typically unconscious, computational processes are needed to infer the nature of physical objects from the image reaching the retina/camera. Traditional philosophical puzzles connected with the mind– body problem can often be illuminated by AI, because modelling a psychological phenomenon on a computer is a way of showing that and how it is possible for that phenomenon to arise in a physical system. For instance, people often feel that only a spiritual being (as opposed to a bodily one) could have purposes and try to achieve them, and the problem then arises of how the spiritual being, or mind, can possibly tell the body what to do, so that the body's hand can try to achieve the mind's purpose of, say, picking a daisy. It is relevant to ask whether, and how, a program can enable a machine to show the characteristic features of purpose. Is its behaviour guided by its idea of a future state? Is that idea sometimes illusory or mistaken (so that the 'daisy' is made of plastic, or is really a buttercup)? Does it symbolize what it is doing in terms of goals and subgoals (so that the picking of the daisy may be subordinate to the goal of stocking the classroom nature table)? Does it use this representation to help plan its actions (so that the daisies on the path outside the
sweetshop are picked, rather than those by the petrol station)? Does it vary its means–end activities so as to achieve its goal in different circumstances (so that buttercups will do for the nature table if all the daisies have died)? Does it learn how to do so better (so that daisies for a daisy-chain are picked with long stalks)? Does it judge which purposes are the more important, or easier to achieve, and behave accordingly (if necessary, abandoning the daisy picking when a swarm of bees appears with an equally strong interest in the daisies)? Questions like these, asked with specific examples of functioning AI systems in mind, cannot fail to clarify the concept of purpose. Likewise, philosophical problems about the nature and criteria of knowledge can be clarified by reference to programs that process and use knowledge, so that AI is relevant to epistemology. AI is concerned with mental processing in general, not just with mathematics and logical deduction. It includes computer models of perception, thought, motivation, and emotion. Emotion, for instance, is not just a feeling: emotions are scheduling mechanisms that have evolved to enable finite creatures with many potentially conflicting motives to choose what to do, when. (No matter how hungry one is, one had better stop eating and run away if faced by a tiger.) So a complex animal is going to need some form of computational interrupt, and some way of 'stacking' and realerting those unfulfilled intentions that shouldn't, or needn't, be abandoned. In human language users, motivational–emotional processing includes deliberately thought–out plans and contingency plans, and
anticipation of possible outcomes from the various actions being considered. One important variety of AI is connectionism, or artificial neural networks. Very few connectionist systems are implemented in fundamentally connectionist hardware. Most are simulated (as virtual machines) in digital computers. That is, the program does not list a sequence of symbolic rules but simulates many interconnected 'neurons', each of which does only very simple things. Connectionism enables a type of learning wherein the 'weights' on individual units in the network are gradually altered until recognition errors are minimized. Unlike learning in classical AI, the unfamiliar pattern need not be specifically described to the system before it can be learnt; however, it must be describable in the 'vocabulary' used for the system's input. Connectionism allows that beliefs and perceptions may be grounded on partly inconsistent evidence, and that most concepts are not strictly defined in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. Many connectionist systems represent a concept as a pattern of activity across the whole network; the units eventually settle into a state of maximum, though not necessarily perfect, equilibrium. Connectionism is a powerful way of implementing pattern recognition and the 'intuitive' association of ideas. But it is very limited for implementing hierarchical structure of sequential processes, such as are involved in deliberate planning. Some AI research aims to develop 'hybrid' systems combining the strengths of traditional and connectionist AI. Certainly, the full range of adult human psychology cannot be captured by either of
these approaches alone. The main areas of AI include natural language understanding (see speech recognition by machine), machine vision (see pattern recognition), problem solving and game playing (see computer chess), robotics, automatic programming, and the development of programming languages. Among the practical applications most recently developed or currently being developed are medical diagnosis and treatment (where a program with specialist knowledge of, say, bacterial infections answers the questions of and elicits further relevant information from a general practitioner who is uncertain which drug to prescribe in a given case); prediction of share prices on the stock exchange; assessment of creditworthiness; speech analysis and speech synthesis; the composition of music, including jazz improvisation; location of mineral deposits, such as gold or oil; continuous route planning for car drivers; programs for playing chess, bridge, or Go, etc.; teaching some subject such as geography, or electronics, to students with differing degrees of understanding of the material to be explored; the automatic assembly of factorymade items, where the parts may have to be inspected first for various types of flaw and where they need not be accurately positioned at a precise point in the assembly line, as is needed for the automation in widespread use today; and the design of complex systems, whether electrical circuits or living spaces or some other, taking into account factors that may interact with each other in complicated ways (so that a mere 'checklist' program would not be adequate to solve the design problem).
An area closely related to AI is artificial life (A-life). This is a form of mathematical biology. It uses computational concepts and models to study (co-)evolution and selforganization, both of which apply to life in general, and to explain specific aspects of living things — such as navigation in insects or flocking in birds. (The dinosaurs in Jurassic Park were computer generated using simple A-life algorithms.) One example of A-life is evolutionary robotics, where the robot's neural network 'brain' and/or sensorimotor anatomy is not designed by hand but evolved over thousands of generations. The programs make random changes in their own rules, and a fitness function is applied, either automatically or manually, to select the best from the resulting examples; these are then used to breed the next generation. Some A-life scientists, but not all, accept 'strong' A-life: the view that a virtual creature, defined by computer software, could be genuinely alive. And some believe that A-life could help us to find an agreed definition of what 'life' is. All the minds we know of are embodied in living things, and some people argue that only a living thing could have a mind, or be intelligent. If that is right, then success in AI cannot be achieved without success in A-life. (In both cases, however, 'success' might be interpreted either as merely showing mindlike/lifelike behaviour or as being genuinely intelligent/alive.) The social implications of AI are various. As with all technologies, there are potential applications which may prove bad, good, or ambiguous in human terms. A competent medical diagnosis program could be very useful,
whereas a competent military application would be horrific for those at the receiving end, and a complex data-handling system could be well or ill used in many ways by individuals or governments. Then there is the question of what general implication AI will be seen to have for the commonly held 'image of man'. If it is interpreted by the public as implying that people are 'nothing but clockwork, really', then the indirect effects on self-esteem and social relations could be destructive of many of our most deeply held values. But it could (and should) be interpreted in a radically different and less dehumanizing way, as showing how it is possible for material systems (which, according to the biologist, we are) to possess such characteristic features of human psychology as subjectivity, purpose, freedom, and choice. The central theoretical concept in AI is representation, and AI workers ask how a (programmed) system constructs, adapts, and uses its inner representations in interpreting and changing its world. On this view, a programmed computer may be thought of as a subjective system (subject to illusion and error much as we are) functioning by way of its idiosyncratic view of the world. By analogy, then, it is no longer scientifically disreputable, as it has been thought to be for so long, to describe people in these radically subjective terms also. AI can therefore counteract the dehumanizing influence of the natural sciences that has been part of the mechanization of our world picture since the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Since the mid-1980s, there has been sustained development of the core ideas of artificial intelligence, e.g.
representation, planning, reasoning, natural language processing, machine learning, and perception. In addition, various subfields have emerged, such as research into agents (autonomous, independent systems, whether in hardware or software), distributed or multi-agent systems, coping with uncertainty, affective computing/models of emotion, and ontologies (systems of representing various kinds of entities in the world — achievements that, while new advances, are conceptually and methodologically continuous with the field of artificial intelligence as envisaged at the time of its modern genesis: the Dartmouth conference of 1956. However, a substantial and growing proportion of research into artificial intelligence, while often building on the foundations just mentioned, has shifted its emphasis. This change in emphasis, inasmuch as it constitutes a conceptual break with those foundations, promises to make substantial contributions to our understanding and concepts of mind. It remains to be seen whether these contributions will replace or (as may seem more likely) merely supplement those already provided by what might be termed the 'Dartmouth approach' and its direct successors. The new developments, which have their roots in the cybernetics work of the 1940s and 1950s as much as, if not more than, they do in mainstream AI, can be divided into two broad areas: adaptive systems and embodied/situated approaches. This is not to say that they are exclusive; much promising work, such as the field of evolutionary robotics, combines elements of both areas.Adaptive systems The
1980s saw a rise in the popularity of both neural networks (sometimes also called connectionist models) and genetic algorithms. Neural networks are systems comprising thousands or more of (usually simulated) simple processing units; the computational result of the network is determined by the input and the connections between the units, which may vary their ability to pass a signal from one unit to the next. Nearly all of these networks are adaptive in that they can learn. Learning typically consists in finding a set of connections that will make the network give the right output for each input in a given training set. Genetic algorithms produce systems that perform well on some tasks by emulating natural selection. An initial random population of systems (whose properties are determined by a few parameters) are ranked according to their performance on the task; only the best performers are retained (selection). A new population is created by mutating or combining the parameters of the winners (reproduction and variation). Then the cycle repeats. Although the importance of learning had been acknowledged since the earliest days of AI, these two approaches, despite their differences, had a common effect of making adaptivity absolutely central to AI. While machine learning assumed conceptual building blocks with which to build learned structures, neural networks allowed for subsymbolic learning: the acquisition of the conceptual 'blocks' themselves, in a way that cannot be understood in terms of logical inference, and that may
involve a continuous change of parameters, rather than discrete steps of accepting or rejecting sentences as being true or false. By allowing systems to construct their own 'take' on the world, AI researchers were able to begin overcoming the obstacles that were thrown up when they attempted to put adult human conceptual structures into systems that were quite different from us. Standard AI methodology for giving some problem-solving capability to a machine had at first been: think about how you would solve the problem, write down the steps of your solution in a computer language, give the program to the machine to run. This was refined and extended in several ways. For example, the knowledge engineering approach asks an expert about the important facts of the domain, translates these into sentences in a knowledge representation language, gives these sentences to the machine, and lets the machine perform various forms of reasoning by manipulating these sentences. But it remained the case that, in these extensions of the basic AI methodology, the machine was limited to using the programmer's or expert's way of representing the world. By using adaptive approaches like artificial evolution, AI systems are no longer limited to solutions that humans can conceptualize — in fact the evolved or learned solutions are often inscrutable. Our concepts and intuitions might not be of much use in getting a six-legged robot to walk; our introspection might even lead us astray concerning the workings of our own minds. For both reasons, genetic algorithms are an impressive addition to the AI methodological toolbox.
However, along with these advantages come limitations. There is a general consensus that the simple, incremental methods of the adaptive approaches, while giving relatively good results for tasks closely related to perception and action, cannot scale up to tasks that require sophisticated, abstract, and conceptual abilities. Give a system some symbols and some rules for combining them, and it can potentially produce an infinite number of well-formed symbol structures — a feature that parallels human competence. But a neural network that has learned to produce a set of complex structures will usually fail to generalize this into a systematic competence to construct an infinite number of novel combinations. Genetic algorithms have similar limitations to their 'scaling up'. But even if these obstacles are overcome, and systems with advanced forms of mentality are created by these means, the very fact that we shall not have imposed our own concepts on them may render their behaviour itself inexplicable. What we do not need is another mind we cannot understand! With respect to AI's goal of adding to our understanding of the mind, adaptive (especially evolved) systems may be as much a part of the problem as a part of the solution (see section 2). And technological AI is also hindered if the systems it produces cannot be understood well enough to be trusted for use in the real world.Embodied and situated systems Embodied and situated approaches to AI investigate the role that the body and its sensorimotor processes (as opposed to symbols or representations on their own) can and do play in intelligent behaviour. Intelligence is viewed as the capacity for real-time, situated
activity, typically inseparable from and often fully interleaved with perception and action. Further, it is by having a body that a system is situated in the world, and can thus exploit its relations to things in the world in order to perform tasks that might previously have been thought to require the manipulation of internal representations or data structures. For an example of embodied intelligence, suppose a child sees something of interest in front of him, points to it, turns his head back to get his mother's attention, and then returns his gaze to the front. He does not need to have some internal representation that stores the eye, neck, torso, etc. positions necessary to gaze on the item of interest; the child's arm itself will indicate where the child should look; the child's exploitation of his own embodiment obviates the need for him to store and access a complex inner symbolic structure. For an example of situated problem solving, suppose another child is solving a jigsaw puzzle. The child does not need to look at each piece intently, forming an internal representation of its shape, and then when all pieces have been examined, close her eyes and solve the puzzle in her head! Rather, the child can manipulate the pieces themselves, making it possible for her to perceive whether two of them will fit together. If nature has sometimes used these alternatives to complex inner symbol processing, then AI can (perhaps must) as well. These are a cluster of other AI approaches that, while properly distinct from embodiment and situatedness, are nevertheless their natural allies.
(i) Some researchers have found it useful to turn away from discontinuous, atemporal, logic-based formalisms and instead use the continuous mathematics of change offered by dynamical systems theory as a way to characterize and design intelligent systems. (ii) Some researchers have claimed that AI should, whenever possible, build systems working in the real world, with, for example, real cameras receiving real light, instead of relying on ray-traced simulations of light; a realworld AI system might exploit aspects of a situation we are not aware of and which we therefore do not incorporate in our simulations. (iii) Some insist that AI should concentrate on building complete working systems, with simple but functioning and interacting perceptual, reasoning, learning, action, etc. systems, rather than working on developed yet isolated competences, as has been the method in the past. Architectures A change of emphasis common to both the more and less traditional varieties of AI is a move away from a search for specific algorithms and representations, and toward a search for the architectures that support various forms of mentality. An architecture specifies how the various components of a system, which may in fact be representations or algorithms, fit together and interact in order to yield a working system. Thus, an architecturebased approach can render irrelevant many debates over which algorithm or representational scheme is 'best'. The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into a number of
specific sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers would like an intelligent system to display. The traits described below have received the most attention. There is no established unifying theory or paradigm that guides AI research. Researchers disagree about many issues. A few of the most long standing questions that have remained unanswered are these: should artificial intelligence simulate natural intelligence, by studying psychology or neurology? Or is human biology as irrelevant to AI research as bird biology is to aeronautical engineering? Can intelligent behavior be described using simple, elegant principles (such as logic or optimization)? Or does it necessarily require solving a large number of completely unrelated problems? Can intelligence be reproduced using high-level symbols, similar to words and ideas? Or does it require "sub-symbolic" processing?
Cybernetics and brain simulation Main articles: Cybernetics and Computational neuroscience
There is no consensus on how closely the brain should be simulated. In the 1940s and 1950s, a number of researchers explored the connection between neurology, information theory, and cybernetics. Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence, such as W. Grey Walter's turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast. Many of these researchers gathered for meetings of the Teleological Society at Princeton University and the Ratio Club in England. By 1960, this approach was largely abandoned, although elements of it would be revived in the 1980s. Symbolic Main article: Good old fashioned artificial intelligence When access to digital computers became possible in the middle 1950s, AI research began to explore the possibility
that human intelligence could be reduced to symbol manipulation. The research was centered in three institutions: CMU, Stanford and MIT, and each one developed its own style of research. John Haugeland named these approaches to AI "good old fashioned AI" or "GOFAI". Cognitive simulation Economist Herbert Simon and Allen Newell studied human problem solving skills and attempted to formalize them, and their work laid the foundations of the field of artificial intelligence, as well as cognitive science, operations research and management science. Their research team used the results of psychological experiments to develop programs that simulated the techniques that people used to solve problems. This tradition, centered at Carnegie Mellon University would eventually culminate in the development of the Soar architecture in the middle 80s. Logic basedUnlike Newell and Simon, John McCarthy felt that machines did not need to simulate human thought, but should instead try to find the essence of abstract reasoning and problem solving, regardless of whether people used the same algorithms. His laboratory at Stanford (SAIL) focused on using formal logic to solve a wide variety of problems, including knowledge representation, planning and learning.  Logic was also focus of the work at the University of Edinburgh and elsewhere in Europe which led to the development of the programming language Prolog and the science of logic programming.
"Anti-logic" or "scruffy" Researchers at MIT (such as Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert) found that solving difficult problems in vision and natural language processing required ad-hoc solutions – they argued that there was no simple and general principle (like logic) that would capture all the aspects of intelligent behavior. Roger Schank described their "anti-logic" approaches as "scruffy" (as opposed to the "neat" paradigms at CMU and Stanford). Commonsense knowledge bases (such as Doug Lenat's Cyc) are an example of "scruffy" AI, since they must be built by hand, one complicated concept at a time. Knowledge based When computers with large memories became available around 1970, researchers from all three traditions began to build knowledge into AI applications. This "knowledge revolution" led to the development and deployment of expert systems (introduced by Edward Feigenbaum), the first truly successful form of AI software. The knowledge revolution was also driven by the realization that enormous amounts of knowledge would be required by many simple AI applications.
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